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Sample records for alloxan-induced diabetic rats

  1. Antidiabetic activity of Rheum emodi in Alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Radhika.R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of Rheum emodi rhizome extract and to study the activities of hexokinase, aldolase and phosphoglucoisomerase, and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase in liver and kidney of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of 75 % ethanolic extract of R. emodi (250 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, resulted in decrease inthe activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-disphosphatase, aldolase and an increase in the activity of phosphoglucoisomerase and hexokinase in tissues. The study clearly shows that the R.emodi possesses antidiabetic activity.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of endomorphins in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Liu, Jing; Yu, Ye; Fan, Ying-zhe; Chang, Hui; Liu, Hong-mei; Cui, Yun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Rui

    2005-04-01

    Endomorphins, the endogenous, potent and selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, have been shown to decrease systemic arterial pressure (SAP) in rats. In the present study, responses to endomorphins were investigated in systemic vascular bed of alloxan-induced diabetic rats and in non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (220 mg/kg, i.p.) in male Wistar rats. At 4-5 weeks after the onset of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins (1-30 nmol/kg) led to an increase of SAP and heart rate (HR) consistently and dosed-dependently. SAP increased 7.68+/-3.73, 11.19+/-4.55, 21.19+/-2.94 and 27.48+/-6.21% from the baseline at the 1, 3, 10 and 30 nmol/kg dose, respectively, of endomorphin 1 (n=4; pendomorphin 2. The hypertension could be antagonized markedly by i.p. 2 mg/kg of naloxone. On the other hand, bilateral vagotomy would attenuate the effects of hypertension and diminished the changes of HR in response to endomorphins. With diabetic rats, 6-10 weeks after the induction of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins produced non-dose-related various changes in SAP, such as a single decrease, or a single increase, or biphasic changes characterized by an initial decrease followed by a secondary increase, or no change at all. These results suggest that diabetes may lead to the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system in response to endomorphins. Furthermore, the diabetic rats of 4-5 weeks after alloxan-treatment, the increase in SAP and HR caused by i.v. endomorphins might be explained by a changed effect of vagus and by a naloxone-sensitive mechanism.

  3. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  4. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Plectranthus Amboinicus on Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Koti, B. C.; Aparna Gore; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Kulkarni, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied...

  5. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  6. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Viswanathaswamy, A H M; Koti, B C; Gore, Aparna; Thippeswamy, A H M; Kulkarni, R V

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect.

  7. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  8. ANTIDIABETIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FENUGREEK EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Parixit Bhandurge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumL. Leguminosae is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Antihyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of the fenugreek extract was evaluated in this study. Blood glucose, liver profile, renal profile and total lipid levels were determined in alloxan induced diabetic rats after oral administration of a fenugreek extract. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract. The extract lowered the total cholesterol and serum triglycerides. Histopathological analysis of pancreas showed normal acini, and normal cellular in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas of normal control and Extensive damage to islets of langerhans and reduced dimensions of islets in alloxan induced diabetes. Restoration of islets of langerhans seen in diabetic rats treated with fenugreek extract. The results of this study clearly shows the hypoglycaemic activity of the extract

  9. Evaluation of Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Kariveppilai Churnam in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    C. Mary Sharmila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The present investigation is undertaken to study the effect of Kariveppilai churnam on changes in Body weight, Plasma glucose, Plasma Insulin, Hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile in alloxan induced Diabetic Rats. Methodology - The raw materials of the compound herbal drug were purchased, identified and pulverized into powder form. The trial drug was administered to alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group. Group 1, 2 and 3 were normal control, toxic control and diabetic control respectively. Group 4 and 5 received the trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg orally respectively once a day. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the trial drug was evaluated using the parameters of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides , HDL and phospholipids. Results – The administration of the trial drug at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the body weight of the diabetes induced rats showed significant decrease in the above mentioned elevated parameters. Glipizide (10mg/kg was used as the reference standard. Conclusion- From the results it can be observed that trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg has protective effect against alloxan induced diabetes and its complications. The findings suggest that kariveppilai churnam possess anti-atherogenic property along with anti hyperglycemic activity.

  10. Antidiabetic activity of Adina cordifolia (Roxb) leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Prashant Chaudhary; Bharat Goel; Ashoke Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) leaves (HAEACL) in alloxan induced diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Methods:Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as the standard which produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels of experimental animals were determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment with the plant extract by using glu-oxidase peroxidise reactive strips and glucometer. Results: Treatment with HAEACL at 500 mg/kg dose decreased the blood glucose level significantly. However, the lower doses (250 mg/kg) of HAEACL produced a little decrease in blood glucose level. It showed that there was a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose level in the alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study shows that HAEACL possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  11. Hypoglycemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre (retz.,) R.Br leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Sathya, S; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K

    2008-10-01

    The water extract of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br leaf was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Grated amount (2ml/kg) of the water extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was given to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction of glucose concentration was noticed in normal rats, blood glucose level was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. Protein level is also decreased in diabetic rats. Urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were increased in diabetic condition. After the herbal treatment the levels were altered near to normal level.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF POLYGALA CHINENSIS L. WHOLE PLANT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    K. Rajalakshmi and V.R. Mohan*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ethanol extract of Polygala chinensis whole plant (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days reduced the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO. The treatment also resulted in significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in serum, liver and kidney. The results confirm the antioxidant activity of P. chinensis whole plant and suggest that because of its antioxidant effects its administration may be useful in controlling the diabetic complications in experimental diabetic rats.

  13. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    A. H. M. Viswanathaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg. Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6 receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect.

  14. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab**, and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM treating diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic CM treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The obtained results showed that the induced diabetes was diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, CM treatment led to a significant improvement in all these parameter except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of CM treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: it was recommended that the use of the CM as a hypoglycemic agent may be of good results

  15. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  16. Amelioration of Glomerulosclerosis by Satureja khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Satureja khuzestanica, an endemic plant of Iran, has been reported to be used traditionally to treat diabetes. We examined possible protective effect of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE on glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups randomly; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreated, and group 3 treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized; livers and kidneys were then removed immediately. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Results: Flow treatment of diabetic animals with SKE could significantly inhibit glomerular hypertrophy (22% leukocyte infiltration (31% and glomerulosclerosis (20% in comparison with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: The findings showed that SKE alleviates loss of glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  17. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  18. Hypoglycemic activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis stem bark in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sunil Jawla; Y Kumar; MSY Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Bougainvillea spectabilis (B. spectabilis) is one of the main constituent of various herbal formulations available for diabetes. The aim of present study was to screen hypoglycemic potential of B. spectabilis stem bark extracts in albno rats (Wistar strain). Methods: The EtOH extracts (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the B. spectabilis were administered to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats at defined time intervals. Blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 h, and on 0, 1, 3, 5, 7th day after oral administration of extracts. Of the doses test, highest anti-hyperglycemic effect was observed by the extract of stem bark at 250 mg/kg after a week treatment. Results: B. spectabilis stem bark extract exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity at different doses and intervals. Stem bark extract was found to be 22.2% more potent than standard oral hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide 0.2 mg/kg. Conclusion: Treatment of alloxan induced diabetic rats up to a week with stem bark extract reversed the permanent hyperglycemia. Hence, B. spectabilis stem bark alcoholic extract exhibited potent hypoglycemic activity.

  19. Anti-diabetic activity of Ferula assafoetida extract in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Abu-Zaiton, Ahmed Saber

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Asafetida extract against the pancreatic beta-cells damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats and some hormones related to diabetes mellitus. Asafetida induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that subjected with alloxan was 10.28 +/- 0.85 mmol L(-1) p < 0.05 comparing with control group 3.27 +/- 0.25 p < 0.05, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Asafetida extract decreasing to 6.75 +/- 0.31 p < 0.05. There was significant amount of insulin secretion in diabetic animals when subjected with Asafetida extract 0.48 +/- 0.05 p < 0.05 in comparison with diabetic animal's 0.33 +/- 0.06 p < 0.05. These findings suggested that Asafetida extract treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic beta-cells integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage to prevent diabetic complications.

  20. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE) and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE) against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70...

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 significantly reduces complications of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

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    Bejar, Wacim; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Riadh; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 for preventing alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The oral administration of this probiotic was noted to significantly improve the immunological parameters, protect the pancreatic tissues, and reduce the pancreatic and plasmatic α-amylase activities and level of plasma glucose in the treated as compared to the control group of rats. Furthermore, this probiotic treatment was observed to markedly reduce pancreatic and plasmatic lipase activities and serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol rates and to increase the level of HDL-Cholesterol. It also exerted efficient protective effects on the liver and kidney functions evidenced by significant decreases in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, as well as creatinine and urea contents. Taken together, the findings indicate that L. plantarum TN627 exhibits attractive in vivo antidiabetic effects that may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats.

  2. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Grewia asiatica Linn. bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Inspite of introduction of oral hypoglycemic agents, diabetes and its related complications remains to be a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of Grewia asiatica (Linn) stem bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (110 mg/kg) in Norwegian Long Evans rats. Ethanol extract of barks from Grewia asiatica (GAE ...

  3. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFECT OF POLYGALA JAVANA DC ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Alagammal M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant (Family: Polygalaceae was investigated for it antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p. The ethanol extracts of Polygala javana at a dose of 100 and 200mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant extract on blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C, high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C and phospholipid (PL] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT, and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP], were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C. The extracts also caused significant increase in serum insulin (P<0.05 in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Polygala javana possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  4. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Croton lobatus L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Fasola, Taiye Remi; Ukwenya, Blessing; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. Methods: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C. lobatus); and F (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 glibenclamide). Results: Acute toxicity studies revealed no mortality of rats at the administration of different doses of extract up to the 5,000 mg kg-1 dose. Histology of the pancreas showed focal area of necrosis, and fatty infiltration in diabetic untreated rats, but these lesions were absent in pancreas of rats treated with C. lobatus extract. Conclusion: Methanol leaf extract of C. lobatus reduced arteriogenic risk factors, improved antioxidant status, restored the observable pathological lesions associated with experimental diabetes in rats, and thus offers a new therapeutic window as herbal therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular complications. PMID:27757266

  5. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

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    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  6. Antidiabetic effect of a black mangrove species Aegiceras corniculatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    S Gurudeeban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier ethnopharmacological records divulged the traditional usages of mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn. Blanco distributed in coastal and estuarine areas of Southeast India. Excluding scientific knowledge of A. corniculatum against diabetes an upgrowing endocrinal disorder, our present study evaluated the effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult rats of the Wistar strain by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. The experimental rats were administered with leaf suspension of A. corniculatum post orally using an intragastric tube. On completion of the 60-day treatment, a range of biochemical parameters were tested including liver hexokinase, glucose-6phosphatase and fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase in the liver of control and allaxon-diabetic rats. As a result, A. corniculatum leaf suspension showed moderate reduction in blood glucose (from 382 ± 34 to 105 ± 35, glycosylated hemoglobin, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase, and an increase activity of liver hexokinase achieved through the oral administration of extract on 100 mg/kg. The present findings support promising results in terms of antidiabetic activities establishing its candidacy for further purification of individual compound in order to understand their mechanism of action.

  7. Effect of pomegranate peel polyphenol gel on cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Huan; PENG Ke-jun; WANG Qiu-lin; GU Zheng-yi; LU Yao-qin; ZHAO Jun; XU Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pomegranate (punica granatum) belongs to the family Punicaceae,and its peel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine because of its efficacy in restraining intestine,promoting hemostasis,and killing parasites.Pomegranate peel has been reported to possess wound-healing properties which are mainly attributed to its polyphenol extracts.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPP) gel on cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats.Methods Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were given incisional wounds on each side of the mid-back and then treated daily with PPP gel (polyphenol mass fraction =30%) post-wounding.Rats were sacrificed on days 4,7,14,and 21post-wounding to assess the rates of wound closure,histological characteristics; and to detect the contents of hydroxyproline,production of nitric oxide (NO),and activities of NO synthase (NOS),as well as the expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),and epidermal growth factor (EGF)in wound tissue.Results Wound closure was significantly shortened when PPP gel was applied to the wounds of diabetic rats.Histological examination showed the ability of PPP gel to increase fibroblast infiltration,collagen regeneration,vascularization,and epithelialization in the wound area of diabetic rats.In addition,PPP gel-treated diabetic rats showed increased contents of hydroxyproline,production of NO,and activities of NOS and increased expressions of TGF-β1,VEGF,and EGF in wound tissues.Conclusion PPP gel may be a beneficial method for treating wound disorders associated with diabetes.

  8. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta-cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakpa Michael Monday; Asuzu Isaac Uzoma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic activities and histopathological changes of Icacina trichantha (I. trichantha) tuber extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:In the present study, 80% methanol extract of I. trichantha tuber was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. They were randomly grouped into control (distilled water and glibenclamide) and experimental (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage II glucometer at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged to separate serum for estimation of lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats pancreas were also studied after extract treatment. Results: Daily oral administration of I. trichantha tuber extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  9. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  10. Effect of Consumption of Coleus tuberosus on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mutiara Nugraheni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coleus tuberosus is a minor vegetable belonging to the Lamiaceae family. C. tuberosus and processed products have been evaluated on resistant starch content and effect of consumption of C. tuberosus and processed products on the lipid profile has been studied in rats with diabetes mellitus. Resistant starch was analyzed using the megazyme method. Analysis of lipid profile was performed in experimental alloxan-induced animals. Such lipid profile as Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL are determined enzymatically by the Cholesterol Oxidase-oxidase-Phenol Aminophenazone (CHOD-PAP method. Triglyceride levels are determined by the enzymatic Glycerol-3-Phosphate Oxidase-Phenol+Aminophenazone (GPO-PAP method. The results showed that the treatment process can increase the levels of resistant starch. C. tuberosus consumption and processed products can lower the lipid profile of TC, TG and LDL and increase HDL in experimental animals. Resistant starch contained in C. tuberosus and processed products is one of the factors that affect the lipid profile of experimental animals with diabetes mellitus.

  11. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70 mg/dl, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Lagenaria siceraria extract decreased to 89-106.5 mg/dl. These findings suggest that LSPE and LSSE treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic cell integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage of the plant to prevent diabetic complications.

  12. Effect of clonidine on blood glucose levels in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its interaction with glibenclamide

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    Manjunath S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Clonidine, a known antihypertensive, is currently used for many purposes including diabetic gastroparesis, postmenopausal hot flushes, opioid/nicotine/alcohol withdrawal. Its effects on carbohydrate metabolism appear to be variable. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of clonidine on euglycemic and alloxan -induced diabetic rats and its interaction with glibenclamide. Materials and Methods : Alloxan - induced (150 mg/kg, i.p diabetic rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I - Normal Control; Group II - Nondiabetic + Clonidine (25 μg/kg; Group III - Diabetic Control; Group IV - Diabetic + Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg; Group V - Diabetic + Glibenclamide + Clonidine. All drugs were given orally once daily. Blood glucose was estimated from rat tail vein using glucometer before start of the experiment and at the end of 30 days. Results : After 30 days of treatment, clonidine (25 mg/kg produced significant hyperglycemia in both euglycemic and diabetic rats. It also reduced the hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide in diabetic rats. Conclusion : The results of present study indicate that clonidine has hyperglycemic effect and it also interacts with glibenclamide to reduce its hypoglycemic activity. If these findings are true to human beings then clonidine should not be used in diabetic patients on sulfonylureas.

  13. Assessment of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats as a Periodontal Disease Model Using a Selective Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2014-07-01

    Several recent studies have reported that alloxan-treated rats with long-term hyperglycemia can develop naturally occurring periodontal disease (PD). Our previous studies detected dental caries in the same model. Therefore, these two lesions of different etiologies are expected to occur concurrently. In this study, we evaluated the use of diabetic rats as a PD model by employing a selective COX-2 inhibitor reported to be effective against PD. Six-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 3 groups: intact rats (control), alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a standard diet (AL) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a diet containing 0.01% etodolac (AL+Et). The animals were euthanized at 26 weeks of age, and their oral tissues were examined histopathologically. Gingivitis, marginal periodontitis and alveolar bone resorption were markedly enhanced along with dental caries in the AL group compared with the control group. However, the COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on periodontal inflammation in the AL+Et group. In addition, in the AL group, periodontitis was notably nonexistent around the normal molars, and gingivitis was scarcely worse than that in the control group. In the diabetic rats, the progression of periodontal inflammation was closely correlated with the severity of adjacent dental caries, and marginal periodontitis was frequently continuous with apical periodontitis. In conclusion, an alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not a model of PD but of dental caries. It is probable that in this model, hyperglycemia may enable crown caries to progress to apical periodontitis, while the associated inflammation may rostrally expand to surrounding periodontal tissue.

  14. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

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    Zhang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, glutathione reductase (GR activity, catalase (CAT activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy.

  15. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D U Owu; A B Antai; K H Udofia; A O Obembe; K O Obasi; M U Eteng

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly ( < 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  16. Ameliorative Effects of Vitamin C and Zinc in Alloxan-induced Diabetes and Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

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    F.A. Dawud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative effects of vitamin C and zinc on blood glucose levels and lipid peroxidation in Alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg b w. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 5: Rats in group I were given 1ml of distilled water and served as the control. Rats in group II and group III were administered 100 50 mg/kg b w of vitamin C and zinc respectively. The regimens were given once daily for seven days. Blood samples collected from the animals at the end of the treatment period and assayed for malonaldehyde (MDA as index of lipid peroxidation. The study showed that there was a significant (p0.05 was observed in the group that were administered 100 mg/kg b w of vitamin C when compared to the diabetic control group. The present study has shown that vitamin C and zinc had a beneficial effect on Alloxan induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA concentration.

  17. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  18. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on alloxan-induced and insulin-resistant diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranloye, B O; Arikawe, A P; Rotimi, G; Sogbade, A O

    2011-11-23

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats. The experimental rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss to confirm their diabetic state. Ginger effectively reduced fasting blood glucose and malonydealdehyde levels in alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats compared to control and ginger only treated rats. Furthermore, ginger increased serum insulin level and also enhanced insulin sensitivity in alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats compared to control and ginger only treated rats. The results of the study clearly show that dietary ginger has hypoglycaemic effect, enhances insulin synthesis in male rats and has high antioxidant activity. One of the likely mechanisms is the action of malonydealdehyde, which acts as a scavenger of oxygen radicals.

  19. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta–cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Onakpa Michael Monday

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  20. Antihyperglycemic Activity of the Leaves from Annona cherimola Miller and Rutin on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Solares-Pascasio, Jesús Iván; Ordoñez-Razo, R. M.; Velazquez, Claudia; Barbosa, Elizabeth; García-Hernández, Normand; Mendez-Luna, David; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola, known as “chirimoya” has been reported in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The aims of the present study were to validate and assess the traditional use of A. cherimola as an antidiabetic agent. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract from A. cherimola (300 mg/kg, EEAc), subsequent fractions (100 mg/kg), and rutin (30 mg/kg) were studied on alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic (AITD) and normoglycemic rats. In addition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) were performed in normoglycemic rats. Molecular docking technique was used to conduct the computational study. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EEAc afforded as major antihyperglycemic compound, rutin. EEAc attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in acute test using AITD rats (331.5 mg/dL) carrying the glycemic levels to 149.2 mg/dL. Rutin after 2 h, attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in an acute assay using AITD rats such as EEAc, with maximum effect (150.0 mg/dL) being seen at 4 h. The antihyperglycemic activities of EEAc and rutin were comparable with acarbose (151.3 mg/dL). In the subchronic assay on AITD rats, the EEAc and rutin showed a reduction of the blood glucose levels since the 1st week of treatment, reaching levels similar to normoglycemic state (116.9 mg/kg) that stayed constant for the rest of the assay. OGTT and OSTT showed that EEAc and rutin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats at 2 h after a glucose or sucrose load such as acarbose. Computational molecular docking showed that rutin interacted with four amino acids residues in the enzyme α-glucosidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that rutin an α-glucosidase inhibitor was responsible in part of the antihyperglycemic activity of A. cherimola. Its in vivo antihyperglycemic activity is in good agreement with the traditional use of A. cherimola for the treatment of diabetes. SUMMARY The ethanol extract

  1. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppasamy Balamurugan; Antony Nishanthini; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract ofMelastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats.Results:In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats.Conclusions:Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats.

  2. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications.

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  4. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman; Sairah Hafeez Kamran; Mobasher Ahmad; Usman Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum) in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg) showed significant (p

  5. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  6. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  7. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  8. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in blood glucose as compared to control. Liver function test also showed significant changes (p<0.001 as compared to alloxan-treated group. The results of this study showed that crude P. lentiscus gum have considerable efficacy in curing diabetes and have hepatoprotective effect.

  9. Estimation of lipid profile and glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe O. Ewenighi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cymbopogon citratus extract has been reported to have hypoglycemic properties but not much is known about its hypolipidemic effects. In this study it was aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of Cymbopogon citratus extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats of weights between 106-118 g were used for the study and divided into three groups of six rats each. The rats of the non-diabetic control group were given 1 ml of distilled water daily. Two other groups induced with diabetes using alloxan by a single dose administration of 120 mg/kg body weight (BW; one of these diabetic rat groups were treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract daily at 1.5 ml/100 g BW for 4 weeks while the other group was left untreated. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels were assayed. Results: After four weeks of treatment, data indicated significant reductions in BW, blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels of diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract compared to the non-treated group. The treated diabetic rats also indicated significantly higher HDL levels compared to the non-treated group. Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with the Cymbopogon citratus extract lowered blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels and increased the HDL level. This shows that the extract has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 249-253

  10. The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruits of Balanites aegypticea in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Abdella Emam Abdella Baragob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanites aegypticea is used medically for many purposes e.g. anti-spasmodic, stomach pain, malaria, and yellow fever. The extract of the fruit is also used to reduce the blood glucose levels. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of the fruits of the Balanites aegypticea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult male Vistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly collected and divided into 5 groups (5 rats in each group. The untreated rats (negative control group received basal diet and tap water only for 15 days. The experimental rats became diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight. The fruit of Balanites aegypticea was powdered, extracted, and dried using organic solvents. The diabetic rats received aqueous extract 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured by using Glucose GOD-PAP method through spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that 800 mg/kg aqueous extract decrease significantly the plasma glucose level (P ≤ 0.05 in diabetic rats, and there is a considerable gain in body weight (P ≤ 0.05 compared to the diabetic control group. Four-hundred mg/kg aqueous extract has a mild effect on body weights and plasma glucose levels, while 200 mg/kg aqueous extract has no significant effect on plasma glucose level and a little effect on body weight. Conclusions: The results of the presented study revealed that the aqueous extract of Balanites aegypticea has hypoglycemic properties. It can decrease the plasma glucose level and can improve weight in diabetic experimental animals.

  11. Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats

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    Ahmad Sameer Al-Noory

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic mellitus and hypothyroidism lead to serum lipoproteins disorders. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of fresh ginger extracts Zingiber officinale roscoe (Family: Zingebiraceae on serum lipid profile and on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups: The normal G1, diabetic control rats G2, ginger 500 mg/kg treated diabetic rats G3, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated diabetic rats G4, [5 mg/day atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger] treated diabetic rats G5, glibenclamid-treated diabetic rats G6, hypothyoidism control rats G7, 300 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G8, 500 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G9, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated hypothyroidism rats G10, [atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger]treated hypothyroidism rats G11. Thirty days after treatment, samples were collected, to compare treated groups with normal and control groups, using Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.01. Results : It revealed a decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in the serum of rats that were treated by ginger extracts, compared with the control groups. Previous extracts were also able to cause reduction in LDL to similar levels compared to normal group and that was the same effect of atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Combined effect was clear between the act of ginger at a dose of 500 mg/kg and atorvastatin; that levels of both TC and LDL in animals which received [atorvastatin 5 mg/day combined with ginger extract] was almost equal to levels in animals that received atorvastatin 10mg/day. Clear reduce in triglyceride, and clear increase in high density liopprotein were also recorded in the ginger-treated groups. Ginger was more active in hypothyroidism rats than in diabetic rats in reducing LDL and TC. Glucose levels were substantially reduced in ginger- treated diabetic groups.

  12. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties.

  13. Therapeutic effect of phytoecdysteroids rich extract from Ajuga iva on alloxan induced diabetic rats liver, kidney and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Khaled; Ayadi, Fatma; Jamoussi, Kamel; Masmoudi, Hatem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, the effect of Ajuga iva extract on blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic and renal toxicity and antioxidant enzyme activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was confirmed by measuring the glucoserua concentration 15 days after alloxan administration. Ajuga iva extract was administrated orally 3 weeks after alloxan injection. Our results investigate that Ajuga iva extract supplementation increased the levels of both enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and metals antioxidants (iron, copper, magnesium, calcium) and decreased lipid peroxidation level (TBARs). Besides Ajuga iva ameliorated diabetes provoked hepatic and renal toxicity appeared by a lower level in total and direct bilirubin, urea, creatinine, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol and a higher level in HDL-cholesterol. Besides, the activities of phosphatase alkalines (PAL), aspartate and lactate transaminase (AST & ALT) were decreased. The benefices effects of phytoecdysteroids of Ajuga iva confirmed by histological observation in pancreatic tissues. In conclusion, Ajuga iva phytoecdysteroids supplements seem to be beneficial for correcting the hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications in liver, pancreas and kidneys.

  14. Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycaemic Action of Different Fractions and Sub-fractions from Aqueous Extract of Aloe vera Linn. Leaf on Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Maithani; Versha Parcha; Geeta Pant; Deepak Kumar; Ishan Dhulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fasting serum glucose (FSG) lowering potential of different fractions (C & D) and subfraction (D1 & D2) from aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf on normal and alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Two fractions (C & D) obtained by common chemical treatment of the aqueous extract of Aleo vera leaf and subfraction (D1 & D2) from fraction D were administered to the alloxan induced (150mg/kg i.p.) diabetic rats. The FSG lowering capacity, of different fractions and subfractions, was then evaluated in terms of percentage reduction in blood glucose level. Results: Oral administration of fractions C & D and subfraction D1 & D2 for 15 days led significant (P<0.05) reduction to the elevated FSG level of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Percentage reduction in blood glucose level and comparison with standard drug glibenclamide suggest the superiority of fraction D and subfraction D1 in hypoglycaemic potential. Conclusions:The results suggest that fraction D and subfraction D1 from aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf possesses the maximum FSG lowering capacity and further investigation is required for determination of anti-diabetic principal(s) and exact mechanism of their hypoglycaemic action.

  15. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggers the development of periodontal disease in rats.

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    Marcela Claudino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease in diabetic patients presents higher severity and prevalence; and increased severity of ligature-induced periodontal disease has been verified in diabetic rats. However, in absence of aggressive stimuli such as ligatures, the influence of diabetes on rat periodontal tissues is incompletely explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases in rats only with diabetes induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats (n = 25 by intravenous administration of alloxan (42 mg/kg and were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after diabetes induction. The hemimandibles were removed and submitted to radiographical and histopathological procedures. A significant reduction was observed in height of bone crest in diabetic animals at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, which was associated with increased numbers of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells. The histopathological analyses of diabetic rats also showed a reduction in density of collagen fibers, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Severe caries were also detected in the diabetic group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that diabetes induction triggers, or even co-induces the onset of alterations which are typical of periodontal diseases even in the absence of aggressive factors such as ligatures. Therefore, diabetes induction renders a previously resistant host into a susceptible phenotype, and hence diabetes can be considered a very important risk factor to the development of periodontal disease.

  16. Possible antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetola, A A; Akinloye, O; Egunjobi, C; Adekunle, W A; Ayoola, A O

    2006-09-01

    1. The hypoglycaemic effect of fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa (PB; African locust bean), a natural nutritional condiment that features frequently in some African diets as a spice, was investigated in the present study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide (Daonil; Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France), a reference antidiabetic drug. The effects of PB on lipid profiles were also examined. 2. In order to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB on experimental animals, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. In addition, the weight of each animal was determined to assess any possible weight gain or loss in the experimental animals (diabetic rats treated with Daonil (group C), the aqueous extract of PB (group D) or the methanolic extract of PB (group E)) compared with control groups (non-diabetic (group A) and non-treated diabetic (group B)). 3. A single dose of 120 mg/kg, i.v., alloxan administered to rats resulted in significant increases in the FPG (P < 0.001) of test animals compared with controls. However, dietary supplementation with PB (6 g/kg extract for 4 weeks administered orally using an intragastric tube) ameliorated the alloxan-induced diabetes in a manner comparable with that of the reference antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB (6% w/w) elicited 69.2% and 64.4% reductions, respectively, in FPG compared with 70.4% in 0.01 mg/150 g glibenclamide-treated rats. 4. Although animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB gained weight in manner similar to normal controls, animals given the methanolic extract and glibenclamide lost weight in manner similar to non-treated diabetic rats. In addition, high levels of HDL and low LDL were observed in animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB, a pattern similar to that seen in

  17. Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic properties of the methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on blood glucose. Forty eight of the rats were randomly distributed into six. Group one served as the normal control and Group two rats were administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg intraperitoneally and served as the diabetic control. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg once daily for 4weeks. Group six rats were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks. The serum concentration of glucose of all the rats in each group was determined after the 14th and 28th dose of treatment. There was significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose in the three groups of rats administered with methanolic extract of fruit pulp at second and fourth week of the treatment. The group of animal treated with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose compared to most effective dose of the methanolic extract (300 mg/kg during the second and fourth week of the treatment. The result of qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp indicated the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. This result suggests that the methanolic fruit pulp extract of Adansonia digitata possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  18. Alteration of plasma biochemical, haematological and ocular oxidative indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ikewuchi, Jude Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens on the haematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg. On gas chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid fraction of t...

  19. Antihyperglycemic activity of petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus krishnae L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    M C Sidhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus krishnae has been evaluated for the management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract for various chemical compounds has also been carried out. Leaf extract was administered continuously for 21 days orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Along with this, the blood glucose level was monitored at regular intervals to understand the activity of the extract. The leaf extract has decreased the blood glucose level of diabetic rats which was comparable to an antidiabetic standard drug, glibenclamide, given at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. It has been observed that the leaves of Ficus krishnae possess antidiabetic activity and it reduces the blood glucose level significantly. The phytochemical screening of leaf has revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, gums and mucilage, phlobatannins, reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The Fourier Transform Infrared analysis of glibenclamide and leaf powder has displayed some common absorption spectra. This shows that leaf powder has a molecule which is close to glibenclamide. Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy have shown the presence of cellulose, Ca, Si, K, Cl, Mg, P, S, Al, Fe, Na, Sr, Pd, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo, Br, Ni, Rb and Zr. It is assumed that these elements alongwith other chemical compounds of the plant species may play a role in the management of diabetes. The Raman Specta of both glibenclamide and leaf powder has also shown some similarities. The results obtained during the present investigation have revealed the antidiabetic activity of Ficus krishnae leaves. The phytochemical screening has indicated the various chemical constituents likely to be responsible for this activity. The Fourier Transform Infrared, Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Specta of the leaf powder suggested that there is some glibenclamide like molecule or its

  20. Hypoglycemic Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats (Rattus norvagicus

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    Saghir Ahmad Jafri*, Sohail Abass and Muhammad Qasim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Zingiber officinale (Ginger aqueous extract at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight (BW once a day for six weeks. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (65mg/kg BW once which induced diabetes in albino rats after 8 days. Albino rats (n=24 each weighing 150-180g were divided in 3 equal groups. Group A served as control, group B was diabetic and was not given ginger whereas group C rats were diabetic and given ginger extract (500mg/kg BW. Serum of each rat was analyzed by enzymatic kits to estimate serum glucose on 1st day (after making them diabetic, 21st and 42nd day. Blood glucose level remained unaltered in group A and B over time. However, group C, given ginger extract, showed significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum glucose level after day 21 and 42 post treatment. It may be concluded that ginger extract has hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats.

  1. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  2. Hypolipidemic effect of Cuminum cyminum L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Surya; Subramanian, Vijayakumar Ramasamy; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2002-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. Many spices and herbs are known to be hypoglycaemic. Cuminum cyminum belonging to the family Apiaceae is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and jaundice. The present work was done to study the role of C. cyminum supplementation on the plasma and tissue lipids in alloxan diabetic rats. Oral administration of 0.25 g kg(-1) body weight of C. cyminum for 6 weeks to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in total haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin. It also prevented a decrease in body weight. C. cyminum treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in plasma and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids and triglycerides. Histological observations demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in diabetic rat pancreas. But supplementation with C. cyminum to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates. Moreover, C. cyminum supplementation was found to be more effective than glibenclamide in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    E E Jarald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae such as petroleum ether (60-80°, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05 to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg.

  4. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Moses Solomon Agwaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p<0.05 compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p=0.27, implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.

  5. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

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    Amanda Natália Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC and 30 untreated diabetic (UD rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

  6. Protective effects of vitamins (C and E) and melatonin co-administration on hematological and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Feriani, Anouer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Alimi, Hichem; Murat, Jean Claud; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of vitamins (C and E)/melatonin co-administration on the hematologic and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg b.w. for 2 days) induced a significant increase of blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with serious hematologic disorders (P diabetic rats were, however, noted to undergo significant increases by 42% (P diabetic rats when compared to the controls. Interestingly, the treatment with vitamins (C, E) in combination with melatonin was noted to reduce the plasma levels of glucose, lower the MDA levels, and restore the hematologic parameters and biochemical and antioxidant levels of diabetic rats back to normal values, alleviating diabetes metabolic disorders in rats.

  7. [Correlations of bile acids in the bile of rats in conditions of alloxan induced diabetes melitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, N M; Vesel'skyĭ, S P; Tsudzevych, B O

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of bile acids in the bile of rats with alloxan diabetes was investigated using the method of thin-layer chromatography. Changes of coefficients of conjugation and hydroxylation of bile acids were calculated and analyzed in half-hour samples of bile obtained during the 3-hour experiment. It has been found that the processes of conjugation of cholic acid with glycine and taurine are inhibited in alloxan diabetes. At the same time a significant increase of free threehydroxycholic and dixydroxycholic bile acids and conjugates of the latter ones with taurine has been registered. Coefficients of hydroxylation in alloxan diabetes show the domination of "acidic" pathway in bile acid biosynthesis that is tightly connected with the activity of mitochondrial enzymes.

  8. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  9. STUDY OF EFFECT OF NICORANDIL ON INSULIN PRODUCTION IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Syed Mohsin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ATP – sensitive potassium channel opener, nicorandil on insulin production in alloxan – induced diabetic rats. METHODS: In an attempt to ascertain the involvement of ATP sensitive potassium channels in the regulation of insulin release, the effect of nicorandil on ATP sensitive potassium channel was studied. Albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 200 – 250 grams of e ither sex were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan monohydrate 2% solution intra - peritoneally in a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Animals with fasting blood glucose (FBS between 200 – 300 mg/dl were selected for the study. They were divided into 3 groups of six animals each. Group I serving as control received 2% gum acacia orally for 30 days, Group II as standard was given orally glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg body weight for 30 days & Group III was treated orally for 30 days with n icorandil (0.3 mg/kg body weight respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS was recorded in all the rats on 1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st & 28 th days. RESULT: Results show that glibenclamide has significantly reduced the blood sugar levels (P<0.05, whereas nico randil has shown a significant rise in blood sugar level (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The study shows that nicorandil worsens existing diabetes. This may attribute to the hypothesis that the opening of ATP sensitive potassium channels on beta cells of pancreas le ads to inhibition of insulin release. These findings suggest that potassium channel openers should be avoided in presence of diabetes.

  10. The Protective Effect of Cordymin, a Peptide Purified from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, on Diabetic Osteopenia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Ya-bo; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-xiang; Liu, Ning; Liu, Shuai; Shi, Lei; Fan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanisms involved. The diabetic rats received daily intraperitoneal injection with cordymin (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Cordymin could restore the circulating blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and insulin levels in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the treatment of diabetic rats with cordymin could partially reverse the β cells death and decrease the total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the diabetic rats. The results may directly and indirectly account for the possible mechanism of the beneficial effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia, which was confirmed with the increased bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). All those findings indicate that cordymin may play a protective role in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:24174985

  11. The Protective Effect of Cordymin, a Peptide Purified from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, on Diabetic Osteopenia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanisms involved. The diabetic rats received daily intraperitoneal injection with cordymin (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks. Cordymin could restore the circulating blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, and insulin levels in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the treatment of diabetic rats with cordymin could partially reverse the β cells death and decrease the total antioxidant status (TAOS in the diabetic rats. The results may directly and indirectly account for the possible mechanism of the beneficial effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia, which was confirmed with the increased bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD in diabetic rats (P<0.05. All those findings indicate that cordymin may play a protective role in diabetic osteoporosis.

  12. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  13. Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae), measured in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes.

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    Momo, C E N; Oben, J E; Tazoo, D; Dongo, E

    2006-01-01

    A decoction of the leaves of Laportea ovalifolia is widely used in Cameroon for the treatment of several illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of the aerial parts of L. ovalifolia have now been investigated, in normal rats and rats with diabetes induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (at 150 mg/kg bodyweight). In the diabetic rats, 2 weeks of daily, intragastric treatment with the L. ovalifolia extract not only produced a significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose concentrations but also lowered the serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, lowered the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and increased the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol. At least in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, the methanol/methylene-chloride extract of L. ovalifolia therefore appears to possess antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic properties.

  14. Antihyperglycemic activity of extracts from Boldoa purpurascens leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    González Mosquera, D M; Hernandez Ortega, Y; By, B; Vicet Muro, L; Saucedo Hernandez, Y; Grau Ábalos, R; Dehaen, W; Pieters, L; Apers, S

    2013-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential use of Boldoa purpurascens against diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect of an ethanol extract obtained from its leaves was evaluated at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin 5 IU/kg was used as positive control and NaCl 0.9% as negative control. A similar experiment was performed with the aqueous extract used at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg using metformin at a dose of 50mg/kg as positive control. Statistical analysis was carried using the Kruskal-Wallis test with an interval of trust of 99%. The ethanolic and aqueous extract of B. purpurascens showed a significant decrease of blood glucose levels 72 h after administration. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of D-pinitol, a compound known for its hypoglycemic properties. In conclusion, ethanolic as well as aqueous extracts of B. purpurascens leaves show antihyperglycemic activity, possibly due to the presence of D-pinitol and flavonoids.

  15. Effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic WBN/Kob rats.

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    Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Hamano, Hiroko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Narama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has recently been reported in clinical research, but it remains unclear whether hypertension is a risk factor for DPN. To investigate the effects of hypertension on DPN, we analyzed morphological features of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats with hypertension. Male WBN/Kob rats were divided into 2 groups: alloxan-induced diabetic rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) treatment (ADN group) and nondiabetic rats with DOCA-salt treatment (DN group). Sciatic, tibial (motor) and sural (sensory) nerves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative histomorphological analysis. Systolic blood pressure in the two groups exhibited a higher value (>140 mmHg), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Endoneurial blood vessels in both groups presented endothelial hypertrophy and narrowing of the vascular lumen. Electron microscopically, duplication of basal lamina surrounding the endothelium and pericyte of the endoneurial vessels was observed, and this lesion appeared to be more frequent and severe in the ADN group than the DN group. Many nerve fibers of the ADN and DN groups showed an almost normal appearance, whereas morphometrical analysis of the tibial nerve showed a significant shift to smaller fiber and myelin sizes in the ADN group compared with DN group. In sural nerve, the fiber and axon-size significantly shifted to a smaller size in ADN group compared with the DN group. These results suggest that combined diabetes and hypertension could induce mild peripheral nerve lesions with vascular changes.

  16. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE POWDER OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME PLANT ON A CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AT ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. I. Aizman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of the powder of Curcuma longa plant rhizome as food additive on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in whole blood, concentration of hormones – insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus were studied.Material and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar adult male rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups: 1 and 2 – the controls, 3 and 4 – the rats with alloxan-induced model of diabetes mellitus. Animals of groups 1 and 3 were kept on standard chow, whereas the rats of groups 2 and 4 were feeded with additive of powder from Curcuma longa plant rhizome (2% by weight of feed.The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with picric acid method by intensity of colour reaction on spectrofotometer. Concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide was defined by immunoenzyme method with standard sets on tablet spectrofotometer. The morphological structure of a pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. Content of glycogen in a liver was measured by means of Shick-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on spectrofotometer.Results. Intake of the turmeric rhizomes powder by rats with diabetes, as compared with the diabetic animals on a standard diet, resulted in the lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and significant increase of glycogen content in the liver. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet.Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa

  17. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pisonia alba Span. Leaves on Blood Glucose levels and Histological Changes in Tissues of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic rats

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    C Sunil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The ethanolic extract of Pisonia alba Span (Nyctaginaceae (PAEt was found to have antidiabetic activity that reduces blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  In this study, a 15 days antihyperglycemic effect of the two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.p.o of PAEt was investigated. Glibenclamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg b.w. Treatment of alloxan diabetic wistar rats with the extract caused a significant (P<0.01 reduction in the blood glucose levels when compared with control.   PAEt also showed significant lipid peroxide  scavenging in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radicals, thereby indicating its potent antioxidant effects.  Treatment with PAEt of the diabetic animals helped to maintain the body weight at near normal values and maintain the glucose levels of urine below 2% like glibenclamide.  Treatment with the ethanol extract of Pisonia alba Span  (Nyctaginaceae (PAEt was found to almost restore the normal histological architecture of the liver, kidney and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and other ailments because of the hazardous adverse effects of the current therapy used to treat these ailments using synthetic drugs.  Diabetes can be controlled by allopathic medicine as well as herbal medicine.  In case of allopathic medicine, complete cure and tolerance are major problems.  Herbal medicine is free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic hypoglycemic agents.  Nowadays a lot of herbal formulations are available as tablets and other dosage forms.  The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus.

  18. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 73.26-78.24% on consumption of the extracts, with greater effect exhibited by the 600 mg/kg extract. In normal rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 34.68-38.9% on consumption of the seed extract. Histological studies showed a degenerative effect on the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. The result suggested restorative (protective) effect of the extract on pancreatic islet cells. Administration of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  19. Alteration of plasma biochemical, haematological and ocular oxidative indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae).

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    Ikewuchi, Jude Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens on the haematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg. On gas chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid fraction of the aqueous extract, thirty nine known alkaloids were detected, consisting mainly of 73.91 % akuamidine, 22.33 % voacangine, 1.27 % echitamine, 0.55 % echitamidine, 0.36 % lupanine, 0.27 % crinamidine, 0.23 % augustamine and 0.10 % 6-hydroxypowelline. Tannic acid and β-sitosterol were detected in high quantities. Compared to Test control, the treatment dose-dependently, significantly lowered (Pextract was hypoglycemic, positively affected the haemopoietic system and integrity and function (dose dependently) of the liver and kidney of the diabetic rats; improved the lipid profile and had no deleterious effect on red cell morphology and protected against oxidative stress in ocular tissues. This study also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active compounds in the leaf extract. All of these, highlight the cardioprotective potential of the leaves of Tridax procumbens, and support its use in traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Effects of ethanol extracts in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Akram Eidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae is a well-known herb that it used in traditional medicine due to pharmacological activities. Licorice in herbal medicine is used as a tonic, expectorant and demulcent factor. This plant has antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-allergenic and anti-ulcer activities. The aim of present study was to, comparisons of effect of ethanol extracts licorice root with glibenclamide on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, oral administration of licorice extract (50, 200 and 400 mg/kg per body wt. and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg were performed as the standard antidiabetic medicine, during 30 days. Then, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in normal and diabetic rats were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-10 software and the ANOVA test was used. Results: Oral administrations of licorice extract significantly decreased activity of AST and ALT in serum of diabetic rats but not in normal rats. The licorice extract as same as glibenclamide significantly decreased activity of liver enzymes. Conclusion: It is concluded that the licorice can be considered as a suitable candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  1. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

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    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  2. The effect of the glycolipoprotein extract (G-90) from earthworm Eisenia foetida on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Goodarzi, Golnaz; Qujeq, Durdi; Elmi, Maryam M; Feizi, Farideh; Fathai, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem. The number of patients is estimated to increase to over 439 million cases by 2030. One of the major health clinical problems in patients with diabetes patients is impaired wound healing. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus in 12 to 25% of patients, which increases the risk of damage in the limbs or amputation. The earthworm Eisenia foetida glycolipoprotein (as known G-90) is a blend of macromolecules with some biological properties including mitogenicity, anticoagulation, fibrinolysis, bacteriostatic and antioxidatiaon. Given the biological properties of G-90, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of extract obtained from the homogenate of Eisenia foetida (G-90) on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment by using G-90 can speed up the wound healing process, which is exactly similar to the effect of D-panthenol treatment in rats. These findings also demonstrated that G-90 treatment decreases the risk of infection in the wound site compared with D-panthenol treatment. In addition, histological analysis indicated that a better extracellular matrix formation with increased fibroblast proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis and early epithelial layer formation was observed in G-90 treated group. Therefore, the G-90 could be considered as a new wound healing agent introducing promising therapeutic approaches in both human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Hydromethanolic leaves extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats

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    Y Tanko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The effects of the hydromethanolic  extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of alloxan induced and normoglycemic Wistar rats has been investigated. Three doses of the extract (250mg/Kg, 500mg/Kg and 1000mg/Kg were administered intraperitoneally. The dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels of Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats after 4, 8 and 24 hours of treatment. However, the doses of 500 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4 and 24 hours while  the dose of 250 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4, 8 and 24 hours. In normoglycemic rats, the dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours only. Also the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 24 hours while the dose of 250 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 in the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours. The phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and steroids. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 2,154.1 mg/kg bodyweight. In conclusion, the doses of the extract has shown both significant (p<0.05 hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in Wistar rats.   Industrial relevance: The search for more effective and hypoglycemic agents has continue to be an area of research interest, because of the less side effects and easily affordable  medicinal plants has, when compared to the synthetic drugs. Indigofera pulchra is a very virgin plant and promising base on these current findings. The phytochemical screening revealed the present of phenolic compounds, tannins steroids, saponins and alkaloids. Elucidation of those secondary metabolites would be more effective in the treatment of this illness.

  4. TYPE 1 DIABETES AND ITS LONG DURATION EFFECT ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Mahaboob Basha P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous research in the field of Diabetology, its prevalence and complications are raising. Studies made on diabetic subjects showed deficits in cognition and memory in children suffering from long term diabetes. The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and type-1 diabetes of early onset has not been addressed properly. Hence, this study was made to investigate the effect of different duration diabetes onset on cognitive dysfunction. Using alloxan (200 mg/kg bw induced diabetic rats learning and memory assessments were made, in addition oxidative stress indices studied. The results indicate that the duration of diabetes has significant contribution in learning and memory deficits, which were irreversible and the activity levels of CAT (P < 0.05, SOD, GST (P < 0.05, and GPx (P < 0.05 showed greater impact of free radical damage on hippocampal circuitry. The atrophic changes observed in hippocampal region corroborates the difficulties in learning and memory, and the degenerative changes were most striking in the cells of CA-1 and CA-3 hippocampal regions which could be linked to deficits in certain cognitive domains, such as memory, information processing speed, executive function, attention and motor speed. It is evident from data that brain tissue is not spared by diabetes and diabetic encephalopathy occurs due to metabolic perturbations by hyperglycaemia, insulin deficiency. The findings of this study strongly advocate that learning ability and memory have a direct relation to the duration of the diabetes. The clinical implication of the study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of juvenile diabetes induced cognitive deficits among children.

  5. Study of Antiglycation, Hypoglycemic, and Nephroprotective Activities of the Green Dwarf Variety Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

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    Pinto, Isabella F D; Silva, Railmara P; Chaves Filho, Adriano de B; Dantas, Lucas S; Bispo, Vanderson S; Matos, Isaac A; Otsuka, Felipe A M; Santos, Aline C; Matos, Humberto Reis

    2015-07-01

    Coconut water (CW) is a natural nutritious beverage, which contains several biologically active compounds that are traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and rehydration. Several works with CW have been related with antioxidant activity, which is very important in the diabetic state. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective activities of CW, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were pre- and post-treated by gavage with CW (3 mL/kg), caffeic acid (CA) (10 and 15 mg/kg), and acarbose (Acb) (714 μg/kg) during a period of 16 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Amadori products in plasma and kidney homogenates were evaluated in all groups and used as parameters for the monitoring of the diabetic state. The results showed that rats of the CW+diabetic group had maintenance in blood glucose compared with the control group (P<.05) in addition to a decrease of HbA1c levels and increase of body weight when compared with the diabetic group rats (P<.05). The animals of the CA and CA+diabetic groups did not have significant variation of body weight (P<.05) during the experiment; however, they showed decrease in their HbA1c and urea levels in plasma as well as Amadori products in kidney homogenates when compared with the diabetic group (P<.05). Our results indicate that CW has multiple beneficial effects in diabetic rats for preventing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress caused by alloxan.

  6. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Himanshu Misra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg. Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9% for the same duration. Glibenclamide was used as positive control reference drug against Stevia extract. Results: Medium-polar leaf extract of S. rebaudiana (200 and 400 mg/kg produced a delayed but significant (P < 0.01 decrease in the blood glucose level, without producing condition of hypoglycemia after treatment, together with lesser loss in the body weight as compared with standard positive control drug glibenclamide. Conclusions: Treatment of diabetes with sulfonylurea drugs (glibenclamide causes hypoglycemia followed by greater reduction in body weight, which are the most worrisome effects of these drugs. Stevia extract was found to antagonize the necrotic action of alloxan and thus had a re-vitalizing effect on β-cells of pancreas.

  7. Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Josline Y Salib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF . The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1®2-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5 , whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant. Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids.

  8. Inhibition of key enzymes related to diabetes and hypertension by Eugenol in vitro and in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Mnafgui, Kais; Kaanich, Fatima; Derbali, Amal; Hamden, Khaled; Derbali, Fatma; Slama, Sadok; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of treating diabetic rats with eugenol (EG). In vitro enzyme activity was measured in the presence of eugenol, and it was found to inhibit pancreatic α-amylase (IC(50) = 62.53 µg/mL) and lipase (IC(50) = 72.34 µg/mL) as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity (IC50 = 130.67 µg/mL). In vivo, EG reduced the activity of amylase in serum, pancreas and intestine also the peak level of glucose by 60% compared to diabetic rats. Furthermore, eugenol similar to acarbose reduced serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipase and ACE levels. In addition, treatments with EG showed notable decrease in serum total-cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with an increase of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Overall, EG significantly reverted back to near normal the values of the biochemical biomarkers such as transaminases (AST&ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities, total-bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid rates.

  9. Cytoprotection of pancreatic β-cells and hypoglycemic effect of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: sertraline complex in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buko, Vyacheslav; Zavodnik, Ilya; Lukivskaya, Oxana; Naruta, Elena; Palecz, Bartlomiej; Belica-Pacha, Silwia; Belonovskaya, Elena; Kranc, Robert; Abakumov, Vladimir

    2016-01-25

    Sertraline, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, is widely used as antidepressant in diabetic patients for improvement of depression and glycemic control. Sertraline is poorly soluble in water, which limits its oral applicability. In this work we tried to improve the pharmaceutical properties of sertraline by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and evaluated the efficacy of the HPβCD:sertraline complex in prevention of alloxan-induced lesions in rats. The solubility of sertraline increased in the presence of HPβCD and the association constant for sertraline and HPβCD was equal to 4000 ± 1000 M(-1). Two-week treatment of diabetic animals with the HPβCD:sertraline complex improved pancreatic islet morphology and β-cell survival, which, in turn, reduced the severity of diabetes, as evidenced by lowering of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin contents as well as normalization of serum insulin level and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR). The effect of the HPβCD:sertraline complex was strongly expressed in comparison with the antidiabetic effect of both the monopreparations, HPβCD and sertraline. It is suggested that the cyclodextrin derivative increased the pharmacological effect of sertraline, probably due to enhanced drug bioavailability.

  10. Improvement in beta-islets of Langerhans in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by erythropoietin and spirulina

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    N.I. El-Desouki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of erythropoietin (EPO and/or spirulina to treat alloxanized-diabetic rats. Eighty male albino rats were equally divided into eight groups; Group I: Normal control rats, Group II: Non-diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg injected subcutaneously three times weekly for 3 weeks, Group III: Non-diabetic rats administered orally with spirulina (2 g/kg/d for 21 days, Group IV: Non-diabetic rats treated by EPO (40 U/kg together with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as mentioned in groups II & III, Group V: Alloxanized-diabetic rats. Group VI: Diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg as in group II, Group VII: Diabetic rats administered with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group III, Group VIII: Diabetic rats were given with EPO (40 U/kg and spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group IV. Diabetic rat group showed a significant increase in glucose and NO; and a significant decrease in insulin, SOD and CAT levels. Diabetic rats treated with EPO or/and spirulina recorded a significant decrease in the glucose and NO levels; and a significant increase in insulin, SOD and CAT levels when compared with the diabetic group. Histopathologically, diabetic rats treated with EPO or spirulina showed a slight improvement of pancreatic islets and acinar cells, diabetic rats treated with EPO & spirulina together showed an obvious recovery to approximately normal status. IHC, the expression of insulin producing cells (β-cells of diabetic rats was improved in the three treatment groups with a lesser affinity for EPO than spirulina while with both together showed marked recovery into normal status. In conclusion, all the changes were minimized in spirulina administered group more than EPO group, however, the co-treatment of EPO and spirulina exerted stronger anti-hyperglycemic effects than treatment with each agent alone.

  11. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

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    Maxwell Omabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P=0.0698; there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P>0.8115. However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P<0.0001, and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001; metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P<0.0001 and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001. Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  12. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (ppalm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  13. Hypolipidemic and Antiatherogenic Effects of Satureja Khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing around the world. Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors in diabetes. The purpose of this study is to examine the protective effects of the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica on the level of serum lipids and atherogenic indices in the male rats with diabetes.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on thirty male rats randomly divided into three groups including: 1- control group, 2- rats with untreated diabetes 3- rats with treated diabetes (through orally intake of water containing 500 ppm of the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica. The second and third groups also developed diabetes through injection of alloxan tetrahydrate (120 mg/kg. After eight weeks of treatment, their blood sample was taken, and then the levels of glucose, lipids and atherogenic indices of the serum were measured.Results: The levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and atherogenic indices of plasma in treated diabetic group were significantly decreased. The amount of high density lipoprotein (HDL was significantly increased in the treated group. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study showed that the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica has beneficial effects on the level of serum lipids and atherogenic indices of rats with type 1 diabetes.

  14. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

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    Victor Eshu Okpashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg. Catalase activity showed significant increase P0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  15. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  16. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    R S Kujur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II, ether extract (Group III and methanolic extract (Group IV. For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p. after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg administration of aqueous extract (A.E. , ether extract (E.E. and methanol extract (M.E. for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.

  17. [Platelet hyperreactivity and antiaggregatory properties of nootropic drugs under conditions of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A É; Mamchur, V I

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nootropic drugs (noopept, pentoxifylline, piracetam, pramiracetam, Ginkgo biloba extract, entrop, cerebrocurin and citicoline) on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes have been studied. It is established that all these drugs exhibit an inhibitory action of various degrees against platelet hyperreactivity under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The maximum universality of the antiaggregatory action is characteristic of pramiracetam, entrop and Ginkgo biloba extract.

  18. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period.

  19. Amelioration of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by oil of Eruca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, M A; El Gindy, A M

    2000-01-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plant extracts in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Oil of Eruca sativa seeds (ESS) is tried for prevention and treatment of DM induced experimentally by alloxan injection. A single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol, decreased high-density lipoprotein and hepatic glycogen contents and elevated hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the liver. This oxidative stress was related to a decreased glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in the liver of alloxan-diabetic rats. ESS oil (0.06 ml/kg) on its own increased significantly hepatic GSH. Daily oral administration of ESS oil 2 weeks before or after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, improved lipid profile, blunted the increase in malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal and stimulated the GSH production in the liver of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that ESS oil could be used as antidiabetic complement in case of DM. This may be related to its antioxidative properties and to the increase in hepatic GSH.

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  1. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  2. Role of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compound probucol in antiradical protection of pancreatic beta-cells during alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, V Z; Korchin, V I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Akmaev, I G

    2004-01-01

    The severity of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes depended on activity of antioxidant enzymes in the target organ (pancreas). Damage to the pancreas is related to intensive generation of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and lipid peroxides. Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats is a free radical disease, which in vivo serves as a useful model for the search for pharmacological preparations with antiradical and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant compound probucol indirectly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the pancreas and prevented the development of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Our results indicate that different sensitivity of laboratory animals of various species (rats and guinea pigs) to the influence of alloxan is associated with abnormal variations in activity of enzymes utilizing reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in mammalian pancreatic cells.

  3. Effect of methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub leaves on hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi; Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu; Mubarak Labaran Liman; Dorothy Uju Iliemene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ameliorative role of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub (T. tetraptera) leaf in hyperglycemia with associated conditions like oxidative stress, kidney damage and disorders in lipid metabolism. Methods:Five groups of five rats each intraperitoneally received the following treatment schedules for 7 d: untreated normal control, untreated alloxan-diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, normal rats treated with extract (50 mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated with the extract. Evaluations were made for fasting blood sugar, body weight changes, malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid profile, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, urea and creatinine in all the rats. Results:Whereas the untreated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions:Methanolic extract of T. tetraptera leaves possesses a potent capacity for treatment of diabetes and the accompanying complications, including oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

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    Pari Leelavinothan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to investigation the effect of Diasulin, a poly herbal drug composed of ethanolic extract of ten medicinal plants on blood glucose, plasma insulin, tissue lipid profile, and lipidperoxidation in alloxan induced diabetes. Methods Ethanolic extract of Diasulin a, poly herbal drug was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The different doses of Diasulin on blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats were studied and the levels of lipid peroxides [TBARS, and Hydroperoxide] and tissue lipids [cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipides and free fatty acids] were also estimated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effects were compared with glibenclamide. Result Treatment with Diasulin and glibenclamide resulted in a significant reduction of blood glucose and increase in plasma insulin. Diasulin also resulted in a significant decrease in tissue lipids and lipid peroxide formation. The effect produced by Diasulin was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Conclusion The decreased lipid peroxides and tissue lipids clearly showed the antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin apart from its antidiabetic effect.

  5. Positive moderation of the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica Gerome and Labroy

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    Ikewuchi Jude Chigozie; Ikewuchi Catherine Chidinma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica (S. liberica) to alter the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg body weight.Results:Compared to test control, the treatment dose dependently, significantly lowered (P<0.05) ocular malondialdehyde content, atherogenic indices, red cell, total white cell and lymphocyte counts, mean cell hemoglobin concentration; and plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total-, very low density lipoprotein-, low density lipoprotein- and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterols, total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, sodium, urea, blood urea nitrogen, as well as plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases. However, the treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell volume, neutrophil and monocyte counts, and plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, potassium, chloride, calcium, bicarbonate and total protein, ocular ascorbic acid content and ocular activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immune-modulating, ocular-, hepato-renal and cardio-protective potentials of the extract. Conclusions: All these, support the use of the leaves of S. liberica in African traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  6. EKSTRAK DAUN KAPULAGA MENURUNKAN INDEKS ATHEROGENIK DAN KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETES INDUKSI ALLOXAN (Cardamom Extract Leaves Decreased Atherogenic Indexs and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats Alloxans-Induced

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    Hery Winarsi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardamom (Amomum Cardomomum leaves has antioxidant in vitro, which was supported by a high flavonoids and vitamin C contents. It has been reported that antioxidants improved atherogenic index and insulin secretion. The aims of this study were to explore the potential of cardamom leaves extracts as atherogenicity and blood glucose levels controlling in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The animal experiments were 45 rats (Rattus norvegicus L. Sprague Dawley strain, male, aged 2-3 months, weighing 210-310 g. After acclimatization for 1 week, rats were fasted overnight and then induced alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. One week later, the rats in the test blood glucose levels using the Nesco Multi Check Glucose, Kemel Int’l Corp.  via the lateral tail vein of rats, blood glucose check attached to the equipment, and after 5 seconds glucose levels was read. Atherogenic index was determined by the formula: {( Chol-tot –HDL}/HDL. Blood samples for analysis of total-cholesterol and chol-HDL taken from the eye vein, after the rat anesthetized using ketamine. Rats with blood glucose levels > 200 mg / dL, were selected as experimental animals, and then divided into 3 groups of 15 each. Group I, fed standard and cardamom leaves extract; Group II, fed standard and glibenclamide, whereas group III, only fed standard for 2 weeks. At the beginning diabetic, their weight dropped from 247.63+28.5 to 220.9+26.6 g (P0.05, the blood glucose levels decreased from 199.25+100.5 to 102.88+17 mg/dL (P 200 mg/dL, dipilih sebagai hewan percobaan, kemudian dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok masing-masing 15 ekor. Kelompok I, diberi pakan standar dan ekstrak daun kapulaga; kelompok II, diberi pakan standar dan glibenklamid; sedangkan kelompok III, hanya diberi pakan standar selama 2 minggu. Saat awal diabetes, berat badannya turun dari 247,63+28,5 menjadi 220,9+26,6 g (P0.05, kadar glukosa darahnya menurun dari 199,25+100,5 menjadi 102,88+17 mg/dL (P<0.05, dan

  7. Antidiabetic activity of Plumeria rubra L. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Amruta V. Yadav

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: PR exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study provide support to the traditional usage of the plant in diabetes. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 884-889

  8. Anti-diabetic Properties of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Bougainvillea glabra (Glory of the Garden on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Grace I. Adebayo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects of Bougainvillea glabra was investigated in this study using 25 male wistar rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups comprising of five animals each. These groups include a normal control (administered saline, an extract control (administered 100 mg/kg of extract and a diabetic control (untreated group. The remaining two groups were administered 100mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively. The study lasted for three weeks although blood samples were obtained from the rat tails after every week. The results show that the extract significantly (p< 0.05 reduced the hyperglycaemia from 12±0.40 mmol/L (Diabetic Control to 4.04±0.03 mmol/L (400 mg/kg group. Likewise, the extract significantly reduced the Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-Cholesterol, while increasing the High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C. In conclusion, the observations from this study show that Bougainvillea glabra has antidiabetic effect and beneficial effects on blood lipid profile, thus justifying the use of the plant by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Comparison on hypoglycemic effect of Oyster (Pleurotusosteratus and Reishi (Ganodermalucidum mushroom in alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Debendra Nath Roy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotusosteratus (family: Pleurotaceae and Ganodermalucidum (family: ganodermataceae are common edible mushrooms in Bangladesh. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotusosteratus and Ganodermalucidum were used to find out their hypoglycaemicactivity in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotusosteratus and Ganodermalucidum reduced blood glucose level of 39.56% and 43.27% respectively at 24 hours after intrapertitoneal administration (P<0.005 inalloxan induced diabeticmice.The possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action is due to the increased glucose uptake in liver cells because it markedly lowers the blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabeticmice.

  10. Strategies for preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DMIS) and alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DMIA) rat models: case studies and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2015-03-01

    Preclinical rodent models that manifest type 2 diatetes mellitus using either streptozotocin (DMIS) or alloxan (DMIA) have been well established. Both DMIS and DMIA models have served as key experimental tools to evaluate and understand the pharmacokinetic disposition of scores of drugs and therefore some key questions with respect to absorption, metabolism or elimination of drugs can be answered during the development of full-blown diabetes in the animal models. The choice of the right preclinical rodent model and adaptation of the appropriate experimental design could help to generate data to enable go or no-go decision on the clinical candidate. Also, such models may help to understand the risk potential from a drug-drug interaction perspective. The review provides an overview of the strategies and perspectives of institutionalizing DMIS and/or DMIA rat models using relevant case studies.

  11. The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Walnut (Juglans regia Leaf and Glibenclamide on Serum Glucose Levels of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mahdi Noureddini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of medicinal plants for lowering glucose level in diabetic patients is of clinical importance. The present study investigated the effect of a 30-day oral administration of aqueous extract of walnut leaf and glibenclamide on blood glucose level in normal and diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 male rats (Sprague-Dawley, 150-250 g were divided into 12 equal groups as following: normal control group, normal group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, three normal groups receiving the extract doses of 50, 10, and 150 mg/kg, alloxan-diabetic control group (170 mg/kg, diabetic group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, and five diabetic groups receiving the extract in doses of 10, 50, 150, 300, and 500 mg/day by oral administration for 30 days. Glucose levels of the fasting rats were measured at 0, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days using glucometer.Results: Administration of all doses and over 10 mg/kg significantly lowered the blood glucose level in normal rat and diabetic rats, compared with dose and duration-dependent control groups. This effect was higher for doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg in normal rats and for doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg in diabetic rats, similar to glibenclamide (4 mg/kg.Conclusion: Walnut leaf aqueous extract, depending on dose and duration, has dose and duration dependent declining effect on glucose level in normal rats and antihyperglycemic effect on diabetic rats, with a few side effects. This effect at some doses is greater or equal to that of glibenclamide.

  12. Dracaena arborea leaf extract: A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated. ALX and then Dracaena arborea extracts (DAE at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/ day were administered to both normal (Group A and diabetic rats (Groups C and D and none to the diabetic control group (Group B for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic and DAE-treated diabetic rats. Results: We observed a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the serum glucose level as well as a drug-induced dose-dependent reduction in testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the rats following type-1 diabetic conditions induction by ALX. There was a significant dose dependent response (P < 0.05 to treatment between the DAE-treated diabetic groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in oxidative stress parameters was observed in testicular cells of diabetic rats post-treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that DAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  13. XML Effect of Regular Aerobic Training and Arbutin on Cardiac Total Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rat

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    Shojaee, M. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiomyopathic changes, can be mediated by an oxidative stress. We aimed to study the effects of regular aerobic training and arbutin supplementation on total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant (TAS status in the cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Material and Methods: fourty-two male Wistar rats with an average weight of 195 to 220 gr were randomly divided into 6 groups (7 rats per group of control, diabetes, Arbutin, diabetes + Arbutin, diabetes + aerobic training and diabetes + aerobic training + Arbutin. Swimming training protocol consisted of 5 days/week for 6 weeks and each session was 5-36 min/day. Diabetes was induced with alloxan intraperitoneally and Arbutin (50 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously. Results: Induced- diabetes significantly increased TOS and decreased TAS in rat heart tissue (P = 0.000. Six weeks of supplementation with Arbutin, aerobic training and combination of aerobic training and Arbutin supplementation were associated with a significant decrease in TOS (88%, 91% ,103% Respectively and increase in TAS (33% ,62% ,67% Respectively . Conclusion: Compared to arbutin, aerobic training can be more effective in creating adaptation in the antioxidant defense system.

  14. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  15. Dracaena arborea leafextract:A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede; Saheed Oluwasina Oseni; Olumide Olaseni Adenmosun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX)-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods:Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated.ALX and thenDracaena arborea extracts (DAE) at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day were administered to both normal (Group A) and diabetic rats (Groups C and D) and none to the diabetic control group (Group B) for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic andDAE-treated diabetic rats. Results:We observed a significant (P Conclusions:These findings suggest thatDAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  16. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  17. Hypoglycemic effect of Geranium ruizii Hieron. (pasuchaca) ethanolic extract on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Calderón, Oscar; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Chinchay Salazar, Rosa; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú;; Palomino Ormeño, Estela; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú;; Arango Valencia, Evelyn; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú;; Arroyo, Jorge; Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Geranium ruizii Hieron. (pasuchaca) is a medicinal plant used by traditional medicine to lower glycemia, in Ancash, Peru. Objective: To determine the hypoglycemic effect of Geranium ruizii ethanolic extract on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. Design: Experimental. Setting: Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biological material: Geranium ruizii, eight weeks female Holtzman rats 200 ± 20 g of body weight...

  18. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

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    O A Oseni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  19. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  20. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  1. Long term evaluation of functional and morphological bladder alterations on alloxan-induced diabetes and aging: experimental study in rats Avaliação funcional e morfológica tardia de alterações na bexiga secundárias ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e no envelhecimento: estudo experimental em ratos

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    Antonio Antunes Rodrigues Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate structural and functional effects of Alloxan- induced diabetes and aging on bladder of rats. METHODS: evaluations were performed in three groups: A - 8 weeks of age, B - 44 weeks of age, C - 44 weeks of age with alloxan-induced diabetes. Muscle layer thickness, extracellular matrix fibrosis and collagen were quantified on digital images of bladder samples. Cystometric evaluations before surgical vesical denervation (SVD, included maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, maximum bladder pressure (MBP, bladder contraction frequency (VCF, duration of bladder contraction (DC, threshold pressure (TP and bladder compliance (BC. After SVD, maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, BC and maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP were also measured. RESULTS: Reduced extracellular matrix fibrosis concentration and contraction strength were found in the bladders of group C. Before SVD, bladder compliance was not different between groups. Alterations were observed in MCC after SVD. CONCLUSIONS: We did not notice smooth muscle hypertrophy in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 44 weeks. There was alteration in the total and relative amount of fibrosis and collagen. The cystometric studies support the idea that this morphological alterations are important to determine the different bladder functional patterns found in the aging and the Alloxan-induced diabetic animals.OBJETIVOS: avaliar alterações estruturais e funcionais da bexiga de ratos machos, associadas ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e ao envelhecimento. MÉTODOS: três grupos de animais: A - 8 semanas de idade; B- 44 semanas de idade; C - 44 semanas de idade com diabetes induzido por aloxano, foram avaliados. Realizadas medidas de espessura da camada muscular, fibrose de matriz extracelular e quantidade de colágeno, através de análise de imagem digital dos tecidos. Realizados também testes cistométricos, antes da desnervação vesical cirúrgica (DVC, para avaliar capacidade vesical (CV

  2. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic potential of Caesalpinia decapetala in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

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    Liaqat Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, kidney and hepatoprotective potential of Caesalpinia decapetala were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The plant extract showed concentration dependant significant (p<0.001 therapeutic potential in diabetic rabbits revealing improvement in lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg oral extract were able to reduce average blood glucose levels from 250.6 mg/dL to 204.2 mg/dL and 188.2 mg/dL respectively during 14 days period, in comparison to 183.8 mg/dL of glibenclamide. There was no significant synergistic effect found, upon co-administration of both drug and extract representing the competitive binding to sulphonyl urea (SUR1, revealing possible mechanism of action for compounds in extract. Extract was found to be nephroprotective, hepatoprotective and improved lipid profile of alloxan-treated rabbits.

  3. Effects of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorkey, Muobarak J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of Moringa oleifera. This study investigates the antidiabetic effect of M. oleifera and its impact on the immune tolerance. Methods Alloxan-induced diabetes model for mice was used. A dose of 100 mg/kg of Moringa extract was orally administered to diabetic treated mice. Glucose and insulin levels were evaluated to calculate insulin resistance. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured. The relative percentage of CD44, CD69, and IFN-γ was investigated by flow cytometry. Results In diabetic mice, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was increased 4.5-fold than in the control group, and HOMA-IR was decreased 1.3-fold in the Moringa treatment group. The level of TAC was declined 1.94-fold in diabetic mice, and increased 1.67-fold in diabetic treated group. In diabetic mice, creatinine and BUN levels were significantly reduced 1.42- and 1.2-fold, respectively, in Moringa treatment mice. The relative percentage of CD44 was not changed in diabetic mice, but the relative percentage of CD69 was found to be increased. INF-γ was decreased 2.4-fold in diabetic mice and elevated in treated groups. Conclusion Moringa may ameliorate insulin resistance, increase TAC, and improve immune tolerance. PMID:28203392

  4. Ghrelin improves delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Ran Lv; Wei-Gang Wang; Xiao-Dong Han; Jun Yan; Yu Wang; Qi Zheng; Kai-Xing Ai

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ghrelin on delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.METHODS: A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection with alloxan.Mice were randomized into two main groups: normal mice group and diabetic mice group treated with ghrelin at doses of 0, 20, 50, 100 and 200 μg/kg ip.Gastric emptying (GE), intestinal transit (IT), and colonic transit (CT)were studied in mice after they had a phenol red meal following injection of ghrelin.Based on the most effective ghrelin dosage, atropine was given at 1 mg/kg 15 min before the ghrelin injection for each measurement.The mice in each group were sacrificed 20 min later and their stomachs, intestines, and colons were harvested immediately.The amount of phenol red was measured.Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were calculated.RESULTS: Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were significantly decreased in diabetic mice as compared to control mice (22.9±1.4 vs 28.1±1.3, 33.5±1.2 vs 43.2±1.9, 29.5±1.9 vs 36.3±1.6, P < 0.05).In the diabetic mice, ghrelin improved both GE and IT, but not CT.The most effective dose of ghrelin was 100 μg/kg and atropine blocked the prokinetic effects of ghrelin on GE and IT.CONCLUSION: Ghrelin accelerates delayed GE and IT but has no effect on CT in diabetic mice.Ghrelin may exert its prokinetic effects via the cholinergic pathway in the enteric nervous system, and therefore has therapeutic potential for diabetic patients with delayed upper gastrointestinal transit.

  5. Delayed Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia, Slow Gastrointestinal Transit and Possible Links Between Them in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟东; 刑东明; 苏慧; 程杰; 金文; 丁怡; 杜力军

    2004-01-01

    Both postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis are common dysfunctions affecting diabetes mellitus; however,whether diabetic gastroparesis has an influence on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia still remains undetermined.Delayed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia,diabetic gastroparesis,and the possible links between them were investigated using alloxan-induced diabetic mice.After the oral administration of olive oil,delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis were markedly presented in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Domperidone shortened the time of triglycerides (TG) peak levels in diabetic mice.After intraperitoneal and intraduodenal administration of olive oil,no delay of TG peak levels occurred in diabetic mice.Simultaneously,serum post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activities significantly decreased just at the time of prolonged and elevated TG peak levels resulting from diabetic gastroparesis,and further deteriorated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic mice.The results indicate that diabetic gastroparesis can be one of the important reasons for delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Fermentation effects of oligosaccharides of Radix Ophiopogonis on alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Su, Wei-Wei; Cai, Xue-Ying; Luo, Lv-Keng; Li, Pei-Bo; Wang, Yong-Gang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, oligosaccharides extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus vinegar (OOV) by alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation with water extracts from Radix Ophiopogon and oligosaccharides extracted from Radix Ophiopogonis (OOJ) were investigated. Characterization of the extracts indicated that OOV are proteoglycans, whereas OOJ are not. Moreover, compared with OOJ, monosaccharide compositions of OOV only include fructose and galactose and not glucose. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometric results showed that the molecular weight of OOV was smaller after fermentation. Changes in the characteristics of OOV would inevitably lead to changes in its hypoglycemic properties. The OOV inhibition activity against α-glucosidase was stronger than that of OOJ. The inhibition activity became stronger with higher dosages of OOV. The hypoglycemic effect of OOV on alloxan-induced diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. More important, the ability of OOV to reduce damage on islets in diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. Overall, alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation improved the hypoglycemic activity of OOJ.

  7. Effects of Adhatoda vasica leaf extract in depression co-morbid with alloxan-induced diabetes in mice

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    Deepali Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Increased neuronal oxidative stress as a consequence of diabetes may result in neuropsychological complications such as depression. Depression co-morbid with diabetes further hampers the quality life years in diabetic patients. Aim: Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Adhatoda vasica leaf extract (EAV, as a natural remedy, in alloxan-induced diabetes and co-morbid depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Experimentally, mice were rendered diabetic with a single dose of alloxan of 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.. After 3 weeks of having chronic diabetic state, mice were given EAV (100-400 mg/kg, orally/vehicle/standard control (escitalopram, ESC; 10 mg/kg, orally for 7 days. After dosing, anti-diabetic effect was detected by the fasted blood glucose levels and anti-depressant effect was evaluated by behavioural despair tests, followed by monoamine oxidase (MAO activity and oxidative stress analysis. Results and Discussion: EAV treatment effectively reduced the elevated blood glucose levels and reversed co-morbid depressive behaviour. Furthermore, EAV inhibited diabetes induced increased oxidative stress and MAO activity in the brain. Thus, EAV demonstrated the potential protective action against oxidative stress and revealed monoamine modulatory activity in the brain, which may contribute to its anti-depressant effect. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the efficacious effect of EAV in reversing the depression co-morbid with alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

  8. Protective and curative effects of Cocos nucifera inflorescence on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity in rats

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    Raveendran S Renjith

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results obtained in the study indicate the protective and curative effects of CnI on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity, which is mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities and islets cell repair.

  9. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves extract in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) methanolic leaves extract (TCLE) using blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance test and alloxan induced hyperglycemia models. Methods: TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 d. TCLE 200 and 400 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 0.6 mg/kg were given orally in all models. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited remarkable blood glucose lowering effect in blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance and alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Cholesterol and triglyceride also decreased in alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Conclusions: The results of this study exhibites that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses antihypergycemic activity and it may prove to be effective for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  10. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Sonia Kohli; Renu Arya; Jyoti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. bark in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Methods: Group-Ⅰ (normal control) mice received only basal diet without any treatment. In Group-Ⅱ (Diabetic control) mice, diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kgi.p.) and received only Tween80, 5% v/v in normal saline. Group-Ⅲ and Group-Ⅳ mice received metformin (10 mg/kg) and gliclazide (10 mg/kg) as standard drugs. Group-Ⅴ and Ⅵ mice received methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima at doses of250 and500 mg/kg body weightp.o., respectively.Results: The results of the study indicates thatAlbizia odoratissima bark extract significantly (P<0.01) reduced the blood sugar level. The bark extract also significantly reduced the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decreases level of total proteins in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Conclusions:Methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima has protective effects on the protection of vital tissues (pancreas, kidney, liver, heart and spleen), thereby reducing the causation of diabetes in experimental animals.

  11. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  12. Bio-enhancing effect of Piperine with Metformin on lowering blood glucose level in Alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Shubham Atal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21 st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL, Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg, Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg, and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg. All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28. Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14 th and 28 th day (P < 0.05. Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects.

  13. SIFAT HIPOGLISEMIK PAKAN TINGGI PROTEIN KEDELAI PADA MODEL DIABEIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Hypoglicemic Property of a High-Protein Soybean Based Feed in Model alloxan Induced Diabetic

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    C. Retnaningsih 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglicemic properties of soybean protein were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty eight mature male Sprague Dawley (SD rats (250-300g were used and divided into four groups of seven rats. They were: 1 Placebo Standars (PS; 2 Alloxan Injection Standard (AS; 3 Alloxan injection soybean protein 250% (APK 250 dan 4 Alloxen injection soybean protein 100% (APK 100. One group was injected with aquabidest (Placebo and three group were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intramuscular injection.Placebo-Standard (PS and Alloxan injection Standar (AS groups were fed standard diet whereas APK 250 100 were fed soybean protein deit for 42 days. Concentration of serum glucose was determined before incention (0day and 1, 2, 143, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after injection.The result showed that alloxan injection increased the level of serum glucose. Bioassay experiment demonstrated that diet on high conceration of soybean protein (250% decreased the level of serum glucose from 351,44 mg/dl to 230,62 mg/dl (34,37% while soy protein 100% descreased the level of serum glucose.

  14. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Amanda Alves; Araújo, Tiago Ferreira da Silva; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; da Mota, Diógenes Luís; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL) improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage. PMID:24324521

  15. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Amanda Alves da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage.

  16. EFFECT OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM ON LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH ACTIVITY OF BLOOD, LIVER AND PANCREAS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN- INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

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    Sekaran Sridhar et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous seeds extract of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn was studied on Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity of blood, liver and pancreas in normal and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. Our study showed that aqueous seeds extract, Oral administration of 50 mg/animal (0.5 ml of extract in alternative days up to 7 days (1st, 3rd, 5th & 7th day. In alloxan induced diabetic mice, there was a significant increase in LDH activity of all the three tissues. The enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase showed significant decrease in the diabetic group treated with aqueous extract of tested plant when compared with the diabetic group. It is clear from the current data in this study that ginseng aqueous extract was the most efficient of the tested plant.

  17. A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Paulo C. Paula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively. The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes.

  18. A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Paulo C; Sousa, Daniele O B; Oliveira, Jose T A; Carvalho, Ana F U; Alves, Bella G T; Pereira, Mirella L; Farias, Davi F; Viana, Martonio P; Santos, Flavia A; Morais, Talita C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2017-02-11

    Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw) reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively). The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw) did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes.

  19. Antihyperglycemic Effect on Chronic Administration of Butanol Fraction of Ethanol Extract of Moringa Stenopetala Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alemayehu Toma; Eyasu Makonnen; Asfaw Debella; Birhanu Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity on chronic administration of the butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Moringa Stenopetala leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Methods: The mice were grouped in four groups; Normal control, Diabetic control, Butanol fraction treated and standard drug treated groups. The Diabetic mice received the butanol fraction of Moringa stenopetala daily for 28 days. Results: The butanol fraction of Moringastenopetala treatment resulted in significant reduction of fasting blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides level. This fraction also showed a tendency to improve body weight gain in diabetic mice. Its oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5000mg/Kg indicating its safety in mice. Conclusions: Though the mechanism of action of Moringa stenopetala seems to be similar to that of sulfonylureas, further studies should be done to confirm its mechanism of antidiabetic action. Furthermore the active principle(s) responsible for the antidabetic effects should also be identified.

  20. Antihyperlipidemic and renoprotective activities of methanolic extract of Canscora decussata extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

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    Nadeem Irshad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic and renopro-tective effects of methanolic extract of powdered Canscora decussata whole plant in the diabetic rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups having 6 animals each including normal and diabetic controls groups, the remaining groups received methanolic extract in 400 and 600 mg/kg doses and another group got pioglitazone (3 mg/kg for 30 days. Serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, albumin, globulin and total proteins were estimated by using commercially available kits. The results showed that extract significantly (p<0.01 decreased the raised parameters including triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, Coronary risk index up to normal values compared to diabetic rabbits. However, it significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, albumin, globulin and total protein levels. Therefore, it is suggested that methanolic extract of C. decussata exerts hypolipidemic and renoprotective effects in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  1. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

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    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients' daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level.

  2. Glutamine or whey-protein supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Effects on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes Efeitos da oferta de glutamina ou de proteína do soro de leite sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos

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    Renato Motta Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of glutamine (L-Gln or whey-protein supplementation on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. Eight rats served as baseline controls (G-1. The remaining 24 animals received alloxan 150mg/Kg intraperitonially dissolved in buffer solution and were equally distributed in 3 subgroups, upon induction of diabetes mellitus, and treated as follows: (G2: saline, 2.0ml; (G3: glutamine solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml; and (G4: whey-protein (WPS solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml. All solutions were administered by daily 7:00 AM gavages during 30 days. Next, arterial blood samples (3.0 ml were collected from anesthetized rats for CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte count through flow cytometry technology. RESULTS: CD4+ and CD8+ counts decreased significantly in all groups compared with baseline values (G1. G2 rats CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly compared with G1. CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased significantly (>260% in L-Gln treated group (G3 compared with saline-treated rats (G2. There were no statistical differences in lymphocyte counts (CD4+ and CD8+ between L-Gln (G3 and saline-treated (G2 groups. There was a significant reduction in CD8+ cell count compared with CD4+ cell count in L-Gln treated rats (G3. CONCLUSION: The offer of L-Gln to experimental diabetic rats enhances the immunologic response to infection.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de glutamina ou proteína do soro de leite ( PSL sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar machos, saudáveis, foram utilizados no estudo. Oito ratos foram usados como controles basais (G1. Os 24 animais remanescentes foram equitativamente distribuídos em 3 subgrupos, após indução do diabetes mellitus por injeção intraperitonial de aloxano (150mg/Kg e tratados como se segue: (G2: salina; (G3: 2,0 ml de solução de glutamina

  3. Diosmin Modulates the NF-kB Signal Transduction Pathways and Downregulation of Various Oxidative Stress Markers in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Mundhe, Nitin; Borgohain, Manash; Chowdhury, Liakat; Kwatra, Mohit; Bolshette, Nityanand; Ahmed, Anwaruddin; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress plays an imperative role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. NF-kB is an important transcription factor in eukaryotes which regulates a diverse array of cellular process, including inflammation, immunological response, apoptosis, growth and development. Increased expression of NF-kB plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the nephroprotective nature of diosmin by assessing the various biochemical parameters, markers of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight). Seventy-two hours after the conformation of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥ 250 mg/dl), the rats were segregated into four groups, each group having six animals. Diabetic rats were treated with diosmin at a dose of 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. After the 28th day of treatment, rats were sacrificed, blood serum, plasma and kidney tissue were collected for various biochemical analysis. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured through ELISA kit. Diosmin treatment produces significant reduction in the blood glucose and plasma insulin level and increases the body weight when compared with diabetic rats. Elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly restored after 28 days of diosmin treatment. Diosmin treatment group also restores the normal architecture of the kidney tissue which was confirmed by histopathological examination. Moreover, oral administration of diosmin shows a significant normalization in the level of NF-kB, proving its pivotal role in maintaining renal function. The above ameliorative effects were more pronounced with

  4. Description of morphological changes in neurons and endothelial cells of CA1-area of hippocampus in rats with alloxan-induced hyp erglycemia under application of nootropic drugs

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    Zhylyuk V.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using neuromorphometry analysis differences in the effects of nootropic drugs on morphology and function of neurons and endothelial cells of hippocampus, content of RNA, content of apoptotic and destructive neurons were examined in white rats with chronic alloxan-induced hyperglycemia. It ha s been found that diabetes in rats is accompanied by specific morphological and functional changes and activation of apoptosis in neurons of the CA1-area in hi ppocampus, which may be related to disturbance of local blood flow due to endothelial damage. N-carbamoyl-methyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone (entrop, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine (noopept, pramiracetam, cerebrocurin and citicoline show protective effects on neurons and endothelial cells, which are much larger in force than effect s of ginkgo biloba extract, piracetam and pentoxifylline. This protective activity is characterized by reducing the number of apoptotic and dest ructive neurons in hippocampal CA1-area, increasing the density of functioning nerve and endothelial cells, activation of RNA biosynthesis in the neurocytes and endo-thelial cells

  5. Anti-diabetic Effects of Polysaccharides from Ethanol-insoluble Residue of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ting; WU Xiang-yang; MAO Guang-hua; ZHANG Min; LI Fang; ZOU Ye; ZHOU Ye; ZHENG Wei; ZHENG Da-heng; YANG Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra generated during lignans industrial production is usually treated as solid waste.However,there is active polysaccharide which could be used in it.In this work,the water-soluble polysaccharides from the ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra(ESCP) were obtained and their anti-diabetic effect was evaluated.The results indicate that ESCP could significantly reduce the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Moreover,the ESCP could significantly improve the lipid metabolism and increase the content of liver glycogen in ailoxan-induced diabetic mice.The results indicate that ESCP could be developed into a potential natural hypoglycemic agent.

  6. Prunella vulgaris L. active components and their hypoglycemic and antinociceptive effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, K; Wurglics, M; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M

    2016-12-01

    Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) (PV) is a herbaceous plant traditionally utilized in management of diabetes and it has immunomodulatory activity. In this study, acute and subchronic antidiabetic, in-vivo antioxidant and antinociceptive effects of PV were evaluated in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a mouse model. Bio-guided fractionation, isolation, RP-HPLC, and (1)H and (13)C NMR identification of the active components responsible for PV effects were determined. RP-HPLC analysis showed that PV contained rosmarinic acid (RA) 4.5%, caffeic acid (CA) 9.8% and p-coumaric acid (pCA) 11.6%. Bio-guided fractionation showed that PV most active fraction was rich in caffeic acid, hence named, caffeic acid-rich fraction (CARF). RP-HPLC, and (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments showed that CARF contained CA (93.4%) and RA (6.6%). CARF reduced blood glucose levels and improved in-vivo oxidative-stress. It also inhibited the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase) and reduced HbA1c levels more significantly (p≤0.05) than that of PV and equivalent amounts of CA or RA. For longer times, CARF had significantly (p≤0.05) increased serum-insulin, ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia more significantly (p≤0.05) than the effects of PV and equivalent amounts of CA or RA. Moreover, the tested compounds showed potential restoration of the lipid peroxide levels. Consequently, CARF and PV observed increase in serum-insulin, attenuation of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, and their antioxidant potentials might be responsible for their antidiabetogenic and antinociceptive properties. In conclusion, CARF isolated from PV could be a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate T1D and related complications.

  7. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice.

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    Bank, Sarbashri; Ghosh, Arjun; Bhattacharya, Suman; Maiti, Smarajit; Khan, Gausal A; Sinha, Asru K

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding of 0.4 ml (0.08 unit of insulin) of the resuspended proteins followed by 0.2 ml of the same protein to alloxan induced diabetic mice maximally decreased the blood glucose level from 508 ± 10 mg/dl to 130 ± 10 mg/dl in 7 h with simultaneous increase of the basal plasma concentration of insulin from 3 ± 1.1 μunits/ml to 18 ± 1.5 μunits/ml. In control experiment the absence of insulin in the identical milk suspension produced no hypoglycemic effect suggesting milk was not responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of milk-insulin complex. Coming out of insulin-casein complex from the intestinal gut to the circulation was spontaneous and facilitated diffusion transportation which was found from Gibbs free energy reaction.

  8. Bone regeneration in cranioplasty and clinical complications in rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes

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    Evanice Menezes Marçal Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the bone repair process in surgical defects created on the parietal bones of diabetic rabbits using the guided bone regeneration technique to observe the effects of alloxan in the induction of diabetes mellitus. Twenty-four adult rabbits were divided into three study groups: control (C, diabetic (D and diabetic associated to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane (D-PTFE. For diabetes induction the animals received one dose of monohydrated alloxan (90 mg/kg by intravenous administration in the auricular or femoral vein. In group D-PTFE the membrane covered both the floor and the surface of the bone defect. In groups D and C, the bone defect was filled up with blood clot. The specimens were fixed in 10% formol and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The results showed that the 90 mg/kg dose of monohydrate alloxan was sufficient to promote diabetes mellitus when administered in the auricular vein. Bone regeneration was slower in the diabetic group when compared with the control and diabetic-PTFE groups, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two experimental groups (D and D-PTFE. The oral and general clinical complications among the diabetics were weight loss, polyuria, polyphagia and severe chronic gingivitis.

  9. Comparative hypoglycemic activity of different fractions of Thymus serpyllum L. in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgeer, -; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Bashir, Sajid; Ullah, Ikram; Karim, Sabeha; Rashid, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Rashid, Haroonur

    2016-09-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the hypoglycemic activity of different solvents extracts of Thymus serpyllum in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with single intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg). Glibenclamide and acarbose were used as standard drugs. The crude powder of Thymus serpyllum (500 mg/kg b.w) significantly reduced blood glucose level in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Various extracts of Thymus serpyllum were compared for their hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rabbits. Ether and aqueous extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level with maximum effect (p<0.001) produced by aqueous extract, which was selected for further study. Aqueous extract significantly inhibited the rise in glucose level in oral glucose tolerance test. The extract showed synergistic effect with different doses of insulin; however serum insulin level of the diabetic rabbits was not significantly increased by the extract. HbA1c level was significantly (p<0.05) reduced whereas hemoglobin level was significantly increased in three months study. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpinoids, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. It is concluded that the aqueous extract might be used alone or in combination with insulin to manage diabetes and its associated complications.

  10. The study of melatonin protective activity on pancreatic β-cells under the condition of alloxan-induced diabetes during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Kasradze, M; Nozadze, P

    2010-12-01

    The aim of our research was to study the influence of melatonin on pancreatic β-cells under the condition of alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus - especially in old age, when the mentioned disease frequently takes place. 56 male white rats were used in the study. Two age groups were selected: adult period of life and late senescent period of life. This number of rats was divided into three groups: I - experimental group (10 adult and 10 old animals), II - experimental group (10 adult and 10 old animals), and III - control group (8 adult and 8 old animals). On the 1st day of experiment the animals of I and II experimental groups were injected with alloxan at a single dose of 60 mg/kg (into the tail vein) for Diabetes Mellitus induction. The animals of II experimental group were also given melatonin (0,15mg/kg) daily during the 14 days. During the experiment 2 old rats from I experimental group died. In III - control group the intact animals have been used. After stopping of the experiment (15th day), under the ether narcosis the animals were sacrificed. The tissue taken from pancreas has been processed for electron microscopy. Ultrastructural study was performed using electronograms. In each experimental case 100 β-cells have been studied.. Results of research were studied statistically using computer program SPSS v.12.The results of ultrastructural study of pancreatic β-cells have shown that in mentioned cells of animals from I experimental group ultrastructural peculiarities are markedly changed as compared with the norm, and β-cells' injury (in some cases - irreversible changes) are prominent. The mentioned changes are more prominent in old organisms, than in adult ones. In most of pancreatic β-cells of animals from II experimental group ulstrastructural peculiarities are not changed as compared with the norm: ultrastructures of β-cells of animals from II experimental group in both age groups are markedly defended against the damage, which suggests that

  11. Ameliorative effect of dietary genistein on diabetes induced hyper-inflammation and oxidative stress during early stage of wound healing in alloxan induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lee, Hea-Ji; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-09-23

    Among the diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer due to delayed wound healing is one of the most significant clinical problems. Early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis during wound healing. Thus, regulation of inflammatory response during early stage of wound healing is main target for complete cutaneous recovery. This study investigated the role of genistein supplementation in inflammation and oxidative stress, which are related to NLRP3 inflammasome, NFκB and Nrf2 activation, during cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice with diabetes with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels > 250 mg/dl were fed diets with AIN-93G rodent diet containing 0%, 0.025% (LG) or 0.1% (HG) genistein. After 2 weeks of genistein supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Genistein supplementation improved fasting glucose levels and wound closure rate. Moreover, genistein supplementation restored NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1) at the basal level and ameliorated both inflammation (TNFα, iNOS, COX2 and NFκB) and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2, HO-1, GPx, and catalase) during early stage of wound healing in diabetic mice. Taken together, genistein supplementation would be a potential therapeutic nutrient in prevention and treatment of delayed wound healing by modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress during inflammatory stage.

  12. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

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    Laizuman Nahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2 but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI. Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg. In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001, reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001 in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.

  13. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

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    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  14. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF THE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L. MERR. IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

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    M. Saiful Islam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effects of Ethyl acetate (Et Ac, Petroleum-ether (Pet ether, and Chloroform fractions from methanolic extract of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice (AIDM. The effect of these fractions (200 mg/kg body weight i.p was observed on fasting blood glucose (FBG level and active fraction was further investigated for its dose dependent activity (250 and 350 mg/kg b. w. on fasting blood glucose level and also on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT level in AIDM and found significant effects. The most significant reduction of FBG level of around 72.02% was observed for Et-Ac fraction in AIDM. A significant reduction (*p< 0.05 in serum TC and TG level of 53.00% and 57.25% respectively was also found for Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities were comparable to metformin HCl (150 mg/kg. In diabetic mice, SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly elevated that were further reduced after intraperitoneal administration of this fraction. These results indicate that Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides have favorable effects in bringing down the severity of diabetes together with hepatoprotectivity.

  15. Isolation, purification, and structural features of a polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus and its hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Liao, Zunsheng; Wu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lin, Zhanxi; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Phellinus linteus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used in Oriental countries for centuries for its antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and biological activity on hyperglycemia. A water-soluble crude polysaccharide was extracted using hot water from P. linteus mycelia grown under submerged culture. An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the extraction conditions of P. linteus mycelia polysaccharides (PLP). The crude polysaccharide was purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the purified P. linteus polysaccharide (PLP-I), revealing that it was mainly a branched-type glycan with both α- and β-linkages and a pyranoid sugar ring conformation. PLP orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight/d could significantly reduce the blood glucose level by 35.60% in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that PLP had an effect on glucose disposal after 28 d of treatment. The result revealed that PLP from a submerged culture of P. linteus mycelia possessed potent hypoglycemic properties. The polysaccharide may be useful as a functional food additive and a hypoglycemic agent.

  16. Níveis glicêmicos e de colesterol em ratos com Diabetes Mellitus aloxano induzido, tratados com infusão de Bauhinia candicans ou Syzygium Jambolanum Glucose and cholesterol plasma levels in rats with alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus treated with infusion of Bauhinia candicans or Syzygium Jambolanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Mendes Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência de infusão de duas plantas usadas na medicina popular, Syzygium jambolanum (Sj e Bauhinia candicans (Bc. Sessenta (60 ratos adultos, machos, da linhagem Wistar, pesando entre 220 e 240g, foram submetidos à indução de Diabetes mellitus insulino dependente (DMID com Aloxano. O estudo foi dividido em dois experimentos. No primeiro, 15 ratos receberam a administração de Aloxano na dosagem de 40mg/kg em dose única e no segundo, 60mg/kg uma vez ao dia, durante três dias, ambos por via intraperitonial. A hiperglicemia foi confirmada no terceiro dia de cada experimento. Após esta confirmação, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de cinco e quinze animais para o primeiro e segundo experimento, respectivamente. O grupo 1 (C serviu como controle, o grupo 2 (TI recebeu infusão de Sj "ad libitum" como fonte líquida e o grupo 3 (TII recebeu infusão de Bc, por um período de 21 e 40 dias, para o primeiro e segundo experimento, respectivamente. A colheita de sangue foi realizada por punção do plexo venoso retro-orbitário com os animais anestesiados, nos dias 3, 9, 16 e 23 do primeiro experimento e nos dias 3, 16, 24 e 40 do segundo. Após vinte e um dias da fase de tratamento, o grupo TI do primeiro experimento apresentou marcante redução de hiperglicemia (P The present study verified the efficiency of two plants used in folk medicine for the reduction of hyperglycemia in diabetic people. Sixty adult male wistar rats, with body weights ranging from 220 to 240g were treated with Alloxan to induce insulin-dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Two experiments were performed. In the first, 15 rats were treated with a single dose of alloxan (40mg/kg, i.p.; while in the second experiment animals received 60mg/kg, daily for three days. Three days after the last injection, hyperglycemia was confirmed. Positive animals were allocated into 3 groups of 5 and 15 rats for experiments I and II

  17. Blockade of the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates by EGCG3"Me in the alloxan-induced diabetic kidney.

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    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs has been linked to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that carbonyl stress induces the formation of amino-carbonyl cross-links and sharply increases the content of β-sheet-rich structures, which is the seed of insoluble aggregates formation, and tea catechin (--epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG can reverse this process in vitro and in vivo. In this study, methylated derivative (--epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl-gallate (EGCG3"Me was hypothesized to neutralize carbonyl stress mediating the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein (IUP aggregates, and reduce the early development of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneally injecting alloxan monohydrate (200 mg/kg/d twice and administering EGCG3"Me by gavage for 15 d. Reagent case and western blot results showed that, in diabetic kidneys, the carbonyl proteins in the serum increased; and in insoluble protein fraction, 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins, IUP aggregates and p62 accumulated; FT-IR study demonstrated that the lipid content, anti-parallel β-sheet structure and aggregates increased. EGCG3"Me treatment could effectively reverse this process, even better than the negative control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: EGCG3"Me exhibiting anti-β-sheet-rich IUP aggregate properties, maybe represents a new strategy to impede the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetic complications.

  18. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

  19. Can garlic oil ameliorate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in a rat liver model? A correlated histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdultawab, Hanem Saad; Ayuob, Nasra N

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the structural changes in liver of an alloxan-induced diabetic rat and to explain such changes in terms of the biochemical changes in free radicals and antioxidants. In addition, it aimed to determine the potential ability of garlic oil to alter these changes. The study groups were: control (n=12), alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n=10) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with garlic oil (10 mg/kg body weight (n=10)). Markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Small pieces of the liver were processed for transmission electron microscopic study. Garlic oil caused a significant decrease in levels of LPO in plasma (0.26 vs 0.53), erythrocyte lysate (14.4 vs 24.8) and liver tissue homogenate (1.04 vs 2.08), whereas those of thiols were significantly elevated (1.2 vs 0.46), (24 vs 15) in plasma and erythrocyte lysate respectively. SOD activity and G-S-T activity were significantly elevated in erythrocyte lysate (5.7 vs 3.3) (377 vs 179) and liver homogenate (1.4 vs 0.5) (752 vs 623) respectively after garlic oil administration. Ultrastructural study of the liver confirmed the ability of garlic to retard lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes induced by oxidative stress associated with diabetes. Therefore, garlic could normalise oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju N Patil; Ravindra Y Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark,Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinispora cordifolia stem, Ocimum sanctum areal parts and Jatropha curcus leaves. Methods: The chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark, Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinospora cordifolia stem, aerial part of Ocimum sanctum and Jatropha curcus leaves were evaluated at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.) for antidiabetic potentials in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extracts were administered for two weeks in different groups whereas tolbutamide (80 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference standard throughout study. Results: The result of present study showed test compounds significantly decreases elevated level of serum glucose and also caused to reverse the cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL values when compared to untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Our finding indicates that different test extracts were able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic rats towards normal level.

  1. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  2. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. ), the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control ...

  3. Effect of Pteris multifida Poir. on blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes%凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚雯; 杨坤; 张梦如; 王尨珂; 徐海龙; 张咏梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Pteris multifida Poir. on blood glucose in mice with alloxan -induced diabetes mellitus. Methods The diabetic mice models were induced by alloxan and were randomized into normal saline group ( n = 10 ), Pteris multifida Poir. in high dose group ( n = 10 ) and low dose group ( n= 10 ), with normal mice as normal control group (n = 10 ). Normal control group and normal saline group were allowed free access to normal saline, while Pteris multifida Poir. at a high dose of 0.02 g/ml and a low dose of 0. 01 g/ml was adminisiered for 8 consecutive days and fasting blood glucose levels were determined in each mouse before and after the treatment. Results The blood glucose levels of the diabetic model mice in normal saline group decreased (P <0. 01 ) , while the decrease in blood glucose levels in the diabetic model mice in the group of Pteris multifida Poir. al high dose and low dose was more significant ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Pteris multifida Poir. has significant effect in reducing blood glucose level in mice with alloxan -induced diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠的降血糖作用.方法 以正常小鼠作为正常对照组(n=10),将四氧嘧啶诱导成功的糖尿病模型小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(n=10)、凤尾草大剂量组(n=10)、凤尾草小剂量组(n=10).正常对照组及生理盐水组均给予生理盐水自饮,凤尾草大、小剂量组分别给予凤尾草汤剂自饮,大剂量组凤尾草汤剂浓度为20 g/L,小剂量组凤尾草汤剂浓度为10 g/L,连续给药8天,测定给药前后小鼠空腹血糖值.结果 3组糖尿病模型小鼠血糖值均下降(P<0.01),但凤尾草大、小剂量组用药后糖尿病模型小鼠血糖值下降更明显(P<0.01).结论 凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠有显著的降糖作用.

  4. Estudio histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de páncreas en perros diabéticos inducidos con aloxano Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cubillos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en perros diabéticos tipo I inducidos con Aloxano®, con el propósito de evaluar las lesiones microscópicas presentes en páncreas y relacionarlas con la presencia o ausencia de insulina en los islotes de Langerhans a distintos tiempos posinducción. Se utilizaron 20 caninos mestizos, machos enteros de 4 a 7 años de edad, los cuales fueron divididos en 2 grupos: Control (n = 5 y Experimental (n = 15. Este último fue subdividido en grupos de 3 animales cada uno y sometido a la inducción de Diabetes mellitus mediante la administración e. v. de Aloxano® en dosis única de 75 mg/kg. Los animales fueron sacrificados a distintos tiempos posinducción (p.i.: 2h, 24hy 7d, 14d, 21d, tomándose muestras de páncreas para examen histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico para determinar insulina y Ki-67. Para cada subgrupo experimental se consideró un perro Control. El estado diabético del Grupo Experimental se comprobó mediante la evaluación de glucosa y fructosamina en plasma. La diabetes fue confirmada por la instauración de hiperglicemia sostenida e hiperfructosaminemia a partir de los 7 días p.i. Los resultados histopatológicos mostraron una disminución significativa (P The aim of this study was to evaluate pancreatic microscopic lesions with the presence or absence of insulin in Langerhans islets at different times post-induction (p.i. in alloxan-induced diabetic type I dogs. A group of 20 mixed breed, male adult dogs were used, subdivided in 2 groups: Control (n = 5 and Experimental (n = 15. The Experimental Group was subdivided into groups of 3 animals each which were alloxan-induced intravenously (75 mg/kg. Dogs were sacrificed at different times p.i. (2 hours, 24 hours, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days. Pancreatic samples were taken for histopathologic and immunohistochemical study against insulin and Ki-67. The Control Group considered 5 healthy dogs, one for each Experimental Group. Plasmatic evaluation

  5. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa

  6. Mallotus roxburghianus modulates antioxidant responses in pancreas of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V K; Chenkual, L; Gurusubramanian, G

    2016-03-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus has long been used by Mizo tribal people for the treatment of diabetes. Scientific validation at known doses may provide information about its safety and efficacy. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus (MRME 100 and 400mg/kg) was tested in comparison with normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 28 days p.o. in terms of body and pancreatic weight, blood glucose level, antioxidant enzymes, expression of visfatin and PCNA, histopathology and histomorphometric measurements of pancreas. The results were evaluated statistically using ANOVA, correlation and regression and Principal component analysis (PCO). MRME (100 and 400mg/kg) treatment significantly (proxburghianus from the alloxan induced diabetic rats. MRME has significant role in protecting animals from alloxan-induced diabetic oxidative stress in pancreas and exhibited promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities along with significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidative damage. Pancreatic architecture and physiology under diabetic oxidative stress have been significantly modulated by MRME and validated as a drug candidate for antidiabetic treatment. M. roxburghianus treatment restores the antioxidant enzyme system and rejuvenates the islets mass in alloxanized rat by accelerating visfatin and PCNA expression in pancreatic tissue.

  7. ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF SIMVASTATIN ALONE (THERAPEUTIC DOSE AND COMBINATION OF SIMVASTATIN AND GLIPIZIDE (SUB THERAPEUTIC DOSES ON ALLOXAN INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIA IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Harish Kumar*, N.R. Sindhu, Rajashri S. Patil and Umakant Patil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate anti-hyperglycemic activity of simvastatin alone and the combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide. Hyperglycemia was induced experimentally in albino rats by subcutaneous injection of alloxan in a dose of 175 mg/kg body weight. After 72 hours of alloxan treatment, rats showing hyperglycemia (blood glucose level of 400 mg/dl and above were included in the study. They were divided into four groups of 6 animals each (n=24. Oral administration of normal saline 0.5 ml, glipizide 2.5 mg/kg body weight, simvastatin 10 mg/kg body weight and sub therapeutic doses of both test (simvastatin 5 mg/kg body weight and standard (glipizide 1.25 mg/kg body weight drugs, was done respectively into each of the four groups for 30 consecutive days in order to assess the effect in terms of reduction in blood glucose level. Blood glucose was estimated on 0th, 10th, 20th, and 30th days of study in fixed time intervals. In the test group, there was a gradual fall in the blood glucose level which reached up to 308.3 mg/dl by 30th day of study (P < 0.001. In case of combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide, the fall in blood glucose level was gradual and sustained and it reached up to 201.5 mg/dl by the 30th day (P < 0.001. These observations are comparable with the results obtained in case of glipizide treated rats, the standard group. Simvastatin appreciably lowered the blood glucose level, but the combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide, by virtue of their possible synergistic effect produced further reduction in the blood glucose level. This study provides evidence in support of a potential anti-hyperglycemic effect of simvastatin and its combination with glipizide. Thus the combined treatment of simvastatin and glipzide may have added benefit for the diabetic patients associated with hyperlipidemia.

  8. Peripheral 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Restrepo; María Luisa Martín; Luis San Román; Asunción Morán

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at l...

  9. The Effect of Zofenopril on Pancreas, Kidney and Liver of Diabetic Rats

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    Ayşe ÇARLIOĞLU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is responsible for some important complications of diabetes mellitus. Zofenopril, which has an antioxidant effect, may decrease the oxidative stress of the diabetic microenvironment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zofenopril in the liver, pancreas and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=6, rats treated with zonenopril (50 mg/kg/day, orally four weeks; n=6, rats exposed to alloxane (120 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneal injection, n=6, rats administered alloxan+zofenopril (n=6 and rats administered insulin plus alloxan. RESULTS: After one month, we observed histological improvement in the kidneys but not in the pancreas and liver. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, zofenopril may be effective on the renal complications of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Evaluation of Aloevera Gel for its Anti Inflammatory activity in Diabetes Mellitus using Animal Model System

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    M.Vanitha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory potential of Aloe vera in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rats with alloxan. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n=6. Group I: Normal, Group II: Alloxan induced diabetic rats, Group III: Diabetic rats supplemented with AV gel extract for 21 days, Group IV: diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. All the drugs were administered orally (using an intra gastric tube in a single dose in the morning for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the overnight fasted rats. Oral administration of Aloe barbadensis gel significantly decreased the level of homocysteine and the level of folic acid was significantly elevated when compared to diabetic control. The results suggest potent anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe barbadensis gel in experimental diabetes, and thus Aloe vera can be used as an alternative remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

  11. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  12. Antihyperglycemic activity of various fractions of Cassia auriculata linn. in alloxan diabetic rats

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    Surana S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p< 0.001 in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids.

  13. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa Oleifera Linn on Alloxan Induced Hyperglycemia

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    Ruchi Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds with respect to its route of administration. The rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I-Rats received only rat chow and water. Group II- Rats received alloxan and were treated with 500mg/kg body weight after 2hours. Group III- Rats receiving alloxan after 2 hours were treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially. Group IV- Rats receiving alloxan after 24 hours began receiving aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially for 1 week. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level after 12 hours and also after 7 days of both orally and intraperitonially with M. oleifera seed extract. This proves that M. oleifera seed extract have a hypoglycemic effect on both the mild and severe alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats.

  14. Syringic acid, a novel natural phenolic acid, normalizes hyperglycemia with special reference to glycoprotein components in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayachandran Muthukumaran; Subramani Srinivasan; Vinayagam Ramachandran; Udaiyar Muruganathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of syringic acid, a natural phenolic compound on the levels of glycoprotein components in plasma and tissues of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in maleWistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan(150 mg/kg b.w).Syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) was administered orally for30 d.The effects of syringic acid on plasma glucose, insulin,C-peptide, plasma and tissue glycoproteins were studied.Results:Oral administration of syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) for30 d positively modulates the glycemic status in alloxan induced diabetic rats.The levels of plasma glucose were decreased with significant increase of plasma insulin andC-peptide level.The altered levels of plasma and tissue glycoprotein components were restored to near normal.No significant changes were noticed in normal rats treated with syringic acid.Conclusions:The present findings suggest that syringic acid can potentially ameliorate glycoprotein components abnormalities in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of syringic acid as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Study to assess the role of bromocriptine in treatment of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Kumar Pathak; Subodh Kumar; Manish Kumar; Harihar Dikshit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromocriptine is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and a sympatholytic agent used very frequently in treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinsonism and acromegaly. Its quick release formulation has been approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise. This study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of quick release bromocriptine in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: 24 albino rats were taken and divided into four groups of six rats in ea...

  16. Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and ethanol on pregnancy outcome in mice Efeito do diabetes mellitus induzido por aloxana e etanol na gestação de camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of ethanol, diabetes mellitus and the combination of both on mouse fetuses. METHODS: We used 24 female Swiss mice, dividing them into four groups of 6 each: control (C, ethanol (E, diabetes (D (blood glucose > 200 mg/dL and diabetes + ethanol (DE. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (40 mg/kg on day 7 of pregnancy. Groups E and DE received 4 g/kg of 25% v/v ethanol intraperitoneally, whereas groups C and D received saline. On day 18, all fetuses were harvested. RESULTS: In group DE the following anomalies were found: exencephaly, situs inversus totalis, situs inversus partialis, eyelid skin tag and one animal from group E had pulmonary artery hypoplasia. Ethanol administration partially reverted diabetes-fetal resorption caused by diabetes, yet it induced late fetal death. Both diabetes and ethanol reduced placental diameter and increased its weight. Ethanol had more effect on fetal length in males than in females, however, such bias was not found for diabetes. Ethanol prevented diabetes-induced tail shortening in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, although ethanol might improve energy metabolism in early gestation, it causes cell damage that leads to cardiovascular, limb and neural tube defects, late fetal death and reduced placental size.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito do etanol, do diabetes mellitus (DM e da associação de ambos sobre os fetos de camundongo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas de camundongos Swiss divididas em quatro grupos de seis animais cada: controle (C; etanol (E; diabetes (D (glicemia > 200 mg/dl, e diabetes + etanol (DE. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana (40 mg/kg no dia 7 da gestação. Os animais dos grupos E e DE receberam 4 g/kg de solução a 25% v/v de etanol intraperitoneal (IP, enquanto os animais dos grupos C e D receberam salina. No dia 18, todos os fetos foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas as seguintes

  17. [Study of acetylsalicylic acid role in the potentiation of antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties of piracetam in rats with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A E; Mamchur, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that prolonged alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats potentiates amnesic properties of scopolamine hydrobromide. It was characterized by shortening of the latent period by 44% (ppiracetam with acetylsalicylic acid was accompanied by an expressed antiamnetic potential - the reduction of early markers of proteins degradation (aldehydephenylhydrazones, APH) by 21,7% (ppiracetam according to the effect upon KPH. NO2-/NO3- level was also decreased by 30,3% (ppiracetam may be assumed to be directly related to the ability of acetylsalicylic acid to improve microcirculation in the ischemic areas of the brain in diabetes and probably to its neuroprotective potential.

  18. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  19. Hypoglycemic effect of oral PA extracted from momordica Charantia Seeds on alloxan-induced diabetic mice%苦瓜降糖多肽PA对四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠的口服降血糖作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红雨; 付中平; 周吉燕; 王富军一; 胡之璧

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of oral PA and its possible mechanisms. Methods: PA, co-administration with protein-ase inhibitors (PI) also from Momordica charantia seeds, was orally administrated into alloxan-induced diabetic mice( 100mg/kg, PI 50mg/ kg). Blood glucose level, insulin level, hexokinase activity in skeletal muscle and α-glucosidase activity of intestinal mucosa were measured. The pancreas was fixed with 10% formaldehyde for histopathological examination. Results: Daily treatment with PA (co-administration with PI) for 3 weeks led to fall in blood glucose level at 14 days and at 21 days, respectively. In addition, PA also raised serum insulin concentrations. The increased a-glucosidase activity of intestinal mucosa and decreased hexokinase activity in skeletal muscle were also restored partly. Oral PA may facilitate the recovery of partially damaged islet cells in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Conclusion: The late hypoglycemic effect of oral PA, is probably due to its insulin secretagogue effect, reparative action on damaged islet cells and restoration of glucose metabolism balance.%目的:研究添加蛋白水解酶抑制剂PI的苦瓜降糖多肽PA口服降血糖作用及其可能的作用机制.方法:小鼠尾静脉注射四氧嘧啶溶液80mg/kg造糖尿病小鼠模型,分别进行PA皮下注射降血糖实验和PA口服降血糖实验;21日实验结束时取材测定血糖、血清胰岛素水平、小肠粘膜α-葡萄糖苷酶活性、骨骼肌己糖激酶(HK)活性,固定胰腺进行病理观察.结果:皮下注射PA显著降低小鼠血糖值.口服PA组小鼠血糖值明显减低;血清胰岛素水平明显升高;小肠粘膜催化麦芽糖生成的葡萄糖量大幅降低;骨骼肌己糖激酶活性明显增强;四氧嘧啶对小鼠胰岛的选择性损伤得到缓解.结论:初步证明了添加酶抑制剂PI的苦瓜降糖多肽PA口服降血糖作用;其作用机制可能是抑制小肠粘膜α-葡萄糖苷酶活

  20. In vitro callus and in vivo leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre stimulate β-cells regeneration and anti-diabetic activity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V

    2010-11-01

    A methanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf and callus showed anti-diabetic activities through regenerating β-cells. Optimum callus was developed under stress conditions of blue light with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/l) and KN (0.5 mg/l), which induced maximum biomass of green compact callus at 45 days, as determined by growth curve analysis. Leaf and optimum callus extracts contains gymnemic acid, which was analyzed using TLC, HPTLC and HPLC methods. The research reported here deals with leaf and callus extracts of G. sylvestre, which significantly increase the weight of the whole body, liver, pancreas and liver glycogen content in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Wistar rats). The gymnemic acid of leaf and callus extracts significantly increases the regeneration of β-cells in treated rats, when compared with the standard diabetic rats. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

  1. Study on Hypoglycemic Effect of Synsepalum dulcificum and Its Mixtures in Alloxan-induced Diabet- ic Mice%神秘果及其复合物对四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠降血糖作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚军; 袁志章; 张雪辉; 杨焱; 殷建忠

    2012-01-01

    通过给小鼠腹腔注射四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型,分别灌胃给予0.2mL/(10g·d)神秘果与神秘果、明月草复合物,连续给药26d,观察其对小鼠体重、空腹血糖等的影响,试验结果:对照组与各剂量组小鼠体重均显著增加,组间小鼠体重无显著差异;与模型对照组相比较,神秘果与神秘果、明月草复合物的低、中、高剂量组均显著降低四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠的血糖值,神秘果低、高剂量组降血糖效果接近于降糖药二甲双胍;神秘果与神秘果、明月草复合物降血糖效果与剂量间无剂量效应关系。%Animal model of diabetes was established by injecting alloxan into mice abdominalcavity, Synsepalum dulcifieum and Synsepalum dulcih'cum-Angelica keiskei mixture were lavaged into stomachs by 0.2 mL/(10g.d) with 26 days standing.The ef- fect on body weight and blood glucose was then observed in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results indicated that body weight of mice of control groups and dose groups significantly increased and there were no significant differences in body weight of all groups mice after lavaging stomachs. Comparing the model group, the groups in low, medium and high doses of Synsepalum dulci- fieum and its mixtures could significanly decrease blood glucose level. Hypoglycemic effects of Synsepalum dulcificum low and high dose groups showed the better and closed to metformin, but Synsepalum dulcificum and Synsepalum dulcificum-Angeli- ca keiskei mixture had no dose-response relationship on hypoglycemic effects.

  2. Effect of Xiaoke Granule(消渴冲剂)on Blood Sugar and Blood Rheological Property in Experimental Diabetic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓梅; 刘根尚; 齐昉; 郑虎占; 佘靖; 龚慕辛; 孙军; 章红英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the pharmacological effect of Xiaoke Granule (XKG, 消渴冲剂) on blood sugar and blood rheological property in the diabetic animals.Methods: Alloxan induced diabetic mice or rats were grouped randomly. The effects of XKG on blood sugar, appetite, capacity of drinking, glucose tolerance, blood lipid and blood rheological property were observed and compared among groups.Results:XKG showed a trend in reducing the appetite and capacity of drinking, increasing the body weight, and significantly inhibiting the increase of blood sugar coused by ectogenic glucose in mice, and could improve the blood lipid and blood rheological property in rats.Conclusion:XKG is effective in reducing serum total cholesterol, lowering the blood viscosity, improving the blood rheological property of alloxan induced diabetic animals. Therefore, it might effective in treating and preventing the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and the complications of blood stasis.

  3. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  4. PENGARUH FRAKSI NONPROTEIN KACANG KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN MALONALDEHIDA TIKUS DIABETES [Effect of Nonprotein Fraction of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Diet on Glucose and Malonaldehyde Serum of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Rohmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic response to Lablab nonprotein fraction (NPK was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of Lablab nonprotein fraction diet on the blood glucose concentration and the lipid peroxide level of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Two months old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, each group contained of 5 rats. Three groups were diabetic rats induced by alloxan injection (110 mg/kg of body weight by intra-pheritonial injection while one group was a control,normal rat. The experiment groups were (1 normal (group I, (2 diabetic (group II, (3 diabetic+cholesteol 0.5% (control group, group III, and (4 diabetic+cholesterol 0.5% + lablab NPK (group IV. The concentration of rat’s blood glucose were periodically measured during diet intervenion (day 0,14,27, and 42. The Lipid peroxide was evaluated as the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA both in serum and liver of the rats by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactivity Test methode. The result demonstrated that after 42 days of intervention, the Lablab nonprotein diet decreased the blood glucose concentrations from 444.00 + 143.00 mg/dl to 310.50 +111.40 mg/dl (30%, while control group has decreased the blood glucose concentration from 458.00 +164.99 mg/dl to 455.33 + 81.95 mg/dl (0.6%. Lablab nonprotein diet significantly (P<0.05 reduced the concentration of blood glucose as compared to the control group. However, Lablab nonprotein fraction diet did not give a significant diferrence on the level of serum MDA and liver MDA as compared to the control group.

  5. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of polysaccharide from wild plant Lycopus lucidus Turcz.on alloxan-induced diabetic mice%野生地参多糖对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 陈贵元; 谭德勇; 左绍远

    2011-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharides from wild plant Lycopus lucidus Turcz. On hypoglycemia and hypo-lipidemia in alloxan-induced mice was investigated. The diabetic model mice were established by intra-ab-dominal injection of alloxan. Then, the living diabetic mice were divided into six groups. Three groups were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/(kg·d) polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz., respectively by ig administration, and one group given phenfomide 100 mg/ ( kg · d) by ig adminstration as the positive control ,and another group was given normal saline as the diabetic model control. The normal control group was tested on the normal mice by ig saline. After 14 days of treatment, the blood glucose and the serum lipid content of each group were detected. The results indicated that polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz. Has no hyperglycemia effect on normal mice. Compared with the diabetic model control group, 100,200 and 400 mg/(kg·d) polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz could decrease the blood glucose in diabetic mice(P 0. 05). Polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz. Had significant effects on hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action in diabetic mice induced by alloxan.%为了研究野生地参多糖对四氧嘧啶(ALX)致糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂的影响,利用四氧嘧啶(ALX)建立糖尿病小鼠模型,分别灌胃低( 100 mg/( kg·d))、中(200 mg/( kg·d))、高(400mg/(kg·d))剂量地参多糖溶液及阳性对照药盐酸笨乙双胍,正常对照组及糖尿病模型对照组则给等体积生理盐水.结果表明:连续给药14 d后,地参多糖对正常小鼠血糖无明显影响,100、200和400 mg/(kg·d)地参多糖均能明显降低ALX所致糖尿病小鼠高血糖,与糖尿病模型对照组相比,P<0.01;同时,相同剂量的地参多糖还能极显著降低ALX致糖尿病小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C) (P <0.01).中、高剂量地参多糖使糖尿病小鼠血清高密度脂蛋白

  6. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  7. Peperomia pellucida in diets modulates hyperglyceamia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabiat U Hamzah; Adebimpe A Odetola; Ochuko L Erukainure; Ademola A Oyagbemi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Peperomia pellucida (P. pellucida) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Beside mouse chow, two diets were designed to contain 10%w/w and 20%w/w P. pellucida as supplements respectively. Diabetes was induced in groups of five male albino rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Two groups of diabetic rats and normo rats were each fed one of these diets respectively, while two other groups served as positive and negative controls respectively. A seventh group was fed pelletized mouse chow. Results: Diabetic rats on diets supplemented with 10%w/w and 20%w/w of P. pellucida for 28 d resulted in reduction of blood glucose level. The level of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the supplementation diets compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also treatment with glibenclamide and P. pellucida (10% and 20%w/w) led to increased activities of SOD, CAT and GSH respectively. There was significant (P<0.05) reduction in the level of HDL-cholesterol, Catalase, SOD activities and GSH concentration in diabetic untreated rats. The supplemented diets significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation, which was elevated in untreated diabetic rats. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP was also observed in rats fed P. pellucida supplemented diets. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that P. pellucida has an antidiabetic and antioxidant properties in experimental diabetes mellitus and thus justifies the acclaimed traditional antidiabetic use.

  8. The effects of Ananas comosus L. leaves on diabetic-dyslipidemic rats induced by alloxan and a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Xing, Dongming; Sun, Hong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Du, Lijun

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effects of Ananas comosus L. leaves on diabetic-dyslipidemic rats. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of the ethanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves (EEACL) were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats by oral glucose tolerance test and an olive oil load test. Anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative activities of EEACL were also investigated in diabetic-dyslipidemic rats induced by alloxan and a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. EEACL at the dose of 0.40 g/kg significantly inhibited the increase in blood glucose in diabetic rats in oral glucose tolerance test, but did not cause any hypoglycerimic activity in normal rats. It also significantly inhibited the increase in postprandial triglycerides (TG) levels in both normal and diabetic rats in olive oil load test. After 15 days of treatment of diabetic dyslipidemic rats, EEACL significantly decreased blood glucose (-51.0%, P < 0.01), TG (-50.1%, P < 0.01), TC (-23.3%, P < 0.01), LDL-c (-47.9%, P < 0.01) and glycated albumin (-25.4%, P < 0.01) levels, significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (66.2%, P < 0.01) and prevented lower body weight of diabetes (11.8%, P < 0.05), significantly lowered lipid peroxidation productions of blood (-27.8%, P < 0.01), brain (-31.6%, P < 0.05), liver (-44.5%, P < 0.01) and kidneys (-72.2%, P < 0.05) compared with those in untreated diabetic dyslipidemic rats. These data suggest that EEACL has anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-oxidative activities, which may be developed into a new plant medicine for treatment of diabetes and its complications.

  9. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  10. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anju Preet; Bihari L Gupta; Gupta Pramod K Yadava; Najma Z Baquer

    2005-03-01

    Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml), T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) and Trigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could

  11. Inhibitory effects of 1alpha, 25dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Ajuga iva extract on oxidative stress, toxicity and hypo-fertility in diabetic rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, K; Carreau, S; Jamoussi, K; Ayadi, F; Garmazi, F; Mezgenni, N; Elfeki, A

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the therapeutic and preventive effects of 1alpha, 25dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25 (OH)2 D3) and Afuga iva (AI) extract on diabetes toxicity in rats testes. Thus diabetic rats were treated with 1alpha, 25dihydroxyvitaminD3 or Ajuga iva extract as both therapeutic and preventive treatments on diabetes toxicity in rats testes. Our results showed that diabetes induced a decrease in testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels in testes and plasma. Besides, a fall in testicular antioxidant capacity appeared by a decrease in both antioxidant (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities) and nonenzymatic antioxidant (copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) levels). All theses changes enhanced testicular toxicity (increase in testicular aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the lipid peroxidation and triglyceride (TG) levels). In addition, a decrease in testicular total cholesterol (TCh) level was observed in diabetic rats testes. All the changes lead to a decrease in the total number and mobility of epididymal spermatozoa. The administration of 1alpha,25dihydroxyvitaminD3 and Ajuga iva extract three weeks before and after diabetes induction interfered and prevented diabetes toxicity in the reproductive system. 1,25 (OH)2 D3 and Ajuga iva extract blunted all changes observed in diabetic rats. To sum up, the data suggested that 1,25 (OH)2 D3 and Ajuga iva extract have a protective effect on alloxan-induced damage in reproductive system by enhancing the testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, consequently protecting from oxidative stress, cellular toxicity and maintaining the number and motility of spermatozoids.

  12. Peripheral 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT, a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels.

  13. Peripheral 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Beatriz; Martín, María Luisa; San Román, Luis; Morán, Asunción

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels. PMID:21403818

  14. Nourishing Yin and Promoting Blood Circulation of TCM to Treat Hemorheologic Disorder Induced by Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Xia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, DM, is commonly accompanied with various stages of hemorheologic disturbances that are the main causes of the development of chronic DM. In this study, simple Chinese material medica [yang-yin jiang-tang preparation (YYJT] was given to alloxan-induced DM rats and analyzed to compare the changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, hemorheologic parameters and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II before and after administration. The results suggested that YYJT can significantly downregulate FBG (P < 0.005, improve insulin resistance and beta-cell secretion (P < 0.05, decrease whole blood viscosity at low and high shear rates, gathering of blood index test (GIT and fibrinogen (FIB (P < 0.05, and enlarge the function of IGF-II (P < 0.05. We concluded that YYJT could prevent and treat hemorheologic disorder in DM rats by means of reducing glucose, improving insulin resistance and elevating IGF-II.

  15. ACUTE EFFECT OF FLUCONAZOLE, ITRACONAZOLE AND VORICONAZOLE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE IN NORMOGLYCEAMIC & DIABETIC RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Amol, Nayak BB, Vakade Kiran P, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Vijay Kumar AN, Vrushali Nibrad, Raul AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fungal and antimicrobials are frequently co-prescribed either to manage or treat either the secondary complications or other diseases. Among antifungal drugs Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriconazole are most commonly used. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effect of Voriconazole as well as other antifungal drugs on blood Glucose level. Aim & Objectives: 1. To Study the effect of Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriaconazole in Normoglycemic & Diabetic Rats on Blood Glucose. 2. To compare the effects between all drugs. Material & Methodology: Grouping: Animals divided into 8 groups in each group 6 animals. Group 1- 4: Normoglycemic rats, Group 5-8 Diabetic rats (alloxan induced Group 1,5: received vehicle (Normal saline Group 2,6: received Fluconazole (18mg/kg BW, Group 3,7 received Itraconazole (18mg/kg BW Group 4,8 received Voriconazole (18mg/kg BW. The glucose levels were estimated by Glucometer method (Accu-check active at the interval of 0, ½ hr, 1hrs, 2hrs & 4hrs after drug administration. Results: Effect on blood glucose in Normoglycemic Rats: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value= 0.0102 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.0001. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in normoglycemic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole. Effect on blood glucose in Diabetic Rats: (Table 2: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value=0.013 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.001 in acute studies. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in diabetic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole treated. Conclusion: Itraconazole, Fluconazole can be safely used in diabetic with fungal infections. Voriconazole should be avoided in diabetics to

  16. Thymus involution in alloxan diabetes: analysis of mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EO Barreto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that alloxan-induced diabetes results in reduction in the number and reactivity of mast cells at different body sites. In this study, the influence of diabetes on thymic mast cells was investigated. Thymuses from diabetic rats showed marked alterations including shrinkage, thymocyte depletion, and increase in the extracellular matrix network, as compared to those profiles seen in normal animals. Nevertheless, we noted that the number and reactivity of mast cells remained unchanged. These findings indicate that although diabetes leads to critical alterations in the thymus, the local mast cell population is refractory to its effect. This suggests that thymic mast cells are under a different regulation as compared to those located in other tissues.

  17. Protective effects of sodium orthovanadate in diabetic reticulocytes and ageing red blood cells of Wistar rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bihari L Gupta; Anju Preet; Najma Z Baquer

    2004-03-01

    The reticulocytes and the ageing red blood cells (RBCs) namely young (Y), middle-aged (M) and old RBCs (O) of female Wistar rats from different groups such as control animals (C), controls treated with vanadate (C + V), alloxan-induced diabetic (D), diabetic-treated with insulin (D + I) and vanadate (D + V), were fractionated on a percoll/BSA gradient. The following enzymes were measured – hexokinase (HK), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AsAT) and arginase in the hemolysates of all the RBCs fractions. Decreases in the activity of HK and AsAT by about 70%, arginase and GSH-Px by 30% in old RBCs were observed in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Increases in the activity of GSSG-R by 86%, AlaAT by more than 400% and GST by 70% were observed in old RBCs in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Alloxan diabetic animals showed a further decrease in the activities of HK in Y RBCs by 37%, M RBCs by 39% and O RBCs by 32%, GSH-Px activity in Y RBCs by 13%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 33% and GST activity in Y RBCs by 14%, M RBCs by 42% and O RBCs by 60% in comparison to their corresponding cells of control animals. An increase in the activity of all the enzymes studied was also observed in reticulocytes of diabetic animals in comparison to reticulocytes of controls. The GSSG-R activity was found to be increased in Y RBCs by 49%, M RBCs by 67% and O RBCs by 64% as compared to the corresponding age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of arginase also decreased in Y RBCs by about10%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 30% in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. A decrease in the activity of AsAT in Y and M RBCs by 30%, and O RBCs by 25% was observed in diabetic animals in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of AlaAT was found to be decreased by more than 10% in Y and M

  18. Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ficus Glumosa on Fasting blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Z U; Moh'd, A; Tanko, Y

    2013-06-30

    Ficus glumosa, commonly known as the fig tree or "African rock fig" is a plant with immense medicinal value used for the management of diabetes for over 2000 years. The aim of the present study is to determine the hypoglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties of the ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wister rats weighing (120 - 220) grams of about 18 to 22 weeks of age were used in the study. The animals were assigned into six groups (1-6) of five rats (n=5) each. Group VI served as the positive control group receiving 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (i.p.), Groups I (negative control), II, III, IV and V were treated with alloxan and after the induction of hyperglycaemia, received in addition via i.p. for 7 days: 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa respectively while Group V received 6lU/kg of short-acting insulin. The determinations of blood glucose levels were carried out at intervals of one day for 7 days. Serum lipid profile, were done on the 7th day.Premininary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,saponin,tannins,cardiac glycosides,triterpenes,ceramides and reducing sugars.The LD50 of the extract of Ficus glumosa was found to be 2,154mg/kg.The results of the study showed that,100mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa significantly lowered blood glucose levels and 200mg/kg significantly lowered serum lipid profile compared with negative control group.In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Ficus glumosa possesses anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-lipidemic effect.

  19. Effects of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle on the histomorphology of kidney in alloxan-induced diabetic mice%青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕程; 吴小兰; 殷中琼; 景波; 李正文; 戴书俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶导致的糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响,探讨其对肾脏的保护作用。方法腹腔注射四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型,连续4周给予青刺果总黄酮灌胃治疗。2周及4周后分别处死小鼠,测血糖,称肾重和计算肾脏脏器指数。取部分肾做切片,分别在光镜和电镜下观察肾脏病理变化。结果糖尿病模型小鼠经青刺果总黄酮治疗后,在光镜和电镜下均可观察到由四氧嘧啶导致的肾脏病变的减轻。经青刺果总黄酮治疗的糖尿病小鼠其肾小球体积减小,基底膜无明显增厚;肾小管内糖原沉积减少,间质纤维减少;细胞器损伤较模型组轻微。结论青刺果总黄酮能有效的改善糖尿病小鼠肾脏的病变,控制肾脏肥大,对糖尿病肾病有一定的保护作用。%Aim To investigate the effect of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle( FPR) on the histomorphol-ogy of kidney in diabetic mice, and to investigate its protective mechanism. Methods Diabetic mice in-duced by alloxan were given FPR orally each day for four weeks. After the administration for two and four weeks, ten mice in each group were randomly sacri-ficed. The kidneys were removed and weighed. The extracted renal tissue was embedded with paraffin and sectioned, the sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin(HE)、Periodic acid Schiff(PAS) and Go-mori, and then observed under the microscopy. 1mm3 of renal cortex fixed with glutaral in four centi-degree , and then the ultrastructure of each group was observed under the electron microscope respectively after four weeks′ treatment. Results Compared with the model control group, in the treatment group, observation un-der the microscopy showed that glomerular volume and mesangial cells reduced, FPR could relieve thickening of the glomerular basement membrane ( GBM ) , little inflammatory cells infiltrated in the interstitium

  20. Type 2 diabetic rats on diet supplemented with chromium malate show improved glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Feng

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

  1. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava(L.) Bat.leaves in Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh; Mazumdar; Rashcda; Akter; Debashish; Talukder

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave(EEPGL) in Wisier rais to support its traditional uses.Methods:Oral glucose tolerance test model and alloxan induced diabetic test model were performed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of EEPGL at doses of 1.00.0.50 and 0.75 g/kg respectively.For antidiarrhoeal effects of EEPGL.castor oil-induced diarrhoea model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were also assessed at doses of750.500 and 250 mg/kg.respectively.Results:Administration of EEPGL at doses 1.00 and 0.50 g/kg significantly(P<0.05)decreased blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test model as well as 0.75 g/kg dose in alloxan induced diabetic test model in Wister rats(P<0.001).Application of EEPGL at doses of 750 and 500 mg/kg showed antidiarrhoeal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model(P<0.00 l and P<0.01,respectively),and 750 mg/kg(P<0.01),500 and 250 mg/kg(P<0.05)doses in barium sulphate milk model in aforesaid animals.Conclusions:These results exhibited the significant antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal activities of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave in Wister rats.

  2. A Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Zucker Fatty Diabetes Mellitus ZFDM Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Yokoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zucker fatty (ZF rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D. Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in these animals. During maintenance of this strain by mating fa/fa males and fa/+ heterozygous females, we further identified fa/fa male rats exhibiting diabetes. We then performed selective breeding using the fa/fa male rats that exhibited relatively high blood glucose levels at 10 weeks of age, resulting in establishment of a diabetic strain that we designated Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (ZFDM. These fa/fa male rats developed diabetes as early as 10 weeks of age, reaching 100% incidence by 21 weeks of age, while none of the fa/+ male rats developed diabetes. The phenotypic characteristics of this diabetic strain are distinct from those of normoglycemic ZF rats. ZFDM rat strain having high reproductive efficiency should serve as a more useful animal model of T2D.

  3. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1999-01-01

    was comparable. In adrenergic antagonist treated diabetic rats, it was reduced by at least 40% throughout the study period. Uninephrectomy caused a 50% reduction in the urinary excretion of EGF. This was not influenced by treatment with an adrenergic antagonist. After 3 weeks, saline-treated diabetic rats had......The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...... treated with either saline or adrenergic antagonists and compared to controls and sham-operated controls, respectively. 24-hour urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14, and 21 and renal tissue samples on day 21. The 24-hour urinary excretion of EGF from controls and saline-treated diabetic rats...

  4. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  5. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae. in diabetic rats Efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico das folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. em ratos diabeticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Schoenfelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic crude extract (ECE of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg v.o.. Rats were divided into three groups for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect: normal rats, rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and hyperglycemic normal rats. Hypolipidemia was evaluated in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. The antihyperglycemic activity was compared to treatment with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. The acute treatment with S. cumini ECE caused a significant decrease in the blood glucose in hyperglycemic normal rats (250 mg/kg, and in glucose (125 and 250 mg/kg, triglyceride (125 and 500 mg/kg and cholesterol (125 mg/kg levels of diabetic rats, but no effect was observed in the normal treated rats. Syzygium cumini leaves are a good candidate for alternative and/or complementary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus, since they showed hypoglycemic activity in addition to a hypolipidemic action in diabetic animals.Na região de Criciúma-SC, as folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, conhecida popularmente como jambolão, são utilizadas para diminuir níveis de glicose plasmática em pessoas diabéticas. Dentro deste contexto o presente trabalho teve o interesse de avaliar o efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH das folhas de S. cumini (125, 250 e 500 mg/kg. Para tal os animais foram divididos em três grupos para o efeito hipoglicêmico: ratos normais, ratos normais submetidos a curva de glicose (hiperglicêmicos e ratos diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. O efeito hipolipidêmico foi avaliado em animais diabéticos induzidos por aloxana. O efeito hipoglicêmico foi comparado com glibenclamida. O tratamento agudo com EBH de S. cumini causou uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa na glicose sanguínea em animais normais que foram submetidos à cura de glicose (250 mg/kg, e sobre

  6. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  7. Modeling diabetic sensory neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Nigel A

    2004-01-01

    The procedures to induce insulin-deficient diabetes in rats using streptozotocin are described along with a number of insulin treatment regimes that can be used to maintain these animals at different degrees of glycemia for periods of weeks to months. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats develop tactile allodynia, hyperalgesia following paw formalin injection and abnormal responses to thermal stimulation and the detailed methods used to evaluate these behavioral indices of abnormal sensory function are provided.

  8. Streptozotocin induced diabetes in lyon hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeaEMONNOT; JeanSASSARD; MingLO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats, compared to their normotensive controls (LL) exhibit an increased blood pressure (BP)associated with a marked proteinuria and a metabolic syndrom including elevated plasma lipids and insulin/glucose ratio. The aim of the present work was to determine wether a type 2 diabetes could be induced in LH rats so as to obtain a model suitable for study of the relationships between diabetes and hypertension.

  9. Antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of Ganoderma lucidum, a dietary mushroom, on alloxan- and glucocorticoid-induced diabetic Long-Evans rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker

    2015-12-01

    then further treated with PEE and ME and metformin for another 7 days and glucose levels were determined at 0 and 7th days of treatment. Results: The PEE and ME of Reishi mushroom dose-dependently reduced the plasma glucose levels in alloxan-and steroid-induced fasting diabetic rats. The maximum reduction of fasting plasma glucose levels observed by PEE (800 mg/kg and ME (800 mg/kg were 55.57% and 36.01% in alloxan-induced and 51.41% and 32.02% in steroid-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Whereas, metformin (150 mg/kg resulted in the diminution of fasting blood glucose levels by 60.02 and 51.12% in the alloxan- induced and steroid-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Both the PEE (800 mg/kg and ME (800 mg/kg significantly augmented plasma insulin levels (***P < 0.001 and **P < 0.01 and reduced HbA1c (**P < 0.01 and *P < 0.05 in alloxan-and steroid-induced diabetic rats. Besides, treatment of diabetic rats with PEE (800 mg/kg and ME (800 mg/kg controlled the 2-h post prandial elevated glucose levels in blood plasma. The same dose of the extracts also significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC (***P < 0.001 and ***P < 0.01, triglyceride (TG (***P < 0.001 and **P < 0.01 and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c (***P < 0.001 and ***P < 0.001, as well as increased the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (**P < 0.01 and **P < 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that edible mushrooms-Reishi has antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity, and hyperlipidaemic activity against both alloxan- and corticosteroid-induced diabetes rats. The bioactive chemicals responsible for those activities are most probably the polysaccharides available in the mushroom. Thus, usage of Reishi mushrooms as vegetables or as extract will be beneficial for the management of diabetes.

  10. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  11. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. 2. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. 3. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1-80 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT(1) receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) and the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. 4. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 microg kg(-1)) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 microg kg(-1)) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg(-1)), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg(-1)). 5. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5-20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) but neither the rodent 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor

  12. [Berberine inhibits cardiac fibrosis of diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Shen, Yongjie; He, Jinfeng; Liu, Guoling; Song, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore the effect of berberine on cardiac fibrosis of diabetic rats by observing the expressions of serum transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) , collagen type 1 (Col1) and collagen type 3 (Col3) in myocardial tissues of diabetic rats after berberine treatment. Methods The diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptococci (STZ). Forty-three diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic model group (n=9), berberine treated groups of different doses [50, 100, 150 mg/(kg.d), gavage administration for 12 weeks; n=9, 9, 8 respectively], and metformin group as positive control (n=8); other 8 normal rats served as a negative control group. After the last administration, fasting blood glucose, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured; rats' heart were taken to calculate the heart mass index (HMI); ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of TGF-β1 and CTGF; collagenous fibers in cardiac tissues were tested by Masson staining; collagen volume fraction (CVF) was measured by image analysis; Col1 and Col3 in cardiac tissues were determined by Western blotting. Results Compared with the normal control group, the fasting blood glucose, LVSP, LVEDP absolute value, HMI, the degree of cardiac fibrosis, the expressions of TGF-β1, CTGF, Col1 and Col3 significantly increased in the model group. All indexes mentioned above were reduced obviously in berberine treated groups of 100 and 150 mg/(kg.d). Conclusion Berberine improves cardiac fibrosis in diabetic rats through down-regulating the expressions of TGF-β1 and CTGF and reducing the synthesis and deposition of Col1 and Col3.

  13. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    and ultrafiltration coefficient of the glomerular membrane contribute about equally to the rise in glomerular filtration rate. The increases in the values of the determinants of glomerular filtration rate may be the result of renal hypertrophy. These studies suggest that this model provides a useful method......Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm...

  14. Relationship between Immunological Abnormalities in Rat Models of Diabetes Mellitus and the Amplification Circuits for Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Asao, Hironobu; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms is required in order to treat diseases. However, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications are extremely complex. Immune reactions are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, while diabetes influences immune reactions. Furthermore, both diabetes and immune reactions are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To address these issues, animal models are useful tools. So far, various animal models of diabetes have been developed in rats, which have advantages over mice models in terms of the larger volume of tissue samples and the variety of type 2 diabetes models. In this review, we introduce rat models of diabetes and summarize the immune reactions in diabetic rat models. Finally, we speculate on the relationship between immune reactions and diabetic episodes. For example, diabetes-prone Biobreeding rats, type 1 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased autoreactive cellular and inflammatory immune reactions, while Goto-Kakizaki rats, type 2 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased Th2 reactions and attenuation of phagocytic activity. Investigation of immunological abnormalities in various diabetic rat models is useful for elucidating complicated mechanisms in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Studying immunological alterations, such as predominance of Th1/17 or Th2 cells, humoral immunity, and innate immune reactions, may improve understanding the structure of amplification circuits for diabetes in future studies.

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Ying; Wang, Guo-Guang; Li, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Zhou, Ping-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  16. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  17. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced diabe

  18. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  19. Diabetes mellitus:An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Laloo D; Hemalatha S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but is a group of metabolic disorders affecting a huge number of population in the world. It is mainly characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. It is predicated that the number of diabetes person in the world could reach upto 366 million by the year 2030. Even though the cases of diabetes are increasing day by day, except insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs no other way of treatment has been successfully developed so far. Thus, the objective of the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of diabetes mellitus along with the remedies available for this metabolic disorder. The review also contains brief idea about diabetes mellitus and the experimental screening model with their relevant mechanism and significance mainly used nowadays. Alloxan and streptozotocin are mainly used for evaluating the antidiabetic activity of a particular drug. This review contain list of medicinal plants which have been tested for their antidiabetic activity in the alloxan induced diabetic rat model. From the available data in the literature, it was found that plant having antidiabetic activity is mainly due to the presence of the secondary metabolite. Thus, the information provided in this review will help the researchers for the development of an alternative methods rather than insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which will minimize the complication associated with the diabetes and related disorder.

  20. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Eric P.; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Amey Holmes; Sergey Lupachyk; Dake, Brian L.; Oltman, Christine L.; Peterson, Richard G.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco) was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers,...

  1. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kambiz (Shoista); J.W. van Neck (Han); S.G. Cosgun (Saniye G.); M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); Avazverdi, N. (Naim); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study w

  2. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Neck, J.W. van; Cosgun, S.G.; Velzen, M.H. van; Janssen, J.A.M.; Avazverdi, N.; Hovius, S.E.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to invest

  3. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  4. Carvedilol protected diabetic rat hearts via reducing oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; SHAN Jiang; PAN Xiao-hong; WANG Hui-ping; QIAN Ling-bo

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Bcl-2 gene has close connection with antioxidant stress destruction in many diseases including diabetes. Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker, also has antioxidant properties. To study the effect of carvedilol on the antioxidant status in diabetic hearts, we investigated carvedilol-administrated healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After small and large dosage carvedilol-administered for 5 weeks, hemodynamic parameters, the levels of malondialdehyde, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in the cardiac tissues were measured. The diabetic rats not only had cardiac disfunction, weaker activities of antioxidant enzymes, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2. Carvedilol treatment increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 in healthy rats as well as diabetic rats. These results indicated that earvedilol partly improves cardiac function via its antioxidant properties in diabetic rats.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of RYGB in Zucker fatty diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the therapeutic potential of RYGB, a common used bariatric surgery, on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In animal model experiments, rats were made diabetic by STZ administration, and after 12 weeks of diabetes, two groups were studied: RYGB and sham surgery control (PF). Change in oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and the plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were ...

  6. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  7. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  8. Sargassum polycystum extract attenuates oxidative stress on diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhamad Firdaus; Setyawati Soeharto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate hypoglycemic, free radical scavenging and improving antioxidant enzymes activities on diabetic-induced streptozotocin rats bySargassum polycystum (S. polycystum) extract. Methods: The seaweed extract was obtained by maceration, concentration and freeze drying, respectively. Acute toxicity was investigated on 25 rats. Forty eight of rats were used to study anti-stress oxidative of extract and divided into eight groups, where the first and fifth group were normal and diabetic control. The normal and diabetic treated groups were administered orally with extracts ofS. polycystum for 28 days. The blood glucose and body weight of rats were observed each week. The blood was obtained for determination of malondialdehide, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, respectively. Results:Extract ofS. polycystum revealed no mortality and it was grouped as relatively non-toxic substance. The normal rats revealed difference statistically to the diabetic rats. The diabetic rats treated extract showed decreasing of blood glucose level and increasing of body weight. The diabetic rats were treated with 450 mg/kg of extract showed the higher oxidative stress augmentation than other diabetic treatments. It was caused free radical scavenging and induction of antioxidant enzymes activity by brown seaweed extract. Conclusions: The extract ofS. echinocarpum reduce oxidative stress on diabetic-induced streptozotocin rats and demonstrate as candidate of antioxidant diabetic substances.

  9. Chronopharmacokinetics of puerarin in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C T Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerarin injection has been widely used for clinic treatment of diabetes recently. To assess the relationship between the administration time of puerarin and the blood concentration of puerarin as well as its pharmacokinetic parameters, the diabetic rat model was used in current study. The rats were randomly divided into morning and evening groups according to the administration time. After the puerarin injection, blood glucose was tested in order to know whether the efficiency of puerarin was influenced by its concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters. Our results show that the average concentration of puerarin in the evening group is significantly higher than that in the morning group. The numbers of t 1/2α, t 1/2β, CL and AUC (0-∞ are significantly different between the morning and evening groups. The blood glucose level in the evening group was lower than that in the morning group. The speed of its onset is higher and the blood glucose level declines much more significantly in the evening group. These findings suggest that the concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin affect its efficiency in diabetic rats. Therefore, it might be better to give puerarin in evening than in the morning for the mellitus treatment.

  10. Pioglitazone treatment restores in vivo muscle oxidative capacity in a rat model of diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, B.; Ciapaite, J.; van den Broek, N. M. A.; Houten, S. M.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on in vivo and ex vivo muscle mitochondrial function in a rat model of diabetes. Methods: Both the lean, healthy rats and the obese, diabetic rats are Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. The homozygous fa/fa ZDF rats are obese and diabetic. The he

  11. Gabapentin prevents hyperalgesia during the formalin test in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceseña, R M; Calcutt, N A

    1999-03-05

    The anticonvulsant agent gabapentin exhibits antihyperalgesic properties in animal models of neuropathic pain. Diabetic rats display increased nocifensive behavior during the formalin test of persistent chemical irritation to the paw, suggesting the presence of abnormal pain processing mechanisms. We therefore, investigated the efficacy of gabapentin on formalin-evoked behavior in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed increased (P < 0.05) flinching during the normally quiescent phase of the 5.0% formalin test. Gabapentin (50 mg/kg i.p. 30 min pre-test) suppressed flinching during phases 1 and 2 of the formalin test in both control and diabetic rats but not the increased flinching of diabetic rats during the quiescent phase. When 0.5% formalin was used, diabetic rats exhibited increased flinching during both the quiescent phase and phase 2. Gabapentin was without effect in controls but suppressed (P < 0.01) the increased flinching in diabetic rats. Gabapentin displays efficacy against abnormal sensory processing in diabetic rats and may be of benefit for treating painful diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties ofMucuna pruriensseed extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen O Majekodunmi; Ademola A Oyagbemi; Solomon Umukoro; Oluwatoyin A Odeku

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antidiabetic properties ofMucuna pruriens(M. pruriens).Methods:Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice.Results:Results showed that the administration of5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract ofM. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose> 450mg/dL) resulted in18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5mg/kg/day) resulted in59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (P<0.001). It also showed that the antidiabetic activity ofM. pruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration ofM. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes.Conclusions: The study clearly supports the traditional use ofM. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug.

  13. Increased RhoA translocation in aorta of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping TANG; Ikuyo KUSAKA; Amber R MASSEY; Shadon ROLLINS; John H ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze RhoA expression and activation in the aorta of diabetic rats. Methods: Male SD rats (n=70) were divided into 2 groups: the diabetic group and the control group. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The Rats were studied 3 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Western blotting was used to measure the expression and activation of Rho. Results: Heart rate was measured 24 h/d; it decreased by 58±13 beats/min in the diabetic rats. Isometric tension showed that the contraction of diabetic aorta was significantly reduced compared with that of control aorta when stimulated by KCl and serotonin. The relaxation of the diabetic aorta was reduced when stimulated by acetylcholine. An enhanced RhoA translocation in the aortic tissues of diabetic rats was determined by a 90% increase in membrane-bound RhoA, indicating that the activation of RhoA is markedly increased in the diabetic aorta. Conclusion: Our data suggest that upregulated RhoA could be involved in the vascular dysfunction of diabetic rats.

  14. Rice endosperm protein slows progression of fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Miki; Hosojima, Michihiro; Saito, Akihiko; Fujii, Mikio; Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period. Hepatic lipids and metabolites were measured and renal glomeruli were observed morphologically. HbA1c levels were significantly lower in rats fed REP, compared with C (Pdiabetes, fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Pathophysiological Characteristics of Diabetic Ocular Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Sasase

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT rat, a nonobese type 2 diabetes model, develops severe diabetic retinopathy as result of chronic severe hyperglycemia. Although existing diabetes animal models also develop ocular complications, severe retinal lesions frequently observed in human diabetes patients such as preretinal neovascularization or retinal detachment are not found. Distinctive features in SDT rat are hypermature cataract, tractional retinal detachment with fibrous proliferation, and massive hemorrhaging in the anterior chamber. These pathophysiological changes are caused by sustained hyperglycemic condition and subsequent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in retina, iris, and ciliary body. Although some differences in diabetic retinopathy exist between SDT rats and humans (e.g., a low incidence of neovascular formation and poor development of nonperfused area are found in this animal, SDT rat will be a useful model in studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Cerebral blood flow response to propranolol in streptozotocin diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lass, Preben; Knudsen, G M

    1990-01-01

    The influence of propranolol on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in streptozotocin diabetic rats and in control animals. Resting CBF values were 40% lower in the diabetic rats compared with controls. Intravenous injection of propranolol (2 mg kg-1) decreased CBF significantly in the control...

  17. Efeito do extrato da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em ratos normais e diabéticos Syzygium cumini bark extract effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Melazzo Mazzanti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência do extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre o sistema colinérgico de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos com aloxano. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (C, tratado com Syzygium cumini (TS, diabético (D e diabético tratado com Syzygium cumini (DS. A atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE foi analisada nas seguintes estruturas cerebrais: cerebelo, córtex, estriado e hipocampo. O extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini na dose de 1g.kg-1 foi administrado diariamente por um período de trinta dias. Foi verificado após este período que o extrato inibiu a atividade da AChE no cerebelo e córtex cerebral dos ratos do grupo DS (PThe present study verified the efficiency of the bark ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini on the cholinergic system of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty-nine female rats were divided in control (C, treated with Syzygium cumini (TS, diabetic (D and diabetic treated with Syzygium cumini (DS. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE was analyzed in the following cerebral structures: cerebellum, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini in the dose of 1g.kg-1 was administered orally daily for a period of thirty days. After this period the extract inhibited the activity of the AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of the rats in the DS group (P<0.05 as, compared to TS. In the striatum there was a significant increase in the activity of the AChE in rats of the TS group (P<0.01 when compared to the C group, and in the hippocampus there was no significant variation. These results indicate that the bark extract of "Jambolão"has an inhibitory effect on AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex and an stimulatory effect on striatum, indicating a possible alteration in the functionality of the cholinergic system in such cerebral structures.

  18. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Zainab M; Thomson, Martha; Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Peltonen-Shalaby, Riitta; Ali, Muslim

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, the hypoglycaemic potentials of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were studied in rats. An aqueous extract of raw ginger was administered daily (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for a period of 7 weeks to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood serum was analysed for blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The STZ-injected rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss, indicating their diabetic condition. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, raw ginger was significantly effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats. The ginger treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in urine protein levels. In addition, the ginger-treated diabetic rats sustained their initial weights during the treatment period. Moreover, ginger decreased both water intake and urine output in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present results indicate that raw ginger possesses hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic potential. Additionally, raw ginger is effective in reversing the diabetic proteinuria observed in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be of great value in managing the effects of diabetic complications in human subjects.

  19. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  20. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of /sup 35/S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively.

  1. Metabolic Disorders and Diabetic Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa Rat: A New Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat, established by introducing the fa allele of the Zucker fatty rat into SDT rat genome, is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a young age as compared with SDT rats. With early incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, in SDT fatty rats were seen at younger ages compared to those in the SDT rats. In this paper, we overview pathophysiological features in SDT fatty rats and also describe new insights regarding the hematology, blood pressure, renal complications, and sexual dysfunction. The SDT fatty rats showed an increase of leukocytes, especially the monocyte count, prominent hypertension associated with salt drinking, end-stage renal disease with aging, and hypogonadism. Unlike other diabetic models, the characteristic of SDT fatty rat is to present an incidence of diabetes in females, hypertension, and retinopathy. SDT fatty rat is a useful model for analysis of various metabolic disorders and the evaluation of drugs related to metabolic disease.

  2. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

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    Eric P. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy.

  3. The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat: An Animal Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes with Severe Diabetic Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiko Sasase; Takeshi Ohta; Taku Masuyama; Norihide Yokoi; Akihiro Kakehashi; Masami Shinohara

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is an inbred strain of Sprague-Dawley rat and recently is established as a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Male SDT rats show high plasma glucose levels (over 700 mg/dL) by 20 weeks. Male SDT rats show pancreatic islet histopathology, including hemorrhage in pancreatic islets and inflammatory cell infiltration with fibroblasts. Prior to the onset of diabetes, glucose intolerance with hypoinsulinemia is also observed. As a result of chronic s...

  4. [Simvastatin's effect on insulin resistance in rats with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, S; Zharmakhanova, G; Bekmukhambetov, Y; Dworacka, M; Dworacki, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to estimate the effect of Simvastatin on glycemic variability-related insulin resistance in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Fifty seven male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: I - rats with diabetes mellitus and glycemic variability treated with Simvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight, intragastral during 8 weeks); II - placebo-treated rats with DM and glycemic variability; III - placebo treated rats with DM and IV - nondiabetic control rats. DM was induced by feeding rats with high-fat diet (61%) during five weeks and low-dose of Streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Daily glucose excursions were stimulated by feeding animals twice a day. We measured fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and HOMAIR was calculated. Higher insulin resistance in diabetic rats is related to greater daily glycemic variability. In our study was installed significant increasing HOMAIR in diabetics rats with glycemic excursions comparison with the control. Our results showed that the simvastatin-treatment decreases the indices glycemic variability and HOMA in diabetic rats with glycemic excursions.

  5. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-09-10

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Duration of Diabetes on Cognitive Functions in Streptozotocin Induced Young Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with early onset Type I diabetes have been reported to show modest deficits on a wide range of neuropsychological tests. However, the contribution of duration of the disease with respect to cognitive dysfunction remains unresolved. The present study aims to determine the effects of different duration of hyperglycemia on cognitive function in young diabetic rats. Objectives: To determine the effect of 10 and 20 days duration of diabetes on cognitive functions. Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced in young rat pups, by streptozotocin injection (i.p at a dose of 50 mg /kg.BW. Diabetic state was confirmed on 30th post natal day. 10 and 20 days after inducing diabetes, the rats were tested in passive avoidance box and Morris water maze, over a period of 10 days. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly impaired cognitive functions, compared to their age matched controls. The cognitive impairment was greater in rats with 20 days of diabetic state compared to their 10 days counterparts. Conclusion: It is essential to diagnose and treat diabetes as early as possible in case of young children with Type I diabetes of early onset to prevent irreversible cognitive functions

  7. Experimental study on effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on alveolar bone metabolism and variation in bone mass in diabetic rats%丹参对糖尿病大鼠牙槽骨骨代谢及骨量变化影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗波; 王建波; 朱杨; 岳长军; 陈铭

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on alveolar bone metabolism and variation in bone mass in diabetic rats, in order to detect whether it has an inhibitory effect on alveolar bone osteoporosis caused by diabetics. Method: Intraperitoneal injection of alloxan induced diabetes in rats. After one week of observation and maintenance of stable blood sugar level, they were treated with S. miliorrhiza. The rats were sacrificed at the eighth week after fasting for 12 h and blood samples were collected for analysis of blood glucose and rate of bone metabolism. Meanwhile, their alveolar bones were collected for determining bone mineral density (BMD) and histological sections were made for histomorphology observation. Result: Diabetic rats showed varying degrees of abnormality in bone metabolism indicators and significant reduction in bone mineral density. After treatment with S. miltiorrhiza, their symptoms reduced to some extend and all indicators were improved especially bone density. Conclusion: S. mikiorrhaa has a certain inhibitory effect on alveolar bone osteoporosis in diabetic rats in early stage.%目的:探讨丹参对糖尿病大鼠牙槽骨骨代谢及骨量变化的影响,以研究其对糖尿病导致的牙槽骨骨质疏松是否有抑制作用.方法:腹腔注射四氧嘧啶促使糖尿病大鼠形成,待血糖稳定并观察1周后应用丹参进行治疗观察.8周后所有大鼠禁食12 h后将大鼠处死,即刻空腹采血进行血糖及骨代谢指标测定.同时取大鼠的下颌牙槽骨固定进行骨密度(BMD)测定,并制作硬组织切片进行组织形态学观察.结果:糖尿病大鼠骨代谢指标出现不同程度异常,骨密度显著降低,经丹参治疗后症状有所缓解,各项指标得到改善,骨密度相应增高.结论:丹参对糖尿病大鼠早期的牙槽骨骨质疏松有一定的抑制作用.

  8. Study of the Pharmacokinetic Changes of Tramadol in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Hakemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Besides the pathological states, diabetes mellitus may also alter the hepatic biotransformation of pharmaceutical agents. It is advantageous to understand the effect of diabetes on the pharmacokinetic of drugs. The objective of this study was to define the pharmacokinetic changes of tramadol and its main metabolites after in vivo intraperitoneal administration and ex vivo perfused liver study in diabetic rat model.Tramadol (10 mg/kg was administered to rats (diabetic and control groups of six intraperitoneally and blood samples were collected at different time points up to 300 min. In a parallel study, isolated liver perfusion was done (in diabetic and control rats by Krebs-Henseleit buffer (containing 500 ng/ml tramadol. Perfusate samples were collected at 10 min intervals up to 180 min. Concentration of tramadol and its metabolites were determined by HPLC.Results:Tramadol reached higher concentrations after i.p. injection in diabetics (Cmax of 1607.5 ± 335.9 ng/ml compared with control group (Cmax of 561.6 ± 111.4. M1 plasma concentrations were also higher in diabetic rats compared with control group. M2 showed also higher concentrations in diabetic rats. Comparing the concentration levels of M1 in diabetic and control perfused livers, showed that in contrast to intact animals, the metabolic ratios of M1 and M5 (M/T were significantly higher in diabetic perfused liver compared to those of control group.Conclusions:The pharmacokinetic of tramadol and its three metabolites are influenced by diabetes. As far as M1 is produced by Cyp2D6, its higher concentration in diabetic rats could be a result of induction in Cyp2D6 activity, while higher concentrations of tramadol can be explained by lower volume of distribution.

  9. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

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    N K Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glutathione, serum creatinine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels as well as final change in body weight were evaluated. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase was also determined. Experimental findings showed moderately significant anti-diabetic potential of extract in terms of reduction of fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. The extract was found statistically significant in maintaining the level of serum marker antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the effect of chloroform extract particularly 200 mg/kg was moderate as compared to that of standard drug glibenclamide.

  10. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of octreotide on diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Volkan; Çınar, Bilge Piri; Yiğittürk, Gürkan; Özlece, Hatice Köse; Avni Eroglu, Hüseyin; Tekatas, Aslan; Erbaş, Oytun; Taşkıran, Dilek

    2017-02-26

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the possible healing effects of octreotide (OCT) on motor performance, electrophysiological and histopathological findings of diabetic neuropathy in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM). To induce diabetes, rats were administered a single dose (60mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were treated either with saline (1ml/kg/day, n=7) or OCT (0.1mg/kg/day, n=7) for four weeks. Seven rats served as control group and received no treatment. At the end of the study, electromyography (EMG), gross motor function (inclined plate test), general histology and the perineural thickness of sciatic nerve were evaluated. At the end of study, weight loss was significantly lower in OCT treated rats than that of saline treated ones (pdiabetic rats with OCT significantly counteracted these alterations in EMG. Furthermore, OCT significantly improved the motor performance scores in diabetic rats (pdiabetic neuropathy, which promisingly support the use of OCT as a neuroprotective agent in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Study on testicular pathological change, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in diabetic rats%糖尿病大鼠睾丸病理变化及脂质过氧化和一氧化氮的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国荣; 徐正衸; 李剑敏; 胡芸; 毛孙忠; 方周溪

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To study testicular pathological change and its pathogenesis. METHODS:Testicular structure of alloxan induced diabetic rats was observed under light microscopy (LM)and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). Activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD),glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX),nitric oxide synthase(NOS)and content of malondialdehyde (MDA),nitric oxide(NO) were detected biochemically in testicular homogenate. RESULTS:It is manifestated as atrophy of seminiferous tubule and germinal arrest under LM and expansion of mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasmic inclusion of sertoli cell under TEM.Activity of SOD, GSH-PX decreased while activity of NOS, content of MDA, NO increased in diabetic rats compared with control one. CONCLUSION:Disturbance of spermatogenesis and damage of sertoli cell are the main morphological change of diabetic testis, lipid peroxidation and NO may be involved in it.%目的:研究糖尿病睾丸的病理变化及其发生机制。方法:用光镜及透射电镜观察四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病1个月大鼠睾丸的形态学改变,并测定睾丸组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)的活性及一氧化氮(NO)、丙二醛(MDA)含量。结果:光镜下主要表现为睾丸曲细精管萎缩及生精阻滞;透射电镜下主要见到支持细胞线粒体与内质网扩张、胞浆内内含物形成;睾丸组织的SOD、GSH-PX活性实验组低于对照组,NOS活性及NO、MDA含量实验组高于对照组。结论:糖尿病大鼠睾丸病变主要为支持细胞受损及生精障碍,其可能与脂质过氧化作用及NO所致的损伤有关。

  13. The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat: An Animal Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes with Severe Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Sasase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT rat is an inbred strain of Sprague-Dawley rat and recently is established as a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Male SDT rats show high plasma glucose levels (over 700 mg/dL by 20 weeks. Male SDT rats show pancreatic islet histopathology, including hemorrhage in pancreatic islets and inflammatory cell infiltration with fibroblasts. Prior to the onset of diabetes, glucose intolerance with hypoinsulinemia is also observed. As a result of chronic severe hyperglycemia, the SDT rats develop profound complications. In eyes, retinopathy, cataract, and neovascular glaucoma are observed. Proliferative retinopathy, especially, resulting from retinal neovascular vessels is a unique characteristic of this model. In kidney, mesangial proliferation and nodular lesion are observed. Both peripheral neuropathy such as decreased nerve conduction velocity and thermal hypoalgesia and autonomic neuropathy such as diabetic diarrhea and voiding dysfunction have been reported. Osteoporosis is another complication characterized in SDT rat. Decreased bone density and low-turnover bone lesions are observed. Taking advantage of these features, SDT rat has been used for evaluating antidiabetic drugs and drugs/gene therapy for diabetic complications. In conclusion, the SDT rat is potentially a useful T2D model for studies on pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic complications in humans.

  14. Spinal pharmacology of tactile allodynia in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Rats develop tactile allodynia to stimulation of the plantar surface of the hindpaw with von Frey filaments within days of the onset of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. This is prevented by insulin and alleviated by systemic lignocaine, but the aetiology is unknown.Using indwelling lumbar intrathecal catheters to deliver pharmacological agents, we have investigated whether tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats is dependent on mechanisms associated with spinal sensitization, by ass...

  15. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilang Yang

    Full Text Available Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8 weeks high fat diet (HFD feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds.

  16. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: the forgotten right ventricle

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    Lubberink Mark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure, right ventricular (RV dysfunction is associated with death, shock and arrhythmias. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, structural and functional alterations of the left ventricle (LV are highly prevalent, however, little is known about the impact of diabetes on RV characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether LV changes are paralleled by RV alterations in a rat model of diabetes. Methods Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and control (ZL rats underwent echocardiography and positron emission tomography (PET scanning using [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose under hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides and fatty acids were assessed from trunk blood. Another group of rats received an insulin or saline injection to study RV insulin signaling. Results ZDF rats developed hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and dyslipidaemia (all p M-value (r = 0.91, p M-value (r = 0.77, p Conclusions LV changes were paralleled by RV alterations in insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation and RV systolic function in a rat model of diabetes, which may be attributed to ventricular interdependence as well as to the uniform effect of diabetes. Since diabetic patients are prone to develop diabetic cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischaemia, it might be suggested that RV dysfunction plays a central role in cardiac abnormalities in this population.

  17. Sulforaphane Prevents Neuronal Apoptosis and Memory Impairment in Diabetic Rats

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    Gengyin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To explore the effects of sulforaphane (SFN on neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and memory impairment in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into normal control, diabetic model and SFN treatment groups (N = 10 in each group. Streptozotocin (STZ was applied to establish diabetic model. Water Morris maze task was applied to test learning and memory. Tunel assaying was used to detect apoptosis in hippocampus. The expressions of Caspase-3 and myeloid cell leukemia 1(MCL-1 were detected by western blotting. Neurotrophic factor levels and AKT/GSK3β pathway were also detected. Results: Compared with normal control, learning and memory were apparently impaired, with up-regulation of Caspase-3 and down-regulation of MCL-1 in diabetic rats. Apoptotic neurons were also found in CA1 region after diabetic modeling. By contrast, SFN treatment prevented the memory impairment, decreased the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. SFN also attenuated the abnormal expression of Caspase-3 and MCL-1 in diabetic model. Mechanically, SFN treatment reversed diabetic modeling-induced decrease of p-Akt, p-GSK3β, NGF and BDNF expressions. Conclusion: SFN could prevent the memory impairment and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in diabetic rat. The possible mechanism was related to the regulation of neurotropic factors and Akt/GSK3β pathway.

  18. Increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity of erythrocytes in STZ diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat, Uğur; Kaya, Savaş; Cim, Abdullah; Büyükbayram, Hüseyin; Gökalp, Osman; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Tamer, Mehmet Numan

    2012-01-01

    Eryptosis is a term to define apoptosis of erythrocytes. Oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, both of which exist in the diabetic intravascular environment, can trigger eryptosis of erythrocytes. In this experimental study, it is presented that the majority of erythrocytes shows caspase-3 immunoreactivity in streptozocin- (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Besides that, caspase-3 positive erythrocytes are aggregated and attached to vascular endothelium. In conclusion, these results may start a debate that eryptosis could have a role in the diabetic complications.

  19. Effects of valsartan on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhong-hua; PENG Xiao-dong

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of diabetic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial. Insulin resistance (IR) and excessive activity of the renin-angiotensin system are confirmed reasons for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors can reduce tissue Ang Ⅱ levels, with beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. Therefore, in type-2diabetes mellitus (T2DM), blockade of the RAS may have the function of protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy through increasing insulin sensitivity and inhibiting excessive activity of RAS. However, this has not been confirmed.Methods The effect of valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), on diabetic cardiomyopathy in the presence of T2DM was studied. Wistar rats with T2DM and T2DM treated with valsartan were studied. Glucose infusion rates (GIR),index of IR, heart weight, the heart weight-to-body weight ratio (HW/BW), myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were measured.Results GIR in T2DM rats and T2DM rats treated with valsartan decreased (P <0.01). In T2DM rats treated with valsartan, heart weight, myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were higher than in control rats, but lower than in T2DM rats. In rats with T2DM, GIR was negatively and significantly correlated with all the variables. However, in T2DM rats treated with valsartan or normal control rats, none of the correlations was significant.Conclusions In the presence of T2DM, diabetic cardiomyopathy is related with IR. Valsartan can not alleviate IR, but can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and remove the correlation between IR and diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  20. 热休克蛋白47重组质粒对糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口愈合影响的实验研究%Effects of HSP47 Recombinant Plasmid on the Skin Wound Healing Process in the Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰; 李琳; 王佐林

    2008-01-01

    目的:初步研究热休克蛋白47(HSP47)重组质粒pTracer-CMV-HSP47局部注射对糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口愈合的影响.探讨以HSP47质粒为基础的基因治疗促进糖尿病皮肤创口愈合的可行性和有效性.方法:制备四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口愈合模型,创缘皮下局部注射HSP47重组质粒,观察其对皮肤创口愈合的影响,并用免疫组织化学、荧光定量RT-PCR、Western blotting检测创口愈合过程中HSP47和collagen Ⅰ的表达变化.结果:在糖尿病大鼠皮肤创缘连续两次注射质粒后第3、6、9天.免疫组织化学、荧光定量RT-PCR和Western blotting检测证实,HSP47重组质粒组比对照组能显著增加创口中的HSP47和collagen Ⅰ的表达.结论:在糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口周围注射质粒pTracer-CMV-HSP47,能明显增强HSP47和collagen Ⅰ的表达,有助于改善创口愈合,HSP47可能是促进糖尿病皮肤创口愈合的潜在治疗靶点.

  1. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats.

  2. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gisou Mohaddes; Saeideh Hasani Azami; Shirin Babri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week), Diabetic (12 weeks), Loganin, Diabetic (1 week) + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks) + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Loganin (40 mg/kg, po) was administrate...

  3. Hypoxic neuropathy versus diabetic neuropathy : an electrophysiological study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Hendriksen, P.H.; Oey, P.L.; Wieneke, G.H.; Huffelen, A.C. van

    1992-01-01

    In the experimental rat model of diabetes a slowing of nerve conduction velocity and a resistance to ischemic conduction failure have been found as an indication of polyneuropathy. The same electrophysiological abnormalities have been demonstrated in a model in which healthy rats are kept under hypo

  4. Cytoprotective Effect of Silymarin against Diabetes-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muobarak J Tuorkey; Nabila I El-Desouki; Rabab A Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The beneficial effects of silymarin have been extensively studied in the context of inflammation and cancer treatment, yet much less is known about its therapeutic effect on diabetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the cytoprotective activity of silymarin against diabetes-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods Rats were randomly divided into: control group, untreated diabetes group and diabetes group treated with silymarin (120 mg/kg·d) for 10 d. Rats were sacrificed, and the cardiac muscle specimens and blood samples were collected. The immunoreactivity of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in the cardiomyocytes was measured. Total proteins, glucose, insulin, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were estimated. Results Unlike the treated diabetes group, cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased in the untreated rats, as evidenced by enhanced caspase-3 and declined Bcl-2 activities. The levels of glucose, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides declined in the treated rats. The declined levels of insulin were enhanced again after treatment of diabetic rats with silymarin, reflecting a restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells activity. Conclusion The findings of this study are of great importance, which confirmed for the first time that treatment of diabetic subjects with silymarin may protect cardiomyocytes against apoptosis and promote survival-restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells.

  5. Effect of diabetes on glycogen metabolism in rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Hernández-Berrones, Jethro; Luna-Ulloa, Luis Bernardo; Coffe, Víctor; Salceda, Rocío

    2008-07-01

    Glucose is the main fuel for energy metabolism in retina. The regulatory mechanisms that maintain glucose homeostasis in retina could include hormonal action. Retinopathy is one of the chemical manifestations of long-standing diabetes mellitus. In order to better understand the effect of hyperglycemia in retina, we studied glycogen content as well as glycogen synthase and phosphorylase activities in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina and compared them with other tissues. Glycogen levels in normal rat retina are low (46 +/- 4.0 nmol glucosyl residues/mg protein). However, high specific activity of glycogen synthase was found in retina, indicating a substantial capacity for glycogen synthesis. In diabetic rats, glycogen synthase activity increased between 50% and 100% in retina, brain cortex and liver of diabetic rats, but only retina exhibited an increase in glycogen content. Although, total and phosphorylated glycogen synthase levels were similar in normal and diabetic retina, activation of glycogen synthase by glucose-6-P was remarkable increased. Glycogen phosphorylase activity decreased 50% in the liver of diabetic animals; it was not modified in the other tissues examined. We conclude that the increase in glycogen levels in diabetic retina was due to alterations in glycogen synthase regulation.

  6. The effect of dietary Cu and diabetes on indices of Cu nutriture in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, R.B.; Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Tinker, D.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The uptake-retention of 67Cu is affected by dietary Cu and diabetes. Consequently, the functional activities of select enzymes and tissue Cu status were assessed. STZ-diabetic and control rats were fed Cu suppl. or def. diets. Rats were gavaged with 28 {mu}Ci 67Cu, and killed 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h later. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic; with no effect of diet. Plasma ceruloplasmin activity (Cp) was lower in Cu def. rats; diabetic rats tended to have higher Cp than controls. Cu def. rats had low Cu levels in liver, kidney and plasma. Cu suppl. diabetic rats had higher liver and kidney Cu compared to Cu def. diabetic rats. Gel chromatography of liver showed that with time, there was a transfer of 67Cu from low to higher MW ligands. In nondiabetic rats, more 67Cu was associated with the higher MW ligands. The converse was observed for diabetic rats. There was no effect of diabetes on liver 67Cu localization. Diabetic rats had higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver and kidney compared to controls Cu deficiency lowered MT values in both diabetic and control rats. CuZn SOD Cu activity was lowered with Cu def. and diabetes, while Mn SOD activity was similar among groups. Plasma lipid peroxide levels were lower in diabetic rats than controls. The results show that Cu metabolism is affected in diabetes, and the changes are functionally significant.

  7. Targeting heme oxygenase-1 in early diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El Gheit, R; Emam, M N

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common microvascular diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effect and underlying mechanisms of HO-1 induction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced early DN in rats. The diabetic rats were divided into three groups: STZ-diabetic, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP)-treated diabetic, and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP)-treated diabetic groups. Compared to the STZ-diabetic group, CoPP-induced HO-1 upregulation improved the diabetic state and renal functional parameters, suppressed the renal proinflammatory marker, NF-κB, abrogated the elevated renal hydroxyprolin, and decreased the enhanced renal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity with parallel reduction of urinary oxidative stress markers. On the contrary, treatment with ZnPP abrogated HO-1 levels, aggravated the diabetic condition with further increases in renal oxidative stress, fibrotic and inflammatory markers, and exacerbated renal dysfunction in diabetic animals. These findings suggest that the reduced diabetic renal injury upon HO-1 induction implicates the role of HO-1 induction as a potential treatment for DN.

  8. Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhani, Sanjay P; Vishwakarma, Santosh L; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2004-01-01

    The fresh and dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (commonly known as ginger) is widely used in traditional medicine. We have studied the effect of the juice of Z. officinale (4 mL kg(-1), p.o. daily) for 6 weeks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic rats with particular reference to the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptors in glycaemic control. In normoglycaemic rats, 5-HT (1mg kg(-1), i.p.) produced hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia, which was significantly prevented by the juice of Z. officinale. STZ-diabetes produced a significant increase in fasting glucose levels that was associated with a significant decrease in serum insulin levels. Treatment with Z. officinale produced a significant increase in insulin levels and a decrease in fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test, treatment with Z. officinale was found to decrease significantly the area under the curve of glucose and to increase the area under the curve of insulin in STZ-diabetic rats. Treatment with Z. officinale also caused a decrease in serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic rats. Our data suggest a potential antidiabetic activity of the juice of Z. officinale in type I diabetic rats, possibly involving 5-HT receptors.

  9. Cardioprotective Effect of Sodium Ferulate in Diabetic Rats

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    Xiaohong Xu, Haijuan Xiao, Jiangpei Zhao, Tongfeng Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in the occurrence and development in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC. Ferulic acid is one of the ubiquitous compounds in diet. Sodium ferulate (SF is its sodium salt. SF has potent free radical scavenging activity and can effectively scavenge ROS. The study investigated the effect of SF on cardioprotection in diabetic rats. The diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ were treated with SF (110mg/kg by gavage per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that the levels of nitric oxide (NO and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly higher than those in diabetic control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in myocardium in SF-treated group was apparently lower than that in diabetic control group. Compared with normal control group, electron micrographs of myocardium in diabetic control group showed apparently abnormality, while that was significantly ameliorated in SF-treated group. The study demonstrated that SF has a cardioprotective effect via increasing SOD activity and NO levels in plasma and myocardium, inhibiting oxidative stress in plasma and myocardium, and inhibiting the expression of CTGF in myocardium in diabetes rats.

  10. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

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    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Fenugreek Prevents the Development of STZ-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Jin

    2014-01-01

    evidently reduced by fenugreek treatment. Furthermore, the upregulation of TGF-β1 and CTGF at a transcriptional and translational level in DN rats was distinctly inhibited by fenugreek. Consequently, fenugreek prevents DN development in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

  12. B vitamins alleviate indices of neuropathic pain in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Mizisin, Leah M; Nelson, Austin; Cunha, Joice M; Ramos, Khara M; Bonke, Dieter; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2009-06-10

    There are sporadic reports that assorted combinations of B vitamins can alleviate pain in diabetic patients, but there is neither agreement on the relative efficacy of individual B vitamins nor understanding of the mechanisms involved. We therefore investigated the efficacy of a cocktail of the vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in alleviating behavioral indices of sensory dysfunction such as allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats and also the relative contribution of individual components of the cocktail. Repeated daily treatment with the cocktail of B vitamins for 7-9 days ameliorated tactile allodynia and formalin-evoked hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner and also improved sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. Investigation of the contribution of individual B vitamins suggested that all three participated with variable efficacy in the alleviation of allodynia after protracted, but not single dose treatment. Only vitamin B6 improved sensory nerve conduction velocity slowing in diabetic rats when given alone. To address potential mechanisms of action, we measured markers of oxidative stress (lipid and protein oxidation) and inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and TNFalpha protein) in the nerve but treatment with the vitamin B cocktail did not significantly affect any of these parameters. The positive effects of B vitamins on functional and behavioral disorders of diabetic rats suggest a potential for use in treating painful diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ting WANG; Jia LI; Li LIU; Nan HU; Shi JIN; Can LIU; Dan MEI; Xiao-dong LIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Diabetes is associated with elevated serum total cholesterol level and disrupted lipoprotein subfractions.The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the tissue cholesterol contents closely related to diabetic complications.Methods:Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.On d 35 after the injection,liver,heart,intestine,kidney,pancreas,cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated from the rats.The content of total and free cholesterol in the tissues was determined using HPLC.The ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) protein and ApoE mRNA were measured using Western blot and QT-PCR analyses,respectively.Results:In diabetic rats,the level of free cholesterol was significantly decreased in the peripheral tissues,but significantly elevated in hippocampus,as compared with those in the control rats.Diabetic rats showed a trend of decreasing the total cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues,but significant change was only found in kidney and liver.In diabetic rats,the level of the ABCA1 protein was significantly increased in the peripheral tissues and cerebral cortex; the expression of ApoE mRNA was slightly decreased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex,but the change had no statistical significance.Conclusion:Type 1 diabetes decreases the free cholesterol content in the peripheral tissues and increases the free cholesterol content in hippocampus.The decreased free cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues may be partly due to the increased expression of the ABCA1 protein.

  14. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia.

  15. Acetylsalicylic acid protects erectile function in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, G; Gonulalan, U; Kosan, M; Arioglu, E; Ozturk, B; Cetinkaya, M; Gur, S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment on diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: (i) control (C), (ii) diabetic (D), (iii) ASA-treated control (C+ASA) and (iv) ASA-treated diabetic (D+ASA) groups. In groups 2 and 4, diabetes was induced by injection of 35 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. ASA (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) , orally) was administrated to rats in groups 3 and 4 for 8 weeks. Both intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured in in vivo studies. In organ bath, the relaxation responses to acetylcholine (ACh), electrical field stimulation (EFS) and sodium nitroprusside were tested in corpus cavernosum (CC) strips. The mRNA expression for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was calculated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. In in vivo experiments, diabetic rats displayed reduced ICP/MAP values, which were normalised with ASA treatment. The relaxant response to high-dose ACh and EFS at low frequencies (1-8 Hz) in CC strips from the D+ASA group were significantly higher when compared to the D group. Treatment with ASA normalised the raised mRNA expressions of nNOS in diabetic penile tissues. ASA may be involved in mRNA of protein synthesis of NO released from nonadrenergic and noncholinergic cavernosal nerve in diabetes.

  16. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

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    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  17. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus. PMID:27656611

  18. Acute effect of different antidepressants on glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats

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    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a 20% higher risk of depression than the general population. Treatment with antidepressant drugs can directly interfere with blood glucose levels or may interact with hypoglycemic agents. The treatment of depression in diabetic patients must take into account variations of glycemic levels at different times and a comparison of the available antidepressant agents is important. In the present study we evaluated the interference of antidepressants with blood glucose levels of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In a first experiment, male adult Wistar rats were fasted for 12 h. Imipramine (5 mg/kg, moclobemide (30 mg/kg, clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg sertraline (30 mg/kg or vehicle was administered. After 30 min, fasting glycemia was measured. An oral glucose overload of 1 ml of a 50% glucose solution was given to rats and blood glucose was determined after 30, 60 and 90 min. Imipramine and clonazepam did not change fasting or overload glycemia. Fluoxetine and moclobemide increased blood glucose at different times after the glucose overload. Sertraline neutralized the increase of glycemia induced by oral glucose overload. In the second experiment, non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fasted, and the same procedures were followed for estimation of glucose tolerance 30 min after glucose overload. Again, sertraline neutralized the increase in glycemia after glucose overload both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. These data raise the question of whether sertraline is the best choice for prolonged use for diabetic individuals, because of its antihyperglycemic effects. Clonazepam would be useful in cases with potential risk of hypoglycemia.

  19. Sympathoadrenal activity during exercise in partial diabetic and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, H; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E; Steffens, A.B

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with altered fat and carbohydrate metabolism and disturbed sympathoadrenal functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-term diabetic state alters the activity of the sympathoadrenal system and of the adrenal cortex during

  20. Progressive histopathological changes in pancreatic islets of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.W.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Lange, W.; Knijnenburg, Q.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Martens, G.J.M.; Verhofstad, A.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thus far, histopathological changes in the pancreatic islets of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), have only been studied in male rats and in 18-weeks old rats or younger. In this study, we have examined in both

  1. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  2. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  3. Diaphragmatic function is enhanced in fatty and diabetic fatty rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Serge; Na, Na; Carillion, Aude; Jiang, Cheng; Beuvin, Maud; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. Methods Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways. Results Diaphragm active-force (AF) was higher in fatty (96±7mN.mm-2,P = 0.02) but not in diabetic fatty rats (90±17mN.mm-2) when compared with controls (84±8mN.mm-2). Recovery from fatigue was improved in fatty and diabetic fatty groups compared with controls. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction was observed in each group, but AF remained higher in fatty (82±8mN.mm-2,P = 0.03) compared with controls (70±8mN.mm-2). There was neutral lipid droplet accumulation in fatty and diabetic fatty. There were shifts towards a higher cross-sectional-area (CSA) of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC)-2A fibers in fatty and diabetic fatty compared with control rats (P = 0.002 and Pobese rats before and after mechanical ventilation, and is associated with activation of AKT pathway signaling and complex changes in morphology. PMID:28328996

  4. Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats

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    Nelli Giribabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ- induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day body weight (b.w C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na+/K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1β and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition.

  5. Anti-diabetic effect of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kazemian Mansur Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively. A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2. Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p. and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study. Results: Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003. However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP. Conclusion: These results showed that C. spinosa rootextract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.

  6. Melatonin reduces hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; El-Hammadi, Mazen; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Tassi, Mohamed; Abdo, Walied; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Reiter, Russel J

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a role in the development of liver steatosis and insulin resistance, which are both common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It was hypothesized that the antioxidant properties of melatonin could potentially improve the impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria in diabetic obese animals. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean littermates (ZL) were given either melatonin (10 mg/kg BW/day) orally for 6 wk (M-ZDF and M-ZL) or vehicle as control groups (C-ZDF and C-ZL). Hepatic function was evaluated by measurement of serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, liver histopathology and electron microscopy, and hepatic mitochondrial functions. Several impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria were observed in C-ZDF in comparison with C-ZL rats. Melatonin treatment to ZDF rats decreases serum levels of ALT (P diabetic-induced mitochondrial abnormalities, glycogen, and lipid accumulation. Melatonin improves mitochondrial dysfunction in M-ZDF rats by increasing activities of mitochondrial citrate synthase (P melatonin augments ATP production (P melatonin reduces liver steatosis and mitochondria dysfunction in ZDF rats. Therefore, it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabesity.

  7. Morphological Changes of Gingiva in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

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    C. Tesseromatis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingivitis and periodontitis are chronic bacterial diseases of the underlying and surrounding tooth tissues. Diabetes mellitus is responsible for tooth deprivation both by decay and periodontal disease. The streptozotocin-induced diabetes results in a diabetic status in experimental animals similar to that observed in diabetes patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the gingival lesions and the microangiopathy changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (control and experimental. Diabetes mellitus was induced by 45 mg/kg IV streptozotocin. The histological investigation of the marginal gingival and the relevant gingival papilla showed inflammation of the lamina propria and the squamous epithelium as well as marked thickness of the arteriole in the diabetic group, but no changes were observed in the control group. The results suggested a probable application of a routine gingival histological investigation in diabetic patients in order to control the progress of disease complications. It may be concluded that histological gingival investigation can be used as a routine assay for the control of the diabetic disease and prevention of its complications.

  8. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: effects of fenofibrate and metformin in an experimental model – the Zucker diabetic rat

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    Gadot Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM contributes to cardiac failure in diabetic patients. It is characterized by excessive lipids accumulation, with increased triacylglycerol (TAG stores, and fibrosis in left ventricle (LV. The mechanisms responsible are incompletely known and no specific treatment is presently defined. We evaluated the possible usefulness of two molecules promoting lipid oxidation, fenofibrate and metformin, in an experimental model of DCM, the Zucker diabetic rat (ZDF. Methods ZDF and controls (C rats were studied at 7, 14 and 21 weeks. After an initial study at 7 weeks, ZDF rats received no treatment, metformin or fenofibrate until final studies (at 14 or 21 weeks. C rats received no treatment. Each study comprised measurements of metabolic parameters (plasma glucose, TAG, insulin levels and sampling of heart for histology and measurements of TAG content and relevant mRNA concentration. Results ZDF rats were insulin-resistant at 7 weeks, type 2 diabetic at 14 weeks and diabetic with insulin deficiency at 21 weeks. Their plasma TAG levels were increased. ZDF rats had at 7 weeks an increased LV TAG content with some fibrosis. LV TAG content increased in untreated ZDF rats at 14 and 21 weeks and was always higher than in C. Fibrosis increased also moderately in untreated ZDF rats. Metformin and fenofibrate decreased plasma TAG concentrations. LV TAG content was decreased by metformin (14 and 21 weeks and by fenofibrate (14 weeks. Fibrosis was reduced by fenofibrate only and was increased by metformin. Among the mRNA measured, fenofibrate increased Acyl-CoA Oxidase mRNA level, metformin decreased Acyl-CoA Synthase and increased AdipoR1 and pro-inflammatory mRNA levels. Conclusion Fenofibrate had favourable actions on DCM. Metformin had beneficial effect on TAG content but not on fibrosis. PPARα agonists could be useful for the prevention and treatment of DCM.

  9. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  10. Effect of thyroparathyroidectomy on urinary acidification in diabetic rats

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    Zaladek-Gil F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies we have shown stimulation of renal acid excretion in the proximal tubules of rats with diabetes of short duration, with no important alterations in glomerular hemodynamics; on the other hand, in thyroparathyroidectomized rats (TPTX model, a significant decrease in renal acid excretion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow (RPF was detected. Since important changes in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-Ca axis are observed in the diabetic state, the present study was undertaken to investigate the renal repercussions of thyroparathyroidectomy in rats previously made diabetic by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg. Four to 6 days after the induction of diabetes (DM, a group of rats were thyroparathyroidectomized (DM + TPTX. Renal functional parameters were evaluated by measuring the inulin and sodium para-aminohippurate clearance on the tenth day. The decrease in the GFR and RPF observed in TPTX was not reversed by diabetes since the same alterations were observed in DM + TPTX. Net acid (NA excretion was unchanged in DM (6.19 ± 0.54, decreased in TPTX (3.76 ± 0.25 and returned to normal levels in DM + TPTX (5.54 ± 0.72 when compared to the control group (6.34 ± 0.14 µmol min-1 kg-1. The results suggest that PTH plays an important vasodilator role regarding glomerular hemodynamics, since in its absence the impairment in GFR and RPF was not reversed by the diabetic state. However, with respect to acid excretion, the presence of diabetes was able to overcome the negative stimulus represented by TPTX.

  11. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

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    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  12. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Gehan S; Nassar, Noha N; Mansour, Hanaa A; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrolysin (CBL), a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i) vehicle- (ii) CBL- and (iii) STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv) STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%), which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF)-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp)-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU), glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and

  13. Antioxidant potential of bilirubin-accelerated wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Mahendra; Singh, Vishakha; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kumawat, Sanjay; Gopalakrishnan, Anu; Lingaraju, Madhu C; Gupta, Priyanka; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative injury is markedly responsible for wound complications in diabetes mellitus. The biological actions of bilirubin may be relevant to prevent oxidant-mediated cell death, as bilirubin application at a low concentration scavenges reactive oxygen species. Hence, we hypothesized that topical bilirubin application might improve wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats, which were divided into two groups, i.e., diabetic control and diabetic treated. Non-diabetic healthy rats were also taken as healthy control group. Wound area was measured on days 3, 7, 14, and 19 post-wounding. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were estimated in the granulation tissue. There was a significant increase in percent wound closure in healthy control and diabetic treated rats on days 7, 14, and 19, as compared to diabetic control rats on days 7, 14, and 19. There was significant decrease in MDA levels on days 7, 14, and 19 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. Levels of GSH were significantly increased on days 3, 7, 14, and 19 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. GPx, SOD, and CAT activities were significantly higher on days 3, 7, and 14 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. The findings indicate that bilirubin is effective in reducing the oxidant status in wounds of diabetic rats which might have accelerated wound healing in these rats.

  14. Icariside II ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Tian W

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenjie Tian,1,2,* Hongen Lei,1,* Ruili Guan,1 Yongde Xu,1 Huixi Li,1 Lin Wang,1 Bicheng Yang,1 Zhezhu Gao,1 Zhongcheng Xin1 1Andrology Center, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, 2Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of icariside II (ICA II on reversing diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type I diabetic rats.Methods: Newborn male Sprague Dawley rats were labeled with thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU for tracking endogenous label retaining progenitor cells (LRCs. At age of 8 weeks, 48 rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (n=16, diabetes mellitus group (DM; n=16, and diabetes mellitus plus ICA II therapy group (DM+ICA II, n=16. Eight weeks induced for diabetes with STZ, rats in DM group and DM+ICA II group were treated with vehicle or ICA II (5 mg/kg/day for another 8 weeks, respectively. Then, blood creatinine, 24-hour urine protein, blood urea nitrogen, and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured, as well as the expression of von Willebrand factor, malondialdehyde, transforming growth factor-β/drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein/connective tissue growth factor (TGF-β/Smad/CTGF signaling, marker of proliferation Ki-67, and EdU+ LRCs in renal tissues.Results: Increased levels of creatinine, 24-hour urine protein, and blood urea nitrogen and remarkably decreased proportion of normal glomeruli and increased proportions of I, IIa, IIb, and III glomeruli were observed in diabetic rats, while ICA II could reverse these changes. Interestingly, ICA II could significantly downregulate the levels of malondialdehyde and TGF-β/Smad/CTGF signaling and increase the expression of von Willebrand factor, Ki-67, and EdU+ LRCs in the kidney.Conclusion: ICA

  15. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

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    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  16. Spinal pharmacology of tactile allodynia in diabetic rats

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    Calcutt, Nigel A; Chaplan, Sandra R

    1997-01-01

    Rats develop tactile allodynia to stimulation of the plantar surface of the hindpaw with von Frey filaments within days of the onset of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. This is prevented by insulin and alleviated by systemic lignocaine, but the aetiology is unknown.Using indwelling lumbar intrathecal catheters to deliver pharmacological agents, we have investigated whether tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats is dependent on mechanisms associated with spinal sensitization, by assessing the efficacy of agents that inhibit specific components of spinal nociceptive processing.Dose-dependent inhibition of tactile allodynia in diabetic rats was noted with the N-type calcium channel antagonist SNX 239, the α2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine, the μ-opioid receptor agonist morphine, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist AP5 and the non-NMDA receptor antagonist NBQX.No effect on tactile allodynia was noted after intrathecal administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor ketorolac, the L-type calcium channel inhibitor diltiazem or any vehicle.These data suggest that the tactile allodynia of diabetic rats involves spinal glutamatergic pathways but is not associated with spinal release of nitric oxide or prostaglandins. PMID:9421298

  17. Effect of Livingstone Potato ( N.E.Br on Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats

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    Chinedum Ogbonnaya Eleazu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br on diabetes and its complications in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was investigated. The duration of the experiment was 4 weeks.MethodsThe blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The liver and kidney function parameters in the serum of the rats were determined using Biosystem Kits.ResultsThe diabetic rats given livingstonepotato incorporated feeds, had 129.7% decrease in their hyperglycemia with corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity, renal growth, liver growth as well as 15.64% decrease in body weights compared with the nondiabetic rats that had 5.54% decrease in blood glucose and 20.39% increase in body weight unlike the diabetic control rats that had 18.34% decrease in blood glucose and 52.68% decrease in body weight. There were significant differences (P0.05 in the relative heart weights of all the rats in the three different groups. In terms of liver and kidney function parameters, values obtained for the diabetic rats given livingstone potato incorporated feeds were not significantly different from that of the nondiabetic rats except for total bilurubin, aspartate transaminase, and creatinine (P>0.05 while they were significantly different from the values obtained for the diabetic control rats (P<0.05. In addition, the serum amylase of the diabetic control rats were significantly higher (P<0.05 than that of the nondiabetic and diabetic rats treated with livingstone potato incorporated feeds.ConclusionResults show the antidiabetic actions of livingstone potato and its ability to ameliorate glomerular complication and liver hypertrophy in diabetics.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF ALOE VERA IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Jyoti Sethi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Aloe vera (AV in alloxan induced diabetes in albino rabbits. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rabbits with alloxan(80mg/Kg body weightand animals showing fasting blood glucose levels more than 250mg/dl were considered as diabetics and divided into four groups of six each (n=6. Group I: Normal control rabbits, Group II: Alloxan induced diabetic rabbits, Group III: Diabetic rabbits received AV gel extract (300 mg/Kg in aqueous solution for 21 days, Group IV: diabetic rabbits given glibenclamide (600ug/kg in aqueous solution. All the drugs were administered orally (using an intra gastric tube in a single dose in the morning for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the marginal vein of pinna of overnight fasted rabbits (Blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total thiols (PSH and Superoxide dismutase (SOD. Oral administration of AV showed potent antihyperglycemic and anti-lipidperoxidative effect in diabetic animals. Simultaneously, the levels of protective antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH and PSH were significantly increased with AV supplementation. The results suggest potent antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of AV in experimental diabetes, and thus Aloe vera can be used as an alternative remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

  19. Isolation and characterization of anti-diabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) fromOcimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and characterize antidiabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) from hydro alcoholic extract ofOcimum sanctum (O. sanctum) aerial part.Methods: Ten fractions(F1 - F10) were isolated from hydro alcoholic extract ofO. sanctum aerial part by column chromatography. All the fractions F1 toF10 were screened for antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats by estimating serum glucose level and lipid parameters. The isolated bioactive component was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, MS,1H and 13C NMR) data analysis.Results:The bioactive fraction(F5) was found to be potent antidiabetic by ameliorating glucose and lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol). The extensive spectroscopic data analysis reveals that, the isolated bioactive compound elucidated as tetracyclic triterpenoid [16-Hydroxy-4,4,10,13-tetramethyl-17-(4-methyl-pentyl)-hexadecahydro-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one]. Conclusions:Our present study concluded that, tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from aerial part ofO. sanctum has a great anti-diabetic potential.

  20. Protective effects of sodium selenite on lead nitrate-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

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    Kalender, Suna; Apaydin, Fatma Gökçe; Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of sodium selenite on lead induced toxicity was studied in Wistar rats. Sodium selenite and lead nitrate were administered orally for 28 days to streptozotocin induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Eight groups of rats were used in the study: control, sodium selenite, lead nitrate, lead nitrate+sodium selenite, streptozotocin-induced diabetic-control, diabetic-sodium selenite, diabetic-lead nitrate, diabetic-lead nitrate+sodium selenite groups. Serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and histopathological changes in liver tissues were investigated in all groups. There were statistically significant changes in liver function tests, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in lead nitrate and sodium selenite+lead nitrate treated groups, also in diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Furthermore, histopathological alterations were demonstrated in same groups. In the present study we found that sodium selenite treatment did not show completely protective effect on diabetes mellitus caused damages, but diabetic rats are more susceptible to lead toxicity than non-diabetic rats.

  1. Effect of Biophytum sensitivum on streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananda Prabu K; Kumarappan CT; Sunil Christudas; Kalaichelvan VK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous solution of Biophytum sensitivum leaf extract (BSEt) on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ-nicotinamide (40, 110 mg/kg b.w., respectively) intraperitoneally. BSEt (200 mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for 28 days. The effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, total haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver was studied in diabetic rats. Results: BSEt significantly reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels and significantly increased the total haemoglobin, plasma insulin and liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats. It also increased the hexokinase activity and decreased glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase activities in diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that BSEt possesses a promising effect on STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

  2. DIFFERENTIAL RENAL GENE EXPRESSION IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETIC RATS AFTER ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; HUANG Sheng-lin; YING Lei; ZHAO Han-fang; YANG Rong; NI Zhao-hui

    2006-01-01

    Objective To find the genes involved in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy using gene chip technology. Methods We established a type 1 diabetic rat model by streptozotocin injection and divided these diabetic rats into two groups: diabetic rats group( D group) and diabetic rats group treated with Astragalus Membranaceus (DA group). The renal tissue was collected and total RNA was extracted for gene chips. With the help of gene chip, we tried to discover the differential-displayed genes between these two groups. Results Totally 201 differential-displayed genes were found between the two groups, among which 126 genes were up-regulated and 75 genes were down-regulated in the rat renal tissue. Conclusion With gene chip results, we find several genes which are associated with diabetes in the rat renal tissue. The further research on the function of these genes will be helpful to understand the mechanism of diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Investigation on the effects of the atmospheric pressure plasma on wound healing in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollah, Sara; Mirpour, Shahriar; Mansouri, Parvin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Rahimi, Nastaran; Safaie Naraghi, Zahra; Chalangari, Reza; Chalangari, Katalin Martits

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that 15 percent of individuals with diabetes mellitus suffer from diabetic ulcers worldwide. The aim of this study is to present a non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment as a novel therapy for diabetic wounds. The plasma consists of ionized helium gas that is produced by a high-voltage (8 kV) and high-frequency (6 kHz) power supply. Diabetes was induced in rats via an intravascular injection of streptozotocin. The plasma was then introduced to artificial xerograph wounds in the rats for 10 minutes. Immunohistochemistry assays was performed to determine the level of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) cytokine. The results showed a low healing rate in the diabetic wounds compared with the wound-healing rate in non-diabetic animals (P diabetic rats (P diabetic wounds (P diabetic rats.

  4. Autonomic innervation of the pancreas in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. A new view on intramural sympathetic structural organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Horst, G.J. ter; Steffens, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods the intramural neural tissue of the pancreas was investigated in non-diabetic and in alloxan-diabetic rats. It was demonstrated that the non-diabetic pancreas contains an average of 2.71 cells/mm3 tissue that react positive for activity of acetylcho

  5. Evaluation of the Reproductive Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Jing; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats and then inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism. The results showed that no pathological, toxic feces and urine changes were observed in clinical signs of parental and fetal rats in chromium malate groups. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of chromium malate groups have no significant change compared with control group and chromium picolinate group. The serum and organ contents of Cr in chromium malate groups have no significant change when compared with control group. No measurable damage on liver, brain, kidney, and testis/uterus of chromium malate groups was found. No significant change in body mass, absolute and relative organ weights, and hematological and biochemical changes of rats were observed compared with the control and chromium picolinate groups. The results indicated that supplements with chromium malate does not cause obvious damage and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme, and lipid metabolism on female and male rats. The results of this study suggested that chromium malate is safe for human consumption and has the potential for application as a functional food ingredient and dietary supplement.

  6. Impaired formalin-evoked changes of spinal amino acid levels in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Annika B; O'Connor, William T; Glennon, Jeffery C; Ceseña, Rose; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2006-10-18

    To investigate mechanisms by which diabetes alters sensory processing, we measured levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in spinal dialysates from awake, unrestrained control and diabetic rats under resting conditions and following hind paw formalin injection. Under resting conditions, glutamate concentrations in spinal dialysates were significantly (Phyperalgesia in diabetic rats does not appear to be secondary to enhanced glutamatergic input to the spinal cord.

  7. The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue sup 67 Cu retention kinetics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 {mu}Ci {sup 67}Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on {sup 67}Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained {sup 67}Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted.

  8. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

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    O. A Komolafe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Feng, Yu; Zhan, Zhoubing; Chen, Jianchang

    2014-10-17

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases. This study was designed to investigate whether H2S has protective effects against diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and administrated with H2S donor NaHS for 12 weeks. Rat glomerular mesangial cells were pretreated with NaHS or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580) prior to high glucose exposure, and cell proliferation was determined. Our findings suggest that H2S can improve renal function and attenuate glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial matrix deposition, and renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic rats. H2S was found to reduce high glucose-induced oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. In addition, H2S reduced high glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation by blockade of MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, H2S was also found to inhibit the renin-angiotensin system in diabetic kidney. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that H2S alleviates the development of diabetic nephropathy by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation, reducing mesangial cell proliferation, and inhibiting renin-angiotensin system activity.

  10. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Activity in the Serum, Lung, Liver and Kidney in Streptozotocin -Induced Diabetic Rats and Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Üstündağ, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between the alterations of the levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and diabetic nephropathy, ACE activity in the lung, liver, kid-ney and serum were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The levels of serum ACE activity unchanged 3 days post STZ treatment but it was significantly an increase 12 and 30 days post STZ treatment in diabetic rats (p

  11. Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Rosado, Isaac; Ruiz, Rosario; Figueroa, Adriana; Zen, Nourahouda; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of ten rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. ZDF rats developed DM (fasting hyperglycemia, 460±39.8mg/dL; HbA(1) c 8.3±0.5%) with both insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.28±0.9 versus 1.2±0.1 in ZL) and decreased β-cell function (HOMA1-%B) by 75%, compared with ZL rats. Melatonin reduced fasting hyperglycemia by 18.6% (Pmelatonin lowered insulinemia by 15.9% (Pmelatonin decreased hyperleptinemia by 34% (Pmelatonin reduced serum free fatty acid levels by 13.5% (Pmelatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in young ZDF rats by improving both insulin action and β-cell function. These observations have implications on melatonin's possible use as a new pharmacologic therapy for improving glucose homeostasis and of obesity-related T2DM, in young subjects.

  12. Comparison of effect of resveratrol and vanadium on diabetes related dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    Mohamad Reza shiri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Resveratrol a natural polyphenolic stilbene derivative has wide variety of biological activities. There is also a large body of evidence demonstrating positive effect of resveratrol in treatment of various metabolic complications including metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-hyperglycemic and anti-dyslipidemic effects of resveratrol. Methods: We used 40 diabetic streptozotocin Wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups (n=8 in each including normal control, normal treated with resveratrol, diabetic control , diabetic treated with vanadium , diabetic treated with resveratrol . Resveratrol (25 mg/kgbw and vanadate (0.2 mg/kgbw was orally gavaged for 40 days and blood samples were directly collected from heart. Results: Diabetic rats treated with resveratrol in comparison to control diabetic rats demonstrated a significant (p = 0.001 decline in serum glucose concentration, and high plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-c were reduced (p = 0.031, p = 0.004 respectively. Furthermore, body weight loss trend that observed in diabetic rats alleviated by resveratrol and vanadate. However triglyceride, VLDL-c and HDL-c levels did not changed significantly. Conclusion: In conclusion Resveratrol ameliorated dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However further investigations in peculiar human studies are required.

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

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    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    glucose levels of alloxan induced diabetic rats. This study is an experimental study with a post-test only control group design. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: negative control (KN, positive control (KP, treatment 1 (P1, treatment 2 (P2. Alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight induced in KP and P2 groups, aspartame 315 mg/kg body weight administered on P1 and P2 groups for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured after 4 weeks using a spectrophotometer. The results of this study, the mean fasting blood glucose levels KN group (88.39 mg/dL, KP (134.11 mg/dL, P1 (93.95 mg/dL, and P2 (66.66 mg/dL. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test, p-value=0.000 ( p<0.05 , there are differences in fasting blood glucose levels were significant in all groups. The conclusions of this study is the provision of aspartame in alloxan induced diabetic rats can cause a decrease in blood glucose levels significantly.Keywords: aspartame, blood glucose levels, diabetes mellitus, alloxan

  14. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons responding to esophageal distension in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Chao; Ghorbani, Marie L M; Wu, Mingyuan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine spinal neuronal processing of innocuous and noxious mechanical inputs from the esophagus in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce diabetes in 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and vehicle (10 mM citrate buffer) was injected into 15 rats...

  15. Melatonin and succinate reduce rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodnik, I B; Lapshina, E A; Cheshchevik, V T; Dremza, I K; Kujawa, J; Zabrodskaya, S V; Reiter, R J

    2011-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in response to hyperglycemia during diabetes lead to pathological consequences of hyperglycemia. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of a specific functional damage in rat liver mitochondria during diabetes as well as to evaluate the possibility of metabolic and antioxidative correction of mitochondrial disorders by pharmacological doses of succinate and melatonin. In rat liver mitochondria, streptozotocin-induced diabetes was accompanied by marked impairments of metabolism: we observed a significant activation of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (by 60%, pdiabetic animals, melatonin (10 mg/kg b.w., 30 days) or succinate (50 mg/kg b.w., 30 days) reversed the oxygen consumption rate V(3) and the acceptor control ratio to those in nondiabetic animals. Melatonin enhanced the inhibited activity of catalase in the cytoplasm of liver cells and prevented mitochondrial glutathione-S-transferase inhibition while succinate administration prevented α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activation. The mitochondria dysfunction associated with diabetes was partially remedied by succinate or melatonin administration. Thus, these molecules may have benefits for the treatment of diabetes. The protective mechanism may be related to improvements in mitochondrial physiology and the antioxidative status of cells.

  16. Renal and hepatic transporter expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Michael T; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Sawant, Sharmilee P; Dnyanmote, Ankur V; Mehendale, Harihara M; Manautou, José E

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transporters are critical for the uptake as well as elimination of chemicals and by-products of metabolism from the liver and kidneys. Since these proteins are important determinants of chemical disposition, changes in their expression in different disease states can modulate drug pharmacokinetics. The present study investigated alterations in the renal and hepatic expression of organic anion and cation transporters (Oats/Octs), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and hepatic Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in type 2 diabetic rats. For this purpose, type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats a high fat diet followed by a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p., in 0.01 M citrate buffer pH 4.3) on day 14. Controls received normal diet and vehicle. Kidney and liver samples were collected on day 24 for generation of crude plasma membrane fractions and Western blot analysis of Oat, Oct, Mrp, Bcrp, Pgp, and Ntcp proteins. With regards to renal uptake transporters, type 2 diabetes increased levels of Oat2 (2.3-fold) and decreased levels of Oct2 to 50% of control kidneys. Conversely, efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, and Bcrp were increased 5.4-fold, 2-fold, and 1.6-fold, respectively in type 2 diabetic kidneys with no change in levels of Mrp1, Mrp5, or Pgp. Studies of hepatic transporters in type 2 diabetic rats reveal that the protein level of Mrp5 was reduced to 4% of control livers with no change in levels of Bcrp, Mrp1, Mrp2, Mrp4, Ntcp, or Pgp. The changes reported in this study may have implications in type 2 diabetic patients.

  17. Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger (Z. officinale Roscoe) on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I; Eleazu, K C

    2013-06-01

    The ameliorating potentials of ginger incorporated feed (10%) on the relative organ weights of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats was investigated. The experiment lasted for three weeks. Results show that administration of 10% ginger feed to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in a 29.81% decrease in their resulting hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity as well as renal growth. In addition, administration of the ginger incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in 9.88% increase in body weight with a corresponding 60.24% increase in growth compared with the non-diabetic rats administered standard rat pellets that had 6.21% increase in weight with a corresponding 60.14% increase in growth unlike the diabetic control rats that recorded 28.62% decrease in body weight with a corresponding 239.9% decrease in growth rates. Analysis of the chemical composition of the flour of the ginger incorporated feed indicated that it contained moderate amounts of moisture, crude fibre, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, Fe and Zn but considerable amounts of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, flavonoids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous and energy value. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the liver and relative liver weights of the diabetic control rats and the diabetic -ginger treated rats. In addition, there were no significant differences in the kidney weights of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic treated rats (P>0.05) while there were significant differences in the relative kidney weights of the non-diabetic rats and the diabetic rats treated with ginger feeds (Pginger in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for novel plants that could prevent the development of diabetic glomerular hypertrophy.

  18. Catechin Treatment Ameliorates Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus causes atherosclerosis and lipid abnormalities. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative properties of catechin (CTN) have been reported in several studies. Objective: This study assesses the possible protective effects of CTN against oxidative damage in the diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the control, untreated diabetic, and 3 CTN-treated diabetic groups (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal). The diabetic rats were induced by streptozotocin. Catechin was injected for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, glucose, lipid profile, apoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apoprotein B (apo B), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in serum. Statistical analyses were performed using the InStat 3.0 program. Results: Streptozotocin caused an elevation of glucose, MDA, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apo B with reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST in the serum (P < .05). The findings showed that the significant elevation in the body weight, glucose, MDA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and apo B and reduction in HDL-C, apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST were ameliorated in the CTN-treated diabetic groups versus the untreated group, in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). Conclusion: The present investigation proposes that CTN may ameliorate diabetes and its complications by modification of oxidative stress. PMID:28228702

  19. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of guar gum on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats

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    Samarghandian Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicine is widely used in the treatment of diseases like diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of guar gum in diabetic rats for the reduction of the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary pattern emphasizing foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with low blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: Diet containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w guar gum was fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, atherogenic index levels, body weights and food intake were monitored at 0, 7.14 and 28 days after induction of diabetes. Results: In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all rats after 14 days, the guar gum diet significantly decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol, triacylglicerols and LDL-C and atherogenic index. The most significant result in this study was the reduction of blood glucose in diabetic rats treated with the guar gum diet after 28 days versus non- and glibenclamide-treated rats. The gum promoted a general improvement in the condition of the diabetic rats in body weight and food intake in comparison with nontreated rats. Conclusion: The results of this research suggest that guar gum was significantly effective in comparison with glibenclamide in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes rats. Therefore, it may be suggested as a reliable fiber in diabetic regimes in diabetic patients.

  20. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  1. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

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    Silva Gláucio A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

  2. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  3. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis.

  4. The Effect of the Flavonoid Quercetin on Pain Sensation in Diabetic Rats

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    Jamshid Narenjkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperalgesia is considered as one of the marked signs of subchronic diabetes mellitus in patients that could affect their lifestyle. This study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of chronic administration of quercetin in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats using formalin and hot tail immersion tests. Methods: Rats were divided into control, control or diabetic groups receiving sodium salicylate, untreated diabetic, and quercetin-treated control and diabetic groups. The treatment groups received i.p. administration of quercetin at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Finally, hyperalgesia were assessed using standard formalin and hot tail immersion tests. Meanwhile, some markers of oxidative stress were also measured in brain tissue.Results: Quercetin or SS treatment of diabetic rats significantly reduced pain score in chronic phase of formalin test (p<0.05. Regarding hot tail immersion test, diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in tail flick latency as compared to control ones (p<0.05 and quercetin treatment of diabetic rats did significantly increase this latency relative to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. Quercetin treatment of diabetic rats also significantly decreased brain level of malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.05 and nitrite (p<0.05 and slightly increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD relative to diabetics. Discussion: Taken together, chronic administration of quercetin could attenuate nociceptive score in chronic phase of formalin test in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and could also increase threshold of thermal nociception.  

  5. Effect of diabetes and insulin treatment on nitric oxide synthase content in rat corpus cavemosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Shun XU; Qiang FU; Sheng-Tian ZHAO; Hai-Nan LIU

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of diabetes mellitus and insulin treatment on rat penile nitric oxide synthase content.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided at random into two groups: the Control ( n = 8) and the Diabetic ( n =17). Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic animals were then ran domly divided into two subgroups: diabetic rats without insulin treatment ( n = 7) and diabetic rats with insulin treat ment ( n = 10). The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the penile corpus cavemosum were assayed by immrmo histochemical staining with specific antibody to nNOS and the nNOS-positive nerve fibers were counted semiquantita tively under a high power microscope. Results: The nNOS- positive nerve fibres in diabetic rats with treatment was higher than that in diabetic rats without treatment ( P < 0.05) and lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01 ). The nNOS-positive nerve fibres in diabetic rat without treatment were also lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01). Con clusion: In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, the nNOS content in the penile corpus cavernosum was significantly decre~ed. Insulin treatment at the dose level employed partially restores the penile nNOS content in these rats.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Kondeti Ramudu; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Kesireddy, Nishanth; Sathyavelu Reddy, Kesireddy

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on oxidative stress markers in the mitochondrial fractions of cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hippocampus (HC) and hypothalamus (HT) of diabetic rats. Diabetes exacerbates neuronal injury induced by hyperglycemia mediated oxidative damage. A marked decrease in anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of ginger. Moreover, ginger administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that ginger exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients.

  7. Altered magnesium transport in slices of kidney cortex from chemically-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, B.

    1981-10-01

    The uptake of magnesium-28 was measured in slices of kidney cortex from rats with alloxan-diabetes and from rats with streptozotocin-diabetes of increasing durations. In both forms of chemically-induced diabetes, magnesium-28 uptake by kidney cortex slices was significantly increased over uptake measured in kidney cortex slices from control rats. Immediate institution of daily insulin therapy to the diabetic rats prevented the diabetes-induced elevated uptake of magnesium without controlling blood glucose levels. Late institution of daily insulin therapy was ineffective in restoring the magnesium uptake to control values. These alterations in magnesium uptake occurred prior to any evidence of nephropathy (via the classic indices of proteinuria and increased BUN levels). The implications of these findings, together with our earlier demonstrations of altered calcium transport by kidney cortex slices from chemically-induced diabetic rats, are discussed in terms of disordered divalent cation transport being at least part of the basic pathogenesis underlying diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Effects of artificial cordyceps sinensis on epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the podocytes of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡芸莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of artificial cordyceps sinensis(Jin shuibao) on the numbers of podocytes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of low dose streptozocin.

  9. N-acetylcysteine attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ma; Shanglong Yao; Kezhong Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on iscbemia/ reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats. Methods:The I/R heart model was made by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) close to its origin. The LAD was occluded for 30 min followed by removal of ligation to allow subsequent reperfusion for 3 h. 72 rats were randomly divided into two groups: non-diabetic group (C, n = 36) and diabetic group (D, n = 36).The animals in C group were randomly reassigned into sham-ope rated group (CS, n = 12) , I/R group (C I/R, n = 12) and treated with NAC group (CN, n = 12). The rats in D group were also reassigned to sham-operated group (DS, n = 12) , I/R group (DI/R, n = 12) and treated with NAC group (DN, n = 12). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB) were measured. Infarct size(IS/AAR%), the apoptosis index(AI) by TUNEL staining, the number of the cells positive for Caspase-3 and positive expression index (PEI) were calculated. Results:After I/R, the IS/AAR%, CK-MB, MDA, AI and Caspase-3 PEI were higher in diabetic group than those in non-diabetic group. Treatment with NAC decreased the above parameters in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats, but the parameters in diabetic rats were higher than those in non-diabetic rats. Conclusion:Diabetic rat hearts are more susceptible to I/R-induced myocardial necrosis and myocyte apoptosis. NAC can decrease the infarct size and attenuate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats, but the therapeutic effects are less effective in diabetic rats than those in non-diabetic rats.

  10. ISOLATION OF HEPATIC OVAL CELLS FROM DIFFERENT MODEL RATS INCLUDING DIABETIC RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying-li; YE Ting-ting; XIA Fang-zhen; WANG Ning-jian; YANG Hua; CHEN Yi

    2009-01-01

    Objective To acquire oval cells (progenitor stem cells) from adult rat liver of different models including diabetic rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 5 groups randomly: control, 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-AAF+partial hepatectomy (PH), 2-AAF+carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and diabetic groups. As two-step collagenase perfusion protocol of Seglen, oval cells were isolated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Thy1.1 positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and then cultured in Dulbeccos minimum Eagles medium (DMEM). Immunofluorescence staining was applied to labelling Thy1.1. Results Different rates of Thy1.1 positive oval cells were found in different rat model groups: 0.5% in 2-AAF, 0.3% in 2-hAAF+PH, 0.2% in 2-AAF+CCl4 , 0.1% in diabetic, and 0.0% in control. Isolated cells adhered to plate with fusiform or polygon as epithelial cells. Conclusion Progenitor stem cells exist in injured liver tissue including those from diabetic rats.

  11. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

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    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  12. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal protective effect of Adenanthera pavonina (A. pavonina seed aqueous extract (APSAE, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: The renal protective effect of A. pavonina seed aqueous extract (APSAE was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. APSAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was given daily to diabetic rats for 13 weeks. Blood glucose, serum parameters such as albumin, creatinine, total protein, urea, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and urine parameters such as urine protein and albumin were examined. Kidney histopathology was also done. Results: After 13 weeks of treatment, in STZ-induced diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia was developed, with marked increase in proteinuria and albuminuria. However, APSAE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria, albuminuria, lipid levels, and HbA1c deposition in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  14. Effects of Aminoguanidine on Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Diabetic Rat Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Dilek Gogas; Küçükkaya, Belgin; Ersöz, H. önder; Yalçin, A. Süha; Emerk, Kaya; Akalin, Sema

    2002-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of tissue and plasma proteins may stimulate the production of oxidant and carbonyl stress in diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aminoguanidine (AG) on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and nitric oxide (NO) release in diabetic rat kidneys. After induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, female Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups. Group DAG (n=9) rats were given AG hydrogen carbonate (1 g/L) in drinking water and group D (n=8) was diab...

  15. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  16. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  17. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

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    Omar Ortiz-Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm, besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  18. Reversal of diabetes through gene therapy of diabetic rats by hepatic insulin expression via lentiviral transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Matthias; Terbish, Taivankhuu; Jörns, Anne; Naujok, Ortwin; Wedekind, Dirk; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2012-05-01

    Due to shortage of donor tissue a cure for type 1 diabetes by pancreas organ or islet transplantation is an option only for very few patients. Gene therapy is an alternative approach to cure the disease. Insulin generation in non-endocrine cells through genetic engineering is a promising therapeutic concept to achieve insulin independence in patients with diabetes. In the present study furin-cleavable human insulin was expressed in the liver of autoimmune-diabetic IDDM rats (LEW.1AR1/Ztm-iddm) and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after portal vein injection of INS-lentivirus. Within 5-7 days after the virus injection of 7 × 10(9) INS-lentiviral particles the blood glucose concentrations were normalized in the treated animals. This glucose lowering effect remained stable for the 1 year observation period. Human C-peptide as a marker for hepatic release of human insulin was in the range of 50-100 pmol/ml serum. Immunofluorescence staining of liver tissue was positive for insulin showing no signs of transdifferentiation into pancreatic β-cells. This study shows that the diabetic state can be efficiently reversed by insulin release from non-endocrine cells through a somatic gene therapy approach.

  19. Lead Nitrate Induced Testicular Toxicity in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats: Protective Role of Sodium Selenite

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    Fatma Gokce Apaydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among heavy met als, lead is one of the common pollutants found in the environment and biological system. In the present study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal non-diabetic male Wistar rats were given sodium selenite (1.0 mg/kg bw, lead nitrate (22.5 mg/kg bw and sodium selenite plus lead nitrate (1.0 mg/kg+22.5 mg/kg bw, respectively through gavage. At the end of 4th week, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST], and histopathological changes of testes were investigated compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed between the control and sodium selenite treated groups. However, lead nitrate increased the levels of MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and GST activities compared with the control group in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Light microscopic analyses revealed that lead nitrate induced numerous histopathological changes in testis tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the diabetic and non-diabetic sodium selenite plus lead nitrate treated groups, there were statistically significantly decreased MDA levels and antioxidant enzymes activities and mild pathological changes. As a result, sodium selenite significantly reduced lead nitrate induced testicular toxicity for both diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  20. Effects of Spironolactone and Losartan on Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Mi Young Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile there is an evidence that the anti-inflammatory properties of spironolactone can attenuate proteinuria in type 2 diabetes, its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in diabetic nephropathy have not been clearly defined. In this study, we examined the effects of spironolactone, losartan, and a combination of these two drugs on albuminuria, renal VEGF expression, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in a type 2 diabetic rat model.MethodsThirty-three Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty (OLETF rats were divided into four groups and treated with different medication regimens from weeks 25 to 50; OLETF diabetic controls (n=5, spironolactone-treated (n=10, losartan-treated (n=9, and combination of spironolactone- and losartan-treated (n=9.ResultsAt week 50, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased in the losartan and combination groups compared to the control OLETF group. No decrease was detected in the spironolactone group. There was a significant reduction in renal VEGF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, and type IV collagen mRNA levels in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups. Twenty-four hour urine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were comparable in all four groups but did show a decreasing trend in the losartan and combination regimen groups. Twenty-four hour urine malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups.ConclusionThese results suggest that losartan alone and a combined regimen of spironolactone and losartan could ameliorate albuninuria by reducing renal VEGF expression. Also, simultaneous treatment with spironolactone and losartan may have protective effects against diabetic nephropathy by decreasing TGF-β and type IV collagen expression and by reducing oxidative stress in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  1. The protective effects of silibinin in the treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic osteoporosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Te; Cai, Leyi; Wang, Yangyang; Wang, Qingqing; Lu, Di; Chen, Hua; Ying, Xiaozhou

    2017-03-05

    Diabetic osteoporosis (DO) is a complication of diabetes mellitus. Our previous study showed that silibinin can attenuate high glucose mediated human bone marrow stem cells dysfunction through antioxidant effect. However, no study has yet investigated the effect of silibinin in diabetic rats. Therefore, we assessed the effects of silibinin on bone characteristics in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The aim of our study was to determine whether providing silibinin in the different supplementation could prevent bone loss in diabetic rats or not. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (CG) (n=10); (2) diabetic group (DG) (n=10); (3) diabetic group with 50mgkg(-1)day(-1) of silibinin orally (DG-50) (n=10); and (4) diabetic group with 100mgkg(-1)day(-1) of silibinin orally (DG-100) (n=10). 12 weeks after streptozotocin (STZ) injection, the femora from all rats were assessed and oxidative stress was evaluated. Bone mineral density was significantly decreased in diabetic rats; these effects were prevented by treatment with silibinin (100mgkg(-1)day(-1) orally). Similarly, in the DG and DG-50 groups, changes in microarchitecture of femoral metaphysis assessed by microcomputed tomography demonstrated simultaneous existence of diabetic osteoporosis; these impairments were prevented by silibinin (100mgkg(-1)day(-1) orally). In conclusion, silibinin supplementation may have potential use as a possible therapy for maintaining skeletal health and these results can enhance the understanding of diabetic osteoporosis induced by diabetes.

  2. Protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Peng; Pei-Yu Liang; Shan-Ji Ou; Xiong-Bing Zu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rat model and its mechanisms.Methods:Forty healthySpragueDawley rats were selected and randomly divided into five groups, with8 rats in each group.GroupA served as control group and were administered with sterile citrate buffer(i.p.) as placebo.GroupsB,C,D andE rats were injected(i.p.) with streptozotocin to induce typeⅠdiabetes.Diabetic rats inGroupB were intragastrically administered with sterile saline solution alone.GroupsC,D andE rats were intragastrically given pioglitazone hydrochloride suspension at doses of10,20,30 mg/kg per day, respectively.After eight weeks of treatment, all rats were anesthetized and blood was withdrawn from the abdominal aortic for detection of hemoglobinA1c, serum creatinine(SCr) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) levels.Rats were then sacrificed and the left kidney was excised for calculation of kidney hypertrophy index(KHI), observation of renal pathological changes using light microscope and electron microscope.Mean glomerular cross-sectional areas(MGA), mean glomerular volume (MGV), glomerular basement membrane thickness and foot process fusion ratio were calculated. RT-PCR was employed for detection of podocalyxin(PCX) protein expression.Results:Results showed that levels of hemoglobinA1c,BUN,SCr inGroupsB,C,D andE rats were significantly higher than those inGroupA(P<0.05), whileBUN andSCr levels in rats ofGroupsC,D andE were significantly lower than those inGroupB(P<0.05).KHI,MGA andMGV levels were significantly higher inGroupsB,C,D andE rats than those inGroupA(P<0.05);KHI andMGA levels inGroup B rats were significantly higher than those inGroupsC,D andE(P<0.05) andMGV inGroups D andE was significantly lower than that inGroupsB andC(P<0.05).Histology study showed normal glomerulus structure, morphology, volume, endothelial cells and mesangial cells as well as clear glomerular capillary inGroupA rats.Renal mesangial matrix proliferation and

  3. Chromium and manganese interactions in streptozocin-diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.L.; Jarrett, C.R.; Adeleye, B.O.; Stoecker, B.J. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Weanling male rats were fed casein-based diets low in chromium and manganese ({minus}Cr-MN) or supplemented with 1 ppm chromium as chromium chloride (+Cr) and/or 55 ppm manganese as manganous carbonate in a factorial design. After 7 weeks on the experimental diets, half of the rats in each group were injected on 2 consecutive days with 55 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ) in citrate buffer pH 4. Four weeks after injection, serum glucose in the diabetic group supplement with both Cr and Mn was not different from non-diabetic animals; however, diabetic animals in {minus}Cr groups or in the +Cr-Mn group had significantly elevated serum glucose. Serum insulin was reduced by STZ. A significant interaction between Mn and diabetes affected serum cortisol concentrations. More new tissue was formed on a polyvinyl sponge inserted under the skin in +Mn animals. In this study, the STZ animals were more sensitive than the control animals to dietary Cr and Mn concentrations.

  4. The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Antioxidant Status in the Hearts of the Diabetic Rats

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    I. Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by low secretion or resistance to the insulin action. Oxidative stress, as a result of imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defense systems is strongly related to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and forced treadmill exercise on oxidative stress indexes in heart tissue.Materials & Methods: 40 male wistar rats (20020g were divided into four groups(n=10: control, control with exercise, diabetic, diabetic with exercise. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p. Treadmill was performed for 1 hour, 5 days in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p and left ventricle dissociate from heart and maintenance in -80 ºC. Supernatant from homogenization were used to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX, gluthatione reductase (GR and catalase (CAT activities as enzymatic antioxidant status. Also Maolnyldealdehyde (MDA level as index of lipid peroxidation and total glutathione (T.GSH of the heart tissue were measured.Results: Diabetes significantly reduced CAT and GR activities in diabetic rats compared with control rats. SOD and GPX activities weren't changed in the hearts of the diabetic rats. MDA level, as a lipid peroxidation index, increased in non exercised diabetic rats. In response to exercise, MDA level, CAT, GR and SOD activities showed a significant increase in exercise diabetic rats compared with non exercise diabetic rats.Conclusion: Forced treadmill with moderate severity has harmful effects on cardiovascular system in diabetes because it increases MDA level of heart tissue in exercised diabetic rats.

  5. Effect of vitamin D on bone metabolism in diabetic rats and its related mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3on bone metabolism in diabetic rats and the related molecular mechanism.Methods A total of 45healthy 6-8 weeks old male Sprague Dawley(SD)rats were treated with streptozotocin.The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly assigned to diabetic group(DM),low dose vitamin D treated group(LD),and high dose vitamin D treated group(HD).Another 12healthy SD rats were used as normol control group(NC).The rats in NC group and DM group were fed with 0.05

  6. Antihyperlipidemic effect of fisetin, a bioflavonoid of strawberries, studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Gopalan Sriram; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2014-10-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is associated with profound changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, with resultant alterations in particle distribution within lipoprotein classes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to explore the antihyperlipidemic effect of fisetin in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Upon fisetin treatment to diabetic rats, the levels of blood glucose were significantly reduced with an improvement in plasma insulin. The increased levels of lipid contents in serum, hepatic, and renal tissues observed in diabetic rats were normalized upon fisetin administration. Also, the decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL (VLDL) cholesterol in serum of diabetic rats were normalized. Oil Red O staining established a large number of intracellular lipid droplets accumulation in the diabetic rats. Fisetin treatment exacerbated the degree of lipid accumulation. The results of the present study exemplify the antihyperlipidemic property of the fisetin.

  7. Injury to the Endothelial Surface Layer Induces Glomerular Hyperfiltration Rats with Early-Stage Diabetes

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    Chunyang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular endothelial surface layer (ESL may play a role in the mechanisms of albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy, which lack evidence in vivo. The effects of high glucose on the passage of albumin across the glomerular ESL were analysed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Albuminuria and glomerular mesangial matrix were significantly increased in diabetic rats. The passage of albumin across the ESL, as measured by albumin-colloid gold particle density in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM, was increased significantly in diabetic rats. The thickness of the glomerular ESL, examined indirectly by infusing Intralipid into vessels using an electron microscope, was significantly decreased and the GBM exhibited little change in diabetic rats. In summary, the glomerular ESL may play a role in the pathogenesis of albuminuria in rats with early-stage diabetes.

  8. Phlorizin Prevents Glomerular Hyperfiltration but not Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats

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    Slava Malatiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of renal and glomerular hypertrophies to development of hyperfiltration and proteinuria early in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were explored. Control, diabetic, phlorizin-treated controls, and diabetic male Fischer rats were used. Phlorizin (an Na+-glucose cotransport inhibitor was given at a dose sufficient to normalize blood glucose. Inulin clearance (Cinulin and protein excretion rate (PER were measured. For morphometry, kidney sections were stained with periodic acid Schiff. At one week, diabetes PER increased 2.8-folds (P<.001, Cinulin increased 80% (P<.01. Kidney wet and dry weights increased 10%–12% (P<.05, and glomerular tuft area increased 9.3% (P<.001. Phlorizin prevented proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and kidney hypertrophy, but not glomerular hypertrophy. Thus, hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and whole kidney hypertrophy were related to hyperglycemia but not to glomerular growth. Diabetic glomerular hypertrophy constitutes an early event in the progression of glomerular pathology which occurs in the absence of mesangial expansion and persists even after changes in protein excretion and GFR are reversed through glycemic control.

  9. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

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    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  10. Superoxide and Respiratory Coupling in Mitochondria of Insulin-Deficient Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Herlein, Judith A.; Fink, Brian D.; O'Malley, Yunxia; Sivitz, William I.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species have been implicated in both diabetic complications and the progression of the underlying diabetic state. However, it is not clear whether mitochondria of diabetic origin are intrinsically altered to generate excess reactive oxygen species independent of the surrounding diabetic milieu. Mitochondria were isolated from gastrocnemius, heart, and liver of 2-wk and 2-month streptozotocin diabetic rats and controls. We rigidly quantified mitochondrial superoxi...

  11. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

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    Dilpesh P. Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.. Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction diabetic rats were orally treated with hesperidin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment kidney functions, oxidative stress indices, biochemical estimations and histopathological examination were carried out to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited significant rise in blood glucose level, altered kidney functions, oxidative stress and histological abnormalities compared to control rats. Hesperidin treatment significantly reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, creatinine, urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride when compared with diabetic control rats. Significant rise in renal hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, microalbuminuria as well as oxidative stress in the diabetic rats were effectively attenuated with hesperidin treatment, dose dependently. Moreover, basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion observed in the kidney of diabetic rats restored near to normal structure. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that hesperidin ameliorate early diabetic nephropathy. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(4.000: 261-267

  12. Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in Treating Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-yu; LI Meng; WANG Rui; LI Bin; GUO Ya-jing

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang (Hypoglycemic Anti-Deafness Capsule) in treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hearing loss. Methods Two hundred ninety six patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hearing loss were randomly assigned to a treatment group(n=164, 208 ears) and a control group(n=132,184 ears). Patients in the treatment group were treated with the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang and supplement herbal preparations as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine dialectical assessment, while control patients received glibenclamide and conventional treatments for deafness. Hearing, fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial blood glucose(PBG), 24 hour urine sugar, platelet function indices, blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LPO) levels, and symptom improvement were compared between the two groups. Results The rate of hearing improvement was 56.7% for the treatment group and 26.6% for the control. FBG, PBG and 24 hour urine sugar improved in both groups, but the last two were superior in the treatment group compared to the control. Symptoms improvement was also superior in the treatment group compared to the control. In patients receiving Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang treatment, platelet function indices, SOD and LPO were all improved, while only LOP improvement was noticed in control patients. No acute or long-term toxicity was demonstrated for the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in animal tests. The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang lowered blood glucose and serum triglycerides in a rat model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang is effective in improving hearing and diabetic indices in diabetic patients with deafness, without significant side effects.

  13. Effect of ligustrum fruit extract on reproduction in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Liang FENG; Shu-Hua LI; Yan WANG; Chang-Chun CHEN; Bin GAO

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of ligustrum fruit on spermatogenesis and blood gonadal hormones in diabetic rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with streptozotocin. Ligustrum fruit extract was given by gastric gavage at a dose of crude drug 30 g@ kg- 1@ d- 1 for 110 days. The serum gonadadotropic hormones and testosterone were determined on d 60 and testicular histology examined on d 110. Results: In the control diabetic rats, the seminiferous tubules were dilated and the spermatogenic cells irregularly arranged. Spermatogenesis was arrested with the number of spermatids highly reduced and spermatozoa not observed. In the treated rats, all types of spermatogenic cells were practically normal. The serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)and testosterone levels were higher in the treated than in the control rats, but the difference was insignificant. Conclusion: In experimental diabetic rats, ligustrum fruit extract protects the damaging effect of experimental diabetes on spermatogenesis.

  14. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Fan ZHANG; Benny Kwong-Huat TAN

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-diabetic effect of a crude ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in normal and streptozotocin ( STZ )-induced diabetic rats.METHODS & RESULTS: Oral administration of the extract at different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/body weight) significantly reduced the fasting serum glucose level in STZ-diabetic rats compared to the vehicle ( distilled water), but not in normal rots. This effect was dose-dependent. A similar result was seen with metfomnin (0.5 g/body weight). In the glucose tolerance test, an oral administration of the extract at the same doses suppressed the elevated glucose level in normal and diabetic rots, as did mefformin. The effects were also dose-respondent. In the long-term experiment, the extract ( 0.4 g/body weight ), mefformin ( 0.5 gz/body weight), and vehicle were given twice daily to diabetic rats for 14 d. On d 15, fasting serum glucose levels were found to be significantly lower in the extract-and mefformin-treated groups ( P<0.001 ) than in the vehicle-treated group. The mean food and water intakes over 14 days were significantly lower in the extract-treated group ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively) and also in the mefformin-treated group (both P < 0.001 ) when compared to the vehicle-treated group. No significant change in insulin level was observed among the 3 groups of diabetic rats. The extract, like mefformin, maintained the leptin levels after 14-d treatment, whereas this level was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) in the vehicle-treated group. The activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) was significantly reduced by the extract as well as by mefformin (both P < 0.05). No significant difference in hepatic glycogen stores was noted among the 3 groups. The extract caused 49.8 % reduction of fasting serum triglyceride levels, compared to 27.7 % with metformin. However, neither the extract nor mefformin significantly affected serum cholesterol level. CONCLUSION: The ethanolic

  15. The Influence of Goat Milk and Soybean Milk Kefir On IL-6 and Crp Levels in Diabetic Rats

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    Sunarti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hyperglycemia increases inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Goat and soybean milks have been known to reduce inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of goat milk and soybean milk kefir on IL-6 and CRP levels in diabetic rats. Materials and Method: A total of 25 male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: 1 normal rats; 2 diabetic rats; 3 diabetic rats with intake of goat milk kefir; 4 diabetic rats with intake of soybean milk kefir; and 5 diabetic rats with combination of both types of kefir. Before kefir administration for 4 weeks, plasma glucose was measured. After treatment, plasma glucose, CRP and IL-6 levels were assessed. Results: There was a significant decline of plasma glucose in diabetic rats with goat milk kefir (p=0.021, and in diabetic rats with the combination of both goat milk and soybean milk kefir (p<0.001. After treatment, CRP level in diabetic rats was significantly higher when compared with those that had goat milk kefir (p=0.043. All of diabetic rats with kefir had IL-6 values significantly lower than diabetic rats without it (p=0.021. Conclusion: Both goat milk and soybean milk kefir can reduce IL-6 level, but only goat milk kefir can reduce CRP in diabetic rats.

  16. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

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    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  17. Beneficial effect of the Ca2+ antagonist, nimodipine, on existing diabetic neuropathy in the BB/Wor rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gispen, W.H.; Kappelle, A. C.; Biessels, G.J.; Bravenboer, B.; Buren, T. van; Traber, J.; de Wildt, D J

    1994-01-01

    1. Neuropathy is a frequently diagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus. Effective pharmacotherapy is not available. 2. The spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats develop secondary complications like neuropathy as do human diabetic patients. 3. BB/Wor rats treated with insulin via a subcutaneous implant show a significant impairment of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity 6 weeks after the onset of diabetes mellitus. 4. Intraperitoneal treatment of diabetic BB/Wor rats with the Ca2+ anta...

  18. Diabetic Nephropathy Amelioration by a Low-Dose Sitagliptin in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes (Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mega; Edite Teixeira de Lemos; Helena Vala; Rosa Fernandes; Jorge Oliveira; Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo; Frederico Teixeira; Flávio Reis

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic low-dose sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on metabolic profile and on renal lesions aggravation in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa) rats and their controls ZDF (+/+) were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle (control) or sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw). Blood/serum glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, urea, and creatinine were assessed, as well as kid...

  19. Tissue-specific alterations in expression and function of P-glycoprotein in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-lu ZHANG; Guang-ji WANG; Lin XIE; Liang LU; Shi JIN; Xin-yue JING; Dan YAO; Nan HU; Li LIU; Ru DUAN; Xiao-dong LIU

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the changes of expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-GP) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, liver, intestinal mucosa and kidney of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetic rats were prepared via a single dose of streptozocin (65 mg/kg, ip). Abcb1/P-GP mRNA and protein expression levels in tissues were evaluated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and Western blot, respectively.P-GP function was investigated via measuring tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios and body fluid excretion percentages of rhodamine 123.Results: In 5- and 8-week diabetic rats, Abcb1a mRNA levels were significantly decreased in cerebral cortices and intestinal mucosa,but dramatically increased in hippocampus and kidney. In liver, the level was increased in 5-week diabetic rats, and decreased in 8-week diabetic rats. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and kidney, but reduced in liver and intestinal mucosa in the diabetic rats. Western blot results were in accordance with the alterations of Abcb1a mRNA levels in most tissues examined. P-GP activity was markedly decreased in most tissues of diabetic rats, except kidney tissues.Conclusion: Alterations in the expression and function of Abcb1/P-GP under diabetic conditions are tissue specific, Abcb1 specific and diabetic duration-dependent.

  20. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherien; Kamal; Hassan; Nermin; Mohammed; El-Sammad; Amria; Mamdouh; Mousa; Maha; Hashim; Mohammed; Abd; el; Razik; Hussein; Farrag; Amani; Nassir; Eldin; Hashim; Victoria; Werner; Ulrike; Lindequist; Mahmoud; Abd; El-Moein; Nawwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant ef ects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia ferrea(C. ferrea) leaf in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ(65 mg/kg body weight). C. ferrea extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration serum, liver and pancreas were used for evaluating biochemical and histopathological changes.Results: Oral administration of C. ferrea leaf extract significantly reduced elevated serum glucose, α-amylase, liver function levels and signii cantly increased serum insulin, total protein and body weight as well as improved lipid proi le due to diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione, and diminished levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas and liver damage and coni rmed the biochemical i ndings.Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract ef ectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  1. The Pattern of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in the Hippocampus of Diabetic Rats

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    Iraj Salehi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular exercise in preventing diabetes complication in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat.Materials and MethodsA total of 48 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (control, control exercise, diabetic and diabetic exercise. Diabetes was induced by injection of single dose of STZ. Exercise was performed for one hr every day, over a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, CAT and GR and oxidant indexes with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and its mRNA and apoptosis were measured in hippocampus of rats. ResultsA significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA level were observed in diabetic rats (P= 0.004. In response to exercise, antioxidant enzymes activities increased (P= 0.004. In contrast, MDA level decreased in diabetic rats (P= 0.004. Induction of diabetes caused an increase of BDNF protein and its mRNA expression. In response to exercise, BDNF protein and its mRNA expression reduced in hippocampus of diabetic rats. ConclusionDiabetes induced oxidative stress and increased BDNF gene expression. Exercise ameliorated oxidative stress and decreased BDNF gene expression.

  2. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by compound 21, selective agonist of angiotensin type 2 receptors, in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira Rt; Bombardi, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of compound 21 (C21), selective AT2 receptor agonist, in diabetic nephropathy and the potential additive effect of C21, when associated to losartan treatment, on the development of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ...

  3. Water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin diabetic rats: effects of insulin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Biessels, G.J.; Kamal, A.; Urban, I.J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.; Erkelens, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Streptozotocin-diabetic rats express deficits in water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The present study examined whether these deficits could be prevented and/or reversed with insulin treatment. In addition, the water maze learning deficit in diabetic rats was further characteriz

  4. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

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    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  5. Antinociceptive effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdas, Deniz; Ozboluk, Hasret Yucel; Cinkilic, Nilufer; Gurun, Mine Sibel

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate possible antinociceptive effects of chlorogenic acid in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain in rats. Chlorogenic acid (100 mg/kg) was administered daily for 14 days. Our study showed for the first time that both single and chronic chlorogenic acid treatments produced significant antinociceptive effects in diabetic rats. In contrast, single dose of chlorogenic acid showed no signs of an antinociceptive effect, but chronic treatment exerted antinociceptive potential in nondiabetic rats. Additionally, chronic treatment effectively reduced hyperglycemia that induced by diabetes. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid has beneficial effects for the management of diabetic neuropathic pain.

  6. Novel role for gabapentin in neuroprotection of central nervous system in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giyasettin BAYDAS; Ertugrul SONKAYA; Mehmet TUZCU; Abdullah YASAR; Emir DONDER

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of gabapentin on neural [neuron-specific enolase (NSE)] and glial markers [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B] in different brain regions of diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocine (50 mg/kg body weight). Rats in one group received vehicle only for 6 weeks. The levels of GFAP, S 100B, and NSE were determined by immunoblotting in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Lipid peroxidation (LPO as malondialdehyde+ 4-hydroxyalkenals) and glutathione (GSH) levels were also determined in the same brain parts. Results: Total and degraded GFAP content and S100B protein expression in different areas of brain tissues significantly increased in diabetic rats compared to control rats. Similarly, NSE levels were also significantly elevated in hyperglycemic rats. In addition, there was a significant increase in LPO levels in the diabetic rat brain compared to control rat brains. Pretreatment with gabapentin prevented the upregulation of GFAP, S 100B, and NSE in all brain regions of diabetic rats. The level of LPO was reduced, but not completely halted, by treatment with gabapentin. Conclusion: These results suggest that diabetes causes glial and neuronal injury, possibly as a result of elevated oxidative stress, and that gabapentin protects neurons and glial cells. Thus, we predict that gabapentin treatment will attenuate the hippocampal and cortical neurodegeneration observed during diabetes mellitus in rats.

  7. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Manoharan, S; Renju, G L; Sethupathy, S

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide leading metabolic syndrome, associated with profound alterations in carbohydrate, lipids, lipoproteins and protein metabolisms. Worldwide, traditional practitioners for the treatment of diabetes and its complications use a wide variety of medicinal plants. In the present study the aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves (TpALet) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Profound alterations in the concentrations of blood glucose, lipids and lipoproteins were observed in diabetic rats. Oral administration of TpALet to diabetic rats at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the level of blood glucose and increased the level of plasma insulin as well as normalized the lipids and lipoproteins profile. The present study thus demonstrated that TpALet has prominent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  8. The Protective Effect of Fucoidan in Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN has long been recognized as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, but the efficacy of available strategies for the prevention of DN remains poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of fucoidan (FPS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Wistar rats were made diabetic by injection of STZ after removal of the right kidney. FPS was administered to these diabetic rats for 10 weeks. Body weight, physical activity, renal function, and renal morphometry were measured after 10 weeks of treatment. In the FPS-treated group, the levels of blood glucose, BUN, Ccr and Ucr decreased significantly, and microalbumin, serum insulin and the β2-MG content increased significantly. Moreover, the FPS-treated group showed improvements in renal morphometry. In summary, FPS can ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities of diabetic rats and delay the progression of diabetic renal complications.

  9. Melatonin administration in diabetes: regulation of plasma Cr, V, and Mg in young male Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J; Blanca-Herrera, Rosa M; Kaki, Abdullah; Adem, Abdu; Agil, Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    The use of melatonin, a neurohormone present in plants, represents an exciting approach for the maintenance of optimum health conditions. Melatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin in diabetes in relation to the levels and regulation of plasma chromium (Cr), vanadium (V), and magnesium (Mg) in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats. At the age of 6 weeks, ZDF (n = 30) and ZL (n = 30) groups were each subdivided into three groups: control (C) (n = 10), vehicle-treated (V') (n = 10) and melatonin-treated (M) (10 mg kg(-1) per day; n = 10) groups for a 6 week period. After treatment, plasma mineral concentrations were measured by flame (Mg) and electrothermal (Cr and V) atomic absorption spectrometry. No significant differences were found between the C and V' groups (p > 0.05). Plasma Mg levels were significantly lower in C-ZDF vs. C-ZL rats, demonstrating the presence of hypomagnesemia in this diabetes mellitus model. Plasma V and Cr levels were significantly higher in M-ZDF vs. C-ZDF rats. Plasma Mg levels in ZDF rats were not affected by melatonin treatment (p > 0.05). Melatonin administration ameliorates the diabetic status of ZDF rats by enhancing plasma Cr and V concentrations. This appears to be the first report of a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment on plasma Cr and V regulation in ZDF rats.

  10. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  11. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Tahir; Shaheen Farhat; Mahmud Madiha; Waheed Hina; Ishtiaq Muhammad; Javed Qamar; Murtaza Iram

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC). Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administrati...

  12. Carnosine Prevents Apoptosis of Glomerular Cells and Podocyte Loss in STZ Diabetic Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedl, Eva; Pfister, Frederick; Braunagel, Margarita; Brinkkoetter, Paul; Sternik, Paula; Deinzer, Martina; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Henning, Rob H.; van den Born, Jacob; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Navis, Gerjan; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Yard, Benito; Koeppel, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: We identified carnosinase-1 (CN-1) as risk-factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Carnosine, the substrate for CN-1, supposedly is a protective factor regarding diabetic complications. In this study, we hypothesized that carnosine administration to diabetic rats might protect the kid

  13. Antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithavathi, Vilapakkam Ranganathan; Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen; Kumar, Ramesh; Selvakumari, Jemmi

    2011-01-10

    The present study aims to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40mg/kg. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant (Pacid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly (Pgallic acid (10 and 20mg/kg) daily for a period of 21days showed significant (Pgallic acid in diabetic rats. In vitro study also revealed the potent antioxidant effect of gallic acid. Thus, the study shows the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effect exerted by 20mg/kg body weight of gallic acid was more effective than 10mg/kg body weight of gallic acid.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chilaka K.C; Ifediba E.C; Ogamba J.O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P<0.001) in the early weeks of the study when compared with both the diabetic control group and the metformin-treated group. The seed oil significantly lowered serum triglyceride, the serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol; the activities of all the liver enzymes assayed (P<0.05) but significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol in the diabetic oil-treated rats as compared to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is

  15. Decreased level of epidermal growth factor in milk from diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Raaberg, Lasse;

    1994-01-01

    and in the concentration of EGF in milk from untreated diabetic rats compared with an insulin-treated diabetic group and a control group. Thus, the total output of EGF in milk from diabetic rats was considerably decreased. The concentrations of total protein and haptocorrin, a cobalamin (vitamin B12)-binding protein......Experimental diabetes was induced in rats with streptozocin before mating, and the influence of diabetes on epidermal growth factor (EGF) in milk and on other milk components was studied. Throughout the lactation period, a significant decrease was found both in the production of milk......, and the content of fat, however, were unaltered by diabetes. Therefore, the decrease in milk EGF seemed to be selective compared with total protein in milk. The pups of diabetic dams had reduced body weights within 1 wk of lactation and reduced body lengths on d 16 of lactation compared with control pups...

  16. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  17. Effects of Nitrate Intake on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

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    Sajad Jeddi

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective: We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group: control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate was added to drinking water (100 mg/L for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt, endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase (eNOS and inducible NO synthase (iNOS mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and NO metabolites (NOx. Results: Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion: Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart.

  18. Effects of Nitrate Intake on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Sajad; Khalifi, Saeedeh; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Bageripour, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Results Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart. PMID:27849257

  19. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; F. E. Olumese; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the gro...

  20. Regulative Function of Low Molecular Chitosan on Blood Sugar in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Bing YANG; Yong WU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Chitosan has good action on reducing blood sugar with low poisonous side-effect. Low molecular chitosan(LMC) is the oxide of high molecular chitosan, which has water-solubility and the function of lowering blood sugar of diabetic rats. In this experiment, STZ was adopted to duplicate the model rats of Type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus, the regulative function of LMC on Type Ⅱ diabetic blood sugar was observed for further inquiry into its functionary mechanism.

  1. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dilpesh P Jain; Rahul S Somani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction ...

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines.

  3. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in sand rats. II. In vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with the effects of daily intermittent fasting for 15 h upon the development of diabetes in sand rats exposed to a hypercaloric diet. The same pattern of daily intermittent fasting was imposed on sand rats maintained on a purely vegetal diet (control animals). Over the last 30 days of the present experiments, non-fasting animals gained weight, whilst intermittently fasting sand rats lost weight. In this respect, there was no significant difference between control animals and either diabetic or non-diabetic sand rats exposed to the hypercaloric diet. The postprandial glycemia remained fairly stable in the control animals. During a 3-week transition period from a purely vegetal to a hypercaloric diet, the post-prandial glycemia increased by 5.95 ± 1.26 mM (n=6) in diabetic sand rats, as distinct from an increase of only 0.45 ± 0.56 mM (n=6) in the non-diabetic animals. During the intermittent fasting period, the postprandial glycemia decreased significantly in the diabetic animals, but not so in the non-diabetic sand rats. Before the switch in food intake, the peak glycemia at the 30th min of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was already higher in the diabetic than non-diabetic rats. In both the non-diabetic and diabetic sand rats, intermittent fasting prevented the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise observed in non-fasting animals. These findings reveal that, at least in sand rats, intermittent daily fasting prevents the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise taking place when these animals are exposed to a hypercaloric diet.

  4. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies on exenatide in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-gang LI; Liang LI; Xuan ZHOU; Ye CHEN; Yu-peng REN; Tian-yan ZHOU; Wei LU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To quantitatively evaluate the blood glucose-lowering effect of exenatide in diabetic rats.Methods:Male Harlan-Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with high-fat diet/streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes.After subcutaneous administration of a single dose of exenatide (4.2,42,or 210 pg/kg),serum exenatide,insulin concentration and blood glucose were measured.The pharmacokinetics of exenatide was characterized by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption.Insulin turnover was characterized by an effect compartment and indirect response combined model.Glucose turnover was described using an indirect response model with insulin (in effect compartment) stimulating glucose disposition and insulin (in insulin compartment) inhibiting glucose production simultaneously.The model parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects model program.Visual predictive check and model evaluation were used to make assessments.Results:Exenatide exhibited rapid absorption with ka=4.45 h-1,and the two-compartment model well described its pharmacokinetic profile.For the pharmacodynamic model,exenatide increased insulin release with the estimated Sm1 of 0.822 and SC50 of 4.02 pg/L.It was demonstrated that insulin stimulated glucose dissipation (Sm2=0.0513) and inhibited the production of glucose (Im=0.0381).Visual predictive check and model evaluation study indicated that a credible model was developed.Conclusion:The glucose-lowering effect of exenatide in diabetic rats is reliably described and predicted by the combined effect compartment/indirect response model.

  5. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  6. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  7. Dietary resistant maltodextrin ameliorates testicular function and spermatogenesis in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-Y; Hsu, Y-J; Chien, Y-W E; Cha, T-L; Tsao, C-W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of resistant maltodextrin (RMD) on reproduction in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats. Forty male rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg kg(-1)) and nicotinamide (100 mg kg(-1)). Five groups were analysed in total: normal, diabetic rats without RMD, diabetic rats with RMD 1.2 g per 100 g diet (1×), with RMD 2.4 g per 100 g (2×), and with RMD 6.0 g per 100 g (5×). The groups of diabetic rats with the RMD supplement, compared to those without supplement, showed improved plasma glucose control, attenuated insulin resistance and recovery of testosterone level and spermatogenesis stage. The STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) caused a significant reduction in serum testosterone, testis androgen receptor (AR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) protein, but a statistical recovery in each of these was observed in the 5× group. TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the diabetic without RMD group, and RMD treatment reduced apoptotic germ cells. The expression of Bax/Bcl2 was induced in the diabetic group and also significantly reduced in the 5× group. Dietary RMD may improve metabolic control in STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and attenuate hyperglycaemia-related impaired male reproduction and testicular function.

  8. Effect of umbelliferone on tail tendon collagen and haemostatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Balakrishnan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2007-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to affect collagen in various tissues. Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant and benzopyrone, is found in golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Plant-derived phenolic coumarins have been shown to act as dietary antioxidants. In this study, we have investigated the influence of umbelliferone on collagen content and its effects on the tail tendon in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats (180-200 g) were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with umbelliferone for 45 days. Diabetic rats had increased glucose and decreased insulin levels. Tail tendons of diabetic rats had increased total collagen, glycation and fluorescence, and decreased levels of neutral, acid and pepsin-soluble collagens. We have studied the effect of umbelliferone on haemostatic function because umbelliferone is also a coumarin derivative like the anticoagulant, warfarin. Diabetic rats had a significant decrease in prothrombin, clotting and bleeding time, and treatment with umbelliferone made these parameters almost normal. Our results show that umbelliferone controls glycaemia and has a beneficial effect on collagen content and its properties, i.e. collagen related parameters, in the tail tendon, which indicates recovery from the risk (recovery of animals from the risk of complications) of collagen-mediated diabetic polyneuropathy and diabetic nephropathy.

  9. The efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds on diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Onur; Erbas, Oytun; Yigitturk, Gurkan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokines, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, and increased oxidative stress are considered to be responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that Aesculus hippocastanum (AH) seeds may have preventive effects on oxidative stress and TGF-β-related diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups (n=7). Except for the control group, they all had diabetic nephropathy induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ. While the diabetes group did not receive any medication, the diabetes+AH group was given the medication for 4 weeks. After the experiment, analyses were performed to evaluate the glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, and fibronectin immunoexpression, as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), TGF-β, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood glucose, creatinine, and proteinuria. It was found that glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, fibronectin immunoexpression, and levels of MDA, TGF-β, BUN, creatinine, and proteinuria were decreased in the diabetes+AH group. It is known that diabetic nephropathy is induced, to a large extent, by hyperglycemia. In the present study, AH extract ameliorated diabetic nephropathy without decrease in blood glucose levels. In the study, AH seeds showed beneficial effects on the functional properties of the kidney and microscopic improvements in diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Altered activities of transcription factors and their related gene expression in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Y; Kashiwagi, A; Taki, H; Shinozaki, K; Maeno, Y; Kojima, H; Maegawa, H; Haneda, M; Hidaka, H; Yasuda, H; Horiike, K; Kikkawa, R

    1998-08-01

    Gene regulation in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic subjects has been reported to be altered. To examine abnormal activities in transcription factors as a possible cause of this altered gene regulation, we studied the activity of two redox-sensitive transcription factors--nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1)--and the change in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1, which is regulated by these transcription factors in the cardiac tissues of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Increased activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 but not nuclear transcription-activating factor, as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, was found in the hearts of 4-week diabetic rats. Glycemic control by a subcutaneous injection of insulin prevented these diabetes-induced changes in transcription factor activity. In accordance with these changes, the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 was increased fourfold in 4-week diabetic rats and threefold in 24-week diabetic rats as compared with control rats (P oxidative stress is involved in the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the cardiac tissues of diabetic rats, and that these abnormal activities of transcription factors could be associated with the altered gene regulation observed in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic rats.

  11. Selenium Nanoparticles Attenuate Oxidative Stress and Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Dkhil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective and antioxidative effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in streptozotocin STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ-diabetic rats were exposed daily to treatments with SeNPs and/or insulin and then the effect of these treatments on the parameters correlated to oxidative damage of the rat testes were assessed. Biochemical analysis revealed that SeNPs are able to ameliorate the reduction in the serum testosterone caused by STZ-induced diabetes. Furthermore, SeNPs could significantly decrease testicular tissue oxidative stress markers, namely lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. In contrast, treatment of the STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs increased the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities in testicular tissues. Moreover, microscopic analysis proved that SeNPs are able to prevent histological damage in the testes of STZ-diabetic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 is significantly upregulated. On the contrary, the mRNA level of Bax (Bcl-2 Associated X Protein was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs led to an elevation in the expression of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Gene. Interestingly, the insulin treatment also exhibited a significant improvement in the testicular function in STZ-diabetic rats. Collectively, our results demonstrated the possible effects of SeNPs in attenuating diabetes-induced oxidative damage, in particular in testicular tissue.

  12. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisou Mohaddes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week, Diabetic (12 weeks, Loganin, Diabetic (1 week + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Loganin (40 mg/kg, po was administrated 1 hour before test. Then, spatial memory was compared between groups with Morris Water Maze tests. Results: Administration of loganin during acquisition, significantly (p<0.05 decreased both escape latency and traveled distance to find hidden platform in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. In evaluation of recall phase of memory, loganin significantly (p<0.05 increased time and distance spent in the target quadrant in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. Conclusion: Acute administration of loganin could improve spatial memory in diabetic rats.

  13. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Bakhashwain, Amal S.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w), respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa. PMID:28298934

  14. Antioxidant effect of carnosine treatment on renal oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yay, A; Akkuş, D; Yapıslar, H; Balcıoglu, E; Sonmez, M F; Ozdamar, S

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the effects of an antioxidant, carnosine, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced renal injury in diabetic rats. We used four groups of eight rats: group 1, control; group 2, carnosine treated; group 3, untreated diabetic; group 4, carnosine treated diabetic. Kidneys were removed and processed, and sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and subjected to eNOS immunohistochemistry. Examination by light microscopy revealed degenerated glomeruli, thickened basement membrane and glycogen accumulation in the tubules of diabetic kidneys. Carnosine treatment prevented the renal morphological damage caused by diabetes. Moreover, administration of carnosine decreased somewhat the oxidative damage of diabetic nephropathy. Appropriate doses of carnosine might be a useful therapeutic option to reduce oxidative stress and associated renal injury in diabetes mellitus.

  15. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats.

  16. The effects of Tremella aurantia on testosterone and corticosterone productions in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Jyuer-Ger; Liu, Bi-Ching; Chen, Yen-Wen; Huang, Yuan-Li; Poon, Song Ling; Liu, Ming-Yie; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2004-01-01

    Tremella aurantia (TA) has been traditionally used as food and crude medicine in Chinese society. The polysaccharide isolated from the fruiting bodies of TA exhibits significant hypoglycemic activity in diabetic mouse models of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Diabetes will cause sexual dysfunction in patients. In the present study, we examined if the treatment of TA on IDDM and NIDDM rats will restore steroidogenesis and then the reproductive function. The fruiting bodies (FB), mycelium (TM) and polysaccharide (GX) of TA were fed to the IDDM and NIDDM rats, and testosterone and corticosterone levels in plasma, the weight of steroidogenic organs, and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and P450scc enzyme were determined. Plasma testosterone productions were significantly suppressed with the feeding of FB or TM in normal rat (p diabetes rats (p 0.05). There was no significant difference of the testosterone production between normal and NIDDM rats (p > 0.05). In plasma corticosterone production, there were no differences among control, FB- or TM-fed normal rats (p > 0.05). Corticosterone levels were reduced in IDDM rats compared to control, and FB or TM could restore its level. Corticosterone levels were induced in NIDDM rats compared to control (p feeding in NIDDM rat had lesser testis weight compared to NIDDM rats. The expression of StAR protein and P450scc enzyme were not different among groups in IDDM and NIDDM rats. Plasma testosterone productions were suppressed in normal rats with the feeding of TA (FB and TM). IDDM rats did have lower testosterone, but not in NIDDM, and FB or TM could not restore the inhibitory effects. The induction of IDDM or NIDDM rats did affect steroidogenesis and steroidogenic organ weights, and the feeding of TA had different effects on steroidogenesis in different types of diabetic rats.

  17. Dual Effect of Curcumin-Zinc Complex in Controlling Diabetes Mellitus in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Khalil; Abdel Fatah, Hala Salah; El-Badry, Yaser Abdel-Moemen

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of curcumin from Curcuma longa was performed in an ultrasonic bath at 30°C using ethanol for 40 min. A successful attempt has been made to prepare curcumin-zinc (Zn) complex using a simple chemical procedure. The complex formation and its stoichiometry were characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform (FT)-IR and UV spectroscopy which revealed the interaction of Zn(II) ion (M) with curcumin (ligand, L) to proceed via (ML) complex type formation. Oral administration of curcumin-Zn complex at a concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight/rat/d for 45 d in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in comparison to curcumin and/or Zn administration exerted a hypoglycemic effect. A significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb)A1c, and lipid profile parameters with an excellent improvement in plasma insulin levels have been attained. Also, the reduced activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine in the diabetic rats treated with the complex exhibited the non-toxic nature of the curcumin-Zn complex. Finally, the larger extent of the complex in hyperglycemic improvement in comparison to curcumin and/or Zn supplementation was interpreted by its dual action on glucose and insulin maintenance.

  18. Effects of TNF-α blocking on experimental periodontitis and type 2 diabetes in obese diabetic Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauballe, Morten Christian Bay; Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Schou, Søren

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is considered a key signalling modulator in the pathogenesis of both periodontitis (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This study aims at elucidating the effect of TNF-α blocking on the interplay between PD and DM2. METHODS: Obese diabetic Zucker...... rats and their lean littermates were divided into five treatment groups with or without periodontitis. Anti-TNF-α treatment was provided with Etanercept injections. Diabetic state was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test, the homeostatic model assessment, free fatty acids and blood glucose...... treatment. CONCLUSION: In this study anti-TNF-α treatment improved glucose tolerance and compensated for the increased periodontal disease in obese diabetic Zucker. PD did not influence diabetic parameters assessed including complications of the rats kidneys....

  19. Effect of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy on IgG Pharmacokinetics and Subcutaneous Bioavailability in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Gurkishan S; Morris, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) on the pharmacokinetics of human IgG (hIgG), an antibody isotype, in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Furthermore, the specific role of T2DM in the altered disposition of hIgG was evaluated by treating diabetic rats with pioglitazone, while the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was assessed using 5/6 nephrectomized Sprague Dawley rats. ZDF male (lean non-diabetic control and obese diabetic) and pioglitazone-treated ZDF rats were studied at ages 12-13 weeks (only DM was present), and at ages 29-30 weeks (progression to DN). All animals were dosed with 1 mg/kg of hIgG intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC). ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose concentrations and urinary albumin excretion compared to control rats. Significant increases in total clearance (2.5-fold) and renal clearance (100-fold) of hIgG were observed; however the major increase in total clearance was due to increased non-renal clearance. Greater changes in urinary albumin excretion and total and renal clearances of IgG (3.5-fold and 300-fold, respectively) were observed with progression to DN. SC bioavailability of hIgG in all animal groups was similar (>84%). With pioglitazone-treatment, diabetic animals remained euglycemic and treatment was able to reverse the clearance changes, although incompletely. In the CKD group, no difference in hIgG clearance was observed when compared with controls. In conclusion, the increased clearance of hIgG in ZDF diabetic animals, reversal by pioglitazone treatment and lack of effect of CKD, demonstrate the influence of T2DM on hIgG pharmacokinetics.

  20. Effects of melatonin on biochemical factors and food and water consumption in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Bibak; Monavareh Khalili; Ziba Rajaei; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh; Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetic neuropathy is one of the serious problems due to microvessel vasculopathy in diabetes. It has been reported that hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia are the underlying mechanisms in inducing and progression of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on serum glucose and lipid levels, as well as food consumption and water intake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar ra...

  1. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Comparative study to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of commercially available extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica in streptozocin induced diabetic rat

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    Nishant Pathak

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Commercially available extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica have significant anti-diabetic activity in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1641-1646

  3. Behavioral and endocrine responses of rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Wied, D. de

    1975-01-01

    Behavioral and endocrine profiles were established of homozygous (HO-DI) and heterozygous (HE-DI) rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in comparison to Wistar strain rats. HO-DI rats were inferior in acquiring and maintaining active and passive avoidance behavior. Behavioral deficits

  4. Hypoglycemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre extracts on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Min Sun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Min, Kwan-Sik; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus, which is associated with oxidative damage, has a significant impact on health, quality of life, and life expectancy. An ethanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was examined in vitro and in vivo to investigate the role of antioxidants in diabetic rats. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the assays, including TBA (56%), SOD-like (92%), and ABTS (54%). Blood glucose levels in the diabetic rats fed G. sylvestre extract decreased to normal levels. The presence of the antihyperglycemic compounds gymnemagenin and gymnemic acids in G. sylvestre extract was detected by LC/MS analysis. Lipid peroxidation levels were decreased by 31.7% in serum, 9.9% in liver, and 9.1% in kidney in the diabetic rats fed the extract. Feeding G. sylvestre extract to the diabetic rats decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in cytosolic liver and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum to normal levels.

  5. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Cui, Xiao-pei; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Wei, Na; Wang, Wei-ling; Lu, Mei

    2008-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to clarify whether grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts (GSPE) are therapeutic agents against DPN. In this study, we used streptozocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg body weight/d) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 wk. Motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV) and mechanical hyperalgesia were determined in the rats. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Light and electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of nerval ultrastructure.GSPE significantly increased the MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia and SOD of diabetic rats (pnerval damage. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of DPN.

  6. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide improves aortic relaxation in diabetic rats via PI3K/Akt pathway.

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    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chuan; Gong, Deming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-03-15

    A newly identified polysaccharide (PSG-1) has been purified from Ganoderma atrum. The study was to investigate the protective effect of PSG-1 on diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks and then injected with a low dose of streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. The diabetic rats were orally treated with PSG-1 for 4 weeks. It was found that administration of PSG-1 significantly reduced levels of fasting blood glucose, improved endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, increased levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-Akt (p-Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide in the aorta from diabetic rats, compared to un-treated diabetics. These results suggested that the protective effects of PSG-1 against endothelial dysfunction may be related to activation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.

  7. The potential role of IGF-I receptor mRNA in rats with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡洪宇; 邹伟; 刘丹; 史榕荇; 程丽华; 殷慧清; 刘晓民

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA(IGF-IR mRNA) in the onset and development of retinopathy in diabetic rats.Methods A diabetic model was duplicated in Wistar rats. The early changes in the retina were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of IGF-IR mRNA was analyzed using in situ hybridization.Results Weak expression of IGF-IR mRNA(5%) was found in retinas of normal rats, but was significantly increased (15% and 18%) in the retinas of diabetic rats after 3 and 6 months of diabetes (P<0.01). In situ hybridization and morphological study demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between IGF-IR mRNA expression and retinal changes at various stages.Conclusion Increased IGF-IR mRNA might play an important role in the onset and development of diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Treadmill Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Lung Damage Caused by Systemic Endotoxemia in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Ching-Hsia Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia induces a series of inflammatory responses that may result in lung injury. However, heat shock protein72 (HSP72 has the potential to protect the lungs from damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior exercise conditioning could increase the expression of HSP72 in the lungs and attenuate lung damage in diabetic rats receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups. Rats in the exercise condition ran on a treadmill 5 days/week, 30–60 min/day, with an intensity of 1.0 mile/hour over a 3-week period. Rats received an intravenous infusion of LPS after 24 hrs from the last training session. Elevated lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level in response to LPS was more marked in diabetic rats. HSP72 expression in lungs was significantly increased after exercise conditioning, but less pronounced in diabetic rats. After administration of LPS, exercised rats displayed higher survival rate as well as decreased lavage TNF-α level and lung edema in comparison to sedentary rats. Our findings suggest that exercise conditioning could attenuate the occurrence of inflammatory responses and lung damage, thereby reducing mortality rate in diabetic rats during endotoxemia.

  9. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

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    Takeshi Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of tualang honey supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    OO Erejuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hepatic dysfunction such as elevations of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase is associated with diabetes. We investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Malaysian tualang honey in streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg; ip-induced diabetic rats by measuring serum AST, ALT and ALP activities. Non-diabetic and diabetic rats were administered distilled water or tualang honey orally for four weeks. Serum AST, ALP and ALT activities were significantly (p < 0.01 elevated in diabetic control rats. Tualang honey significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05 reduced AST, ALT and ALP activities in diabetic rats. These results suggest that tualang honey may produce hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. Industrial relevance: Natural products are generally recognized for their enriched chemical and bioactive constituents which are the main contributors of their biological activities or therapeutic effects. This study provides evidence for hepatoprotective effect of tualang honey in diabetic rats. Considering the increasing prevalence of liver related disorders, most of which are secondary effects of exogenously ingested/administered substances, these results suggest that tualang honey may be effective in the treatment of hepatic damage or perhaps co-administered with other therapeutic agents to minimize their side effects.

  11. FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE SPINAL CORD DURING SENSORY STIMULATION IN DIABETIC RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisza, Krisztina L.; Jones, Cheryl; Gruwel, Marco L.H.; Foreman, Derek; Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if differences exist between control and diabetic rats in functional MRI activity of the spinal cord and if fMRI can provide a means of early detection of diabetic neuropathy. Materials and Methods fMRI of the spinal cord, using noxious electrical stimulation (15 V (~8 mA), 0.3 ms, 3 Hz) of the hind paw, was performed in groups of control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Results Diabetic rats were lighter, hyperglycemic and had lower blood pH than controls. FMRI activity at the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord was identified in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to stimulus of all animals. Signal intensity changes across the lumbar spinal cord during periods of activity were not significantly different between control and diabetic rats, with a trend towards greater signal changes in controls. When specific regions of the spinal cord were analyzed, control rats exhibited significantly increased BOLD fMRI activity in both ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal horn compared to diabetic rats. Conclusion The results of this study are consistent with reports that primary afferent input to the spinal cord is diminished by diabetes, and suggest that BOLD fMRI may be useful in early detection of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:19629995

  12. Antinociceptive effect of black seed feeding in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

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    Mohammad reza Vaez mahdavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Diabetic rats display exaggerated hyperalgesic behavior in response to noxious stimuli that may resemble and model aspects of painful diabetic neuropathy in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Nigella sativum (NS on formalin-induced nociceptive responses (standard formalin test in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.  Methods: For this purpose, STZ-diabetic rats received Nigella sativum mixed with standard rat chow at a weight ratio of 6.25% orally for a period of one month.  Results: It was found out that NS treatment did cause a significant reduction in blood glucose in diabetic rats and NS-treated diabetic rats exhibited a lower nociceptive score as compared to untreated-diabetic ones. Meanwhile, NS treatment reduced the nociceptive score in both phases of the formalin test. In contrast, sodium salicylate as positive control only reduced this score in the second phase of the test.  Discussion: The results suggest therapeutic potential of NS feeding for treating painful diabetic neuropathy. 

  13. Protective effects of leflunomide on renal lesions in a rat model if diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Ji, Yongqiang; Lv, Wei; He, Tianwei; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes with poor efficacy of clinical treatment. This study investigated the protective effects of leflunomide, a new immunosuppressant, on tubulointerstitial lesions in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection in male Wistar rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats were treated daily for 8 weeks with low (5 mg/kg) and high dose (10 mg/kg) of leflunomide, and benazepril hydrochloride (4 mg/kg) as a positive control. In diabetic rats, the 24-h urine volume, urine protein and microalbumin, blood creatinine and urea nitrogen significantly increased, which were attenuated by leflunomide treatment in a dose-dependent manner (all p leflunomide treatment. Immunohistochemistry study and real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin and CD68 expression in the renal tubulointerstitial region were significantly increased in the diabetic rats, while these increases were inhibited by leflunomide treatment. These findings suggest that leflunomide protects the kidney injury of diabetic rats might through its inhibition of OPN/TGF-β1 mediated extracellular matrix deposition and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as its inhibition on tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

  14. Dysregulation of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase/asymmetric dimethylarginine pathway in rat type II diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Ling; Aoyama, Sae; Ohata, Miyuki; Otsuka, Nami; Shiokawa, Hidemi; Tomono, Susumu; Fujiwara, Yukio; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    An impaired generation of nitric oxide has been associated with diabetic renal disease. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms into how nitric oxide synthesis is impaired in diabetic renal disease, we examined changes in activities and expressions of some renal enzymes involved in nitric oxide production during the development of diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. Ten-week old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (n = 40) and control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats (n = 20) were given drinking water containing 20% sucrose to accelerate the development of diabetic nephropathy. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats developed diabetic nephropathy in an age-dependent manner. Renal nitric oxide synthase activities in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats gradually declined with the progression of diabetic mellitus and were significantly lower than those of age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats after 22 weeks of age. The lower activities of renal nitric oxide synthase in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were correlated with relatively higher levels of renal free asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and were also correlated with decreased activities of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase which metabolizes asymmetric dimethylarginine to citrulline. These results imply that dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase dysregulation may play an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy by increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, which leads to inhibition of renal nitric oxide synthesis.

  15. Dysregulation of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase/asymmetric dimethylarginine pathway in rat type II diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Ling; Aoyama, Sae; Ohata, Miyuki; Otsuka, Nami; Shiokawa, Hidemi; Tomono, Susumu; Fujiwara, Yukio; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    An impaired generation of nitric oxide has been associated with diabetic renal disease. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms into how nitric oxide synthesis is impaired in diabetic renal disease, we examined changes in activities and expressions of some renal enzymes involved in nitric oxide production during the development of diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. Ten-week old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (n = 40) and control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats (n = 20) were given drinking water containing 20% sucrose to accelerate the development of diabetic nephropathy. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats developed diabetic nephropathy in an age-dependent manner. Renal nitric oxide synthase activities in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats gradually declined with the progression of diabetic mellitus and were significantly lower than those of age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats after 22 weeks of age. The lower activities of renal nitric oxide synthase in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were correlated with relatively higher levels of renal free asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and were also correlated with decreased activities of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase which metabolizes asymmetric dimethylarginine to citrulline. These results imply that dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase dysregulation may play an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy by increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, which leads to inhibition of renal nitric oxide synthesis. PMID:22962534

  16. Effects of coffee and caffeine on bladder dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-ran YI; Zhong-qing WEI; Xiang-lei DENG; Ze-yu SUN; Xing-rang LI; Cheng-gong TIAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the effects and mechanisms of caffeine and coffee on bladder dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM with coffee treatment, and DM with caffeine treatment. The diabetic rat was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After 7 weeks of treatment with coffee and caffeine, cystometrogram, contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh), and cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration of the bladder body and base were measured. Results: The bladder weight, volume threshold for micturition and post-void residual volume (PVR) in the diabetic rats were significantly higher compared to those in the control animals. Coffee or caffeine treatment significantly reduced the bladder weight, bladder capacity and PVR in the diabetic rats. DM caused significant decreases in cAMP concentration of the bladder and coffee and caffeine caused upregulation of cAMP content in the diabetic bladder. In addition, coffee and caffeine tended to normalize the altered detrusor contractile responses to EFS and ACh in the diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that caffeine and coffee may have beneficial effects on bladder dysfunction in the early stage of diabetes by increasing cAMP content in the lower urinary tract, recovering the micturition reflex and improving the detrusor contractility.

  17. Antidiabetic Activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Khalid Ghazanfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL, serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatise (ALP, were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use.

  18. Comparative evaluation of torasemide and furosemide on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Miyashita, Shizuka; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2014-08-01

    Nephropathy is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. There are various pathological renal remodeling processes leading to diabetic nephropathy because of the chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes mellitus. Various reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis during this progression. As antihypertensive drugs are reported to provide renoprotection in various animal models and clinical studies, we have carried out this study to identify the effect of torasemide, a loop diuretic, against streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy and compare with furosemide. Here we have performed the measurement of blood and urine parameters and renal protein expression levels for measuring the disease severity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated torasemide or furosemide and compared with the vehicle treated rats. Furosemide treatment significantly increased the urinary protein excretion when compared with the normal rats. Torasemide treatment has reduced the expression of mineralocorticoid receptor and oxidative stress marker p67phox levels with improved mRNA levels of heme oxygenase-1 in the kidneys. In addition, torasemide treated diabetic rats showed significantly reduced expression of renal fibrosis related proteins when compared with the vehicle treated diabetic rats. Although furosemide treatment has produced improvement, its effects are comparably less than that of torasemide. Thus with the present results, we can suggest that torasemide treatment can improve the diabetic kidney disease in this rat model and which is superior to furosemide against renal fibrotic remodeling.

  19. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehbor, F; Mansoori, A; Sarkaki, A R; Jalali, M T; Latifi, S M

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of apple cider vinegar on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (300+/-30 g) by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1) of body weight). Both normal and diabetic animals were fed with standard animal food containing apple cider vinegar (6% w/w) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose did not change, while HbA1c significantly decreased by apple cider vinegar in diabetic group (pvinegar, significant reduction of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (pcider vinegar also reduced serum triglyceride (TG) levels (pcider vinegar improved the serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats by decreasing serum TG, LDL-c and increasing serum HDL-c and may be of great value in managing the diabetic complications.

  20. Metabolic and biochemical changes in streptozotocin induced obese-diabetic rats treated with Phyllanthus niruri extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Maulidiani, M; Khatib, Alfi; Tan, Chin Ping; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Shaari, Khozirah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, N H

    2016-09-05

    Herbal medicine has been proven to be an effective therapy offering a variety of benefits, such as moderate reduction in hypoglycemia, in the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. Phyllanthus niruri has been used as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. Herein, the induction of type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats was achieved by a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (25mg/kgbw). Here, we evaluated the in vivo antidiabetic properties of two concentrations (250 and 500mg/kg bw) of P. niruri via metabolomics approach. The administration of 500mg/kgbw of P. niruri extract caused the metabolic disorders of obese diabetic rats to be improved towards the normal state. The extract also clearly decreased the serum glucose level and improved the lipid profile in obese diabetic rats. The results of this study may contribute towards better understanding the molecular mechanism of this medicinal plant in managing diabetes mellitus.

  1. Salicylate prevents virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the BBDR rat.

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    Chaoxing Yang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1β and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethan, P K M Anu; Prince, P Stanely Mainzen

    2008-01-01

    D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), an active principle of the traditional antidiabetic plant, Bougainvillea spectabilis, is claimed to exert insulin-like effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of D-pinitol on lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Rats were made type II diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of blood glucose and total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in serum, liver, kidney, heart, and brain. The levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol were significantly increased, and the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly decreased in diabetic rats Oral administration of D-pinitol to STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of blood glucose and total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in serum, liver, kidney, heart, and brain. The D-pinitol also lowered significantly (p < 0.05) LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased significantly (p < 0.05) HDL cholesterol levels in the serum of diabetic rats. Thus, the present study clearly showed the antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol in STZ-induced type II diabetic rats.

  3. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

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    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  4. Gene expression profiling in glomeruli of diabetic nephropathy rat.

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    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Li, Wenhui; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Huabing; Sun, Xiaofang; Mao, Lili; Xiang, Hongding

    2012-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as the burden of diabetes increases worldwide. To find improved intervention strategies for this disease, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. To obtain more insight into processes that lead to DN, mRNA expression profiles of diabetic and normal glomeruli from rat kidneys were compared. Rats were divided into a control group and a DN group randomly. The DN group was injected with streptozotocin. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and weight were measured monthly. On the 12th week, blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Glomeruli were isolated and Illumina Rat Ref-12 V1.0 Expression Beadchip gene array was performed. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) was used to confirm the results of gene array for a selected number of genes. We found FBG, 24-h urinary albumin, serum creatinine and BUN were significantly increased, while urinary creatinine and body weight were significantly decreased in the DN group. Glomeruli from the DN group had 624 genes with differential expression. DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) analysis showed that the three most enriched terms were 'cytosol' (GO:0005829), 'translational elongation' (GO:0006414) and 'mitochondion' (GO:0005739). Those genes could be mapped to eight pathways. The most common type of enriched pathway was related to 'extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction'. Other pathways included those for 'ribosome', 'focal adhesion', 'oxidative phosphorylation', 'transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling pathway', 'Parkinson's disease', 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'renin-angiotensin system'. Q-RT-PCR verified that Atp5b (F1-ATPase beta subunit), Col1a1 (collagen type 1 alpha 1), Cox6c (cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc), Ndufs3 (NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] Fe-S protein 3) and Tgfb1 (transforming

  5. Eucommia bark (Du-Zhong improves diabetic nephropathy without altering blood glucose in type 1-like diabetic rats

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    Niu HS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ho-Shan Niu,1 I-Min Liu,2 Chiang-Shan Niu,1 Po-Ming Ku,3,4 Chao-Tien Hsu,5 Juei-Tang Cheng4,6 1Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien City, 2Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung County, 3Department of Cardiology, 4Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Yong Kang, Tainan City, 5Department of Pathology, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, 6Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Guei-Ren, Tainan City, Taiwan Background: Eucommia bark, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver barks (Du-Zhong in Mandarin, is an herb used for renal dysfunction in Chinese traditional medicine. In an attempt to develop this herb as a treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN, we investigated the effects of Du-Zhong on renal dysfunction in type 1-like diabetic rats. Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ was used to induce type 1-like diabetes in rats (STZ-diabetic rats. In addition to hyperglycemia, STZ-diabetic rats showed significant nephropathy, including higher plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue was applied to characterize the changes in potential signals related to nephropathy. Results: Oral administration of Du-Zhong (1 g/kg/day to STZ-diabetic rats for 20 days not only decreased the plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but also improved renal fibrosis, whereas the plasma glucose level was not changed. The higher expressions of protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor in diabetic rats were markedly attenuated by Du-Zhong. The increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in STZ-diabetic rats was also reduced by Du-Zhong. However, Du-Zhong cannot reverse the hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in the diabetic kidney

  6. Effects of pioglitazone on expressions of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in kidneys of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董凤芹; 李红; 蔡卫民; 陶君; 李群; 阮昱; 郑芬萍; 张哲

    2004-01-01

    Background The changes in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expressions were examined in the kidneys of diabetic rats to investigate the degradative pathway of collagen type Ⅳ (C-Ⅳ) and the protective effects of pioglitazone on an experimental model of diabetic nephropathy.Methods In 54 SD rats used in our study, 18 served as normal controls. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 36 age- and weight-matched rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg); 18 of the diabetic rats were allocated at random to receive pioglitazone (20 mg*kg-1*d-1) in their drinking water and 18 served as diabetic controls. Rats were killed after 2, 4, or 8 weeks of treatment. Kidneys were examined pathomorphologically and the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, and C-Ⅳ were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the results were quantified by image analysis techniques.Results Diabetes mellitus was associated with a decrease in the expression of MMP-2 in the glomeruli (P0.05, vs control). The expression of MMP-9 did not show any change when comparing the three groups (P>0.05, vs control). STZ-diabetic rats were also associated with an increase in the expression of C-Ⅳ in the glomeruli and the interstitium (P<0.05, vs control). All diabetes-associated changes in MMP-2 expression were attenuated by pioglitazone treatment in association with reduced C-Ⅳ accumulation. Conclusions These results indicate that a decrease in MMP-2 expression in the glomeruli of diabetic rats may lead to impairment of C-Ⅳ degradation and contribute to the matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy. Pioglitazone treatment, which can attenuate the decrease of glomerular MMP-2 and the increase of C-Ⅳ degradation, has curative effects on diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  8. Hypoglycemic of Cajanus scarabaeoides in glucose overloaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Suman Pattanayak

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In light of traditional claim of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L in the treatment of diabetes, we studied the effects of different solvent extracts in normal, glucose over loaded normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg orally was produce significantly reduce blood glucose level at normal, glucose over loaded normal rats, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 15 days treatment whereas petroleum ether and chloroform extract (500 mg/kg orally did not exhibit any significant effect on three groups of rats. Histopathology studies on pancreas streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats inflammatory changes were detected in pancreatic islets results from selectively destroy of insulin producing β-cells. These changes are inhibited by C. scarabaeoides methanolic extract and gliclazide. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  9. Effect of Verapamil on Serum Level of Salinomycin in Diabetic Rats

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    Hossein Najafzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of present study was evaluation function of P-glycoprotein with or without verapamil in normal and diabetic rats; which the function of P-glycoprotein was indirectly evaluated by detection of serum slainomycin concentration with HPLC method. Approach: This study was carried in 4 groups of rats including normal rats which received salinomycin and verapamil together salinomycin; and diabetic rats which received salinomycin and verapamil together salinomycin. Serum concentration of salinomycin was measured by HPLC after 3 h from its administration. Results: Results show the serum concentration of salinomycin significantly elevated in diabetic rats which received verapamil together salinomycin; while this concentration did not significantly change in other groups. Conclusion: Since the p-glycoprotein activity decreases in diabetic conditions and verapamil inhibits it; probably transport of salinomycin from blood to tissues or its elimination was decreased that caused its elevated serum concentration.

  10. Effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress ,status in small intestine of diabetic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress status in the small intestine of diabetic rats.METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control (C), non-treated diabetic (NTD) and vitamin E-treated diabetic (VETD)groups. The increases in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in these three groups was compared after 6 wk.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in catalase activity between NTD and control rats.Compared to NTD rats, the treatment with vitamin E significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and also increased catalase activity and SOD.CONCLUSION: The results revealed the occurrence of oxidative stress in the small intestine of diabetic rats. Vitamin E, as an antioxidant, attenuates lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and increases antioxidant defense mechanism.

  11. Nicorandil attenuates endothelial VCAM-1 expression via thioredoxin production in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin.

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    Liu, Lihua; Liu, Yun; Qi, Benling; Wu, Qinqin; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-06-01

    The anti-angina agent nicorandil has been reported to be beneficial even in patients who have angina with diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of nicorandil in patients with diabetes remains to be elucidated. In this study, the protective effect of nicorandil on thioredoxin (TRX) protein was investigated, as TRX is a multifunctional endogenous redox regulator that protects cells against various types of cellular and tissue stress. This study was conducted to examine whether nicorandil induces the expression of TRX for the protection against diabetic damage in the vascular tissue of rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (fasting glucose levels in STZ-induced rats were >14 mmol/l). Diabetic rats were divided into a diabetic control and a nicorandil-treated group. Nicorandil was administered at a dosage of 15 mg/kg/day by gavage feeding. After five weeks of nicorandil administration, blood samples were obtained from the angular vein to measure levels of stress markers, serum superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde, using the ELISA. The expression of TRX in STZ-induced rat vascular tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. The oral administration of nicorandil induced TRX protein and mRNA expression in the vascular tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic control group, the levels of stress were markedly higher than those in the nicorandil-treated group, indicating that nicorandil reduces oxidative stress in serum. In addition to inducing TRX expression, nicorandil attenuated the expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in diabetic rat vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, nicorandil attenuates the formation of reactive oxygen species and induces TRX protein expression, consequently resulting in the suppression of VCAM-1 secretion in the vascular endothelial cells of STZ-induced diabetic

  12. Changes in expression of adrenomedullin in the myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    HE Rong-xin; GU Chuan-long; SHEN Fang; ZHANG Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilating peptide and involved in many cardiovascular diseases. However,whether adrenomedullin is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is still unknown. Our aim was to characterize the expression pattern of adrenomedullin in the myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods The weight, blood glucose, and urine glucose of 20 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were measured before and after model induction in the diabetic and control groups. The alteration of the adrenomedullin expression was explored in the left ventricular myocardium in both groups by immunohistochemistry. Changes in heart ultrastructure were also analyzed by using hemotoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. All data were analyzed by the independent samples ttest.Results The data of weight, blood glucose, and urine glucose had no significant difference between the control and the diabetic groups before animal model induction. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, the differences between the two groups in weight, blood glucose, and urine glucose were distinct. When compared with the control group, the diabetic group showed ultrastructural changes including hypertrophy, fibrosis, myofibrillar disarrangements, mitochonddal disruption, and increase in nuclear membrane invaginations. A significant decrease of adrenomedullin expression was also observed in cardiac myocytes of the diabetic rats (P<0.01).Conclusions Our study provides experimental evidence that hyperglycemia could damage cardiac myocytes.Down-regulation of cardioprotective peptide adrenomedullin in the myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats may contribute to the diabetic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction.

  13. L-glutamine supplementation prevents the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

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    Sachin L Badole

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of L-glutamine on cardiac myopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted Sprague Dawely rats by using intraperitonial injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 20 min before administration of streptozotocin. Experimental rats were divided into Group I: non-diabetic control (distilled water; 10 ml/kg, p.o., II: diabetic control (distilled water, 10 ml/kg, p.o., III: L-glutamine (500 mg/kg, p.o. and IV: L-glutamine (1000 mg/kg, p.o.. All groups were diabetic except group I. The plasma glucose level, body weight, electrocardiographic abnormalities, hemodynamic changes and left ventricular contractile function, biological markers of cardiotoxicity, antioxidant markers were determined after 4 months after STZ with nicotinamide injection. Histopathological changes of heart tissue were carried out by using H and E stain. L-glutamine treatment improved the electrocardiographic, hemodynamic changes; LV contractile function; biological markers; oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results from the present investigation demonstrated that L-glutamine has seemed a cardioprotective activity.

  14. Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic rats.

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    Mrinmay Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (EEAS was investigated in a model of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The biochemical parameters studied were: plasma glucose, degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin and peripheral consumption of glucose levels on 1, 3, 7 and 10th day. Ethanolic extract had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after 2h at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions in biochemical parameter after treatment with the extract and Glibenclamide (used as standard as compared to the diabetic controls. The ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. exhibited antidiabetic activity and its sensitivity in experimentally induced diabetic rats in dose dependent manner. The current results clearly indicated the beneficial effects of the ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the pancreatic islet cells against oxidative stress in the diabetic animals.

  15. Regulation of oxidative stress and somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin gene expressions by ghrelin in stomach of newborn diabetic rats.

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    Coskun, Zeynep Mine; Sacan, Ozlem; Karatug, Ayse; Turk, Neslihan; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Bolkent, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether ghrelin treatment has a protective effect on gene expression and biochemical changes in the stomach of newborn streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic <