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Sample records for alloxan-induced diabetic rats

  1. Anti diabetic effect of cherries in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, Tahsini; Reza, Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both of them. Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Cherry as a traditionally used plant for treatment of diabetes, is packed with powerful plant pigments called anthocyanins. They give cherries their dark red color and are one of the richest antioxidant sources which lower the blood sugar and bear other beneficial health effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of cherry fruit on alloxan induced diabetic rats. In this study 36 Male Wistar rats, body weight of 150-200gr were divided into 6 groups. Diabetes was induced by intra peritoneal injection of 120 mg/kg Alloxan. The duration of the cherries treatment was 30 days in which single dose of extracts (200mg/kg) were oral administered to diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were estimated with glucometer before treatment, 2h and 1- 4 weeks after administration of extracts. Treatment with extracts of the cherries resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and urinary microalbumin and an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urea. Extract of this plant is useful in controlling the blood glucose level. Cherries appear to aid in diabetes control and diminution of the complications of the disease. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article. PMID:22280223

  2. Antidiabetic activity of Rheum emodi in Alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Radhika.R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of Rheum emodi rhizome extract and to study the activities of hexokinase, aldolase and phosphoglucoisomerase, and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase in liver and kidney of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of 75 % ethanolic extract of R. emodi (250 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, resulted in decrease inthe activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-disphosphatase, aldolase and an increase in the activity of phosphoglucoisomerase and hexokinase in tissues. The study clearly shows that the R.emodi possesses antidiabetic activity.

  3. Antidiabetic effect of 2 nitro benzimidazole in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Prapthi Bathini

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: 2 nitro benzimidazole exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats comparable to that of the standard drug glibenclamide. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 814-818

  4. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  5. Alcoholic leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus regulates carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koti, B. C.; Aparna Gore; Thippeswamy, A.H.M.; A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy; Rucha Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible mechanisms of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Control and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats received different treatments; orally control (vehicle), 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (PAEE) and 600 μg/kg of glibenclamide (standard) for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and enzyme ac...

  6. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-01-01

    The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P

  7. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Verma Laxmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of whole plant of Cassia occidentalis were orally tested at the dose of 200 mg/kg for hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract-treated diabetic rats, were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathological observations during 21 days treatment were also evaluated. Results : Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Apart from aqueous extract, petroleum ether extract showed activity from day 14 and chloroform extract showed activity from 7 days. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride, serum protein, and changes in body weight by aqueous extract treated-diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by extract which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion : Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. They also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and serum lipid profiles as well as histopathological studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment.

  8. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodorahook. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; Sahu, Alakh N.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The activity of the extract was studied on glucose loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In both the tests, the extract has shown significant and considerable antidiabetic effect in a dose dependent manner. On oral administration of the extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight, the reduction of blood glucose level was 22.9% a...

  9. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Plectranthus Amboinicus on Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. M. Viswanathaswamy; Koti, B. C.; Aparna Gore; Thippeswamy, A.H.M.; Kulkarni, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied...

  10. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P<0.01. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Quercus infectoria Olivier was compared with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycaemic agent (3mg/kg.

  11. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

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    Natarajan, A.; K. Syed Zameer Ahmed; Sundaresan, S.; A. Sivaraj; Devi, K; B Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

  12. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  13. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathaswamy, A H M; Koti, B C; Gore, Aparna; Thippeswamy, A H M; Kulkarni, R V

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect. PMID:22303055

  14. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  15. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

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    Yi, Zhang; Shao-long, Yang; Ai-hong, Wang; Zhi-chun, Sun; Ya-fen, Zhuo; Ye-ting, Xu; Yu-ling, He

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), gluta...

  16. ANTIDIABETIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FENUGREEK EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Parixit Bhandurge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumL. Leguminosae is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Antihyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of the fenugreek extract was evaluated in this study. Blood glucose, liver profile, renal profile and total lipid levels were determined in alloxan induced diabetic rats after oral administration of a fenugreek extract. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract. The extract lowered the total cholesterol and serum triglycerides. Histopathological analysis of pancreas showed normal acini, and normal cellular in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas of normal control and Extensive damage to islets of langerhans and reduced dimensions of islets in alloxan induced diabetes. Restoration of islets of langerhans seen in diabetic rats treated with fenugreek extract. The results of this study clearly shows the hypoglycaemic activity of the extract

  17. Effects of Garcinia kola on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

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    Nwangwa, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24) albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8) weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4) experimental groups (n = 6). Group I (Control) rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Gro...

  18. Antidiabetic activity of Adina cordifolia (Roxb) leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Chaudhary; Bharat Goel; Ashoke Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) leaves (HAEACL) in alloxan induced diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Methods:Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as the standard which produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels of experimental animals were determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment with the plant extract by using glu-oxidase peroxidise reactive strips and glucometer. Results: Treatment with HAEACL at 500 mg/kg dose decreased the blood glucose level significantly. However, the lower doses (250 mg/kg) of HAEACL produced a little decrease in blood glucose level. It showed that there was a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose level in the alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study shows that HAEACL possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  19. Antidiabetic Activity of Vinca rosea Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammed Fazil Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Vinca rosea methanolic whole plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The methanolic whole plant extract at high dose (500 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity than whole plant extract at low dose (300 mg/kg in diabetic rats. The methanolic extracts also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profile as well as regeneration of β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies reinforce the healing of pancreas, by methanolic Vinca rosea extracts, as a possible mechanism of their antidiabetic activity.

  20. Antioxidant Effect of Tinospora cordifolia Extract in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

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    V. SIVAKUMAR; Rajan, M. S. Dhana

    2010-01-01

    Many plants are claimed to possess antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. In practice, it is being increasingly recognized to be an alternative approach to modern medicine. This study assess the antioxidant capacity of Tinospora cordifolia stem methanol extract in daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg of body weight for 40 days in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The erythrocytes membrane lipid peroxide and catalase activity was increased where as the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutat...

  1. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF POLYGALA CHINENSIS L. WHOLE PLANT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    K. Rajalakshmi and V.R. Mohan*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ethanol extract of Polygala chinensis whole plant (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days reduced the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO. The treatment also resulted in significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in serum, liver and kidney. The results confirm the antioxidant activity of P. chinensis whole plant and suggest that because of its antioxidant effects its administration may be useful in controlling the diabetic complications in experimental diabetic rats.

  2. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    A. H. M. Viswanathaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg. Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6 receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect.

  3. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab**, and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM treating diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic CM treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The obtained results showed that the induced diabetes was diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, CM treatment led to a significant improvement in all these parameter except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of CM treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: it was recommended that the use of the CM as a hypoglycemic agent may be of good results

  4. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab **, Tarek A. Atia*** and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM) treat...

  5. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  6. Amelioration of Glomerulosclerosis by Satureja khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Satureja khuzestanica, an endemic plant of Iran, has been reported to be used traditionally to treat diabetes. We examined possible protective effect of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE on glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups randomly; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreated, and group 3 treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized; livers and kidneys were then removed immediately. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Results: Flow treatment of diabetic animals with SKE could significantly inhibit glomerular hypertrophy (22% leukocyte infiltration (31% and glomerulosclerosis (20% in comparison with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: The findings showed that SKE alleviates loss of glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  7. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

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    A. Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

  8. Hypoglycaemic activity of Embelia ribes berries (50% etoh) extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Keshav Bihari; Vyas, Surendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of Embelia ribes berries (50% EtoH) reduced blood sugar level significantly. In intact rats, blood sugar levels were decreased by 13.1% and 20.3% after 3 hrs. and 5 hrs. of treatment respectively. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats blood glucose levels were decreased after 3 hours and 5hours by 28.1% and 34.5% respectively. Hypoglycaemic action of Embelia ribes berries may be due to its direct action on tissue or due to increase in insulin secretion.

  9. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  10. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Laxmi Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride, serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes.

  11. Effects of Pre-induction Administration of Allium Sativum on Some Biochemical Parameters in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ojo Rotimi Johnson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post- administration of garlic extract on serum glucose and some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats to show the preventive and ameliorating effects in alloxan induced-diabetic rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups; normal control rats, diabetic control rats, diabetic rats post-treated with garlic extract and rats pre-treated with garlic extract before induction. Garlic extract was administered orally for 2 weeks to post-treated rats and 3 weeks to pre-treated rats and they were compared with the normal and diabetic groups, respectively. Serum glucose was reduced significantly in both post-treated and pre-treated groups. The post-treatment with garlic extract reduced serum cholesterol, but pre-treatment with garlic extract produced significant change compare to the diabetic control. The serum creatinine and urea levels were significantly reduced in post-treated group and pretreated group compare to the diabetic control group. It is concluded that the consumption of garlic produced a significant hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic rats and also, garlic is capable of protecting the liver and the kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as shown in the activities of serum enzymes and other biochemical parameters examined.

  12. Wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris and Punica granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Azizi, Shahrzad; Koohpayeh, Abed; Hamedi, Behzad

    2010-01-01

    The flowers of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) and Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, bum, wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The diethyl ether extract of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers were used to evaluate the wound healing activity at 200 mg/kg/day dose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Wounds were induced in Wister rats divided into six groups as following; Group I, normal rats were treated with simple ointment base. Group II, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control). Groups III and IV, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups V, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts (1:1), Group VI, diabetic rats received the standard drug (nitrofurazone). The efficacy of treatment was evaluated based on wound area relative and histopathological characteristics. The extract-treated diabetic animals showed significant reduction in the wound area when compared with control. Also, histological studies of the tissue obtained on days 9th and 18th from the extract-treated by extract of M. sylvestris showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells. These findings demonstrate that extract of M. sylvestis effectively stimulates wound contraction as compared to control group and other groups. M. sylvestris accelerated wound healing in rats and thus supports its traditional use. PMID:20873419

  13. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. Preetha; V. Girija Devi; Rajamohan, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzym...

  14. Persistence of acidosis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with the juice of Asystasia gangetica leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Rotimi, Solomon O; Omotosho, Omolola E.; Rotimi, Oluwakemi A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is gradually becoming a global health burden leading to an increase in the search for herbal hypoglycemic agents as alternatives to synthetic ones. Asystasia gangetica is one of the herbs used in folklore system of medicine for managing hypoglycaemia associated with diabetes. Materials and Methods: The influence of the juice of A. gangetica leaf on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was assessed by treating diabetic rats with 25%, 50% and 75% fresh juice and glibencla...

  15. Alloxan-induced diabetes delays repair in a rat model of closed tibial fracture

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    S.F. Diniz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A closed fracture was performed on the left tibia of 3-month-old Wistar rats weighing 250 to 350 g that were either healthy (N = 24 or made diabetic with alloxan (N = 24 to investigate the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the course of bone fracture healing. Histomorphometric analysis of the fracture site was performed at 7, 14, 25, and 35 days. After 7 days, diabetic rats had significantly less cartilage (P = 0.045 and greater fibrous connective (P = 0.006 tissue formation at the fracture site compared to controls. In contrast, marked callus formation was seen in diabetic rats with significant osteogenesis (P = 0.011, P = 0.010, P = 0.010, respectively, for 14, 25, and 35 days and chondrogenesis (P = 0.028, P = 0.033, P = 0.019 compared to controls. Radiographic analysis revealed a displaced fracture with poor bone fragment alignment and delayed consolidation at these times in the diabetic group. The levels of alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in diabetic rats at 25 days (P = 0.009. These results suggest that the initial excessive formation of fibrous connective tissue associated with delay in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis may not provide suitable stability of the fractured site, contributing to the inappropriate alignment of fragments and an increase in the volume of callus in later stages of repair. The resulting displaced fracture in diabetic rats requires long periods for remodeling and complete bone consolidation.

  16. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of aqueous root extract ofIcacina senegalensis in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akuodor GC; Udia PM; Bassey A; Chilaka KC; Okezie OA

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous root extract of Icacina senegalensis(I. senegalensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Method:Blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats were monitored after the administration ofI. senegalensis extract(100,200 and400 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for14 d.Different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also examined.Results:Treatment of alloxan diabetic rats with the extract showed significant(P<0.05) activity.The activity of the extract was comparable to that of the standard drug, glinbeclamide.Conclusions:The results suggest that the root extract of I. senegalensis possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, which might be a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications.

  17. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFECT OF POLYGALA JAVANA DC ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Alagammal M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant (Family: Polygalaceae was investigated for it antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p. The ethanol extracts of Polygala javana at a dose of 100 and 200mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant extract on blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C, high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C and phospholipid (PL] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT, and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP], were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C. The extracts also caused significant increase in serum insulin (P<0.05 in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Polygala javana possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  18. Antidiabetic activity of Annona squamosa Linn. in alloxan - induced diabetic rats

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    Ranveer Singh Tomar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterised by rise in blood sugar levels resulting from insulin dysfunction or insulin insufficiency. Aim: The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Annona squamosa Linn (A. squamosa Linn in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Materials and Methods: Diabetes is induced by a single-dose intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of alloxan (120 mg/kg to albino rats. Results and Discussion: Treatment with A. squamosa Linn. extract at a dose of 350 mg/kg and 700 mg/kg and glibenclamide at a dose of 5mg/kg for 28 days, after induction of diabetes by alloxan, caused significant reduction in blood serum glucose and serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol and triglycerides but significant increase in body weight and serum high density lipoproteins (HDL level in diabetic rats compared to untreated group. Histological study of the pancreas of diabetic rat treated with A. squamosa extract also showed partial regeneration of beta cells. The antidiabetic activity of this extract is found comparable to glibenclamide. Thus, leaves of A. squamosa Linn. can be used as potential antidiabetic drug .

  19. Antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-12-01

    This research was designed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in five of the six groups (B-F) by a single intra-peritoneal injection at the dose of 100mg/kg after normal fasting blood glucose had been determined. Group A served as the positive control while groups C-E received 100mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract respectively. Group B did not received any treatment while group F received chlorpropamide, a standard drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose and body weights were monitored weekly for four weeks. Plasma lipids and electrolytes such as Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were determined after four weeks of treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. The results show significant reduction (PCnidoscolus aconitifolius) when compared with diabetic control (Alloxan only) and other treatment groups. There was gradual increase in weight of all treatment groups compared with the diabetic control, which had progressive weight loss. Plasma cholesterol levels also significantly reduced (PCnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22416660

  20. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  1. Antidiabetic activity of levan polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahech, Imen; Belghith, Karima Srih; Hamden, Khaled; Feki, Abdelfattah; Belghith, Hafedh; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of polysaccharide levan on oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Levan, used in this study, was a microbial levan synthetisized by a non pathogenic bacteria recently isolated and identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Animals were allocated into four groups of six rats each: a control group (Control), diabetic group (Diab.), normal rats received levan (L) and diabetic rats fed with levan (DL). Treated diabetic rats were administrated with levan in drinking water through oral gavage for 60 days. The administration of polysaccharide levan in diabetic rats caused a significant increase in glycogen level by 52% and a decrease in glucose level in plasma by 52%. Similarly, the administration of polysaccharide levan in diabetic rats caused a decrease in the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by 31%, 41%, 39% and 25%, an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 40%, 50%, 44% and 34%, and in catalase (CAT) by 18%, 20%, 12% and 18% in liver, kidney, pancreas and heart, respectively. Furthermore, a significant decrease in hepatic and renal indices toxicity was observed, i.e. alkalines phosphatases (ALP), aspartate and lactate transaminases (AST and ALT) activities, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels by 19%, 31%, 32%, 36%, 37% and 23%, respectively. The results show that administration of polysaccharide levan can restore abnormal oxidative indice near normal levels. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that polysaccharide levan is efficient in inhibiting hyperglycemia and oxidative stress induced by diabetes and suggests that levan supplemented to diet may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats. PMID:21782842

  2. Evaluation of the Possible Hypolipidemic Properties of Quail Egg on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Patrick, Emeka Aba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pancreatic histomorphometry and possible hypolipidemic effects of graded concentrations of quail egg administration on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were assigned to 5 groups of 6 rats per group. Diabetes was induced in the rats of groups 2-5 by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at the dose of 160 mg/kg. Group 1 rats were not injected with alloxan monohydrate. Rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 126 mg/dl were considered diabetic. Upon establishment of diabetes, rats in groups 2-4 were treated with 30, 15 and 7.5 mg/ml of quail egg solution respectively. Rats in groups 1 and 5 were administered with 10 ml/kg distilled water. At the end of the 21 days treatment, blood samples were collected for lipid profile analyses. The rats were euthanized using chloroform anaesthesia and the pancreases were then collected for histomorphometric assessment. Results of the study revealed that rats treated with 30 mg/ml of quail egg solution showed significant (P < 0.05 reductions in the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoproteinÂÂÂÂ and very low density lipoprotein when compared with the negative control group while high density lipoprotein was not significantly increased compared to the negative control. The pancreas of diabetic untreated rats showed immense cytoplasmic vacuolation of the islet cells while the groups treated with quail egg solution especially those treated at the 30 mg/ml showed mild degeneration of the islet cells. In conclusion, administration of quail egg solution to alloxanized rats demonstrated hypolipidemia and ameliorated lesions in the pancreas.

  3. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

    OpenAIRE

    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye; Akinola, Franklin Folasele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60) male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz...

  4. Antidiabetic effect of a black mangrove species Aegiceras corniculatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    S Gurudeeban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier ethnopharmacological records divulged the traditional usages of mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn. Blanco distributed in coastal and estuarine areas of Southeast India. Excluding scientific knowledge of A. corniculatum against diabetes an upgrowing endocrinal disorder, our present study evaluated the effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult rats of the Wistar strain by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. The experimental rats were administered with leaf suspension of A. corniculatum post orally using an intragastric tube. On completion of the 60-day treatment, a range of biochemical parameters were tested including liver hexokinase, glucose-6phosphatase and fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase in the liver of control and allaxon-diabetic rats. As a result, A. corniculatum leaf suspension showed moderate reduction in blood glucose (from 382 ± 34 to 105 ± 35, glycosylated hemoglobin, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase, and an increase activity of liver hexokinase achieved through the oral administration of extract on 100 mg/kg. The present findings support promising results in terms of antidiabetic activities establishing its candidacy for further purification of individual compound in order to understand their mechanism of action.

  5. Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, M A; Aslam, M; Javed, K; Singh, S

    2000-06-01

    'Gulnar farsi', male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg/kg, b.w. PMID:10837992

  6. EFFECT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA STEM BARK EXTRACT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF MARKER ENZYMES IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Ragavan, B; Krishnakumari, S.

    2005-01-01

    Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino...

  7. Antidiabetic Potential of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. Bark In Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Nikhil K. Sachan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to examine the diabetic potential of the plant Ficus racemosa in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The bark extract with water, petroleum ether and with alcohol were screened for blood glucose lowering activity and the alcoholic extract having better therapeutic potential was prepared through Soxhlet extraction for further study. Alcoholic and aqueous extract of bark of Ficus racemosa at a dose of 400 mg/Kg was given to normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats and the blood samples taken from the retero-orbital plexus vein were analyzed for blood glucose level as per standard protocol with available kits through Auto-analyzer. The comparison of blood sugar level as per model schedule showed that in normal group the ethanolic extract, at a dose of 400 mg/Kg intra-peritoneal, the blood glucose lowering 28.66 % while in aqueous extract given group it was 25.90 %. In alloxan induced diabetic rats decrease in blood glucose level in aqueous and ethanolic extract group was found to be 27.01 % and 45.03 % respectively. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Ficus racemosa reflected anti-diabetic potential through its glucose lowering activity in experimental animals. It supported the folklore claim of anti-diabetic activity of the plant.

  8. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Monochoria Vaginalis Presl. On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Chinna RR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antidiabetic activity of Monochoria vaginalis presl. (Family: pontederiaceae was investigated inAlloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The Monochoria vaginalis prel plant has been reported for itsanalgesic activity, nephrotoxic, antioxidant activities and nutritive values, paniya tribe of India used theleaves for diabetes15 but there are no scientific data is available regarding the effect on the blood glucoselevels. So we have made an attempt to use hydroalcoholic extract of Monochoria vaginalis presl leaf(HAEMV for studying anti-diabetic activity. The dried leaves of Monochoria vaginalis presl. weresubjected to extraction by continuous hot percolation using water and ethanol (50 : 50 as solvent andwere subjected to standardization using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening. Dose selectionwas made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (200 mg/kg body weight as per OECD and CPCSEAguidelines. Oral administration of extracts of Monochoria vaginalis presl (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg for 14days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The extract also prevented body weightloss in diabetic rats.

  9. Effect of pomegranate peel polyphenol gel on cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Huan; PENG Ke-jun; WANG Qiu-lin; GU Zheng-yi; LU Yao-qin; ZHAO Jun; XU Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pomegranate (punica granatum) belongs to the family Punicaceae,and its peel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine because of its efficacy in restraining intestine,promoting hemostasis,and killing parasites.Pomegranate peel has been reported to possess wound-healing properties which are mainly attributed to its polyphenol extracts.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPP) gel on cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats.Methods Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were given incisional wounds on each side of the mid-back and then treated daily with PPP gel (polyphenol mass fraction =30%) post-wounding.Rats were sacrificed on days 4,7,14,and 21post-wounding to assess the rates of wound closure,histological characteristics; and to detect the contents of hydroxyproline,production of nitric oxide (NO),and activities of NO synthase (NOS),as well as the expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),and epidermal growth factor (EGF)in wound tissue.Results Wound closure was significantly shortened when PPP gel was applied to the wounds of diabetic rats.Histological examination showed the ability of PPP gel to increase fibroblast infiltration,collagen regeneration,vascularization,and epithelialization in the wound area of diabetic rats.In addition,PPP gel-treated diabetic rats showed increased contents of hydroxyproline,production of NO,and activities of NOS and increased expressions of TGF-β1,VEGF,and EGF in wound tissues.Conclusion PPP gel may be a beneficial method for treating wound disorders associated with diabetes.

  10. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta-cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakpa Michael Monday; Asuzu Isaac Uzoma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic activities and histopathological changes of Icacina trichantha (I. trichantha) tuber extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:In the present study, 80% methanol extract of I. trichantha tuber was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. They were randomly grouped into control (distilled water and glibenclamide) and experimental (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage II glucometer at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged to separate serum for estimation of lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats pancreas were also studied after extract treatment. Results: Daily oral administration of I. trichantha tuber extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  11. Report: Antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity of strawberry fruit extracts against alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2016-01-01

    The strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) of Rosaceae family are an accomplished source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and diverse range of polyphenols including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, ellagitannins etc. These phenolic compounds classify strawberry as an important health promoting food. Strawberries are proved to have potent antioxidant capacity in various in vitro assay systems. The in vivo beneficial effects are getting explored against various ailments including cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. The present research study was designed to analyze the effect of strawberry fruit extracts (water and methanol) against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in albino rats of Wister strain. Upon alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) induction, the diabetic animals showed marked increase in the values of plasma glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and concomitant decrease in body weight and plasma insulin level. The oral administration of strawberry extracts for 45 days in diabetic animals reversed the biochemical changes significantly (P0.05) to near normal. Furthermore, the restoration of body weight loss was also observed. The results suggest that the strawberry extract has effective hypoglycemic activity against alloxan diabetes. The poly phenolic antioxidant contents of the strawberry fruit extracts are responsible for the observed biological effect. PMID:26826817

  12. Effect of Consumption of Coleus tuberosus on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mutiara Nugraheni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coleus tuberosus is a minor vegetable belonging to the Lamiaceae family. C. tuberosus and processed products have been evaluated on resistant starch content and effect of consumption of C. tuberosus and processed products on the lipid profile has been studied in rats with diabetes mellitus. Resistant starch was analyzed using the megazyme method. Analysis of lipid profile was performed in experimental alloxan-induced animals. Such lipid profile as Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL are determined enzymatically by the Cholesterol Oxidase-oxidase-Phenol Aminophenazone (CHOD-PAP method. Triglyceride levels are determined by the enzymatic Glycerol-3-Phosphate Oxidase-Phenol+Aminophenazone (GPO-PAP method. The results showed that the treatment process can increase the levels of resistant starch. C. tuberosus consumption and processed products can lower the lipid profile of TC, TG and LDL and increase HDL in experimental animals. Resistant starch contained in C. tuberosus and processed products is one of the factors that affect the lipid profile of experimental animals with diabetes mellitus.

  13. Hypoglycemic activity of curcumin synthetic analogues in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Razzaghi-Asl, Nima; Tikare, Swati N; Di Santo, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Messore, Antonella; Pescatori, Luca; Crucitti, Giuliana Cuzzucoli; Jargar, Jameel G; Dhundasi, Salim A; Saso, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The currently available therapies for type 2 diabetes have been unable to achieve normoglycemic status in the majority of patients. The reason may be attributed to the limitations of the drug itself or its side effects. In an effort to develop potent and safe oral antidiabetic agents, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic effects of 10 synthetic polyphenolic curcumin analogues on alloxan-induced male diabetic albino rats. In vitro studies showed 7-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione (4) to be the most potential hypoglycemic agent followed by 1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one (10). Structure activity relationship (SAR) of the tested compounds was elucidated and the results were interpreted in terms of in vitro hypoglycemic activities. Furthermore, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with compounds 4, 10 and reference hypoglycemic drug glipizide showed that compound 4 and glipizide had relatively similar effects on the reduction of blood glucose levels within 2 h. Thus, compound 4 might be regarded as a potential hypoglycemic agent being able to reduce glucose concentration both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25683079

  14. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70 mg/dl, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Lagenaria siceraria extract decreased to 89-106.5 mg/dl. These findings suggest that LSPE and LSSE treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic cell integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage of the plant to prevent diabetic complications.

  15. Antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic effects of coenzyme Q10 in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadvand, Hassan; Ghasemi-Dehnoo, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus, one of the leading metabolic syndromes, accounts for highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we examined possible protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on lipid profile, atherogenic index, and liver enzyme markers in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. METHODS A total of 30 male rats were randomly divided into three groups; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreatment, and group 3 treatments with coenzyme Q10 by 15 mg/kg i.p. daily, respective...

  16. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhang; Shao-Long, Yang; Ai-Hong, Wang; Zhi-Chun, Sun; Ya-Fen, Zhuo; Ye-Ting, Xu; Yu-Ling, He

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, Na(+)K(+)ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST) activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25960754

  17. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, glutathione reductase (GR activity, catalase (CAT activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D U Owu; A B Antai; K H Udofia; A O Obembe; K O Obasi; M U Eteng

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly ( < 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  20. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta–cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Onakpa Michael Monday

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  1. Glucose utilization and anti-oxidative mechanisms of the aqueous hunteria umbellata seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, A A; Adenekan, S O; Adeyemi, O O; Agbaje, E O

    2014-01-01

    In South-west Nigeria, water decoctions of Hunteria umbellata seeds are highly valued by traditional healers in the local management of diabetes mellitus, obesity and hyperlipidemia. Previous studies hypothesized one of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms of the aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (HU) to be mediated probably via increased peripheral glucose utilization. The present study, therefore, was designed at evaluating the peripheral glucose utilization and anti-oxidative mechanisms of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of HU in alloxan-induced diabetic rats in Groups IV-VI rats as well as in the control groups (Groups I-III). Experimental type 1 DM was induced in male Wistar rats through intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in cold 0.9% normal saline after which the diabetic rats were orally treated with 50-200 mg/kg of HU for 14 days. Effects of HU on the rat body weight, percentage body weight changes and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were determined on days 1 and 15 of the experiment. Also, on day 15 of the experiment, HU effect on serum insulin, liver enzyme markers, proteins, albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase as well as on hepatic tissue oxidative stress markers, liver glycogen and glucose-6-phosphatase were determined after sacrificing the rats under diethyl ether anesthesia. Results showed that oral treatments with 50-200 mg/kg of HU caused significant (pdiabetes, while causing significant (p0.05) alterations in the serum INS levels in the treated rats. Also, repeated oral treatment with HU caused significant (pdiabetes. Similar significant (plactate dehydrogenase as well as on hepatic tissue oxidative stress markers such as superoxidase dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malonialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) of HU-treated rats when compared to that of untreated alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, results of this study showed HU treatment to significantly ameliorate the

  2. Anti diabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum in alloxan induced diabetes in rats

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    Abhilash Rao S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia resulting from defects of reduced insulin secretion, decreased glucose utilization and increase in glucose production. It is estimated that there are currently 285 million people worldwide and this number is set to increase to 438 million by the year 2030. India has the highest number of patients with known diabetes worldwide, with a prevalence of 11.6%. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of plant Ocimum sanctum in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods: The study was conducted on 4 groups of 6 rats each to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum. Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug and the results were compared in reference to it. Tween 80 was given for both normal and diabetic control groups. The fasting blood sugar levels were recorded on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th days by glucometer. Results: The results indicate that the test compound ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum has significant and sustained oral hypoglycaemic activity, comparable with the hypoglycaemic effect of glibenclamide, a sulfonylurea. Conclusion: The hypoglycaemic potential of the test compound is found to be comparable with that of the standard drug glibenclamide. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 613-616

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  4. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  5. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  6. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Yutaka Nakahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats.

  7. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnamoni Das; Sarajita Barman

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C ...

  8. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  9. Estimation of lipid profile and glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass

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    Chinwe O. Ewenighi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cymbopogon citratus extract has been reported to have hypoglycemic properties but not much is known about its hypolipidemic effects. In this study it was aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of Cymbopogon citratus extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats of weights between 106-118 g were used for the study and divided into three groups of six rats each. The rats of the non-diabetic control group were given 1 ml of distilled water daily. Two other groups induced with diabetes using alloxan by a single dose administration of 120 mg/kg body weight (BW; one of these diabetic rat groups were treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract daily at 1.5 ml/100 g BW for 4 weeks while the other group was left untreated. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels were assayed. Results: After four weeks of treatment, data indicated significant reductions in BW, blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels of diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract compared to the non-treated group. The treated diabetic rats also indicated significantly higher HDL levels compared to the non-treated group. Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with the Cymbopogon citratus extract lowered blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels and increased the HDL level. This shows that the extract has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 249-253

  10. Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats

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    Ahmad Sameer Al-Noory

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic mellitus and hypothyroidism lead to serum lipoproteins disorders. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of fresh ginger extracts Zingiber officinale roscoe (Family: Zingebiraceae on serum lipid profile and on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups: The normal G1, diabetic control rats G2, ginger 500 mg/kg treated diabetic rats G3, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated diabetic rats G4, [5 mg/day atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger] treated diabetic rats G5, glibenclamid-treated diabetic rats G6, hypothyoidism control rats G7, 300 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G8, 500 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G9, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated hypothyroidism rats G10, [atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger]treated hypothyroidism rats G11. Thirty days after treatment, samples were collected, to compare treated groups with normal and control groups, using Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.01. Results : It revealed a decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in the serum of rats that were treated by ginger extracts, compared with the control groups. Previous extracts were also able to cause reduction in LDL to similar levels compared to normal group and that was the same effect of atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Combined effect was clear between the act of ginger at a dose of 500 mg/kg and atorvastatin; that levels of both TC and LDL in animals which received [atorvastatin 5 mg/day combined with ginger extract] was almost equal to levels in animals that received atorvastatin 10mg/day. Clear reduce in triglyceride, and clear increase in high density liopprotein were also recorded in the ginger-treated groups. Ginger was more active in hypothyroidism rats than in diabetic rats in reducing LDL and TC. Glucose levels were substantially reduced in ginger- treated diabetic groups.

  11. Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycaemic Action of Different Fractions and Sub-fractions from Aqueous Extract of Aloe vera Linn. Leaf on Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Maithani; Versha Parcha; Geeta Pant; Deepak Kumar; Ishan Dhulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fasting serum glucose (FSG) lowering potential of different fractions (C & D) and subfraction (D1 & D2) from aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf on normal and alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Two fractions (C & D) obtained by common chemical treatment of the aqueous extract of Aleo vera leaf and subfraction (D1 & D2) from fraction D were administered to the alloxan induced (150mg/kg i.p.) diabetic rats. The FSG lowering capacity, of different fractions and subfractions, was then evaluated in terms of percentage reduction in blood glucose level. Results: Oral administration of fractions C & D and subfraction D1 & D2 for 15 days led significant (P<0.05) reduction to the elevated FSG level of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Percentage reduction in blood glucose level and comparison with standard drug glibenclamide suggest the superiority of fraction D and subfraction D1 in hypoglycaemic potential. Conclusions:The results suggest that fraction D and subfraction D1 from aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf possesses the maximum FSG lowering capacity and further investigation is required for determination of anti-diabetic principal(s) and exact mechanism of their hypoglycaemic action.

  12. Hypoglycemic Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Carthamus Tinctorius Petal on Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Rahimi Parivash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays no-drug treatments (medicinal plants are novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (Compositae extract on the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Methods: In this study 18 male Wistar rats with body weights of 180 – 220 g were randomly assigned to three groups with six rats per group: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg/kg BW; Injections were done intraperitoneally. Rats were fasting for 16h and then blood samples were collected in heparinated tubes for estimation of blood glucose insulin cholesterol and triglyceride. Results: Diabetic rats treated with extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (P

  13. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggers the development of periodontal disease in rats.

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    Marcela Claudino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease in diabetic patients presents higher severity and prevalence; and increased severity of ligature-induced periodontal disease has been verified in diabetic rats. However, in absence of aggressive stimuli such as ligatures, the influence of diabetes on rat periodontal tissues is incompletely explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases in rats only with diabetes induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats (n = 25 by intravenous administration of alloxan (42 mg/kg and were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after diabetes induction. The hemimandibles were removed and submitted to radiographical and histopathological procedures. A significant reduction was observed in height of bone crest in diabetic animals at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, which was associated with increased numbers of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells. The histopathological analyses of diabetic rats also showed a reduction in density of collagen fibers, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Severe caries were also detected in the diabetic group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that diabetes induction triggers, or even co-induces the onset of alterations which are typical of periodontal diseases even in the absence of aggressive factors such as ligatures. Therefore, diabetes induction renders a previously resistant host into a susceptible phenotype, and hence diabetes can be considered a very important risk factor to the development of periodontal disease.

  14. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and lupinus albus (lupine) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus Albus (Lupine). The parameters measured during the 45 days oral administration of seeds powder suspension of either Fenugreek or Lupine (1 g/ kg body wt) included: blood glucose, body wt, reduced glutathione content, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), plasma insulin and liver free fatty acids. Fenugreek and Lupine resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA; restored insulin normal range, ameliorated the contents of glutathione and reduced the increase in the content of plasma TBARS. Lupine at dose of 1 g/ kg body wt exhibited better glucose reduction, restored body wt and free fatty acids concentration than Fenugreek. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. Extracts of various plant materials capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models (Bopanna and Rathod, 1997). Many unknown and lesser known plants are used in traditional medicinal practices in Egypt. The medicinal values of these plants are not much known to the scientific world. Although herbal medicines have long been used effectively in treating many diseases throughout the world, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes are also used, but most of the evidence for their beneficial effects is anecdotal (Jelodar et al., 2005)

  15. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:27065051

  16. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

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    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60 male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Group I serve as male control, group II serve as diabetes control which were fed with normal rat chow while rats in the test group were fed with graded doses of soya bean oil supplements and water ad libitum for 4weeks, at the end of the supplementation, plasma lipid profile and glucose level were determined. Results: All the diabetic induced rats had significantly higher (p<0.01 Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, but lower HDL-C levels than all the non-diabetic rats. The data obtained after supplementation revealed that soya bean oil significantly reduced the glucose level and ameliorated the lipid profile with attendant decrease in glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels, but with a corresponding increases in HDL-C levels respectively when compared to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: The observation of significant changes in plasma lipid profile, glucose level might be as a result of supplementation with soybean oil. It is therefore concluded that Soya bean oil possess significant antidiabetic activity that can improve the physiological and biochemical parameters which are abnormally altered due to diabetes mellitus.

  17. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  18. Possible antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetola, A A; Akinloye, O; Egunjobi, C; Adekunle, W A; Ayoola, A O

    2006-09-01

    1. The hypoglycaemic effect of fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa (PB; African locust bean), a natural nutritional condiment that features frequently in some African diets as a spice, was investigated in the present study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide (Daonil; Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France), a reference antidiabetic drug. The effects of PB on lipid profiles were also examined. 2. In order to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB on experimental animals, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. In addition, the weight of each animal was determined to assess any possible weight gain or loss in the experimental animals (diabetic rats treated with Daonil (group C), the aqueous extract of PB (group D) or the methanolic extract of PB (group E)) compared with control groups (non-diabetic (group A) and non-treated diabetic (group B)). 3. A single dose of 120 mg/kg, i.v., alloxan administered to rats resulted in significant increases in the FPG (P < 0.001) of test animals compared with controls. However, dietary supplementation with PB (6 g/kg extract for 4 weeks administered orally using an intragastric tube) ameliorated the alloxan-induced diabetes in a manner comparable with that of the reference antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB (6% w/w) elicited 69.2% and 64.4% reductions, respectively, in FPG compared with 70.4% in 0.01 mg/150 g glibenclamide-treated rats. 4. Although animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB gained weight in manner similar to normal controls, animals given the methanolic extract and glibenclamide lost weight in manner similar to non-treated diabetic rats. In addition, high levels of HDL and low LDL were observed in animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB, a pattern similar to that seen in

  19. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy + Essential Oils (H + EO) and Diabetic + Essential Oils (D + EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), α-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

  20. Antihyperglycemic activity of petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus krishnae L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    M C Sidhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus krishnae has been evaluated for the management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract for various chemical compounds has also been carried out. Leaf extract was administered continuously for 21 days orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Along with this, the blood glucose level was monitored at regular intervals to understand the activity of the extract. The leaf extract has decreased the blood glucose level of diabetic rats which was comparable to an antidiabetic standard drug, glibenclamide, given at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. It has been observed that the leaves of Ficus krishnae possess antidiabetic activity and it reduces the blood glucose level significantly. The phytochemical screening of leaf has revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, gums and mucilage, phlobatannins, reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The Fourier Transform Infrared analysis of glibenclamide and leaf powder has displayed some common absorption spectra. This shows that leaf powder has a molecule which is close to glibenclamide. Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy have shown the presence of cellulose, Ca, Si, K, Cl, Mg, P, S, Al, Fe, Na, Sr, Pd, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo, Br, Ni, Rb and Zr. It is assumed that these elements alongwith other chemical compounds of the plant species may play a role in the management of diabetes. The Raman Specta of both glibenclamide and leaf powder has also shown some similarities. The results obtained during the present investigation have revealed the antidiabetic activity of Ficus krishnae leaves. The phytochemical screening has indicated the various chemical constituents likely to be responsible for this activity. The Fourier Transform Infrared, Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Specta of the leaf powder suggested that there is some glibenclamide like molecule or its

  1. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Misra; Manish Soni; Narendra Silawat; Darshana Mehta; Mehta, B. K.; D C Jain

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v) extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg). Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9%) for the same duration...

  2. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  3. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    E E Jarald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae such as petroleum ether (60-80°, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05 to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg.

  4. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwaya, Moses Solomon; Vuzi, Peter California; Nandutu, Agnes Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p < 0.05) compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p = 0.27), implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage. PMID:27069932

  5. Hypoglycemic and Antihyperlipidaemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Aerial Parts of Aerva lanata Linn. in Normal and Alloxan induced Diabetic Rats

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    Appia Krishnan G.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical investigation of Aerva lanata Linn. (Family, Amaranthaceae, and anti-diabetic effect of Arial parts of plant Aerva lanata Linn. in normal and Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Ethanolic extract of Arial part of Aerva lanata Linn. were evaluated for four weeks treatment for hypoglycemic activity in diabetic albino rats; at doses of 50,100 and 200 mg kg -1 body weight ,its effects on the blood glucose and other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, urea, creatinine, billirubin and SGPT in Alloxan induced diabetic rats were investigated. Diabetes was introduced by single tail-vein injection of Alloxan (60 mg kg -1. Oral administrations of Aerva lanata Linn. extract to diabetic animals up to four weeks; dose dependently reduced the blood glucose level, which is comparable to standard dose of Metformin. Significantly decreased in body weight was observed with diabetic control, which was partially restored upon administration Aerva lanata Linn. extract (50, 100, 200 mg kg -l. Alcoholic extract of Arial part of A. lanata Linn. also altered other biochemical parameters level. It was concluded from the results that the alcoholic extract of A. lanata Linn. possesses anti-diabetic effect in experimental animals.

  6. Hypoglycemic Effect of Treculia Africana Decne Root Bark in Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelola, O O; Moody, J O; Odeniyi, M A; Fakeye, T O

    2007-01-01

    The solvent partitioned purified fractions of the hydro-acetone root bark extract of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) were evaluated for hypoglycemic activities in normal and diabetic albino rats. Fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by the use of a glucometer at pre-determined intervals after oral administration of the test extracts/fractions. Results revealed that the test fractions have only a slight effect on blood sugar level of normal rats. On short term and chron...

  7. Protective effects of vitamins (C and E) and melatonin co-administration on hematological and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Feriani, Anouer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Alimi, Hichem; Murat, Jean Claud; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of vitamins (C and E)/melatonin co-administration on the hematologic and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg b.w. for 2 days) induced a significant increase of blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with serious hematologic disorders (P lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the plasmatic levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride contents of diabetic rats were, however, noted to undergo significant increases by 42% (P diabetic rats when compared to the controls. Interestingly, the treatment with vitamins (C, E) in combination with melatonin was noted to reduce the plasma levels of glucose, lower the MDA levels, and restore the hematologic parameters and biochemical and antioxidant levels of diabetic rats back to normal values, alleviating diabetes metabolic disorders in rats. PMID:24919717

  8. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

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    Amanda Natália Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC and 30 untreated diabetic (UD rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

  9. STUDY OF EFFECT OF NICORANDIL ON INSULIN PRODUCTION IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Syed Mohsin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ATP – sensitive potassium channel opener, nicorandil on insulin production in alloxan – induced diabetic rats. METHODS: In an attempt to ascertain the involvement of ATP sensitive potassium channels in the regulation of insulin release, the effect of nicorandil on ATP sensitive potassium channel was studied. Albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 200 – 250 grams of e ither sex were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan monohydrate 2% solution intra - peritoneally in a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Animals with fasting blood glucose (FBS between 200 – 300 mg/dl were selected for the study. They were divided into 3 groups of six animals each. Group I serving as control received 2% gum acacia orally for 30 days, Group II as standard was given orally glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg body weight for 30 days & Group III was treated orally for 30 days with n icorandil (0.3 mg/kg body weight respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS was recorded in all the rats on 1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st & 28 th days. RESULT: Results show that glibenclamide has significantly reduced the blood sugar levels (P<0.05, whereas nico randil has shown a significant rise in blood sugar level (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The study shows that nicorandil worsens existing diabetes. This may attribute to the hypothesis that the opening of ATP sensitive potassium channels on beta cells of pancreas le ads to inhibition of insulin release. These findings suggest that potassium channel openers should be avoided in presence of diabetes.

  10. The Protective Effect of Cordymin, a Peptide Purified from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, on Diabetic Osteopenia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Wei Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanisms involved. The diabetic rats received daily intraperitoneal injection with cordymin (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks. Cordymin could restore the circulating blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, and insulin levels in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the treatment of diabetic rats with cordymin could partially reverse the β cells death and decrease the total antioxidant status (TAOS in the diabetic rats. The results may directly and indirectly account for the possible mechanism of the beneficial effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia, which was confirmed with the increased bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD in diabetic rats (P<0.05. All those findings indicate that cordymin may play a protective role in diabetic osteoporosis.

  11. Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae), measured in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, C E N; Oben, J E; Tazoo, D; Dongo, E

    2006-01-01

    A decoction of the leaves of Laportea ovalifolia is widely used in Cameroon for the treatment of several illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of the aerial parts of L. ovalifolia have now been investigated, in normal rats and rats with diabetes induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (at 150 mg/kg bodyweight). In the diabetic rats, 2 weeks of daily, intragastric treatment with the L. ovalifolia extract not only produced a significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose concentrations but also lowered the serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, lowered the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and increased the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol. At least in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, the methanol/methylene-chloride extract of L. ovalifolia therefore appears to possess antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic properties.

  12. Effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic WBN/Kob rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Hamano, Hiroko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Narama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has recently been reported in clinical research, but it remains unclear whether hypertension is a risk factor for DPN. To investigate the effects of hypertension on DPN, we analyzed morphological features of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats with hypertension. Male WBN/Kob rats were divided into 2 groups: alloxan-induced diabetic rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) treatment (ADN group) and nondiabetic rats with DOCA-salt treatment (DN group). Sciatic, tibial (motor) and sural (sensory) nerves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative histomorphological analysis. Systolic blood pressure in the two groups exhibited a higher value (>140 mmHg), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Endoneurial blood vessels in both groups presented endothelial hypertrophy and narrowing of the vascular lumen. Electron microscopically, duplication of basal lamina surrounding the endothelium and pericyte of the endoneurial vessels was observed, and this lesion appeared to be more frequent and severe in the ADN group than the DN group. Many nerve fibers of the ADN and DN groups showed an almost normal appearance, whereas morphometrical analysis of the tibial nerve showed a significant shift to smaller fiber and myelin sizes in the ADN group compared with DN group. In sural nerve, the fiber and axon-size significantly shifted to a smaller size in ADN group compared with the DN group. These results suggest that combined diabetes and hypertension could induce mild peripheral nerve lesions with vascular changes. PMID:26989296

  13. Effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic WBN/Kob rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Hamano, Hiroko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Narama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has recently been reported in clinical research, but it remains unclear whether hypertension is a risk factor for DPN. To investigate the effects of hypertension on DPN, we analyzed morphological features of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats with hypertension. Male WBN/Kob rats were divided into 2 groups: alloxan-induced diabetic rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) treatment (ADN group) and nondiabetic rats with DOCA-salt treatment (DN group). Sciatic, tibial (motor) and sural (sensory) nerves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative histomorphological analysis. Systolic blood pressure in the two groups exhibited a higher value (>140 mmHg), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Endoneurial blood vessels in both groups presented endothelial hypertrophy and narrowing of the vascular lumen. Electron microscopically, duplication of basal lamina surrounding the endothelium and pericyte of the endoneurial vessels was observed, and this lesion appeared to be more frequent and severe in the ADN group than the DN group. Many nerve fibers of the ADN and DN groups showed an almost normal appearance, whereas morphometrical analysis of the tibial nerve showed a significant shift to smaller fiber and myelin sizes in the ADN group compared with DN group. In sural nerve, the fiber and axon-size significantly shifted to a smaller size in ADN group compared with the DN group. These results suggest that combined diabetes and hypertension could induce mild peripheral nerve lesions with vascular changes.

  14. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N.; Akpan, Joseph L.; Okorie, Ugochi A.; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T.; Ezeokpo, Basil C.; Nwadike, Kenneth I.; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S.; Sulaiman, Siti A.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patien...

  15. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of aqueous root extract of Icacina senegalensis in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    GC Akuodor

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that the root extract of I. senegalensis possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, which might be a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications.

  16. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE POWDER OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME PLANT ON A CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AT ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. I. Aizman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of the powder of Curcuma longa plant rhizome as food additive on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in whole blood, concentration of hormones – insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus were studied.Material and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar adult male rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups: 1 and 2 – the controls, 3 and 4 – the rats with alloxan-induced model of diabetes mellitus. Animals of groups 1 and 3 were kept on standard chow, whereas the rats of groups 2 and 4 were feeded with additive of powder from Curcuma longa plant rhizome (2% by weight of feed.The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with picric acid method by intensity of colour reaction on spectrofotometer. Concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide was defined by immunoenzyme method with standard sets on tablet spectrofotometer. The morphological structure of a pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. Content of glycogen in a liver was measured by means of Shick-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on spectrofotometer.Results. Intake of the turmeric rhizomes powder by rats with diabetes, as compared with the diabetic animals on a standard diet, resulted in the lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and significant increase of glycogen content in the liver. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet.Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa

  17. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pisonia alba Span. Leaves on Blood Glucose levels and Histological Changes in Tissues of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic rats

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    C Sunil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The ethanolic extract of Pisonia alba Span (Nyctaginaceae (PAEt was found to have antidiabetic activity that reduces blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  In this study, a 15 days antihyperglycemic effect of the two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.p.o of PAEt was investigated. Glibenclamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg b.w. Treatment of alloxan diabetic wistar rats with the extract caused a significant (P<0.01 reduction in the blood glucose levels when compared with control.   PAEt also showed significant lipid peroxide  scavenging in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radicals, thereby indicating its potent antioxidant effects.  Treatment with PAEt of the diabetic animals helped to maintain the body weight at near normal values and maintain the glucose levels of urine below 2% like glibenclamide.  Treatment with the ethanol extract of Pisonia alba Span  (Nyctaginaceae (PAEt was found to almost restore the normal histological architecture of the liver, kidney and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and other ailments because of the hazardous adverse effects of the current therapy used to treat these ailments using synthetic drugs.  Diabetes can be controlled by allopathic medicine as well as herbal medicine.  In case of allopathic medicine, complete cure and tolerance are major problems.  Herbal medicine is free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic hypoglycemic agents.  Nowadays a lot of herbal formulations are available as tablets and other dosage forms.  The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus.

  18. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  19. The effect of the glycolipoprotein extract (G-90) from earthworm Eisenia foetida on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Golnaz; Qujeq, Durdi; Elmi, Maryam M; Feizi, Farideh; Fathai, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem. The number of patients is estimated to increase to over 439 million cases by 2030. One of the major health clinical problems in patients with diabetes patients is impaired wound healing. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus in 12 to 25% of patients, which increases the risk of damage in the limbs or amputation. The earthworm Eisenia foetida glycolipoprotein (as known G-90) is a blend of macromolecules with some biological properties including mitogenicity, anticoagulation, fibrinolysis, bacteriostatic and antioxidatiaon. Given the biological properties of G-90, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of extract obtained from the homogenate of Eisenia foetida (G-90) on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment by using G-90 can speed up the wound healing process, which is exactly similar to the effect of D-panthenol treatment in rats. These findings also demonstrated that G-90 treatment decreases the risk of infection in the wound site compared with D-panthenol treatment. In addition, histological analysis indicated that a better extracellular matrix formation with increased fibroblast proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis and early epithelial layer formation was observed in G-90 treated group. Therefore, the G-90 could be considered as a new wound healing agent introducing promising therapeutic approaches in both human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27112508

  20. Effects of Hydromethanolic leaves extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats

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    Y Tanko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The effects of the hydromethanolic  extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of alloxan induced and normoglycemic Wistar rats has been investigated. Three doses of the extract (250mg/Kg, 500mg/Kg and 1000mg/Kg were administered intraperitoneally. The dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels of Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats after 4, 8 and 24 hours of treatment. However, the doses of 500 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4 and 24 hours while  the dose of 250 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4, 8 and 24 hours. In normoglycemic rats, the dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours only. Also the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 24 hours while the dose of 250 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 in the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours. The phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and steroids. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 2,154.1 mg/kg bodyweight. In conclusion, the doses of the extract has shown both significant (p<0.05 hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in Wistar rats.   Industrial relevance: The search for more effective and hypoglycemic agents has continue to be an area of research interest, because of the less side effects and easily affordable  medicinal plants has, when compared to the synthetic drugs. Indigofera pulchra is a very virgin plant and promising base on these current findings. The phytochemical screening revealed the present of phenolic compounds, tannins steroids, saponins and alkaloids. Elucidation of those secondary metabolites would be more effective in the treatment of this illness.

  1. TYPE 1 DIABETES AND ITS LONG DURATION EFFECT ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Mahaboob Basha P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous research in the field of Diabetology, its prevalence and complications are raising. Studies made on diabetic subjects showed deficits in cognition and memory in children suffering from long term diabetes. The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and type-1 diabetes of early onset has not been addressed properly. Hence, this study was made to investigate the effect of different duration diabetes onset on cognitive dysfunction. Using alloxan (200 mg/kg bw induced diabetic rats learning and memory assessments were made, in addition oxidative stress indices studied. The results indicate that the duration of diabetes has significant contribution in learning and memory deficits, which were irreversible and the activity levels of CAT (P < 0.05, SOD, GST (P < 0.05, and GPx (P < 0.05 showed greater impact of free radical damage on hippocampal circuitry. The atrophic changes observed in hippocampal region corroborates the difficulties in learning and memory, and the degenerative changes were most striking in the cells of CA-1 and CA-3 hippocampal regions which could be linked to deficits in certain cognitive domains, such as memory, information processing speed, executive function, attention and motor speed. It is evident from data that brain tissue is not spared by diabetes and diabetic encephalopathy occurs due to metabolic perturbations by hyperglycaemia, insulin deficiency. The findings of this study strongly advocate that learning ability and memory have a direct relation to the duration of the diabetes. The clinical implication of the study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of juvenile diabetes induced cognitive deficits among children.

  2. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Himanshu Misra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg. Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9% for the same duration. Glibenclamide was used as positive control reference drug against Stevia extract. Results: Medium-polar leaf extract of S. rebaudiana (200 and 400 mg/kg produced a delayed but significant (P < 0.01 decrease in the blood glucose level, without producing condition of hypoglycemia after treatment, together with lesser loss in the body weight as compared with standard positive control drug glibenclamide. Conclusions: Treatment of diabetes with sulfonylurea drugs (glibenclamide causes hypoglycemia followed by greater reduction in body weight, which are the most worrisome effects of these drugs. Stevia extract was found to antagonize the necrotic action of alloxan and thus had a re-vitalizing effect on β-cells of pancreas.

  3. Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Josline Y Salib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF . The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1®2-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5 , whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant. Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids.

  4. Inhibition of key enzymes related to diabetes and hypertension by Eugenol in vitro and in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Mnafgui, Kais; Kaanich, Fatima; Derbali, Amal; Hamden, Khaled; Derbali, Fatma; Slama, Sadok; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of treating diabetic rats with eugenol (EG). In vitro enzyme activity was measured in the presence of eugenol, and it was found to inhibit pancreatic α-amylase (IC(50) = 62.53 µg/mL) and lipase (IC(50) = 72.34 µg/mL) as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity (IC50 = 130.67 µg/mL). In vivo, EG reduced the activity of amylase in serum, pancreas and intestine also the peak level of glucose by 60% compared to diabetic rats. Furthermore, eugenol similar to acarbose reduced serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipase and ACE levels. In addition, treatments with EG showed notable decrease in serum total-cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with an increase of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Overall, EG significantly reverted back to near normal the values of the biochemical biomarkers such as transaminases (AST&ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities, total-bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid rates.

  5. Increased Oxidative Stress and Imbalance in Antioxidant Enzymes in the Brains of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Luciane B. Ceretta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system (SNC as well as alterations in oxidative stress. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan on memory and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by using a single injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg, and fifteen days after induction, the rats memory was evaluated through the use of the object recognition task. The oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT were measured in the rat brain. The results showed that diabetic rats did not have alterations in their recognition memory. However, the results did show that diabetic rats had increases in the levels of superoxide in the prefrontal cortex, and in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS production in the prefrontal cortex and in the amygdala in submitochondrial particles. Also, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the hippocampus and striatum, and in TBARS oxidation in the striatum and amygdala. The SOD activity was decreased in diabetic rats in the striatum and amygdala. However, the CAT activity was increased in the hippocampus taken from diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan did not cause alterations in the animals’ recognition memory, but it produced oxidants and an imbalance between SOD and CAT activities, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes.

  6. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (ppalm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  7. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

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    Maxwell Omabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P=0.0698; there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P>0.8115. However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P<0.0001, and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001; metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P<0.0001 and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001. Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  8. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (pglucose of supplemented groups compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. Plasma Vitamins C and E, SOD, and Albumin levels were significantly (psupplemented groups when compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. However, the plasma levels of these parameters were found to be significantly (psupplemented rats compared with the PO supplemented group. The plasma vitamin C levels in the diabetic groups were lower than in other groups while increased levels in the plasma total protein were not significant. There was no significant difference in the measured parameters in reference to the gender of the animals. It was concluded from this study that GO exhibited superior antioxidant activities and that the supplementation of red palm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status. PMID:26826842

  9. Assessment of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats as a Periodontal Disease Model Using a Selective Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; SANO, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported that alloxan-treated rats with long-term hyperglycemia can develop naturally occurring periodontal disease (PD). Our previous studies detected dental caries in the same model. Therefore, these two lesions of different etiologies are expected to occur concurrently. In this study, we evaluated the use of diabetic rats as a PD model by employing a selective COX-2 inhibitor reported to be effective against PD. Six-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 3 ...

  10. Assessment of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Raida; Ben Abdallah-Kolsi, Rihab; Hamden, Khaled; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Chaabouni, Khansa; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Sallemi, Fahima; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the potential of Bacillus subtilis SPB1biosurfactant, orally administered, for preventing diabetic complications in rats. The findings revealed that, Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant was an effective reducer of α-amylase activity in the plasma. Moreover, this supplement helped protect the β-cells from death and damage. Both the inhibitory action of SPB1 biosurfactant on α-amylase and the protection of the pancreas' β-cells lead to a decrease of the blood glucose levels, consequently antihyperglycemic effect. Interestingly, this lipopeptide biosurfactant modulated key enzyme related to hyperlipidemia as lipase; which leads to the regulation of the lipid profile in serum by the delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted a protective action on the pancreases and efficiently preserved the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase and lactate deshydrogenase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities exhibited by Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant were effective enough to alleviate induced diabetes in experimental rats. Therefore, SPB1biosurfactant could be considered as a potential strong candidate for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. PMID:26228442

  11. Effect of fenugreek, onion and garlic on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Jelodar Gholamali

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many traditional treatments have been recommended in the alternative system of medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus; however, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. AIMS: This study was carried out to clarify the effect of fenugreek, garlic and onion, recommended in Persian folklore medicine as beneficial in the treatment of diabetes, on blood glucose and their possible effect on pancreatic tissue. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 out of 25 adult male albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 185 mg/kg BW alloxan. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, three of which were fed a diet containing 12.5% BW Allium sativum (garlic, Allium cepa (onion or Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek for 15 days. The fourth group (positive control received an ordinary diet. The remaining non-diabetic rats (negative control group received neither alloxan nor the mentioned plants. Following consumption of plants, blood glucose was measured every day and on the last day the pancreas were removed and stained with H&E and Gomeri aldehyde fuchsin (GAF. Morphology of the pancreatic sections and the following morphometric factors were studied: volume density of B cells, volume density of islets, percent of B cells, number of islets per square millimeter, average area of islets and average volume density of B cell in whole pancreas. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test and Duncan′s multiple range tests were used to evaluate the data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that only garlic was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control group (P<0.05. In the control positive group all the mentioned morphometric factors were significantly changed in comparison with the control negative (normal health group, but the same did not show significant change between treated and untreated diabetics.

  12. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    R S Kujur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II, ether extract (Group III and methanolic extract (Group IV. For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p. after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg administration of aqueous extract (A.E. , ether extract (E.E. and methanol extract (M.E. for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.

  13. [Platelet hyperreactivity and antiaggregatory properties of nootropic drugs under conditions of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A É; Mamchur, V I

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nootropic drugs (noopept, pentoxifylline, piracetam, pramiracetam, Ginkgo biloba extract, entrop, cerebrocurin and citicoline) on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes have been studied. It is established that all these drugs exhibit an inhibitory action of various degrees against platelet hyperreactivity under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The maximum universality of the antiaggregatory action is characteristic of pramiracetam, entrop and Ginkgo biloba extract. PMID:22702111

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary; Gagan Chhabra; Dipali Sharma; Aruna Vashishta; Sujata Ohri; Aparna Dixit

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolis...

  15. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period.

  16. Amelioration of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by oil of Eruca sativa seeds.

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    El-Missiry, M A; El Gindy, A M

    2000-01-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plant extracts in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Oil of Eruca sativa seeds (ESS) is tried for prevention and treatment of DM induced experimentally by alloxan injection. A single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol, decreased high-density lipoprotein and hepatic glycogen contents and elevated hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the liver. This oxidative stress was related to a decreased glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in the liver of alloxan-diabetic rats. ESS oil (0.06 ml/kg) on its own increased significantly hepatic GSH. Daily oral administration of ESS oil 2 weeks before or after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, improved lipid profile, blunted the increase in malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal and stimulated the GSH production in the liver of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that ESS oil could be used as antidiabetic complement in case of DM. This may be related to its antioxidative properties and to the increase in hepatic GSH.

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  18. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  19. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Nakahara; Tomoya Sano; Yasushi Kodama; Kiyokazu Ozaki; Tetsuro Matsuura

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-wee...

  20. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kujur, R. S.; Vishakha Singh; Mahendra Ram; Harlokesh Narayan Yadava; Singh, K. K.; Suruchi Kumari; B. K. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I) and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II), ether extract (Group III) and methanolic...

  1. Effect of methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub leaves on hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi; Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu; Mubarak Labaran Liman; Dorothy Uju Iliemene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ameliorative role of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub (T. tetraptera) leaf in hyperglycemia with associated conditions like oxidative stress, kidney damage and disorders in lipid metabolism. Methods:Five groups of five rats each intraperitoneally received the following treatment schedules for 7 d: untreated normal control, untreated alloxan-diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, normal rats treated with extract (50 mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated with the extract. Evaluations were made for fasting blood sugar, body weight changes, malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid profile, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, urea and creatinine in all the rats. Results:Whereas the untreated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions:Methanolic extract of T. tetraptera leaves possesses a potent capacity for treatment of diabetes and the accompanying complications, including oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia.

  2. Positive moderation of the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica Gerome and Labroy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikewuchi Jude Chigozie; Ikewuchi Catherine Chidinma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica (S. liberica) to alter the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg body weight.Results:Compared to test control, the treatment dose dependently, significantly lowered (P<0.05) ocular malondialdehyde content, atherogenic indices, red cell, total white cell and lymphocyte counts, mean cell hemoglobin concentration; and plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total-, very low density lipoprotein-, low density lipoprotein- and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterols, total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, sodium, urea, blood urea nitrogen, as well as plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases. However, the treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell volume, neutrophil and monocyte counts, and plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, potassium, chloride, calcium, bicarbonate and total protein, ocular ascorbic acid content and ocular activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immune-modulating, ocular-, hepato-renal and cardio-protective potentials of the extract. Conclusions: All these, support the use of the leaves of S. liberica in African traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Anti-diabetic properties of Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Shan, Bin; Liao, Cai-Hu; Xie, Jian-Hua; Wen, Ping-Wei; Shi, Jia-Yi

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (MCP) was isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia L., and the hypoglycemic effects of MCP were investigated in both normal healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MCP was orally administered once a day after 3 days of alloxan-induction at 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight for 28 day. Results showed that fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was significantly decreased, whereas the glucose tolerance was marked improvement in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and loss in body weight was also prevented in diabetic mice compared to the diabetic control group. The dosage of 300mg/kg body weight exhibited the best effects. In addition, MCP did not exhibit any toxic symptoms in the limited toxicity evaluation in mice. The results suggest that MCP possess significantly dose-dependent anti-diabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hence, MCP can be incorporated as a supplement in health-care food, drugs and/or combined with other hypoglycemic drugs. PMID:26318666

  4. Antidiabetic activity of Plumeria rubra L. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Amruta V. Yadav

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: PR exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study provide support to the traditional usage of the plant in diabetes. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 884-889

  5. Comparison on hypoglycemic effect of Oyster (Pleurotusosteratus and Reishi (Ganodermalucidum mushroom in alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Debendra Nath Roy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotusosteratus (family: Pleurotaceae and Ganodermalucidum (family: ganodermataceae are common edible mushrooms in Bangladesh. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotusosteratus and Ganodermalucidum were used to find out their hypoglycaemicactivity in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotusosteratus and Ganodermalucidum reduced blood glucose level of 39.56% and 43.27% respectively at 24 hours after intrapertitoneal administration (P<0.005 inalloxan induced diabeticmice.The possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action is due to the increased glucose uptake in liver cells because it markedly lowers the blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabeticmice.

  6. Oral administration of levan polysaccharide reduces the alloxan-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahech, Imen; Belghith, Karima Srih; Hamden, Khaled; Feki, Abdelfattah; Belghith, Hafedh; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a polysaccharide named levan, which was produced by new isolated bacteria, on oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Levan polysaccharide was given in drinking water for 60 days at a daily dose equivalent to 2%. The oral administration of levan in diabetic rats caused a decrease in glucose level in plasma and an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in both pancreas and liver. Furthermore, a protective action against hepatic and pancreatic toxicity in diabetic rats was clearly observed. Furthermore, a significant decrease in hepatic and pancreatic indices toxicity was observed, i.e., alkalines phosphatases (ALP), aspartate and lactate transaminases (AST and ALT), lactate deshydrogenases (LDH) activities and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs). These beneficial effects of levan were confirmed by histological findings in hepatic and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. This study demonstrates for the first time that levan is efficient in inhibiting hyperglycemia and oxidative stress induced by diabetes and suggests that administration of levan may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. PMID:21925206

  7. The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Walnut (Juglans regia Leaf and Glibenclamide on Serum Glucose Levels of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mahdi Noureddini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of medicinal plants for lowering glucose level in diabetic patients is of clinical importance. The present study investigated the effect of a 30-day oral administration of aqueous extract of walnut leaf and glibenclamide on blood glucose level in normal and diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 male rats (Sprague-Dawley, 150-250 g were divided into 12 equal groups as following: normal control group, normal group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, three normal groups receiving the extract doses of 50, 10, and 150 mg/kg, alloxan-diabetic control group (170 mg/kg, diabetic group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, and five diabetic groups receiving the extract in doses of 10, 50, 150, 300, and 500 mg/day by oral administration for 30 days. Glucose levels of the fasting rats were measured at 0, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days using glucometer.Results: Administration of all doses and over 10 mg/kg significantly lowered the blood glucose level in normal rat and diabetic rats, compared with dose and duration-dependent control groups. This effect was higher for doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg in normal rats and for doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg in diabetic rats, similar to glibenclamide (4 mg/kg.Conclusion: Walnut leaf aqueous extract, depending on dose and duration, has dose and duration dependent declining effect on glucose level in normal rats and antihyperglycemic effect on diabetic rats, with a few side effects. This effect at some doses is greater or equal to that of glibenclamide.

  8. Dracaena arborea leaf extract: A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated. ALX and then Dracaena arborea extracts (DAE at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/ day were administered to both normal (Group A and diabetic rats (Groups C and D and none to the diabetic control group (Group B for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic and DAE-treated diabetic rats. Results: We observed a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the serum glucose level as well as a drug-induced dose-dependent reduction in testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the rats following type-1 diabetic conditions induction by ALX. There was a significant dose dependent response (P < 0.05 to treatment between the DAE-treated diabetic groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in oxidative stress parameters was observed in testicular cells of diabetic rats post-treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that DAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  9. XML Effect of Regular Aerobic Training and Arbutin on Cardiac Total Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rat

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    Shojaee, M. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiomyopathic changes, can be mediated by an oxidative stress. We aimed to study the effects of regular aerobic training and arbutin supplementation on total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant (TAS status in the cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Material and Methods: fourty-two male Wistar rats with an average weight of 195 to 220 gr were randomly divided into 6 groups (7 rats per group of control, diabetes, Arbutin, diabetes + Arbutin, diabetes + aerobic training and diabetes + aerobic training + Arbutin. Swimming training protocol consisted of 5 days/week for 6 weeks and each session was 5-36 min/day. Diabetes was induced with alloxan intraperitoneally and Arbutin (50 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously. Results: Induced- diabetes significantly increased TOS and decreased TAS in rat heart tissue (P = 0.000. Six weeks of supplementation with Arbutin, aerobic training and combination of aerobic training and Arbutin supplementation were associated with a significant decrease in TOS (88%, 91% ,103% Respectively and increase in TAS (33% ,62% ,67% Respectively . Conclusion: Compared to arbutin, aerobic training can be more effective in creating adaptation in the antioxidant defense system.

  10. Dracaena arborea leafextract:A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede; Saheed Oluwasina Oseni; Olumide Olaseni Adenmosun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX)-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods:Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated.ALX and thenDracaena arborea extracts (DAE) at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day were administered to both normal (Group A) and diabetic rats (Groups C and D) and none to the diabetic control group (Group B) for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic andDAE-treated diabetic rats. Results:We observed a significant (P Conclusions:These findings suggest thatDAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  11. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20–120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. ► DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries disturbed due to alloxan toxicity. ► DSL inhibits pancreatic β-cells apoptosis

  12. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  13. Effect of soybean seeds alone or in combination with insulin or glibenclamide on serum lipid profiles in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    O. H. Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soybean seeds administration alone or combined with either insulin or glibenclamide on serum lipid profiles in diabetic rats. Male Wister rats were induced diabetes by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg.b.w.The rats randomly divided into six groups (eight rats in each group: The first group served as a control, the second group was administered soybean seed 400 mg/kg.b.w orally as suspension, the third group injected insulin 10 I.U/kg.b.w, subcutaneously, the fifth group administered glibenclamide 5 mg/kg.b.w. orally. Accompaniment of soybean seeds with either of insulin or glibenclamide given the fourth and sixth groups, using the same routes and doses in the individual groups. All treatments were once daily for two weeks. Soybean seeds treatment alone resulted in an improvement of body weight and decrease of triglyceride and total lipids levels. While treatment with insulin or glibenclamide as alone or combination with soybean seeds showed a significant reduction in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and total lipids, beside a significant increase in both body weight and high density lipoprotein. Beneficial effects were seen when soybean seeds combined with either of insulin or glibenclamide treatment. These results indicate the usefulness of soybean seeds in the management of diabetes through the hypolipidemic effects of soybean seeds in diabetic rats.

  14. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

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    C. O. Nwaehujor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves.

  15. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  16. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  17. Antioxidant effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacae on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

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    Eleazu C.O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus results in complications that could be contributed by elevated levels of free radicals and oxidative stress and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aim: We investigated the effect of the antioxidant activity of unripe plantain on oxidative stress markers in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Materials and Method: Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic, and unripe plantain-treated diabetic rats. The proximate, phytochemical and antioxidant activity of the unripe plantain were determined. The glutathionine, malonaldehyde, catalase and glucose levels of the animals were also determined using standard techniques. Result: The diabetic rabbits placed on unripe plantain diet had a decrease in their blood glucose (- 24.25±8.08% and malonaldehyde levels with a corresponding increase in their weights (23.63±1.20%, glutathione and catalase levels after 3weeks of dieting compared with the control (p<0.05. Glutathione correlated negatively with malonaldehyde and glucose (r = -0.77 and -0.877, but positively with catalase and body weight (r = 0.60 and 0.70. Malonaldehyde correlated negatively with catalase and body weight (r = - 0.44 and -0.72 but positively with glucose (r = 0.86. Catalase correlated negatively with glucose(-0.69 but positively with body weight (1. The extract had a high scavenging activity on DPPH radical (78.57±0.12% comparable to that of standard vitamin C (83.20±0.00% in addition to a high total antioxidant activity (62±0.20%. The flour contained low amounts of protein, lipid, tannin, saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids and energy value but significant quantities of crude fibre, ash and carbohydrates. Conclusion: These findings suggest that raised blood glucose level in diabetics could deplete cells of their antioxidant status with resultant increase in oxidative stress. Finally, unripe plantain intake may exert a free radical scavenging activity by ameliorating the altered

  18. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

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    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  19. Description of morphological changes in neurons and endothelial cells of CA1-area of hippocampus in rats with alloxan-induced hyp erglycemia under application of nootropic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhylyuk V.I.; Mamchur V.I.

    2012-01-01

    Using neuromorphometry analysis differences in the effects of nootropic drugs on morphology and function of neurons and endothelial cells of hippocampus, content of RNA, content of apoptotic and destructive neurons were examined in white rats with chronic alloxan-induced hyperglycemia. It ha s been found that diabetes in rats is accompanied by specific morphological and functional changes and activation of apoptosis in neurons of the CA1-area in hi ppocampus, which may be related to disturb...

  20. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  1. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Fermented and Nonfermented Mung Bean Extracts on Alloxan-Induced-Diabetic Mice

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    Swee Keong Yeap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts.

  2. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  3. Study of hypoglycemic activity of Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

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    Saleem B. Tamboli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Tinospora Cordifolia in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Rabbits were divided into four experimental groups: Non-diabetic rabbits treated with normal saline, Non-diabetic rabbits treated with TCREt, Diabetic rabbits treated with Metformin, Diabetic rabbits treated with TCREt. Treatment with drugs was started on the 8th day of alloxan treatment (i.e. day 1 and was continued for 30 days. Statistical evaluation was done using student’s ‘t’ test & one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey`s post hoc test. ‘p’ value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: TCREt showed hypoglycemic action in alloxan induced diabetes rabbits. It did not produce hypoglycemia in non diabetic rabbits. Conclusion: Hypoglycemic action of TCREt is comparable to that of standard oral hypoglycemic drug metformin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 559-561

  4. Long term evaluation of functional and morphological bladder alterations on alloxan-induced diabetes and aging: experimental study in rats Avaliação funcional e morfológica tardia de alterações na bexiga secundárias ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e no envelhecimento: estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Antunes Rodrigues Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate structural and functional effects of Alloxan- induced diabetes and aging on bladder of rats. METHODS: evaluations were performed in three groups: A - 8 weeks of age, B - 44 weeks of age, C - 44 weeks of age with alloxan-induced diabetes. Muscle layer thickness, extracellular matrix fibrosis and collagen were quantified on digital images of bladder samples. Cystometric evaluations before surgical vesical denervation (SVD, included maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, maximum bladder pressure (MBP, bladder contraction frequency (VCF, duration of bladder contraction (DC, threshold pressure (TP and bladder compliance (BC. After SVD, maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, BC and maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP were also measured. RESULTS: Reduced extracellular matrix fibrosis concentration and contraction strength were found in the bladders of group C. Before SVD, bladder compliance was not different between groups. Alterations were observed in MCC after SVD. CONCLUSIONS: We did not notice smooth muscle hypertrophy in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 44 weeks. There was alteration in the total and relative amount of fibrosis and collagen. The cystometric studies support the idea that this morphological alterations are important to determine the different bladder functional patterns found in the aging and the Alloxan-induced diabetic animals.OBJETIVOS: avaliar alterações estruturais e funcionais da bexiga de ratos machos, associadas ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e ao envelhecimento. MÉTODOS: três grupos de animais: A - 8 semanas de idade; B- 44 semanas de idade; C - 44 semanas de idade com diabetes induzido por aloxano, foram avaliados. Realizadas medidas de espessura da camada muscular, fibrose de matriz extracelular e quantidade de colágeno, através de análise de imagem digital dos tecidos. Realizados também testes cistométricos, antes da desnervação vesical cirúrgica (DVC, para avaliar capacidade vesical (CV

  5. Phycocyanin ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in mice: Involved in insulin signaling pathway and GK expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yu; Ren, Zhiheng; Wang, Jianhui; Yang, Xuegan

    2016-03-01

    The therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of phycocyanin from Spirulina on alloxan-induced diabetes mice was investigated. In the experiment, 4-week treatment of phycocyanin at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetes mice resulted in improved metrics in comparison with alloxan-induced diabetes group. These metrics include blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum protein (GSP), glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and fasting serum insulin (FINS) levels. As its molecular mode of action, phycocyanin leads to the increase of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and the decrease of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, also accompany with increased level of Akt phosphorylation on Ser473 in the liver and pancreas in diabetic mice. In addition, phycocyanin treatment enhanced the glucokinase (GK) level in the liver and pancreas, and the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) level in the liver in diabetic mice. The results suggest that phycocyanin ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in mice by activating insulin signaling pathway and GK expression in pancreas and liver in diabetic mice. PMID:26827782

  6. Determination of the Hypoglycemic Effect of the Flower of Tamarindus indica on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Muhammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether the flower of the plant Tamarind (Tamarindus indica can prevent alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups of 3 mice each. Diabetes was induced in group 1 and 2 by Intraperitoneal (IP injection of 180 mg alloxan/kg body weight. Group 1 was induced and treated with 10 mg/kg tamarind. Group 2 was induced (untreated whereas Group 3 was used as a control (uninduced. Serum Glucose and Malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined. Tamarind flowers reduced fasting glucose level and MDA concentration significantly (p<0.05 in induced treated compared with induced untreated without regenerating the b cells. From the result obtained, it can be concluded that, tamarind flower has only hypoglycemic effect with no regeneration of b-cells on chemically induced diabetes.

  7. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA LINN ROOT EXTRACTS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

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    Harneet Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is most common endocrine disease which exists globally and interests about 6 % of the world population. The recommendation of W.H.O. about diabetes has led to a rise in investigation of medicinal plants for hypoglycemic agents. Decoction prepared from roots of Jatropha gossypifolia Linn is used in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of successive extracts of the roots of the plant in comparison to metformin. Petroleum ether (60-80°C, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight were orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic mice for 7 days. Change in body weight and plasma glucose levels were estimated after the treatment. Methanol extract exhibited significant reduction in plasma glucose level as compared to diabetic control, followed by aqueous extract. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts were comparatively less active. The results confirm the folklore use of the plant in management of diabetes.

  8. Hypoglycemic Properties of Oxovanadium (IV) Coordination Compounds with Carboxymethyl-Carrageenan and Carboxymethyl-Chitosan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Zhang; Yuetao Yi; Dawei Feng; Yipeng Wang; Song Qin

    2011-01-01

    In order to avoid low absorption, incorporation, and undesirable side effects of inorganic oxovanadium compounds, the antidiabetic activities of organic oxovanadium (IV) compounds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice were investigated. Vanadyl carboxymethyl carrageenan (VOCCA) and vanadyl carboxymethyl chitosan (VOCCH) were synthesized and administrated through intragastric administration in different doses for 20 days in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide was administrated as the posit...

  9. Delayed Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia, Slow Gastrointestinal Transit and Possible Links Between Them in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟东; 刑东明; 苏慧; 程杰; 金文; 丁怡; 杜力军

    2004-01-01

    Both postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis are common dysfunctions affecting diabetes mellitus; however,whether diabetic gastroparesis has an influence on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia still remains undetermined.Delayed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia,diabetic gastroparesis,and the possible links between them were investigated using alloxan-induced diabetic mice.After the oral administration of olive oil,delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis were markedly presented in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Domperidone shortened the time of triglycerides (TG) peak levels in diabetic mice.After intraperitoneal and intraduodenal administration of olive oil,no delay of TG peak levels occurred in diabetic mice.Simultaneously,serum post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activities significantly decreased just at the time of prolonged and elevated TG peak levels resulting from diabetic gastroparesis,and further deteriorated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic mice.The results indicate that diabetic gastroparesis can be one of the important reasons for delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes mellitus.

  10. Effects of Adhatoda vasica leaf extract in depression co-morbid with alloxan-induced diabetes in mice

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    Deepali Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Increased neuronal oxidative stress as a consequence of diabetes may result in neuropsychological complications such as depression. Depression co-morbid with diabetes further hampers the quality life years in diabetic patients. Aim: Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Adhatoda vasica leaf extract (EAV, as a natural remedy, in alloxan-induced diabetes and co-morbid depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Experimentally, mice were rendered diabetic with a single dose of alloxan of 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.. After 3 weeks of having chronic diabetic state, mice were given EAV (100-400 mg/kg, orally/vehicle/standard control (escitalopram, ESC; 10 mg/kg, orally for 7 days. After dosing, anti-diabetic effect was detected by the fasted blood glucose levels and anti-depressant effect was evaluated by behavioural despair tests, followed by monoamine oxidase (MAO activity and oxidative stress analysis. Results and Discussion: EAV treatment effectively reduced the elevated blood glucose levels and reversed co-morbid depressive behaviour. Furthermore, EAV inhibited diabetes induced increased oxidative stress and MAO activity in the brain. Thus, EAV demonstrated the potential protective action against oxidative stress and revealed monoamine modulatory activity in the brain, which may contribute to its anti-depressant effect. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the efficacious effect of EAV in reversing the depression co-morbid with alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

  11. Protective and curative effects of Cocos nucifera inflorescence on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity in rats

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    Raveendran S Renjith

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results obtained in the study indicate the protective and curative effects of CnI on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity, which is mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities and islets cell repair.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC AND HOT WATER EXTRACTS OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Kumar Biswas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the potential roles of ethanolic and hot water extracts of Andrographis paniculata on reducing the blood sugar level (BSL) in alloxan- induced rats. Oral administration of ethanolic (2 g/kg b. w.) and hot water (0.8 g/kg b. w.) extracts of Andrographis paniculata showed the antidiabetic properties and decreased the blood glucose level by 33.71% (p

  13. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves extract in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) methanolic leaves extract (TCLE) using blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance test and alloxan induced hyperglycemia models. Methods: TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 d. TCLE 200 and 400 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 0.6 mg/kg were given orally in all models. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited remarkable blood glucose lowering effect in blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance and alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Cholesterol and triglyceride also decreased in alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Conclusions: The results of this study exhibites that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses antihypergycemic activity and it may prove to be effective for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  14. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Sonia Kohli; Renu Arya; Jyoti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. bark in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Methods: Group-Ⅰ (normal control) mice received only basal diet without any treatment. In Group-Ⅱ (Diabetic control) mice, diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kgi.p.) and received only Tween80, 5% v/v in normal saline. Group-Ⅲ and Group-Ⅳ mice received metformin (10 mg/kg) and gliclazide (10 mg/kg) as standard drugs. Group-Ⅴ and Ⅵ mice received methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima at doses of250 and500 mg/kg body weightp.o., respectively.Results: The results of the study indicates thatAlbizia odoratissima bark extract significantly (P<0.01) reduced the blood sugar level. The bark extract also significantly reduced the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decreases level of total proteins in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Conclusions:Methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima has protective effects on the protection of vital tissues (pancreas, kidney, liver, heart and spleen), thereby reducing the causation of diabetes in experimental animals.

  15. Bio-enhancing effect of Piperine with Metformin on lowering blood glucose level in Alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Shubham Atal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21 st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL, Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg, Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg, and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg. All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28. Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14 th and 28 th day (P < 0.05. Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects.

  16. Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperproteinaemic Activity of Extracts of Picralima nitida Seed and Tapinanthus bangwensis Leaf on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    Bosede M. Adegoke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water extract of Picralima nitida seed and aqueous extract of Tapinanthus bangwensis leaf were investigated for their antidiabetic activities on some biochemical parameters (glucose, protein associated with diabetes in both the serum and tissues of experimental animals using alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits as model. The rabbits were fasted overnight before they were given a single intraperitoneal injection of aqueous alloxan monohydrate (Sigma, USA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight to make them diabetic. The experimental rabbits (chinchilla were grouped into six and extracts administered orally, once daily for five weeks. Groups 1 and 2 (non-diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively, group 3 (diabetic received 200 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf, group 4 received 400 mg/kg body weight of coconut water extract of P. nitida seed, groups 5 and 6 (diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively. The results revealed that the extracts independently lowered significantly (pandlt;0.05 the blood glucose and protein levels of the diabetic rabbits. Both extracts significantly (pandlt;0.05 increased the tissue protein. Overall, aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf and coconut water extract of P. nitida seed independently possesses insulin-like properties as demonstrated by their antidiabetic actions, hence, may be good herbal extracts in the management of diabetes.

  17. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Amanda Alves da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage.

  18. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Amanda Alves; Araújo, Tiago Ferreira da Silva; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; da Mota, Diógenes Luís; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL) improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage. PMID:24324521

  19. EFFECT OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM ON LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH ACTIVITY OF BLOOD, LIVER AND PANCREAS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN- INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

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    Sekaran Sridhar et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous seeds extract of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn was studied on Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity of blood, liver and pancreas in normal and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. Our study showed that aqueous seeds extract, Oral administration of 50 mg/animal (0.5 ml of extract in alternative days up to 7 days (1st, 3rd, 5th & 7th day. In alloxan induced diabetic mice, there was a significant increase in LDH activity of all the three tissues. The enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase showed significant decrease in the diabetic group treated with aqueous extract of tested plant when compared with the diabetic group. It is clear from the current data in this study that ginseng aqueous extract was the most efficient of the tested plant.

  20. Glutamine or whey-protein supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Effects on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes Efeitos da oferta de glutamina ou de proteína do soro de leite sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos

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    Renato Motta Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of glutamine (L-Gln or whey-protein supplementation on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. Eight rats served as baseline controls (G-1. The remaining 24 animals received alloxan 150mg/Kg intraperitonially dissolved in buffer solution and were equally distributed in 3 subgroups, upon induction of diabetes mellitus, and treated as follows: (G2: saline, 2.0ml; (G3: glutamine solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml; and (G4: whey-protein (WPS solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml. All solutions were administered by daily 7:00 AM gavages during 30 days. Next, arterial blood samples (3.0 ml were collected from anesthetized rats for CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte count through flow cytometry technology. RESULTS: CD4+ and CD8+ counts decreased significantly in all groups compared with baseline values (G1. G2 rats CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly compared with G1. CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased significantly (>260% in L-Gln treated group (G3 compared with saline-treated rats (G2. There were no statistical differences in lymphocyte counts (CD4+ and CD8+ between L-Gln (G3 and saline-treated (G2 groups. There was a significant reduction in CD8+ cell count compared with CD4+ cell count in L-Gln treated rats (G3. CONCLUSION: The offer of L-Gln to experimental diabetic rats enhances the immunologic response to infection.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de glutamina ou proteína do soro de leite ( PSL sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar machos, saudáveis, foram utilizados no estudo. Oito ratos foram usados como controles basais (G1. Os 24 animais remanescentes foram equitativamente distribuídos em 3 subgrupos, após indução do diabetes mellitus por injeção intraperitonial de aloxano (150mg/Kg e tratados como se segue: (G2: salina; (G3: 2,0 ml de solução de glutamina

  1. Antihyperglycemic Effect on Chronic Administration of Butanol Fraction of Ethanol Extract of Moringa Stenopetala Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alemayehu Toma; Eyasu Makonnen; Asfaw Debella; Birhanu Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity on chronic administration of the butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Moringa Stenopetala leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Methods: The mice were grouped in four groups; Normal control, Diabetic control, Butanol fraction treated and standard drug treated groups. The Diabetic mice received the butanol fraction of Moringa stenopetala daily for 28 days. Results: The butanol fraction of Moringastenopetala treatment resulted in significant reduction of fasting blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides level. This fraction also showed a tendency to improve body weight gain in diabetic mice. Its oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5000mg/Kg indicating its safety in mice. Conclusions: Though the mechanism of action of Moringa stenopetala seems to be similar to that of sulfonylureas, further studies should be done to confirm its mechanism of antidiabetic action. Furthermore the active principle(s) responsible for the antidabetic effects should also be identified.

  2. Hypoglycemic Properties of Oxovanadium (IV Coordination Compounds with Carboxymethyl-Carrageenan and Carboxymethyl-Chitosan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Hongyu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid low absorption, incorporation, and undesirable side effects of inorganic oxovanadium compounds, the antidiabetic activities of organic oxovanadium (IV compounds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice were investigated. Vanadyl carboxymethyl carrageenan (VOCCA and vanadyl carboxymethyl chitosan (VOCCH were synthesized and administrated through intragastric administration in different doses for 20 days in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide was administrated as the positive control. Our results showed that low-dose group, middle-dose group, and high-dose group of VOCCA and VOCCH could significantly reduce the levels of blood glucose (P<0.05 compared with untreated group, but not in normal mice. Besides, high-dose groups of VOCCA and VOCCH exhibited more significant hypoglycemic activities (P<0.01. After treated with VOCCH, the oral glucose tolerance of high-dose group of VOCCH was improved compared with model control group (P<0.05.

  3. Diosmin Modulates the NF-kB Signal Transduction Pathways and Downregulation of Various Oxidative Stress Markers in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Mundhe, Nitin; Borgohain, Manash; Chowdhury, Liakat; Kwatra, Mohit; Bolshette, Nityanand; Ahmed, Anwaruddin; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress plays an imperative role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. NF-kB is an important transcription factor in eukaryotes which regulates a diverse array of cellular process, including inflammation, immunological response, apoptosis, growth and development. Increased expression of NF-kB plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the nephroprotective nature of diosmin by assessing the various biochemical parameters, markers of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight). Seventy-two hours after the conformation of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥ 250 mg/dl), the rats were segregated into four groups, each group having six animals. Diabetic rats were treated with diosmin at a dose of 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. After the 28th day of treatment, rats were sacrificed, blood serum, plasma and kidney tissue were collected for various biochemical analysis. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured through ELISA kit. Diosmin treatment produces significant reduction in the blood glucose and plasma insulin level and increases the body weight when compared with diabetic rats. Elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly restored after 28 days of diosmin treatment. Diosmin treatment group also restores the normal architecture of the kidney tissue which was confirmed by histopathological examination. Moreover, oral administration of diosmin shows a significant normalization in the level of NF-kB, proving its pivotal role in maintaining renal function. The above ameliorative effects were more pronounced with

  4. Timosaponin B-II ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via TXNI P, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways in alloxan-induced mice

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    Yuan YL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Liang Yuan,1,* Chang-Run Guo,1,* Ling-Ling Cui,1 Shi-Xia Ruan,1 Chun-Feng Zhang,1 De Ji,2 Zhong-Lin Yang,1 Fei Li1 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, 2College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Many synthesized drugs with clinical severe side effects have been used for diabetic nephropathy (DN treatment. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to identify natural and safe agents to remedy DN. Timosaponin B-II (TB-II, a major steroidal saponin constituent in Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, exhibits various activities, including anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic functions. However, the anti-DN effects and potential mechanism(s of TB-II have not been previously reported.Purpose: To investigate the effect of TB-II on DN in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Methods: TB-II was isolated and purified from A. asphodeloides Bunge using macroporous adsorption resin and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of TB-II on DN was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice using an assay kit and immunohistochemical determination in vivo. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB signaling pathways was also measured using Western blot analysis.Results: TB-II significantly decreased the blood glucose levels and ameliorated renal histopathological injury in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In addition, TB-II remarkably decreased the levels of renal function biochemical factors, such as kidney index, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urinary uric acid, urine creatinine, and urine protein, and it reduced lipid metabolism levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides and the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in alloxan-induced mice. Furthermore

  5. Description of morphological changes in neurons and endothelial cells of CA1-area of hippocampus in rats with alloxan-induced hyp erglycemia under application of nootropic drugs

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    Zhylyuk V.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using neuromorphometry analysis differences in the effects of nootropic drugs on morphology and function of neurons and endothelial cells of hippocampus, content of RNA, content of apoptotic and destructive neurons were examined in white rats with chronic alloxan-induced hyperglycemia. It ha s been found that diabetes in rats is accompanied by specific morphological and functional changes and activation of apoptosis in neurons of the CA1-area in hi ppocampus, which may be related to disturbance of local blood flow due to endothelial damage. N-carbamoyl-methyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone (entrop, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine (noopept, pramiracetam, cerebrocurin and citicoline show protective effects on neurons and endothelial cells, which are much larger in force than effect s of ginkgo biloba extract, piracetam and pentoxifylline. This protective activity is characterized by reducing the number of apoptotic and dest ructive neurons in hippocampal CA1-area, increasing the density of functioning nerve and endothelial cells, activation of RNA biosynthesis in the neurocytes and endo-thelial cells

  6. Anti-diabetic Effects of Polysaccharides from Ethanol-insoluble Residue of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ting; WU Xiang-yang; MAO Guang-hua; ZHANG Min; LI Fang; ZOU Ye; ZHOU Ye; ZHENG Wei; ZHENG Da-heng; YANG Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra generated during lignans industrial production is usually treated as solid waste.However,there is active polysaccharide which could be used in it.In this work,the water-soluble polysaccharides from the ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra(ESCP) were obtained and their anti-diabetic effect was evaluated.The results indicate that ESCP could significantly reduce the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Moreover,the ESCP could significantly improve the lipid metabolism and increase the content of liver glycogen in ailoxan-induced diabetic mice.The results indicate that ESCP could be developed into a potential natural hypoglycemic agent.

  7. Healing of excisional wound in alloxan induced diabetic sheep: A planimetric and histopathologic study

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei; Amir-Abbas Farshid; Siamak Kazemi-Darabadi; Reza Baradar-Jalili

    2013-01-01

    Healing of skin wound is a multi-factorial and complex process. Proper treatment of diabetic wounds is still a major clinical challenge. Although diabetes mellitus can occur in ruminants, healing of wounds in diabetic ruminants has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing of ovine excisional diabetic wound model. Eight 4-month-old Iranian Makoui wethers were equally divided to diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Alloxan monohydrate (60 mg kg-1, IV) was used for di...

  8. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Sarbashri; Ghosh, Arjun; Bhattacharya, Suman; Maiti, Smarajit; Khan, Gausal A; Sinha, Asru K

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding of 0.4 ml (0.08 unit of insulin) of the resuspended proteins followed by 0.2 ml of the same protein to alloxan induced diabetic mice maximally decreased the blood glucose level from 508 ± 10 mg/dl to 130 ± 10 mg/dl in 7 h with simultaneous increase of the basal plasma concentration of insulin from 3 ± 1.1 μunits/ml to 18 ± 1.5 μunits/ml. In control experiment the absence of insulin in the identical milk suspension produced no hypoglycemic effect suggesting milk was not responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of milk-insulin complex. Coming out of insulin-casein complex from the intestinal gut to the circulation was spontaneous and facilitated diffusion transportation which was found from Gibbs free energy reaction.

  9. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Sarbashri; Ghosh, Arjun; Bhattacharya, Suman; Maiti, Smarajit; Khan, Gausal A.; Sinha, Asru K

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding of 0.4 ml (0.08 unit of insulin) of the resuspended proteins followed by 0.2 ml of the same protein to alloxan induced diabetic mice maximally decreased the blood glucose level from 508 ± 10 mg/dl to 130 ± 10 mg/dl in 7 h with simultaneous increase of the basal plasma concentration of insulin from 3 ± 1.1 μunits/ml to 18 ± 1.5 μunits/ml. In control experiment the absence of insulin in the identical milk suspension produced no hypoglycemic effect suggesting milk was not responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of milk-insulin complex. Coming out of insulin-casein complex from the intestinal gut to the circulation was spontaneous and facilitated diffusion transportation which was found from Gibbs free energy reaction. PMID:27226415

  10. Rejuvenating of Kidney Tissues on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice under the Effect of Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Sharma; Mohd. Sufiyan Siddiqui; Gurudayal Ram; Ranjeet Kumar Yadav; Arti Kumari; Gaurav Sharma; Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder in human and responsible for different complications and also causes mortality and morbidity. A wide number of herbal products are employed in the treatment of diabetes for their better efficacy and safety compared to synthetic medicine. The present studies have established the antidiabetic potential and rejuvenating capacity of kidney tissues under the effect of extract. Diabetes was induced in the Swiss albino mice by injecting alloxan at the dose of...

  11. Healing of excisional wound in alloxan induced diabetic sheep: A planimetric and histopathologic study

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    Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healing of skin wound is a multi-factorial and complex process. Proper treatment of diabetic wounds is still a major clinical challenge. Although diabetes mellitus can occur in ruminants, healing of wounds in diabetic ruminants has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing of ovine excisional diabetic wound model. Eight 4-month-old Iranian Makoui wethers were equally divided to diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Alloxan monohydrate (60 mg kg-1, IV was used for diabetes induction. In each wether, an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animal. Photographs were taken in distinct times for planimetric evaluation. Wound samples were taken on day 21 post-wounding for histopathologic evaluations of epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of new blood vessels. The planimetric study showed slightly delay in wound closure of diabetic animals, however, it was not significantly different from nondiabetic wounds (p ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of blood vessels were significantly lower in diabetic group (p < 0.05. We concluded that healing of excisional diabetic wounds in sheep may be compromised, as seen in other species. However, contraction rate of these wounds may not be delayed due to metabolic features of ruminants and these animals might go under surgeries without any serious concern. However, healing quality of these wounds may be lower than normal wounds.

  12. Bone regeneration in cranioplasty and clinical complications in rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes

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    Evanice Menezes Marçal Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the bone repair process in surgical defects created on the parietal bones of diabetic rabbits using the guided bone regeneration technique to observe the effects of alloxan in the induction of diabetes mellitus. Twenty-four adult rabbits were divided into three study groups: control (C, diabetic (D and diabetic associated to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane (D-PTFE. For diabetes induction the animals received one dose of monohydrated alloxan (90 mg/kg by intravenous administration in the auricular or femoral vein. In group D-PTFE the membrane covered both the floor and the surface of the bone defect. In groups D and C, the bone defect was filled up with blood clot. The specimens were fixed in 10% formol and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The results showed that the 90 mg/kg dose of monohydrate alloxan was sufficient to promote diabetes mellitus when administered in the auricular vein. Bone regeneration was slower in the diabetic group when compared with the control and diabetic-PTFE groups, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two experimental groups (D and D-PTFE. The oral and general clinical complications among the diabetics were weight loss, polyuria, polyphagia and severe chronic gingivitis.

  13. Investigação da atividade antihiperglicemiante da farinha da casca de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, em ratos diabéticos induzidos por aloxano Investigation of antihyperglycemic activity of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Andressa Braga

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou a modelagem farmacodinâmica da ação antihiperglicemiante da farinha da casca de maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae em ratos diabéticos induzidos por aloxano. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos (n = 9: grupo diabético tratado com 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg ou 160 mg/kg da farinha. As amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas da veia lateral da cauda e a glicemia foi determinada com auxílio de um glucômetro em 0, 1, 2, 4 e 6 h após o tratamento via oral. Observou-se que o efeito antihiperglicemiante da farinha da casca de maracujá foi dependente da dose, obtendo um efeito expressivo observado em quatro horas para todas as doses, sendo mais pronunciado na dose de 160 mg/kg. O efeito, expresso como redução da glicemia basal em relação ao tempo zero, pode ser modelado através de um modelo dose-efeito clássico, o qual permitiu a determinação do efeito máximo (Emax e da dose necessária para alcançar 50% deste efeito (DE50. Após a modelagem dos dados, obteve-se um valor de Emax = 58,41% e de DE50 = 23,61 mg/kg. Esta abordagem pode permitir a comparação do efeito antihiperglicemiante de Passiflora edulis com outras espécies que apresentem atividade sobre a redução da glicemia, mediada pela presença de fibras solúveis.This study goals the pharmacodynamic modeling of anti hyperglycemic action of flour of Passion fruit bark (Passiflora edulisSims, Passifloraceae in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n = 9 that received different doses: 20, 40 or 160 mg/kg of flour. The blood samples were collected from the tail vein and the blood glucose was determined using a glucometer Prestige IQ in 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after the oral treatment. It was observed that the effect of the flour of Passion fruit bark was dose dependent, getting an expressive effect observed in four hours from all doses tested, being more pronounced at the 160 mg/kg dose. This effect was

  14. The Hypoglicemic Effect of Momordica Charantia Linn in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Horea Sărăndan; Dorica Botău; Iosif Ianculov; Florina Radu; Olga Rada; Doru Morar; Mihai Sărăndan; Maria Şerb; Adela Anghel

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was intended to test the hypoglycemiant effect of an alcoholic extract of roots or of the fruit seeds from “in vitro” regenerated Momordica charantia Linn. plants grown at USAMVB Timisoara. Diabetes was induced to domestic rabbits by administrating alloxan in dose of 80 mg/ kg body weight. In diabetic rabbits the glycemia decreased by 15.93% ten hours after the administration of the alcoholic extract in dose of 2 ml/kg body weight; the seeds of Momordica charantia Linn....

  15. The Hypoglicemic Effect of Momordica Charantia Linn in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea Sărăndan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was intended to test the hypoglycemiant effect of an alcoholic extract of roots or of the fruit seeds from “in vitro” regenerated Momordica charantia Linn. plants grown at USAMVB Timisoara. Diabetes was induced to domestic rabbits by administrating alloxan in dose of 80 mg/ kg body weight. In diabetic rabbits the glycemia decreased by 15.93% ten hours after the administration of the alcoholic extract in dose of 2 ml/kg body weight; the seeds of Momordica charantia Linn. reduced glycemia by 27.42% when administered in dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight. In alloxan recuperated rabbits, 5 hours after administration of the seeds, glycemia dropped 19.26%. The “in vitro” regenerated plants of Momordica charantia Linn. keep their hypoglycemiant effects.

  16. Ameliorative effect of dietary genistein on diabetes induced hyper-inflammation and oxidative stress during early stage of wound healing in alloxan induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lee, Hea-Ji; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-09-23

    Among the diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer due to delayed wound healing is one of the most significant clinical problems. Early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis during wound healing. Thus, regulation of inflammatory response during early stage of wound healing is main target for complete cutaneous recovery. This study investigated the role of genistein supplementation in inflammation and oxidative stress, which are related to NLRP3 inflammasome, NFκB and Nrf2 activation, during cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice with diabetes with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels > 250 mg/dl were fed diets with AIN-93G rodent diet containing 0%, 0.025% (LG) or 0.1% (HG) genistein. After 2 weeks of genistein supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Genistein supplementation improved fasting glucose levels and wound closure rate. Moreover, genistein supplementation restored NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1) at the basal level and ameliorated both inflammation (TNFα, iNOS, COX2 and NFκB) and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2, HO-1, GPx, and catalase) during early stage of wound healing in diabetic mice. Taken together, genistein supplementation would be a potential therapeutic nutrient in prevention and treatment of delayed wound healing by modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress during inflammatory stage.

  17. The Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Urtica dioica Leaves on High Levels of Blood Glucose and Gene Expression of Glucose Transporter 2 (Glut2) in Liver of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi,, Kourosh R.; Awliaei; Haidarizadeh; Rostamzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) has been accepted for decreasing blood glucose levels; however, the exact mechanism of its anti-hyperglycemic effect remains to be understood. Objectives We aimed to examine the effects of ethanolic extract of stinging nettle leaves on blood glucose levels and gene expression of Glucose Transporter 2 (Glut2) in liver of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. ...

  18. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

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    Laizuman Nahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2 but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI. Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg. In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001, reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001 in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.

  19. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Taurine against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Retinal Changes via Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology with New Zealand White Rabbits

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    Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only; Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection; Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine; and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine. The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P0.05 between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina.

  20. Blockade of the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates by EGCG3"Me in the alloxan-induced diabetic kidney.

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    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs has been linked to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that carbonyl stress induces the formation of amino-carbonyl cross-links and sharply increases the content of β-sheet-rich structures, which is the seed of insoluble aggregates formation, and tea catechin (--epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG can reverse this process in vitro and in vivo. In this study, methylated derivative (--epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl-gallate (EGCG3"Me was hypothesized to neutralize carbonyl stress mediating the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein (IUP aggregates, and reduce the early development of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneally injecting alloxan monohydrate (200 mg/kg/d twice and administering EGCG3"Me by gavage for 15 d. Reagent case and western blot results showed that, in diabetic kidneys, the carbonyl proteins in the serum increased; and in insoluble protein fraction, 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins, IUP aggregates and p62 accumulated; FT-IR study demonstrated that the lipid content, anti-parallel β-sheet structure and aggregates increased. EGCG3"Me treatment could effectively reverse this process, even better than the negative control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: EGCG3"Me exhibiting anti-β-sheet-rich IUP aggregate properties, maybe represents a new strategy to impede the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetic complications.

  1. Evaluation of methanol extract of Gongronema latifolium leaves singly and in combination with glibenclamide for antihyperglycemic effects in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats.

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    Eke Ifeanyi Gabriel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract of Gongronema latifolium leaves singly and in combination with an oral hypoglycemic agent; glibenclamide. Materials and methods: the plant material was extracted with methanol for 48 h using cold maceration and concentrated in vacuo in a rotary evaporator. The methanol extract of G.latifolium at the doses of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 800 mg/kg were studied for antihyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. More so the extract at the doses of 400 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg glibenclamide and 500 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg glibenclamide were studied for possible additive effects. Results: The 300 mg/kg of the extract decreased blood glucose at 1 h post treatment though not significantly (p>0.05 compared with 5 ml/kg distilled water, but failed to lower the blood glucose at 3 and 6 h post-treatment. The 400 and 500 mg/kg decreased the blood glucose level from 1 to 6 h post-treatment. However the decrease in blood glucose was only significant (p0.05 difference between the effects of the combination protocol and glibenclamide 5 mg/kg alone though the effects of the combination protocol were better than that of glibenclmide 5 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: our studies suggest that there is treatment benefit of combining extract of G.latifolium leaves and glibenclamide over G.latifolium or glibenclamide alone. Key words: G.latifolium, glibenclamide, combination, additive [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 119-122

  2. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju N Patil; Ravindra Y Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark,Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinispora cordifolia stem, Ocimum sanctum areal parts and Jatropha curcus leaves. Methods: The chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark, Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinospora cordifolia stem, aerial part of Ocimum sanctum and Jatropha curcus leaves were evaluated at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.) for antidiabetic potentials in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extracts were administered for two weeks in different groups whereas tolbutamide (80 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference standard throughout study. Results: The result of present study showed test compounds significantly decreases elevated level of serum glucose and also caused to reverse the cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL values when compared to untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Our finding indicates that different test extracts were able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic rats towards normal level.

  3. Antidiabetic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Polygonum glabrum Wild Leaves in Diabetic Rats

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    M. D. Faheemuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the Plant leaves of Polygonum glabrum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats using freshly prepared solution of Alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg b. wt. by Intraperitoneal route of drug administration. Methanolic extract of Polygonum glabrum (200, 400 mg/kg bwt/p.o was prepared freshly, administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 28 days. The standard drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kg of b. wt orally. Blood glucose levels was estimated on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days, serum glucose level, lipid profile, and histopathological changes in pancreas were examined after 28 days. OGTT was performed by administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w/p.o of methanolic extract of Polygonum glabrum and 10 mg/kg b.w /p.o of Glibenclamide to different groups respectively in normal rats. Results: significant(p<0.001 results were observed in the estimated parameters like reduction in blood glucose , Improved in regeneration of beta cells of langerhans of pancreas in rats by histopathological studies. Conclusion: The results were suggested that the whole plant extract of Polygonum glabrum having potent antidiabetic activity on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  4. The Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Urtica dioica Leaves on High Levels of Blood Glucose and Gene Expression of Glucose Transporter 2 (Glut2 in Liver of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle has been accepted for decreasing blood glucose levels; however, the exact mechanism of its anti-hyperglycemic effect remains to be understood. Objectives We aimed to examine the effects of ethanolic extract of stinging nettle leaves on blood glucose levels and gene expression of Glucose Transporter 2 (Glut2 in liver of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Naval medical research institute (NMRI mice were randomly divided to three groups. The control group received saline (10 mL/kg, intraperitoneally for eight days, the diabetic group received three days of injections of alloxan (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally followed by five days of injections of ethanol (20%, and the diabetic + nettle extract group received alloxan for three days followed by five days of injections of the nettle extract (150 mg/kg. Mice were weighed before and after treatments (on days one and nine. On day nine, mice were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for measuring glucose levels and liver was dissected to examine changes in the Glut2 gene expression with the semi-quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method. Results The results showed that the nettle extract significantly decreased high levels of blood glucose (P < 0.001. The nettle extract also had a preventive effect on decrease in body weight. In addition, the results showed that the Glut2 gene expression was increased in liver of diabetic mice (P < 0.05 and was significantly prevented by the nettle extract in diabetic + nettle extract group (P < 0.05. Conclusions It can be concluded that the nettle extract can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice, at least partly, by influencing the Glut2 gene expression in mice liver.

  5. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  6. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

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    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa

  7. Effect of Pteris multifida Poir. on blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes%凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚雯; 杨坤; 张梦如; 王尨珂; 徐海龙; 张咏梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Pteris multifida Poir. on blood glucose in mice with alloxan -induced diabetes mellitus. Methods The diabetic mice models were induced by alloxan and were randomized into normal saline group ( n = 10 ), Pteris multifida Poir. in high dose group ( n = 10 ) and low dose group ( n= 10 ), with normal mice as normal control group (n = 10 ). Normal control group and normal saline group were allowed free access to normal saline, while Pteris multifida Poir. at a high dose of 0.02 g/ml and a low dose of 0. 01 g/ml was adminisiered for 8 consecutive days and fasting blood glucose levels were determined in each mouse before and after the treatment. Results The blood glucose levels of the diabetic model mice in normal saline group decreased (P <0. 01 ) , while the decrease in blood glucose levels in the diabetic model mice in the group of Pteris multifida Poir. al high dose and low dose was more significant ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Pteris multifida Poir. has significant effect in reducing blood glucose level in mice with alloxan -induced diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠的降血糖作用.方法 以正常小鼠作为正常对照组(n=10),将四氧嘧啶诱导成功的糖尿病模型小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(n=10)、凤尾草大剂量组(n=10)、凤尾草小剂量组(n=10).正常对照组及生理盐水组均给予生理盐水自饮,凤尾草大、小剂量组分别给予凤尾草汤剂自饮,大剂量组凤尾草汤剂浓度为20 g/L,小剂量组凤尾草汤剂浓度为10 g/L,连续给药8天,测定给药前后小鼠空腹血糖值.结果 3组糖尿病模型小鼠血糖值均下降(P<0.01),但凤尾草大、小剂量组用药后糖尿病模型小鼠血糖值下降更明显(P<0.01).结论 凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠有显著的降糖作用.

  8. Estudio histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de páncreas en perros diabéticos inducidos con aloxano Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cubillos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en perros diabéticos tipo I inducidos con Aloxano®, con el propósito de evaluar las lesiones microscópicas presentes en páncreas y relacionarlas con la presencia o ausencia de insulina en los islotes de Langerhans a distintos tiempos posinducción. Se utilizaron 20 caninos mestizos, machos enteros de 4 a 7 años de edad, los cuales fueron divididos en 2 grupos: Control (n = 5 y Experimental (n = 15. Este último fue subdividido en grupos de 3 animales cada uno y sometido a la inducción de Diabetes mellitus mediante la administración e. v. de Aloxano® en dosis única de 75 mg/kg. Los animales fueron sacrificados a distintos tiempos posinducción (p.i.: 2h, 24hy 7d, 14d, 21d, tomándose muestras de páncreas para examen histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico para determinar insulina y Ki-67. Para cada subgrupo experimental se consideró un perro Control. El estado diabético del Grupo Experimental se comprobó mediante la evaluación de glucosa y fructosamina en plasma. La diabetes fue confirmada por la instauración de hiperglicemia sostenida e hiperfructosaminemia a partir de los 7 días p.i. Los resultados histopatológicos mostraron una disminución significativa (P The aim of this study was to evaluate pancreatic microscopic lesions with the presence or absence of insulin in Langerhans islets at different times post-induction (p.i. in alloxan-induced diabetic type I dogs. A group of 20 mixed breed, male adult dogs were used, subdivided in 2 groups: Control (n = 5 and Experimental (n = 15. The Experimental Group was subdivided into groups of 3 animals each which were alloxan-induced intravenously (75 mg/kg. Dogs were sacrificed at different times p.i. (2 hours, 24 hours, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days. Pancreatic samples were taken for histopathologic and immunohistochemical study against insulin and Ki-67. The Control Group considered 5 healthy dogs, one for each Experimental Group. Plasmatic evaluation

  9. The Control of Hyperglycemia by Estriol and Progesterone in Alloxan induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus Mice Model through Hepatic Insulin Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Bank, Sarbashri; Maiti, Smarajit; Sinha, Asru K.

    2014-01-01

    As much as 20% of the women in menopause are reported to develop type I diabetes mellitus. The cessation of the ovarian syntheses of the female sex hormones is known to cause menopause in women, and the roles of estriol (one of the most abundant estrogens) and progesterone were investigated for hepatic insulin synthesis through estriol and progesterone induced synthesis of nitric oxide in the liver cells. Type 1 Diabetic mellitus mice were prepared by alloxan treatment, Nitric oxide was deter...

  10. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous and Ethylacetate Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Pappea capensis in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic BALB/c Mice

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    G.M. Karau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the optimal dose of alloxan monohydrate required to induce diabetes in male BALB/c mice and investigate in vivo hypoglycemic activity of aqueous and ethylacetate leaf and stem bark extracts of Pappea capensis L in alloxanized diabetic BALB/c mice. In addition, the proximate composition ofP. capensis powder was investigated. The seven groups used in determining the optimal alloxan dose to induce diabetes included the normal mice intraperitoneally administered with a single dose of 0.1 mL physiological saline and doses of 50.0, 77.6, 120.4, 186.9, 290.0 and 480 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 mL of physiological saline. Blood glucose levels were determined at 0, 24 and 48 h using a glucometer. The hypoglycemic activity of aqueous and ethylacetate extracts was studied in the normal and diabetic mice orally administered with 0.1 mL physiological saline; diabetic mice orally administered with 0.075 mg glibenclamide, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg extract all in 0.1 mL physiological saline. Blood glucose levels were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h, respectively. The proximate composition of P. capensis powder was estimated using standard procedures. Results show that a single dose of alloxan at 186.9 mg/kg body weight administered to 3-5 weeks old mice induced stable diabetes in 48 h; oral administration of ethylacetate leaf and stem bark extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight induced hypoglycemic activity in a dose independent manner which was similar to that of glibenclamide at 3 mg/kg body weight from the second to the 24th h. Total ash and lipid were higher while the crude protein and carbohydrate were lower in leaves compared to the stem barks. In conclusion,P. capensis is a nutritious plant whose ethylacetate extracts possess in vivo hypoglycemic activity.

  11. The Control of Hyperglycemia by Estriol and Progesterone in Alloxan induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus Mice Model through Hepatic Insulin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Bank, Sarbashri; Maiti, Smarajit; Sinha, Asru K.

    2014-01-01

    As much as 20% of the women in menopause are reported to develop type I diabetes mellitus. The cessation of the ovarian syntheses of the female sex hormones is known to cause menopause in women, and the roles of estriol (one of the most abundant estrogens) and progesterone were investigated for hepatic insulin synthesis through estriol and progesterone induced synthesis of nitric oxide in the liver cells. Type 1 Diabetic mellitus mice were prepared by alloxan treatment, Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. Insulin was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. Injection of either 3.5 µM estriol or 3.5 nM progesterone to the diabetic mice which cannot synthesize pancreatic insulin, reduced the blood glucose level from 600 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl and 500 ± 25 mg/dl to 120 ± 6 mg/dl in 6 and 10 h respectively with simultaneous increase of the plasma insulin from 0 µunits/ml to 40 µunits/ml and 0 µunits/ml to 9.5 µunits/ml in the case of estriol and progesterone respectively with stimulated NO synthesis. The inhibition of the steroids induced NO synthesis by using NAME (NG-methyl-l-arginine acetate ester) in the reaction mixture resulted in the inhibition of hepatic insulin synthesis. Use of pure NO solution in 0.9% NaCl instead of either estriol or progesterone in the reaction mixture was found to stimulate the hepatic insulin synthesis. Both estriol and progesterone might be involved in the prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus through the hepatic insulin synthesis even when the pancreatic insulin synthesis was impaired. PMID:24711743

  12. Timosaponin B-II ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via TXNI P, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways in alloxan-induced mice

    OpenAIRE

    LI Fei

    2015-01-01

    Yong-Liang Yuan,1,* Chang-Run Guo,1,* Ling-Ling Cui,1 Shi-Xia Ruan,1 Chun-Feng Zhang,1 De Ji,2 Zhong-Lin Yang,1 Fei Li1 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, 2College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Many synthesized drugs with clinical severe side effects have been used for diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment. Therefo...

  13. The Effect of Zofenopril on Pancreas, Kidney and Liver of Diabetic Rats

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    Ayşe ÇARLIOĞLU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is responsible for some important complications of diabetes mellitus. Zofenopril, which has an antioxidant effect, may decrease the oxidative stress of the diabetic microenvironment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zofenopril in the liver, pancreas and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=6, rats treated with zonenopril (50 mg/kg/day, orally four weeks; n=6, rats exposed to alloxane (120 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneal injection, n=6, rats administered alloxan+zofenopril (n=6 and rats administered insulin plus alloxan. RESULTS: After one month, we observed histological improvement in the kidneys but not in the pancreas and liver. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, zofenopril may be effective on the renal complications of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Evaluation of Aloevera Gel for its Anti Inflammatory activity in Diabetes Mellitus using Animal Model System

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    M.Vanitha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory potential of Aloe vera in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rats with alloxan. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n=6. Group I: Normal, Group II: Alloxan induced diabetic rats, Group III: Diabetic rats supplemented with AV gel extract for 21 days, Group IV: diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. All the drugs were administered orally (using an intra gastric tube in a single dose in the morning for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the overnight fasted rats. Oral administration of Aloe barbadensis gel significantly decreased the level of homocysteine and the level of folic acid was significantly elevated when compared to diabetic control. The results suggest potent anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe barbadensis gel in experimental diabetes, and thus Aloe vera can be used as an alternative remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

  15. Biochemical and Immunological Study on the Effects of Barley and its Components as Hypoglycemic Agents in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar I. Yousef; Medhat Haroun; Mohamed H. El-Masry; Reham E.  Ateia

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and some of its components such as amino acids (L-leucine and L-glutamine) and chromium picolinate on some biochemical and immunological parameters of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Alloxan-diabetic rats were treated with barley water (10% w/v) at a dose 10 ml Kg-1 b.wt., chromium picolinate at 15 µg Kg-1 b.wt., L-leucine plus L-glutamine at 4.5 mg & 15 mg Kg-1 b.wt., and/or the co...

  16. Trypanocidal efficacy of diminazene in diabetic rats

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    U. S. Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of hyperglycaemia on the trypanocidal efficacy of diminazene aceturate. Groups of alloxan-induced diabetic rats infected with T. brucei and T. congolense were treated with diminazene aceturate, and trypanocidal effects compared with normal non-diabetic controls. Results showed that the prepatent period was shorter in the diabetic (11.25±1.65 days than non-diabetic-T. congolense (15.0±1.73 days, and also variations in responses to the trypanocidal therapy between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups were detected. Parasite clearance time did not differ significantly between the diabetic and non-diabetic (43.2±8.89 versus 52.8±8.89 hours in T. brucei and 33.6±5.9 versus 36.0±6.93 hours in T. congolense, respectively. The relapse intervals were shorter in the diabetic than non-diabetic (16 days versus 23 days in T. brucei, and 7 days versus 14 days in T. congolense, respectively. Proportion of relapses was greater in the diabetic- (100% than non-diabetic-T. congolense (66.7%. We also find parasite species-related differences in susceptibility to the trypanocide, with a higher apparent cure rate in the T. brucei than T. congolense group. We conclude from the results of this study that the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of diminazene aceturate may be diminished in patients with diabetes mellitus. Further study is needed to validate this hypothesis.

  17. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  18. Antihyperglycemic activity of various fractions of Cassia auriculata linn. in alloxan diabetic rats

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    Surana S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p< 0.001 in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids.

  19. Glucose lowering efficacy of Ficus racemosa bark extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskara Rao, R; Murugesan, T; Sinha, Sanghamitra; Saha, B P; Pal, M; Mandal, Subhash C

    2002-09-01

    The glucose-lowering efficacy of a methanol extract of the stem bark of Ficus racemosa Linn. (MEBFR) (Family Moraceae) was evaluated both in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The MEBFR at the doses examined (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity in both experimental animal models when compared with the control group. The activity was also comparable to that of the effect produced by a standard antidiabetic agent, glibenclamide 10 mg/kg. The present investigation established pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that it is an antidiabetic agent.

  20. Effects of Pancreas Transplantation on Insulin Secretion in the Rat During Ingestion of Varying Glucose Loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Following alloxan induced diabetes in rats, transplantation of neonatal pancreases under the kidney capsule was successfully carried out. The insulin response to oral ingestion of 150 and 750 mg of glucose was studied. The responses in controls and in rats 40 days after transplantation demonstrated

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of selenium during diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C; Qiu, Q; Chen, H; Dou, L; Liang, J

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the hepatoprotective role of selenium during alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, namely, normal control, selenium treated, diabetic, and selenium-treated diabetic. Diabetes was induced in the animals by injecting alloxan intraperitoneally at a dose rate of 150 mg/kg body weight. Selenium in the form of sodium selenite was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 1 ppm in drinking water, ad libitum for two time durations of 2 and 4 weeks. The effects of different treatments were studied on various parameters in rat liver, which included serum glucose levels, serum insulin levels, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione reduced (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total glutathione (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, metallothionein (MT), and histoarchitecture. A significant increase in the serum glucose levels, LPO levels, and in enzyme activities of ALP, ALT, and AST was observed in diabetic rats which, however, got decreased significantly upon supplementation with selenium. On the contrary, decreased enzyme activities of GSSG, SOD, and CAT and depressed levels of GSH as well as serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats which got improved following selenium supplementation. Interestingly, MT levels were increased both in diabetic and selenium-treated diabetic rats. Further, marked alterations in histoarchitecture were seen in diabetic rats with the prominent features being congestion in sinusoids, lipid accumulation, and centrilobular hepatocyte degeneration. However, selenium treatment to diabetic rats showed overall improvement in the hepatic histoarchitecture. PMID:25820154

  2. Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic β-cell damage: Scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuping; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Teruya, Kiichiro; Maki, Tei; Komatsu, Takaaki; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kashiwagi, Taichi; Kabayama, Shigeru; Shim, Sun-Yup; Katakura, Yoshinori; Osada, Kazuhiro; Kawahara, Takeshi; Otsubo, Kazumichi; Morisawa, Shinkatsu; Ishii, Yoshitoki

    2002-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause irreversible damage to biological macromolecules, resulting in many diseases. Reduced water (RW) such as hydrogen-rich electrolyzed reduced water and natural reduced waters like Hita Tenryosui water in Japan and Nordenau water in Germany that are known to improve various diseases, could protect a hamster pancreatic β cell line, HIT-T15 from alloxan-induced cell damage. Alloxan, a diabetogenic compound, is used to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus in animals. ...

  3. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa Oleifera Linn on Alloxan Induced Hyperglycemia

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    Ruchi Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds with respect to its route of administration. The rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I-Rats received only rat chow and water. Group II- Rats received alloxan and were treated with 500mg/kg body weight after 2hours. Group III- Rats receiving alloxan after 2 hours were treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially. Group IV- Rats receiving alloxan after 24 hours began receiving aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially for 1 week. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level after 12 hours and also after 7 days of both orally and intraperitonially with M. oleifera seed extract. This proves that M. oleifera seed extract have a hypoglycemic effect on both the mild and severe alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats.

  4. Ultrastructural evaluation of the effects of cinnamon on the nervus ischiadicus in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effects of oral cinnamon supplementation on the nervus ischiadicus at the electron microscopical level in rats. This study was performed between 2004-2006 in Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey in 15 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups; control (C) (n=5), diabetic without cinnamon (D) (n=5), and diabetic with cinnamon (D-C) (n=5). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal alloxan administration. All diabetic rats were treated with human insulin. All rats were fed with standard pellet chow. The D-C group rats were fed with standard pellet chow plus Cinnamomum cassia at the dose of 400mg/kg. All rats were sacrificed after 3 months and we obtained the nervus ischiadicus of all rats. Contrast stained thin sections evaluated by Jeol-TEM-1010 electron microscope, were not statistically different in both groups and photo samples were obtained. Mean blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, and lipid profile were not statistically different in both groups. Marked detachment of myelin lamellae at Schmidt-Lanterman clefts, lysis in cristae mitochondrialis and degenerative changes, severe dispersion of organelles in neurolemma, mesoaxon region, and remarkable edema at the endoneurium were found in diabetic rats. On the contrary, mesoaxon, nucleus, nucleolus and myelin sheet were almost of normal appearance at the ultra-structural level in the D-C group. Cinnamon extracts may have beneficial effects on the development of diabetic neuropathy in alloxan induced diabetic rats. (author)

  5. Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and ethanol on pregnancy outcome in mice Efeito do diabetes mellitus induzido por aloxana e etanol na gestação de camundongos

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    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of ethanol, diabetes mellitus and the combination of both on mouse fetuses. METHODS: We used 24 female Swiss mice, dividing them into four groups of 6 each: control (C, ethanol (E, diabetes (D (blood glucose > 200 mg/dL and diabetes + ethanol (DE. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (40 mg/kg on day 7 of pregnancy. Groups E and DE received 4 g/kg of 25% v/v ethanol intraperitoneally, whereas groups C and D received saline. On day 18, all fetuses were harvested. RESULTS: In group DE the following anomalies were found: exencephaly, situs inversus totalis, situs inversus partialis, eyelid skin tag and one animal from group E had pulmonary artery hypoplasia. Ethanol administration partially reverted diabetes-fetal resorption caused by diabetes, yet it induced late fetal death. Both diabetes and ethanol reduced placental diameter and increased its weight. Ethanol had more effect on fetal length in males than in females, however, such bias was not found for diabetes. Ethanol prevented diabetes-induced tail shortening in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, although ethanol might improve energy metabolism in early gestation, it causes cell damage that leads to cardiovascular, limb and neural tube defects, late fetal death and reduced placental size.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito do etanol, do diabetes mellitus (DM e da associação de ambos sobre os fetos de camundongo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas de camundongos Swiss divididas em quatro grupos de seis animais cada: controle (C; etanol (E; diabetes (D (glicemia > 200 mg/dl, e diabetes + etanol (DE. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana (40 mg/kg no dia 7 da gestação. Os animais dos grupos E e DE receberam 4 g/kg de solução a 25% v/v de etanol intraperitoneal (IP, enquanto os animais dos grupos C e D receberam salina. No dia 18, todos os fetos foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas as seguintes

  6. Biochemical and Immunological Study on the Effects of Barley and its Components as Hypoglycemic Agents in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar I. Yousef

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L and some of its components such as amino acids (L-leucine and L-glutamine and chromium picolinate on some biochemical and immunological parameters of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Alloxan-diabetic rats were treated with barley water (10% w/v at a dose 10 ml Kg-1 b.wt., chromium picolinate at 15 µg Kg-1 b.wt., L-leucine plus L-glutamine at 4.5 mg & 15 mg Kg-1 b.wt., and/or the combination of barley plus chromium plus L-leucine and L-glutamine at the same previous doses in the same water volume, respectively. Rats received the treatments in their drinking water for four weeks. The levels of glucose, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total lipids (TL, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL were significantly (P<0.05 increased, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL decreased in plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats compared to control group. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, acid phosphatase (AcP and alkaline phosphatase (AlP were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in both plasma and liver of alloxan-diabetic rats. On the other hand, the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH decreased in plasma and increased in liver of alloxan-diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with repeated doses of any one of the three treatments alone could restore the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels after four weeks of treatment. However, treatment with the combination of all together did not show complete restoration. Furthermore, the electron microscope results were supported biochemical and immunological findings. The present results showed that barley, amino acids and chromium picolinate exerted antihyperglycemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.

  7. Protective Effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume on Rat Model of Diabetic Neuropathy

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    Niraj Mukundray Bhatt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Poor glycemic control and oxidative stress is implicated as a common pathway in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Approach: In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Enicostemma littorale Blume (EL (2.5 g kg-1, a hypoglycemic and antioxidant herbal medicine in alloxan-induced diabetic neuropathy in male Charles foster rats. Results: Tail flick latency in hot immersion test and the formalin test were used to evaluate nociceptive responses in diabetic rats compared to non-diabetic rats. Preventive treatment of EL (for 45 days and standard drug glibenclamide (Glib significantly improved nociception in diabetic rats. The changes in lipid peroxidation status and anti-oxidant enzymes (super-oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels observed in diabetic rats, were significantly restored by EL and glib treatment. Decrease in Na-K+ ATPase activity was also significantly restored by EL. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug in present study. Conclusion: This study provided experimental evidence to preventive effect of EL on nerve function and oxidative stress in animal model of diabetic neuropathy. Hence EL may be tried clinically for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy since it was used as folk medicine in diabetic patients.

  8. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

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    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  9. Effect of Xiaoke Granule(消渴冲剂)on Blood Sugar and Blood Rheological Property in Experimental Diabetic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓梅; 刘根尚; 齐昉; 郑虎占; 佘靖; 龚慕辛; 孙军; 章红英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the pharmacological effect of Xiaoke Granule (XKG, 消渴冲剂) on blood sugar and blood rheological property in the diabetic animals.Methods: Alloxan induced diabetic mice or rats were grouped randomly. The effects of XKG on blood sugar, appetite, capacity of drinking, glucose tolerance, blood lipid and blood rheological property were observed and compared among groups.Results:XKG showed a trend in reducing the appetite and capacity of drinking, increasing the body weight, and significantly inhibiting the increase of blood sugar coused by ectogenic glucose in mice, and could improve the blood lipid and blood rheological property in rats.Conclusion:XKG is effective in reducing serum total cholesterol, lowering the blood viscosity, improving the blood rheological property of alloxan induced diabetic animals. Therefore, it might effective in treating and preventing the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and the complications of blood stasis.

  10. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  11. Peperomia pellucida in diets modulates hyperglyceamia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabiat U Hamzah; Adebimpe A Odetola; Ochuko L Erukainure; Ademola A Oyagbemi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Peperomia pellucida (P. pellucida) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Beside mouse chow, two diets were designed to contain 10%w/w and 20%w/w P. pellucida as supplements respectively. Diabetes was induced in groups of five male albino rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Two groups of diabetic rats and normo rats were each fed one of these diets respectively, while two other groups served as positive and negative controls respectively. A seventh group was fed pelletized mouse chow. Results: Diabetic rats on diets supplemented with 10%w/w and 20%w/w of P. pellucida for 28 d resulted in reduction of blood glucose level. The level of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the supplementation diets compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also treatment with glibenclamide and P. pellucida (10% and 20%w/w) led to increased activities of SOD, CAT and GSH respectively. There was significant (P<0.05) reduction in the level of HDL-cholesterol, Catalase, SOD activities and GSH concentration in diabetic untreated rats. The supplemented diets significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation, which was elevated in untreated diabetic rats. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP was also observed in rats fed P. pellucida supplemented diets. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that P. pellucida has an antidiabetic and antioxidant properties in experimental diabetes mellitus and thus justifies the acclaimed traditional antidiabetic use.

  12. Short-Term Feeding of Fibre-Enriched Biscuits: Protective Effect against Hepatotoxicity in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fibre-enriched biscuit on biomarkers associated with hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats were investigated. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. Treatment lasted for 14 days after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood serum was analyzed to determine hepatic function enzymes. The liver was also analyzed to determine hepatic lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. Induction of diabetes led to elevated levels of ALP, AST, and ALT. These were, however, significantly (p<0.05 reduced in the fibre-enriched biscuit fed (treated group. There was no significant difference in the serum bilirubin and total protein levels of the studied groups. Reduced albumin level was observed in the diabetic group; this was further lowered on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuits. Induction of diabetes led to increased hepatic level of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of glutathione (GSH, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD and HDL level. These were significantly (p<0.05 reversed on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuit. This study portrays the protective effect of fibre-enriched biscuit on increased oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in hepatic tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  13. Suppression of Type-II Diabetes with Dyslipidemia and Nephropathy by Peels of Musa cavendish Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navghare, Vijay; Dhawale, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    Musa cavendish, peels has local and traditional use to promote wound healing, hyperglycemia, ulceration etc. The present work investigated the lipid lowering; nephroprotective and glucose lowering properties of ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish (EMC) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The EMC 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day and the vehicle were administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) for 3 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, lipid profile along with kidney function before and after treatment with EMC were recorded. The ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish reduced blood glucose, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and creatinine levels and improvement in body weight, liver glycogen, serum HDL cholesterol, serum albumin and total protein level when compared with untreated rats. Musa cavendish has lipid lowering, nephroprotective and antidiabetic property by regulating glucose uptake in the liver and muscles by restoring the intracellular energy balance. PMID:27605735

  14. SIFAT HIPOGLIKEMIK DAN HIPOKOLESTEROLEMIK PROTEIN KEDELAI PADA TIKUS MODEL TOLERANSI GLUKOSA TERGANGGU (TGT) INDUKSI ALLOKSAN [Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Activities of Soy Protein on Impared Glucose Intolerant Rats Induced by Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Masun Lasimo 1 ); Zuheid Noor 2); Y. Marsono 2)

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that soy protein had hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activity in induced diabetic rats. However when combined with different sources of carbohydrate, the effects were not known yet. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the hypogylcemic and hypocholesterolemic properties of soy protein combined with cornstarch or wheat flour, on four groups of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) alloxan induced male Wistar rats models. During the first two weeks, rats wer...

  15. [Study of acetylsalicylic acid role in the potentiation of antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties of piracetam in rats with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A E; Mamchur, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that prolonged alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats potentiates amnesic properties of scopolamine hydrobromide. It was characterized by shortening of the latent period by 44% (psynthesis in the cerebral cortex. Along with this, a significant enhancement of ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was observed. These processes may play the leading role in the development of cognitive deficit in diabetes. Meanwhile, co-administration of piracetam with acetylsalicylic acid was accompanied by an expressed antiamnetic potential - the reduction of early markers of proteins degradation (aldehydephenylhydrazones, APH) by 21,7% (pacetylsalicylic acid to improve microcirculation in the ischemic areas of the brain in diabetes and probably to its neuroprotective potential.

  16. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  17. Effect of Green and Degree of Roasted Arabic Coffee on Hyperlipidemia and Antioxidant Status in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaafar M. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effects of green and different roasted degree of Arabic coffee on alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Animals were allocated into five groups of six rats each: a normal control group, diabetic group, diabetic rats fed with green Arabic coffee, diabetic rats fed with light roasted coffee and diabetic rats fed with dark roasted coffee group. The results showed increasing roasting degrees led to a decrease in moisture, radical-scavenging activity and total phenols. The diabetic rats presented a significant increase in blood glucose, plasma lipid profile compared to the control group. In addition, plasma malonaldialdehyde levels significantly increased compared to normal control group. Antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase and reduced Glutathione (GSH levels significantly decreased in the plasma of diabetic rats compared to normal controls. The results showed that the experimental rats supplemented by green and roasted Arabic coffee significant increased feed efficiency ratio than diabetic control group. At the end of the study period, the experimental rats were showed significant improvement in blood glucose. It is noted that green coffee bean group has the best effect in decreasing glucose level followed by light coffee group followed by dark coffee group which recorded 95.46, 119.17 and 201.46 mg/dL, respectively. Experimental rats supplemented by green and light roasted Arabic coffee were similar insulin concentration normal control group. All treated groups showed a significant decrease in TC, TL, TG and LDL-C, while a significant increase HDL compared with diabetic control group with the highest value for green coffee. The diabetic rat supplemented by dark coffee was lower effective against lipids profile than green and light coffee. Diet supplemented with green and roasted Arabic coffee in the diabetic rats ameliorated antioxidant enzymes activities and level of GSH in diabetic rats and

  18. Hematological alterations in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction in adipocytes is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-associated anemia has been reported due to the increased non-enzymatic glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins, which correlates with hyperglycemia. The present study was hypothesized to assess the effect of citrus flavonoids on hematological parameters and adipose tissue interleukin-6 and adiponectin in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with a high fat diet for 2 weeks follow...

  19. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  20. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anju Preet; Bihari L Gupta; Gupta Pramod K Yadava; Najma Z Baquer

    2005-03-01

    Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml), T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) and Trigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could

  1. Combined treatment of sodium orthovanadate and Momordica charantia fruit extract prevents alterations in lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Moorthy, K; Baquer, Najma Z

    2005-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn., commonly called bitter gourd, is a medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Sodium orthovanadate (SOV) is also well-known insulin mimetic and an antidiabetic compound. Our laboratory has been using reduced doses of SOV along with administration of herbal extracts to alloxan diabetic rats and has established this combination as a good antihyperglycemic agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of treatment of Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and sodium orthovanadate, separately and in combination, on serum and tissue lipid profile and on the activities of lipogenic enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant (p effective prevention was however observed in a combined treatment of Momordica with a reduced dose of SOV (0.2%). The results suggest that Momordica fruit extract and SOV exhibit hypolipidemic as well as hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and their effect is pronounced when administered in combination. PMID:15724444

  2. ACUTE EFFECT OF FLUCONAZOLE, ITRACONAZOLE AND VORICONAZOLE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE IN NORMOGLYCEAMIC & DIABETIC RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Amol, Nayak BB, Vakade Kiran P, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Vijay Kumar AN, Vrushali Nibrad, Raul AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fungal and antimicrobials are frequently co-prescribed either to manage or treat either the secondary complications or other diseases. Among antifungal drugs Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriconazole are most commonly used. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effect of Voriconazole as well as other antifungal drugs on blood Glucose level. Aim & Objectives: 1. To Study the effect of Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriaconazole in Normoglycemic & Diabetic Rats on Blood Glucose. 2. To compare the effects between all drugs. Material & Methodology: Grouping: Animals divided into 8 groups in each group 6 animals. Group 1- 4: Normoglycemic rats, Group 5-8 Diabetic rats (alloxan induced Group 1,5: received vehicle (Normal saline Group 2,6: received Fluconazole (18mg/kg BW, Group 3,7 received Itraconazole (18mg/kg BW Group 4,8 received Voriconazole (18mg/kg BW. The glucose levels were estimated by Glucometer method (Accu-check active at the interval of 0, ½ hr, 1hrs, 2hrs & 4hrs after drug administration. Results: Effect on blood glucose in Normoglycemic Rats: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value= 0.0102 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.0001. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in normoglycemic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole. Effect on blood glucose in Diabetic Rats: (Table 2: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value=0.013 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.001 in acute studies. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in diabetic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole treated. Conclusion: Itraconazole, Fluconazole can be safely used in diabetic with fungal infections. Voriconazole should be avoided in diabetics to

  3. A Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Zucker Fatty Diabetes Mellitus ZFDM Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Norihide Yokoi; Masayuki Hoshino; Shihomi Hidaka; Eri Yoshida; Masayuki Beppu; Ritsuko Hoshikawa; Katsuko Sudo; Akihiko Kawada; Sadaaki Takagi; Susumu Seino

    2013-01-01

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr) develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in the...

  4. Protective effects of sodium orthovanadate in diabetic reticulocytes and ageing red blood cells of Wistar rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bihari L Gupta; Anju Preet; Najma Z Baquer

    2004-03-01

    The reticulocytes and the ageing red blood cells (RBCs) namely young (Y), middle-aged (M) and old RBCs (O) of female Wistar rats from different groups such as control animals (C), controls treated with vanadate (C + V), alloxan-induced diabetic (D), diabetic-treated with insulin (D + I) and vanadate (D + V), were fractionated on a percoll/BSA gradient. The following enzymes were measured – hexokinase (HK), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AsAT) and arginase in the hemolysates of all the RBCs fractions. Decreases in the activity of HK and AsAT by about 70%, arginase and GSH-Px by 30% in old RBCs were observed in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Increases in the activity of GSSG-R by 86%, AlaAT by more than 400% and GST by 70% were observed in old RBCs in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Alloxan diabetic animals showed a further decrease in the activities of HK in Y RBCs by 37%, M RBCs by 39% and O RBCs by 32%, GSH-Px activity in Y RBCs by 13%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 33% and GST activity in Y RBCs by 14%, M RBCs by 42% and O RBCs by 60% in comparison to their corresponding cells of control animals. An increase in the activity of all the enzymes studied was also observed in reticulocytes of diabetic animals in comparison to reticulocytes of controls. The GSSG-R activity was found to be increased in Y RBCs by 49%, M RBCs by 67% and O RBCs by 64% as compared to the corresponding age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of arginase also decreased in Y RBCs by about10%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 30% in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. A decrease in the activity of AsAT in Y and M RBCs by 30%, and O RBCs by 25% was observed in diabetic animals in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of AlaAT was found to be decreased by more than 10% in Y and M

  5. 青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响%Effects of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle on the histomorphology of kidney in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕程; 吴小兰; 殷中琼; 景波; 李正文; 戴书俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶导致的糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响,探讨其对肾脏的保护作用。方法腹腔注射四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型,连续4周给予青刺果总黄酮灌胃治疗。2周及4周后分别处死小鼠,测血糖,称肾重和计算肾脏脏器指数。取部分肾做切片,分别在光镜和电镜下观察肾脏病理变化。结果糖尿病模型小鼠经青刺果总黄酮治疗后,在光镜和电镜下均可观察到由四氧嘧啶导致的肾脏病变的减轻。经青刺果总黄酮治疗的糖尿病小鼠其肾小球体积减小,基底膜无明显增厚;肾小管内糖原沉积减少,间质纤维减少;细胞器损伤较模型组轻微。结论青刺果总黄酮能有效的改善糖尿病小鼠肾脏的病变,控制肾脏肥大,对糖尿病肾病有一定的保护作用。%Aim To investigate the effect of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle( FPR) on the histomorphol-ogy of kidney in diabetic mice, and to investigate its protective mechanism. Methods Diabetic mice in-duced by alloxan were given FPR orally each day for four weeks. After the administration for two and four weeks, ten mice in each group were randomly sacri-ficed. The kidneys were removed and weighed. The extracted renal tissue was embedded with paraffin and sectioned, the sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin(HE)、Periodic acid Schiff(PAS) and Go-mori, and then observed under the microscopy. 1mm3 of renal cortex fixed with glutaral in four centi-degree , and then the ultrastructure of each group was observed under the electron microscope respectively after four weeks′ treatment. Results Compared with the model control group, in the treatment group, observation un-der the microscopy showed that glomerular volume and mesangial cells reduced, FPR could relieve thickening of the glomerular basement membrane ( GBM ) , little inflammatory cells infiltrated in the interstitium

  6. Effects of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle on the histomorphology of kidney in alloxan-induced diabetic mice%青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕程; 吴小兰; 殷中琼; 景波; 李正文; 戴书俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶导致的糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响,探讨其对肾脏的保护作用。方法腹腔注射四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型,连续4周给予青刺果总黄酮灌胃治疗。2周及4周后分别处死小鼠,测血糖,称肾重和计算肾脏脏器指数。取部分肾做切片,分别在光镜和电镜下观察肾脏病理变化。结果糖尿病模型小鼠经青刺果总黄酮治疗后,在光镜和电镜下均可观察到由四氧嘧啶导致的肾脏病变的减轻。经青刺果总黄酮治疗的糖尿病小鼠其肾小球体积减小,基底膜无明显增厚;肾小管内糖原沉积减少,间质纤维减少;细胞器损伤较模型组轻微。结论青刺果总黄酮能有效的改善糖尿病小鼠肾脏的病变,控制肾脏肥大,对糖尿病肾病有一定的保护作用。%Aim To investigate the effect of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle( FPR) on the histomorphol-ogy of kidney in diabetic mice, and to investigate its protective mechanism. Methods Diabetic mice in-duced by alloxan were given FPR orally each day for four weeks. After the administration for two and four weeks, ten mice in each group were randomly sacri-ficed. The kidneys were removed and weighed. The extracted renal tissue was embedded with paraffin and sectioned, the sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin(HE)、Periodic acid Schiff(PAS) and Go-mori, and then observed under the microscopy. 1mm3 of renal cortex fixed with glutaral in four centi-degree , and then the ultrastructure of each group was observed under the electron microscope respectively after four weeks′ treatment. Results Compared with the model control group, in the treatment group, observation un-der the microscopy showed that glomerular volume and mesangial cells reduced, FPR could relieve thickening of the glomerular basement membrane ( GBM ) , little inflammatory cells infiltrated in the interstitium

  7. 四角蛤蜊粗多糖对四氧嘧啶诱导I CR小鼠糖尿病模型的降血糖作用%The Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Crude Polysaccharides from Mactra Veneriformis in Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文南; 柴尧; 刘睿; 程建明; 吴皓

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the anti-hyperglycemic effective sites of crude polysaccharides from Mactra veneriformis (MVPS).METHODS Hyperglycemia models were established by intravenous injection of alloxan via tail vein of ICR mice under a dose of 80 mg/kg.After 96 h,mice with fasting blood glucose levels≥11.1 mmol/L were chosen and divided into groups.MVPS 1 treated at the doses of 200,400,800 mg/kg and 1 200 mg/kg once daily,respectively.At 7th and 14th days, respectively,the levels of blood glucose,GSP,TCH and TG were measured.Other diabetic mice were divided into MVPS 1 (800 mg/kg),MVPS 2 (180,360 mg/kg) and MVPS 3 (2 040 mg/kg) groups.After 7 d treatment,both body weights and fasting blood glucose levels were measured.RESULTS MVPS 1 of 800 mg/kg displayed the optimal anti-hyperglycemic effect on diabetic mice and reduced GSP,TCH and TG levels of diabetic mice;MVPS 2 showed significantly anti-hyperglycemic ac-tivities,compared to the model group.MVPS 3 exhibited no anti-hyperglycemic activities.CONCLUSION MVPS 1 displays the optimal hypoglycemic effect at the dose of 800 mg/kg,and its hypoglycemic active site focuses on MVPS 2.%目的:研究四角蛤蜊粗多糖中具有降血糖作用的活性部位。方法 ICR小鼠,尾静脉注射四氧嘧啶(80 mg/kg)生理盐水溶液,96 h后筛选空腹血糖值≥11.1 mmol/L的糖尿病小鼠。四角蛤蜊粗多糖1按200、400、800、1200 mg/kg剂量进行分组。分别测定第7、14天的空腹血糖值,糖化血清蛋白、总胆固醇及甘油三酯含量等指标。另取糖尿病小鼠,按照筛选出四角蛤蜊粗多糖1的最佳剂量(800 mg/kg),将四角蛤蜊粗多糖1按醇沉范围分段,相同生药量换算剂量,分为四角蛤蜊粗多糖2、3组。测定四角蛤蜊粗多糖1组(800 mg/kg)、四角蛤蜊粗多糖2组(180、360 mg/kg)和四角蛤蜊粗多糖3组(2040 mg/kg)给药第7 天空腹体质量和血糖水平。结果四角蛤蜊粗多糖1具有

  8. Costimulation and autoimmune diabetes in BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudette-Zlatanova, BC; Whalen, B; Zipris, D; Yagita, H; Rozing, J; Groen, H; Benjamin, CD; Hunig, T; Drexhage, HA; Ansari, MJ; Leif, J; Mordes, JP; Greiner, DL; Sayegh, MH; Rossini, AA

    2006-01-01

    Costimulatory signals regulate T-cell activation. To investigate the role of costimulation in autoimmunity and transplantation, we studied the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-prone BB (BBDP) rats spontaneously develop disease when 55-120 days of age. We observed that two anti-CD28 monoclon

  9. A Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Zucker Fatty Diabetes Mellitus ZFDM Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Yokoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zucker fatty (ZF rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D. Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in these animals. During maintenance of this strain by mating fa/fa males and fa/+ heterozygous females, we further identified fa/fa male rats exhibiting diabetes. We then performed selective breeding using the fa/fa male rats that exhibited relatively high blood glucose levels at 10 weeks of age, resulting in establishment of a diabetic strain that we designated Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (ZFDM. These fa/fa male rats developed diabetes as early as 10 weeks of age, reaching 100% incidence by 21 weeks of age, while none of the fa/+ male rats developed diabetes. The phenotypic characteristics of this diabetic strain are distinct from those of normoglycemic ZF rats. ZFDM rat strain having high reproductive efficiency should serve as a more useful animal model of T2D.

  10. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pvitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected. PMID:10523056

  11. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava(L.) Bat.leaves in Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh; Mazumdar; Rashcda; Akter; Debashish; Talukder

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave(EEPGL) in Wisier rais to support its traditional uses.Methods:Oral glucose tolerance test model and alloxan induced diabetic test model were performed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of EEPGL at doses of 1.00.0.50 and 0.75 g/kg respectively.For antidiarrhoeal effects of EEPGL.castor oil-induced diarrhoea model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were also assessed at doses of750.500 and 250 mg/kg.respectively.Results:Administration of EEPGL at doses 1.00 and 0.50 g/kg significantly(P<0.05)decreased blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test model as well as 0.75 g/kg dose in alloxan induced diabetic test model in Wister rats(P<0.001).Application of EEPGL at doses of 750 and 500 mg/kg showed antidiarrhoeal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model(P<0.00 l and P<0.01,respectively),and 750 mg/kg(P<0.01),500 and 250 mg/kg(P<0.05)doses in barium sulphate milk model in aforesaid animals.Conclusions:These results exhibited the significant antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal activities of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave in Wister rats.

  12. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K;

    1981-01-01

    Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow...

  13. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  14. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  15. Biochemical and histopathological studies on the influence of aqueous extract of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum on alloxan diabetic male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. M. Khalil

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and the related complications continue to be a major medical problem in Egypt. In spite of the warning of adaptation for regime diet, practicing exercise and administering hypoglycaemic drugs. The toxic side effects, contraindication and sometimes diminutions in response after prolonged use of antidiabetic drugs encouraged to search for therapeutic herbal remedies for safety, efficacy and economy . Diabetes is manifested by multiple disturbances in the metabolic processes of the body, which are attributed to an insufficient supply of insulin. Many plants were known for their activity as antidiabetic agents This investigation aims to clarify the role of fenugreek seed aqueous extract in its therapeutic dose on beta cells number, blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in alloxan diabetic rats. Also to illustrate the functional biochemical changes and the associated histopathological alternations in pancreas, liver, kidney, aorta and testes as influenced by fenugreek and alloxan induced diabetes for 4-weeks of treatment. 24 adult male albino rats were divided into four groups, control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with 0.1mg/kg B.W. of fenugreek seed aqueous extract and 0.1mg/kgB.W. fenugreek treated group for 4-weeks.The results indicated that, in the diabetic state significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied by significant reduction in plasma insulin and beta cells number. Significant increase in serum AST, ALT and ALP associated with dilatation and severe congestion of central vein and sinusoids, vacuolization and necrotic areas. Inflammatory area around portal tract. Significant increase in serum urea and creatinine accompanied by atrophy of most glomerular tuft, others displaying swelling and hyperemia. Diffuse extravagations of red blood cell between the degenerated renal tubules. Dilatation and severe congestion of blood vessels. Dilated convoluted tubules, contain hyaline casts in their lumens were observed. Significant

  16. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E;

    1999-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...... was not affected by adrenergic blocking agents. These results provide evidence for fundamental differences between diabetes-related renal growth and that observed in compensation to nephrectomy and suggest a connection between adrenergic activity, renal growth, and EGF in diabetes....

  17. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae. in diabetic rats Efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico das folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. em ratos diabeticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Schoenfelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic crude extract (ECE of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg v.o.. Rats were divided into three groups for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect: normal rats, rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and hyperglycemic normal rats. Hypolipidemia was evaluated in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. The antihyperglycemic activity was compared to treatment with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. The acute treatment with S. cumini ECE caused a significant decrease in the blood glucose in hyperglycemic normal rats (250 mg/kg, and in glucose (125 and 250 mg/kg, triglyceride (125 and 500 mg/kg and cholesterol (125 mg/kg levels of diabetic rats, but no effect was observed in the normal treated rats. Syzygium cumini leaves are a good candidate for alternative and/or complementary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus, since they showed hypoglycemic activity in addition to a hypolipidemic action in diabetic animals.Na região de Criciúma-SC, as folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, conhecida popularmente como jambolão, são utilizadas para diminuir níveis de glicose plasmática em pessoas diabéticas. Dentro deste contexto o presente trabalho teve o interesse de avaliar o efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH das folhas de S. cumini (125, 250 e 500 mg/kg. Para tal os animais foram divididos em três grupos para o efeito hipoglicêmico: ratos normais, ratos normais submetidos a curva de glicose (hiperglicêmicos e ratos diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. O efeito hipolipidêmico foi avaliado em animais diabéticos induzidos por aloxana. O efeito hipoglicêmico foi comparado com glibenclamida. O tratamento agudo com EBH de S. cumini causou uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa na glicose sanguínea em animais normais que foram submetidos à cura de glicose (250 mg/kg, e sobre

  18. Streptozotocin induced diabetes in lyon hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeaEMONNOT; JeanSASSARD; MingLO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats, compared to their normotensive controls (LL) exhibit an increased blood pressure (BP)associated with a marked proteinuria and a metabolic syndrom including elevated plasma lipids and insulin/glucose ratio. The aim of the present work was to determine wether a type 2 diabetes could be induced in LH rats so as to obtain a model suitable for study of the relationships between diabetes and hypertension.

  19. Voluntary Exercise Protects Heart from Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Naderi; Gisou Mohaddes; Mustafa Mohammadi; Rana Ghaznavi; Rafigheh Ghyasi; Amir Mansour Vatankhah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the onset and development of diabetes complications. In this study, we evaluated whether voluntary exercise could alleviate oxidative stress in the heart and blood of streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats. Methods: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=7): control, exercise, diabetes and exercise + diabetes. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in male rats. Rats in the trained groups were sub...

  20. Antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of Ganoderma lucidum, a dietary mushroom, on alloxan- and glucocorticoid-induced diabetic Long-Evans rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker

    2015-12-01

    then further treated with PEE and ME and metformin for another 7 days and glucose levels were determined at 0 and 7th days of treatment. Results: The PEE and ME of Reishi mushroom dose-dependently reduced the plasma glucose levels in alloxan-and steroid-induced fasting diabetic rats. The maximum reduction of fasting plasma glucose levels observed by PEE (800 mg/kg and ME (800 mg/kg were 55.57% and 36.01% in alloxan-induced and 51.41% and 32.02% in steroid-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Whereas, metformin (150 mg/kg resulted in the diminution of fasting blood glucose levels by 60.02 and 51.12% in the alloxan- induced and steroid-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Both the PEE (800 mg/kg and ME (800 mg/kg significantly augmented plasma insulin levels (***P < 0.001 and **P < 0.01 and reduced HbA1c (**P < 0.01 and *P < 0.05 in alloxan-and steroid-induced diabetic rats. Besides, treatment of diabetic rats with PEE (800 mg/kg and ME (800 mg/kg controlled the 2-h post prandial elevated glucose levels in blood plasma. The same dose of the extracts also significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC (***P < 0.001 and ***P < 0.01, triglyceride (TG (***P < 0.001 and **P < 0.01 and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c (***P < 0.001 and ***P < 0.001, as well as increased the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (**P < 0.01 and **P < 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that edible mushrooms-Reishi has antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity, and hyperlipidaemic activity against both alloxan- and corticosteroid-induced diabetes rats. The bioactive chemicals responsible for those activities are most probably the polysaccharides available in the mushroom. Thus, usage of Reishi mushrooms as vegetables or as extract will be beneficial for the management of diabetes.

  1. The juice of fresh leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. reduces blood glucose in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Lodagala Srinivas D; Boini Murthy K; Nammi Srinivas; Behara Ravindra Babu S

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The leaf juice or water decoction of Catharanthus roseus L. (Apocyanaceae) is used as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes all over the world. In the present investigation, the leaf juice of C. roseus has been evaluated for its hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Methods The blood glucose lowering activity of the leaf juice was studied in normal and alloxan-induced (100 mg/kg, i.v.) diabetic rabbits, after oral administration at d...

  2. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: A screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg and Polyherbal preparation-I, II (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 2:2:1, and III (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 1:2:2 on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein method at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h in normal rats and in diabetic rats at 0, 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days. Blood plasma glucose was estimated by the GOD/POD (glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. The data was compared statistically using the one-way ANOVA method followed by the Dunnett multiple component test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The Polyherbal preparation-I produced significant (P<0.05 reduction in the blood glucose level of normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III produced significant (P<0.01 reduction in the blood glucose level of diabetic rats during 30 days study and compared with that of control and Glibenclamide. Conclusion: The Polyherbal preparation-I showed a significant glucose lowering effect in normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III in diabetic rats. This preparation is going to be promising anti-diabetic preparation for masses; however, it requires further extensive studies in human beings.

  3. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

  4. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. 2. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. 3. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1-80 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT(1) receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) and the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. 4. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 microg kg(-1)) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 microg kg(-1)) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg(-1)), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg(-1)). 5. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5-20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) but neither the rodent 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor

  5. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  6. The plant Extracts of Momordica Charantia and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Have Antioxidant and Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties for Cardiac Tissue During Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nath Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG extracts (aqueous on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p<0.001 and significant increase in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH contents in heart tissue of diabetic rats were observed (group V and VI upon MC and TFG treatment. Our studies demonstrate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue.

  7. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced diabe

  8. Pathophysiological Characteristics of Diabetic Ocular Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiko Sasase

    2010-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat, a nonobese type 2 diabetes model, develops severe diabetic retinopathy as result of chronic severe hyperglycemia. Although existing diabetes animal models also develop ocular complications, severe retinal lesions frequently observed in human diabetes patients such as preretinal neovascularization or retinal detachment are not found. Distinctive features in SDT rat are hypermature cataract, tractional retinal detachment with fibrous proliferation, an...

  9. Diabetes mellitus:An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Laloo D; Hemalatha S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but is a group of metabolic disorders affecting a huge number of population in the world. It is mainly characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. It is predicated that the number of diabetes person in the world could reach upto 366 million by the year 2030. Even though the cases of diabetes are increasing day by day, except insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs no other way of treatment has been successfully developed so far. Thus, the objective of the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of diabetes mellitus along with the remedies available for this metabolic disorder. The review also contains brief idea about diabetes mellitus and the experimental screening model with their relevant mechanism and significance mainly used nowadays. Alloxan and streptozotocin are mainly used for evaluating the antidiabetic activity of a particular drug. This review contain list of medicinal plants which have been tested for their antidiabetic activity in the alloxan induced diabetic rat model. From the available data in the literature, it was found that plant having antidiabetic activity is mainly due to the presence of the secondary metabolite. Thus, the information provided in this review will help the researchers for the development of an alternative methods rather than insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which will minimize the complication associated with the diabetes and related disorder.

  10. Cardioprotection by 6-gingerol in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Ghareib, Salah A; Azhar, Ahmad; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Watson, Malcolm L

    2016-09-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 6-gingerol (6G) on cardiac complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (DM) rats. STZ-induced DM rats (single 50 mg/kg i.p. injection, 15 days prior to drug treatment) or time-matched controls were treated with 6G (75 mg/day route orally). After a further 8 weeks, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and 8-isoprostenol was measured in urine. Cardiac hemodynamics and ECG was assessed. 6G significantly attenuated the increased level of blood glucose in diabetic rats and improved cardiac hemodynamics in including RR interval, max dP/dt, min dP/dt and Tau. In addition, 6G alleviated the elevated ST segment, T amplitude and R amplitude with no significant effect on disturbed levels of adiponectin, TGF-β or 8-isoprostenol induced by diabetes. The results showed that treatment with 6G has an ameliorative effect on cardiac dysfunction induced by diabetes. Which may be not related to its potential antioxidant effect. PMID:27378426

  11. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Eric P; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Amey Holmes; Sergey Lupachyk; Brian L. Dake; Oltman, Christine L.; Richard G. Peterson; Yorek, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco) was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers,...

  12. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Neck, J.W. van; Cosgun, S.G.; Velzen, M.H. van; Janssen, J.A.M.; Avazverdi, N.; Hovius, S.E.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to invest

  13. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kambiz (Shoista); J.W. van Neck (Han); Cosgun, S.G. (Saniye G.); M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); Avazverdi, N. (Naim); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study w

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  15. Carvedilol protected diabetic rat hearts via reducing oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; SHAN Jiang; PAN Xiao-hong; WANG Hui-ping; QIAN Ling-bo

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Bcl-2 gene has close connection with antioxidant stress destruction in many diseases including diabetes. Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker, also has antioxidant properties. To study the effect of carvedilol on the antioxidant status in diabetic hearts, we investigated carvedilol-administrated healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After small and large dosage carvedilol-administered for 5 weeks, hemodynamic parameters, the levels of malondialdehyde, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in the cardiac tissues were measured. The diabetic rats not only had cardiac disfunction, weaker activities of antioxidant enzymes, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2. Carvedilol treatment increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 in healthy rats as well as diabetic rats. These results indicated that earvedilol partly improves cardiac function via its antioxidant properties in diabetic rats.

  16. Oxymatrine attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive deficits in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Suo-bin; Jia, Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Oxymatrine (OMT) is the major quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the root of Sophora flavescens Ait (the Chinese herb Kushen) and exhibits diverse pharmacological actions. In this work we investigated the effects of OMT on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) in a rat model of diabetes and explored the mechanisms of action. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip) once to induce diabetes. The rats were then treated with vehicle or OMT (60 or 1...

  17. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  18. Chronopharmacokinetics of puerarin in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C T Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerarin injection has been widely used for clinic treatment of diabetes recently. To assess the relationship between the administration time of puerarin and the blood concentration of puerarin as well as its pharmacokinetic parameters, the diabetic rat model was used in current study. The rats were randomly divided into morning and evening groups according to the administration time. After the puerarin injection, blood glucose was tested in order to know whether the efficiency of puerarin was influenced by its concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters. Our results show that the average concentration of puerarin in the evening group is significantly higher than that in the morning group. The numbers of t 1/2α, t 1/2β, CL and AUC (0-∞ are significantly different between the morning and evening groups. The blood glucose level in the evening group was lower than that in the morning group. The speed of its onset is higher and the blood glucose level declines much more significantly in the evening group. These findings suggest that the concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin affect its efficiency in diabetic rats. Therefore, it might be better to give puerarin in evening than in the morning for the mellitus treatment.

  19. Pioglitazone treatment restores in vivo muscle oxidative capacity in a rat model of diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, B.; Ciapaite, J.; van den Broek, N. M. A.; Houten, S. M.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on in vivo and ex vivo muscle mitochondrial function in a rat model of diabetes. Methods: Both the lean, healthy rats and the obese, diabetic rats are Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. The homozygous fa/fa ZDF rats are obese and diabetic. The he

  20. Voluntary Exercise Protects Heart from Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Roya; Mohaddes, Gisou; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Ghaznavi, Rana; Ghyasi, Rafigheh; Vatankhah, Amir Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the onset and development of diabetes complications. In this study, we evaluated whether voluntary exercise could alleviate oxidative stress in the heart and blood of streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats. Methods: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=7): control, exercise, diabetes and exercise + diabetes. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in male rats. Rats in the trained groups were subjected to voluntary running wheel exercise for 6 weeks. At the end of six weeks blood and heart tissue samples were collected and used for determination of antioxidant enzymes (including SOD, GPX and CAT activities) and MDA level. Results: Exercise significantly reduced MDA levels both in the heart tissue (pdiabetic rats. It also accentuates activities of SOD, GPX and CAT. Therefore, it may be considered a useful tool for the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:26236662

  1. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jang Hyun Koh; Eun Soo Lee; Miri Hyun; Hong Min Kim; Yoon Jung Choi; Eun Young Lee; Dhananjay Yadav; Choon Hee Chung

    2014-01-01

    The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n = 10), OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n = 10), and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n = 10). We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day) for 20 weeks ...

  2. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  3. Increased RhoA translocation in aorta of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping TANG; Ikuyo KUSAKA; Amber R MASSEY; Shadon ROLLINS; John H ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze RhoA expression and activation in the aorta of diabetic rats. Methods: Male SD rats (n=70) were divided into 2 groups: the diabetic group and the control group. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The Rats were studied 3 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Western blotting was used to measure the expression and activation of Rho. Results: Heart rate was measured 24 h/d; it decreased by 58±13 beats/min in the diabetic rats. Isometric tension showed that the contraction of diabetic aorta was significantly reduced compared with that of control aorta when stimulated by KCl and serotonin. The relaxation of the diabetic aorta was reduced when stimulated by acetylcholine. An enhanced RhoA translocation in the aortic tissues of diabetic rats was determined by a 90% increase in membrane-bound RhoA, indicating that the activation of RhoA is markedly increased in the diabetic aorta. Conclusion: Our data suggest that upregulated RhoA could be involved in the vascular dysfunction of diabetic rats.

  4. Pathophysiological Characteristics of Diabetic Ocular Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Sasase

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT rat, a nonobese type 2 diabetes model, develops severe diabetic retinopathy as result of chronic severe hyperglycemia. Although existing diabetes animal models also develop ocular complications, severe retinal lesions frequently observed in human diabetes patients such as preretinal neovascularization or retinal detachment are not found. Distinctive features in SDT rat are hypermature cataract, tractional retinal detachment with fibrous proliferation, and massive hemorrhaging in the anterior chamber. These pathophysiological changes are caused by sustained hyperglycemic condition and subsequent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in retina, iris, and ciliary body. Although some differences in diabetic retinopathy exist between SDT rats and humans (e.g., a low incidence of neovascular formation and poor development of nonperfused area are found in this animal, SDT rat will be a useful model in studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties ofMucuna pruriensseed extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen O Majekodunmi; Ademola A Oyagbemi; Solomon Umukoro; Oluwatoyin A Odeku

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antidiabetic properties ofMucuna pruriens(M. pruriens).Methods:Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice.Results:Results showed that the administration of5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract ofM. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose> 450mg/dL) resulted in18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5mg/kg/day) resulted in59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (P<0.001). It also showed that the antidiabetic activity ofM. pruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration ofM. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes.Conclusions: The study clearly supports the traditional use ofM. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug.

  6. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of /sup 35/S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively.

  7. Efeito do extrato da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em ratos normais e diabéticos Syzygium cumini bark extract effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Melazzo Mazzanti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência do extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre o sistema colinérgico de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos com aloxano. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (C, tratado com Syzygium cumini (TS, diabético (D e diabético tratado com Syzygium cumini (DS. A atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE foi analisada nas seguintes estruturas cerebrais: cerebelo, córtex, estriado e hipocampo. O extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini na dose de 1g.kg-1 foi administrado diariamente por um período de trinta dias. Foi verificado após este período que o extrato inibiu a atividade da AChE no cerebelo e córtex cerebral dos ratos do grupo DS (PThe present study verified the efficiency of the bark ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini on the cholinergic system of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty-nine female rats were divided in control (C, treated with Syzygium cumini (TS, diabetic (D and diabetic treated with Syzygium cumini (DS. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE was analyzed in the following cerebral structures: cerebellum, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini in the dose of 1g.kg-1 was administered orally daily for a period of thirty days. After this period the extract inhibited the activity of the AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of the rats in the DS group (P<0.05 as, compared to TS. In the striatum there was a significant increase in the activity of the AChE in rats of the TS group (P<0.01 when compared to the C group, and in the hippocampus there was no significant variation. These results indicate that the bark extract of "Jambolão"has an inhibitory effect on AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex and an stimulatory effect on striatum, indicating a possible alteration in the functionality of the cholinergic system in such cerebral structures.

  8. Metabolic Disorders and Diabetic Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa Rat: A New Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat, established by introducing the fa allele of the Zucker fatty rat into SDT rat genome, is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a young age as compared with SDT rats. With early incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, in SDT fatty rats were seen at younger ages compared to those in the SDT rats. In this paper, we overview pathophysiological features in SDT fatty rats and also describe new insights regarding the hematology, blood pressure, renal complications, and sexual dysfunction. The SDT fatty rats showed an increase of leukocytes, especially the monocyte count, prominent hypertension associated with salt drinking, end-stage renal disease with aging, and hypogonadism. Unlike other diabetic models, the characteristic of SDT fatty rat is to present an incidence of diabetes in females, hypertension, and retinopathy. SDT fatty rat is a useful model for analysis of various metabolic disorders and the evaluation of drugs related to metabolic disease.

  9. Tissue noradrenaline and the polyol pathway in experimentally diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P D; Qirbi, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of a six week period of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on tissue catecholamines and on in vivo noradrenaline turnover were assessed in rats. 2. Noradrenaline concentrations measured in heart ventricle, terminal ileum, vas deferens, spleen and adrenal tissue from the diabetic rats were all found to be elevated compared to those found in control rat tissues. The adrenaline contents of the adrenal glands were also raised in these animals. 3. Noradrenaline turnover in heart ventri...

  10. Carvacrol partially reverses symptoms of diabetes in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Senturk, Hakan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Colak, Suat; Ozmen, Ayse; Kolankaya, Durdane

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the protective effects of carvacrol on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Hence, this present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of the strong antioxidant, carvacrol, on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Carvacrol at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight were orally administered to diabetic rats for a period of 7 days after the onset of diabetes. Food-water intake and body weight changes were daily recorde...

  11. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbashri Bank; Arjun Ghosh; Suman Bhattacharya; Smarajit Maiti; Gausal A. Khan; Sinha, Asru K.

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding o...

  12. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy.

  13. The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat: An Animal Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes with Severe Diabetic Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiko Sasase; Takeshi Ohta; Taku Masuyama; Norihide Yokoi; Akihiro Kakehashi; Masami Shinohara

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is an inbred strain of Sprague-Dawley rat and recently is established as a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Male SDT rats show high plasma glucose levels (over 700 mg/dL) by 20 weeks. Male SDT rats show pancreatic islet histopathology, including hemorrhage in pancreatic islets and inflammatory cell infiltration with fibroblasts. Prior to the onset of diabetes, glucose intolerance with hypoinsulinemia is also observed. As a result of chronic s...

  14. [Simvastatin's effect on insulin resistance in rats with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, S; Zharmakhanova, G; Bekmukhambetov, Y; Dworacka, M; Dworacki, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to estimate the effect of Simvastatin on glycemic variability-related insulin resistance in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Fifty seven male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: I - rats with diabetes mellitus and glycemic variability treated with Simvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight, intragastral during 8 weeks); II - placebo-treated rats with DM and glycemic variability; III - placebo treated rats with DM and IV - nondiabetic control rats. DM was induced by feeding rats with high-fat diet (61%) during five weeks and low-dose of Streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Daily glucose excursions were stimulated by feeding animals twice a day. We measured fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and HOMAIR was calculated. Higher insulin resistance in diabetic rats is related to greater daily glycemic variability. In our study was installed significant increasing HOMAIR in diabetics rats with glycemic excursions comparison with the control. Our results showed that the simvastatin-treatment decreases the indices glycemic variability and HOMA in diabetic rats with glycemic excursions.

  15. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  16. The influence of nutrition (diet treatment) in streptozotocin – induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chrcheva-Nikolovska Radmila; Sekulovski Pavle; Jankuloski Dean; Angelovski Ljupco

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designated to evaluate the effect of special antidiabetic diet treatment upon oxidative stress parameters in the initial stages of the development of diabetes. Male Wistar strain rats were used as an experimental model, divided into five groups: group 1, control rats; group 2, antidiabetic diet group; group 3, rats with induced diabetes mellitus – diabetic control; group 4, rats with induced diabetes mellitus and diet food, and group 5, rats with induced diabetes mellitu...

  17. Incretin attenuates diabetes-induced damage in rat cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElmonem Elbassuoni, Eman

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), as a member of the incretin family, has a role in glucose homeostasis, its receptors distributed throughout the body, including the heart. The aim was to investigate cardiac lesions following diabetes induction, and the potential effect of GLP-1 on this type of lesions and the molecular mechanism driving this activity. Adult male rats were classified into: normal, diabetic, 4-week high-dose exenatide-treated diabetic rats, 4-week low-dose exenatide-treated diabetic rats, and 1-week exenatide-treated diabetic rats. The following parameters were measured: in blood: glucose, insulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and CK-MB relative index; in cardiac tissue: lipid peroxide (LPO) and some antioxidant enzymes. The untreated diabetic group displayed significant increases in blood level of glucose, LDH, and CK-MB, and cardiac tissue LPO, and a significant decrease in cardiac tissue antioxidant enzymes. GLP-1 supplementation in diabetic rats definitely decreased the hyperglycemia and abolished the detrimental effects of diabetes on the cardiac tissue. The effect of GLP-1 on blood glucose and on the heart also appeared after a short supplementation period (1 week). It can be concluded that GLP-1 has beneficial effects on diabetes-induced oxidative cardiac tissue damage, most probably via its antioxidant effect directly acting on cardiac tissue and independent of its hypoglycemic effect. PMID:25011640

  18. Reduced Na+ Current Density Underlies Impaired Propagation in the Diabetic Rabbit Ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Stables, Catherine L.; Musa, Hassan; Mitra, Aditi; Bhushal, Sandesh; Deo, Makarand; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Mironov, Sergey; Zarzoso, Manuel; Vikstrom, Karen L.; Cawthorn, William; Pandit, Sandeep V.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our goal was to investigate changes occurring in the action potential duration (APD) and conduction velocity (CV) in the diabetic rabbit ventricle, and delineate the principal ionic determinants. A rabbit model of alloxan-induced diabetes was utilized. Optical imaging was used to record electrical activity in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts in normo-, hypo- and hyper-kalem...

  19. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-09-10

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  1. Effects of Duration of Diabetes on Cognitive Functions in Streptozotocin Induced Young Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with early onset Type I diabetes have been reported to show modest deficits on a wide range of neuropsychological tests. However, the contribution of duration of the disease with respect to cognitive dysfunction remains unresolved. The present study aims to determine the effects of different duration of hyperglycemia on cognitive function in young diabetic rats. Objectives: To determine the effect of 10 and 20 days duration of diabetes on cognitive functions. Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced in young rat pups, by streptozotocin injection (i.p at a dose of 50 mg /kg.BW. Diabetic state was confirmed on 30th post natal day. 10 and 20 days after inducing diabetes, the rats were tested in passive avoidance box and Morris water maze, over a period of 10 days. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly impaired cognitive functions, compared to their age matched controls. The cognitive impairment was greater in rats with 20 days of diabetic state compared to their 10 days counterparts. Conclusion: It is essential to diagnose and treat diabetes as early as possible in case of young children with Type I diabetes of early onset to prevent irreversible cognitive functions

  2. Intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, plasma fructosamine, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pancreas β-cell mass, and hepatic and soleus glycogen were measured. Compared with diabetic rats before treatment, the level of fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment was increased (19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L vs. 14.79 ± 5.84 mmol/L, p  0.05). Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after hypoxic treatment was also lower than that in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment (13.14 ± 5.77 mmol/L vs. 19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L, pintermittent hypoxia was significantly lower than that in diabetic rats receiving normoxia (1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 1.39 ± 0.11, p intermittent hypoxia showed effect on the increase of soleus glycogen but not hepatic glycogen. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its regulation on muscular glycogenesis may play a role in the underlying mechanism. PMID:26902078

  3. Study of the Pharmacokinetic Changes of Tramadol in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Hakemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Besides the pathological states, diabetes mellitus may also alter the hepatic biotransformation of pharmaceutical agents. It is advantageous to understand the effect of diabetes on the pharmacokinetic of drugs. The objective of this study was to define the pharmacokinetic changes of tramadol and its main metabolites after in vivo intraperitoneal administration and ex vivo perfused liver study in diabetic rat model.Tramadol (10 mg/kg was administered to rats (diabetic and control groups of six intraperitoneally and blood samples were collected at different time points up to 300 min. In a parallel study, isolated liver perfusion was done (in diabetic and control rats by Krebs-Henseleit buffer (containing 500 ng/ml tramadol. Perfusate samples were collected at 10 min intervals up to 180 min. Concentration of tramadol and its metabolites were determined by HPLC.Results:Tramadol reached higher concentrations after i.p. injection in diabetics (Cmax of 1607.5 ± 335.9 ng/ml compared with control group (Cmax of 561.6 ± 111.4. M1 plasma concentrations were also higher in diabetic rats compared with control group. M2 showed also higher concentrations in diabetic rats. Comparing the concentration levels of M1 in diabetic and control perfused livers, showed that in contrast to intact animals, the metabolic ratios of M1 and M5 (M/T were significantly higher in diabetic perfused liver compared to those of control group.Conclusions:The pharmacokinetic of tramadol and its three metabolites are influenced by diabetes. As far as M1 is produced by Cyp2D6, its higher concentration in diabetic rats could be a result of induction in Cyp2D6 activity, while higher concentrations of tramadol can be explained by lower volume of distribution.

  4. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Exercise training attenuates acute hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Denise M.; Vitor E Valenti; Navega, Marcelo T

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of chronic (eight weeks) low- to moderate-intensity swimming training on thermal pain sensitivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n = 51) were divided into the following groups: trained streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [hyperglycemic trained (HT)], sedentary streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [hyperglycemic sedentary (HS)], normoglycemic trained rats (NT) and normoglycemic sedentary rats (NS). Diabetes ...

  6. Myocardial pathology,lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in diabetic rats%糖尿病大鼠心肌病理变化及脂质过氧化和一氧化氮的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国荣; 毛孙忠; 李剑敏; 杨开颜; 胡芸

    2001-01-01

    Purpose To study myocardial pathology and its pathogenesis in diabetes. Methods Myocardial structure of alloxan induced diabetic rats was observed under light microscopy (LM)and transmission electron microscopy(TEM).Activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),nitric oxide synthase(NOS)and content of malondialdehyde (MDA),nitric oxide(NO) were detected biochemically in myocardial homogenate. Results Atrophy and degeneration of myocardium and interstitial fibrosis were found under LM and expansion of mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, destruction of myofibril and interstitial proliferation of collogen fiber under TEM. Activity of SOD and GSH-Px decreased significantly, while content of NO and MDA and activity of NOS increased significantly in diabetic rats. Conclusion Atrophy of myocardium, expansion of mitochondria,destruction of myofibril and interstitial fibrosis are the main morphological changes of diabetic cardiomyopathy, and lipid peroxidation and NO may be involved in it.%目的:研究糖尿病心肌的病理变化及其发生机制。方法:用光镜及透射电镜观察四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病1个月大鼠心肌形态学改变,并测定心肌组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)的活性及一氧化氮(NO)、丙二醛(MDA)含量。结果:光镜下见心肌细胞萎缩、嗜酸性变及空泡变性,间质纤维增生,透射电镜下见线粒体扩张、嵴变短,内质网扩张,肌原纤维破坏,间质胶原纤维增生。SOD、GSH-Px活性下降,NOS活性及NO、MDA含量增加。结论:糖尿病大鼠心肌病变主要为心肌萎缩、线粒体扩张及肌原纤维破坏,间质纤维增生,脂质过氧化作用及NO所致的损伤可能参与其中。

  7. Development of diabetes-induced acidosis in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Andrey V; Henderson, Desmond; Linsenmeier, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesized that the retina of diabetic animals would be unusually acidic due to increased glycolytic metabolism. Acidosis in tumors and isolated retina has been shown to lead to increased VEGF. To test the hypothesis we have measured the transretinal distribution of extracellular H(+) concentration (H(+)-profiles) in retinae of control and diabetic dark-adapted intact Long-Evans rats with ion-selective electrodes. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Intact rat retinae are normally more acidic than blood with a peak of [H(+)]o in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) that averages 30 nM higher than H(+) in the choroid. Profiles in diabetic animals were similar in shape, but diabetic retinae began to be considerably more acidic after 5 weeks of diabetes. In retinae of 1-3 month diabetics the difference between the ONL and choroid was almost twice as great as in controls. At later times, up to 6 months, some diabetics still demonstrated abnormally high levels of [H(+)]o, but others were even less acidic than controls, so that the average level of acidosis was not different. Greater variability in H(+)-profiles (both between animals and between profiles recorded in one animal) distinguished the diabetic retinae from controls. Within animals, this variability was not random, but exhibited regions of higher and lower H(+). We conclude that retinal acidosis begins to develop at an early stage of diabetes (1-3 months) in rats. However, it does not progress, and the acidity of diabetic rat retina was diminished at later stages (3-6 months). Also the diabetes-induced acidosis has a strongly expressed local character. As result, the diabetic retinas show much wider variability in [H(+)] distribution than controls. pH influences metabolic and neural processes, and these results suggest that local acidosis could play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27262608

  8. Experimental study on effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on alveolar bone metabolism and variation in bone mass in diabetic rats%丹参对糖尿病大鼠牙槽骨骨代谢及骨量变化影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗波; 王建波; 朱杨; 岳长军; 陈铭

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on alveolar bone metabolism and variation in bone mass in diabetic rats, in order to detect whether it has an inhibitory effect on alveolar bone osteoporosis caused by diabetics. Method: Intraperitoneal injection of alloxan induced diabetes in rats. After one week of observation and maintenance of stable blood sugar level, they were treated with S. miliorrhiza. The rats were sacrificed at the eighth week after fasting for 12 h and blood samples were collected for analysis of blood glucose and rate of bone metabolism. Meanwhile, their alveolar bones were collected for determining bone mineral density (BMD) and histological sections were made for histomorphology observation. Result: Diabetic rats showed varying degrees of abnormality in bone metabolism indicators and significant reduction in bone mineral density. After treatment with S. miltiorrhiza, their symptoms reduced to some extend and all indicators were improved especially bone density. Conclusion: S. mikiorrhaa has a certain inhibitory effect on alveolar bone osteoporosis in diabetic rats in early stage.%目的:探讨丹参对糖尿病大鼠牙槽骨骨代谢及骨量变化的影响,以研究其对糖尿病导致的牙槽骨骨质疏松是否有抑制作用.方法:腹腔注射四氧嘧啶促使糖尿病大鼠形成,待血糖稳定并观察1周后应用丹参进行治疗观察.8周后所有大鼠禁食12 h后将大鼠处死,即刻空腹采血进行血糖及骨代谢指标测定.同时取大鼠的下颌牙槽骨固定进行骨密度(BMD)测定,并制作硬组织切片进行组织形态学观察.结果:糖尿病大鼠骨代谢指标出现不同程度异常,骨密度显著降低,经丹参治疗后症状有所缓解,各项指标得到改善,骨密度相应增高.结论:丹参对糖尿病大鼠早期的牙槽骨骨质疏松有一定的抑制作用.

  9. The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat: An Animal Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes with Severe Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Sasase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT rat is an inbred strain of Sprague-Dawley rat and recently is established as a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Male SDT rats show high plasma glucose levels (over 700 mg/dL by 20 weeks. Male SDT rats show pancreatic islet histopathology, including hemorrhage in pancreatic islets and inflammatory cell infiltration with fibroblasts. Prior to the onset of diabetes, glucose intolerance with hypoinsulinemia is also observed. As a result of chronic severe hyperglycemia, the SDT rats develop profound complications. In eyes, retinopathy, cataract, and neovascular glaucoma are observed. Proliferative retinopathy, especially, resulting from retinal neovascular vessels is a unique characteristic of this model. In kidney, mesangial proliferation and nodular lesion are observed. Both peripheral neuropathy such as decreased nerve conduction velocity and thermal hypoalgesia and autonomic neuropathy such as diabetic diarrhea and voiding dysfunction have been reported. Osteoporosis is another complication characterized in SDT rat. Decreased bone density and low-turnover bone lesions are observed. Taking advantage of these features, SDT rat has been used for evaluating antidiabetic drugs and drugs/gene therapy for diabetic complications. In conclusion, the SDT rat is potentially a useful T2D model for studies on pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic complications in humans.

  10. Cerebral blood flow response to propranolol in streptozotocin diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lass, Preben; Knudsen, G M

    1990-01-01

    The influence of propranolol on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in streptozotocin diabetic rats and in control animals. Resting CBF values were 40% lower in the diabetic rats compared with controls. Intravenous injection of propranolol (2 mg kg-1) decreased CBF significantly in the control...... group; the CBF decreased for 15 min after propranolol injection and returned to baseline values after 90 min. In the diabetic rats, the CBF declined steadily but this decrease did not reach significance, even after 90 min. Impaired beta-adrenergic mechanisms may be an important factor in the CBF...... alterations which occur in diabetes mellitus. Further, it is suggested that an impaired CBF response may play a role in CNS lesions in diabetic patients treated with beta antagonists....

  11. Evaluation for antidiabetic activity in selected medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes were investigated. The nuts of Areca cathecu, leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa and Ficus deltoidea were each extracted by boiling in distilled water. The aqueous extracts were filtered and the filtrates were then spray dried. Their biological evaluation was conducted to determine their blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Commercially available antidiabetic drug, glybenclamide was used as positive control. Toxicity of the extracts was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality assay and in vivo acute toxicity test in rats. Aqueous extracts of all the plants studied showed significant reduction in blood glucose level up to 50% in rats over a period of 3 to 4 weeks. The largest reduction in blood glucose levels was exhibited by the aqueous extracts of the Lagestroemia speciosa, followed by the Ficus deltoidea and Areca cathecu. There was no evidence of toxicity of the extracts against the brine shrimp (up to 4,000 μg/ml) and in rats (up to 0.2% body weight). (Author)

  12. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi Okamura; Xiang Yuan Pei; Ichiro Miyoshi; Yukiko Shimizu; Rieko Takanashi-Yanobu; Yasumasa Mototani; Takao Kanai; Jo Satoh; Noriko Kimura; Noriyuki Kasai

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rat derived from Long-Evans (LE) strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose into...

  13. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glutathione, serum creatinine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels as well as final change in body weight were evaluated. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase was also determined. Experimental findings showed moderately significant anti-diabetic potential of extract in terms of reduction of fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. The extract was found statistically significant in maintaining the level of serum marker antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the effect of chloroform extract particularly 200 mg/kg was moderate as compared to that of standard drug glibenclamide.

  14. Spatial memory in sedentary and trained diabetic rats: molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegues, João Carlos; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Luciano, Eliete; de Almeida Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; de Araújo, Michel Barbosa; Sibuya, Clarice Yoshiko; de Mello, Maria Alice Rostom; Gomes, Ricardo José

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that has been associated with memory loss, neurological disorders, and Alzheimer's disease. Some studies show the importance of physical exercise to prevent and minimize various neurological disorders. It is believed that the positive effects of exercise on brain functions are mediated by brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. In this study, we investigate the role of swimming exercise training on hippocampus proteins related to insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Type 1 diabetic rats and its effects on spatial memory. Wistar rats were divided into four groups namely sedentary control, trained control, sedentary diabetic (SD), and trained diabetic (TD). Diabetes was induced by Alloxan (ALX) (32 mg/kg b.w.). The training program consisted in swimming 5 days/week, 1 h/day, per 6 weeks, supporting an overload corresponding to 90% of the anaerobic threshold. We employed ALX-induced diabetic rats to explore learning and memory abilities using Morris water maze test. At the end of the training period, the rats were sacrificed 48 h after their last exercise bout when blood samples were collected for serum glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 determinations. Hippocampus was extracted to determinate protein expression (IR, IGF-1R, and APP) and phosphorylation (AKT-1, AKT-2, Tau, and β-amyloide proteins) by Western Blot analysis. All dependent variables were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance with significance level of 5%. Diabetes resulted in hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in both SD and TD groups (P rats; however, exercise training improved this parameter in TD rats. Aerobic exercise decreased Tau phosphorylation and APP expression, and increased some proteins related to insulin/IGF-1 pathway in hippocampus of diabetic rats. Thus, these molecular adaptations from exercise training might contribute to improved spatial learning and memory in diabetic organisms. PMID:24916112

  15. AB230. Calpain inhibition improves diabetic erectile dysfunction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetic erectile dysfunction is an intractable disease which results from both vascular and nervous dysfunction in penis. Calpain mediates the vascular dysfunction during hyperglycemia and is involved in some neurodegenerative diseases. This study was designed to investigate the role of calpain inhibition in improving diabetic erectile dysfunction in rats. Methods Type 1 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at the dose of 60 mg/kg in rats. After 2 months, diabetic erectile dysfunction was confirmed by apomorphine test. Then the animals were divided into three groups: (I) nondiabetic control groups, (II) diabetic rats + vehicle and (III) diabetic rats + MDL28170. Two weeks later the erectile function was measured by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve and the ratio between intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MAP) at the peak of erectile response was calculated. After that penis tissue was harvested. Calpain activity in corpus cavernosum was measured by western blot. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were observed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The endothelial content in the cavernosum was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results The calpain activity was increased in diabetic rats and inhibited by MDL28170. The erectile function was improved by MDL28170 treatment. The expression of nNOS and eNOS, as well as the content of endothelium in corpus cavernosum were also increased by inhibition of calpain. Conclusions Calpain activation may play a role in the erectile dysfunction of diabetic rats. Inhibition of calpain could improve diabetic erectile dysfunction by increasing expression of nNOS and eNOS in the corpus cavernosum. This could be a novel therapeutic target to protect the erectile function in diabetic patient.

  16. Evaluation of Chromosomal Instability in Diabetic Rats Treated with Naringin

    OpenAIRE

    Bakheet, Saleh A.; Attia, Sabry M.

    2011-01-01

    We used the bone marrow DNA strand breaks, micronucleus formations, spermatocyte chromosomal aberrations, and sperm characteristic assays to investigate the chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cells of diabetic rats treated with multiple doses of naringin. The obtained results revealed that naringin was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic for the rats at all tested doses. Moreover, naringin significantly reduced the diabetes-induced chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cell...

  17. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilang Yang

    Full Text Available Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8 weeks high fat diet (HFD feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds.

  18. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peilang; Pei, Qing; Yu, Tianyi; Chang, Qingxuan; Wang, Di; Gao, Min; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8 weeks high fat diet (HFD) feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds. PMID:27028201

  19. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    N K Choudhary; Jha, A. K.; Sharma, S.; Goyal, S.; J Dwivedi

    2011-01-01

    The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at ...

  20. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T F; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R C; L. V. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one of five experimental groups (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exe...

  1. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: the forgotten right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubberink Mark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure, right ventricular (RV dysfunction is associated with death, shock and arrhythmias. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, structural and functional alterations of the left ventricle (LV are highly prevalent, however, little is known about the impact of diabetes on RV characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether LV changes are paralleled by RV alterations in a rat model of diabetes. Methods Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and control (ZL rats underwent echocardiography and positron emission tomography (PET scanning using [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose under hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides and fatty acids were assessed from trunk blood. Another group of rats received an insulin or saline injection to study RV insulin signaling. Results ZDF rats developed hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and dyslipidaemia (all p M-value (r = 0.91, p M-value (r = 0.77, p Conclusions LV changes were paralleled by RV alterations in insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation and RV systolic function in a rat model of diabetes, which may be attributed to ventricular interdependence as well as to the uniform effect of diabetes. Since diabetic patients are prone to develop diabetic cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischaemia, it might be suggested that RV dysfunction plays a central role in cardiac abnormalities in this population.

  2. Study on testicular pathological change, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in diabetic rats%糖尿病大鼠睾丸病理变化及脂质过氧化和一氧化氮的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国荣; 徐正衸; 李剑敏; 胡芸; 毛孙忠; 方周溪

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To study testicular pathological change and its pathogenesis. METHODS:Testicular structure of alloxan induced diabetic rats was observed under light microscopy (LM)and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). Activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD),glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX),nitric oxide synthase(NOS)and content of malondialdehyde (MDA),nitric oxide(NO) were detected biochemically in testicular homogenate. RESULTS:It is manifestated as atrophy of seminiferous tubule and germinal arrest under LM and expansion of mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasmic inclusion of sertoli cell under TEM.Activity of SOD, GSH-PX decreased while activity of NOS, content of MDA, NO increased in diabetic rats compared with control one. CONCLUSION:Disturbance of spermatogenesis and damage of sertoli cell are the main morphological change of diabetic testis, lipid peroxidation and NO may be involved in it.%目的:研究糖尿病睾丸的病理变化及其发生机制。方法:用光镜及透射电镜观察四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病1个月大鼠睾丸的形态学改变,并测定睾丸组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)的活性及一氧化氮(NO)、丙二醛(MDA)含量。结果:光镜下主要表现为睾丸曲细精管萎缩及生精阻滞;透射电镜下主要见到支持细胞线粒体与内质网扩张、胞浆内内含物形成;睾丸组织的SOD、GSH-PX活性实验组低于对照组,NOS活性及NO、MDA含量实验组高于对照组。结论:糖尿病大鼠睾丸病变主要为支持细胞受损及生精障碍,其可能与脂质过氧化作用及NO所致的损伤有关。

  3. Effects of valsartan on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhong-hua; PENG Xiao-dong

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of diabetic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial. Insulin resistance (IR) and excessive activity of the renin-angiotensin system are confirmed reasons for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors can reduce tissue Ang Ⅱ levels, with beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. Therefore, in type-2diabetes mellitus (T2DM), blockade of the RAS may have the function of protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy through increasing insulin sensitivity and inhibiting excessive activity of RAS. However, this has not been confirmed.Methods The effect of valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), on diabetic cardiomyopathy in the presence of T2DM was studied. Wistar rats with T2DM and T2DM treated with valsartan were studied. Glucose infusion rates (GIR),index of IR, heart weight, the heart weight-to-body weight ratio (HW/BW), myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were measured.Results GIR in T2DM rats and T2DM rats treated with valsartan decreased (P <0.01). In T2DM rats treated with valsartan, heart weight, myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were higher than in control rats, but lower than in T2DM rats. In rats with T2DM, GIR was negatively and significantly correlated with all the variables. However, in T2DM rats treated with valsartan or normal control rats, none of the correlations was significant.Conclusions In the presence of T2DM, diabetic cardiomyopathy is related with IR. Valsartan can not alleviate IR, but can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and remove the correlation between IR and diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  4. Standardization of resistance exercise training: effects in diabetic ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, I C; Conti, F F; Sartori, M; Irigoyen, M C; De Angelis, K

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out with a 3-fold aim: 1) to standardize a maximal load test (MLT) on ladders for prescription of resistance exercise training (RET) in rats, 2) to prescribe moderate-intensity RET based on this MLT and 3) to test the effect of this RET in diabetic ovariectomized rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into control (C), diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS) and trained (DOT) groups. The MLT was standardized with increased load applied to the rat tail for each climb, and blood lactate was measured to identify lactate threshold in C rats. MLT was applied in the 1st, 4th and 8th week of the protocol. After 8 weeks of RET, the arterial pressure was directly recorded. DOS group reduced performance in MLT, body weight, left ventricular, plantar and soleus muscles mass (vs. C). DOT rats showed an improvement in MLT associated with plantar muscle mass increased (vs. C and DOS), with attenuation of hypotension and bradycardia (vs. DOS). In conclusion, the results provide a useful method for determining the maximal load and applying RET in rats. Moreover, this study showed that moderate intensity RET improves hemodynamic status in diabetic ovariectomized rats, thereby reinforcing the role of RET in diabetes management. PMID:24022577

  5. Hypoxic neuropathy versus diabetic neuropathy : an electrophysiological study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Hendriksen, P.H.; Oey, P.L.; Wieneke, G.H.; Huffelen, A.C. van

    1992-01-01

    In the experimental rat model of diabetes a slowing of nerve conduction velocity and a resistance to ischemic conduction failure have been found as an indication of polyneuropathy. The same electrophysiological abnormalities have been demonstrated in a model in which healthy rats are kept under hypo

  6. Effect and mechanisms of zinc supplementation in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Lu; Ya Liu; Hongyan Li; Xue Wang; Wenjie Wu; Lichao Gao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a prominent cause of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is no specific treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of Zinc (Zn) supplementation in the protection against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM-like lesions in male Wistar rats were induced by introducing the high-fat diet and by administration of streptozocin (STZ). ...

  7. Relaxing effect of insulin in renal arteries from diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Edvinsson, L

    1999-01-01

    -treated streptozotocine diabetic rats with diabetes for 50 days were compared with 15 weight-matched control rats. The contractile responses to 60 mM K+ and 10(-4) M noradrenaline, and the insulin- (0.8-6.4 I.U./ml) induced relaxation of vessels precontracted with noradrenaline, were similar in diabetic and control rats....... There was a tendency towards greater relaxation in diabetic (71%) than in control rats (54%). Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10(-4) M) given before noradrenaline tended to attenuate the insulin-induced relaxation, while addition of L-arginine (10(-6) M) to L-NAME attenuated the relaxation in diabetic...... in control rats in varying doses between 2 x 10(-6) and 2 x 10(-4) M. In the highest concentration it made no difference whether insulin was given or not and there was a similar relaxing effect in diabetic and control arteries. In conclusion, the present study showed that insulin per se has a relaxing effect...

  8. The effect of dietary Cu and diabetes on indices of Cu nutriture in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, R.B.; Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Tinker, D.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The uptake-retention of 67Cu is affected by dietary Cu and diabetes. Consequently, the functional activities of select enzymes and tissue Cu status were assessed. STZ-diabetic and control rats were fed Cu suppl. or def. diets. Rats were gavaged with 28 {mu}Ci 67Cu, and killed 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h later. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic; with no effect of diet. Plasma ceruloplasmin activity (Cp) was lower in Cu def. rats; diabetic rats tended to have higher Cp than controls. Cu def. rats had low Cu levels in liver, kidney and plasma. Cu suppl. diabetic rats had higher liver and kidney Cu compared to Cu def. diabetic rats. Gel chromatography of liver showed that with time, there was a transfer of 67Cu from low to higher MW ligands. In nondiabetic rats, more 67Cu was associated with the higher MW ligands. The converse was observed for diabetic rats. There was no effect of diabetes on liver 67Cu localization. Diabetic rats had higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver and kidney compared to controls Cu deficiency lowered MT values in both diabetic and control rats. CuZn SOD Cu activity was lowered with Cu def. and diabetes, while Mn SOD activity was similar among groups. Plasma lipid peroxide levels were lower in diabetic rats than controls. The results show that Cu metabolism is affected in diabetes, and the changes are functionally significant.

  9. Cytoprotective Effect of Silymarin against Diabetes-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muobarak J Tuorkey; Nabila I El-Desouki; Rabab A Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The beneficial effects of silymarin have been extensively studied in the context of inflammation and cancer treatment, yet much less is known about its therapeutic effect on diabetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the cytoprotective activity of silymarin against diabetes-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods Rats were randomly divided into: control group, untreated diabetes group and diabetes group treated with silymarin (120 mg/kg·d) for 10 d. Rats were sacrificed, and the cardiac muscle specimens and blood samples were collected. The immunoreactivity of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in the cardiomyocytes was measured. Total proteins, glucose, insulin, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were estimated. Results Unlike the treated diabetes group, cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased in the untreated rats, as evidenced by enhanced caspase-3 and declined Bcl-2 activities. The levels of glucose, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides declined in the treated rats. The declined levels of insulin were enhanced again after treatment of diabetic rats with silymarin, reflecting a restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells activity. Conclusion The findings of this study are of great importance, which confirmed for the first time that treatment of diabetic subjects with silymarin may protect cardiomyocytes against apoptosis and promote survival-restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells.

  10. Carvacrol partially reverses symptoms of diabetes in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Senturk, Hakan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Colak, Suat; Ozmen, Ayse; Kolankaya, Durdane

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the protective effects of carvacrol on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Hence, this present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of the strong antioxidant, carvacrol, on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Carvacrol at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight were orally administered to diabetic rats for a period of 7 days after the onset of diabetes. Food-water intake and body weight changes were daily recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured. Although treatment of diabetic rats with oral administration of carvacrol resulted in a slight reduction in serum glucose level and significant reduction in serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in comparison with diabetic control rats, there were no significant differences in serum insulin levels, food-water intake values and body weight changes. Despite the inadequacy of carvacrol on diabetes treatments, it was determined to have at least a partially protective role on liver enzymes. PMID:23579248

  11. Anti-diabetic potential of chromium histidinate in diabetic retinopathy rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ulas, Mustafa; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Sahin, Nurhan; Gencoglu, Hasan; Komorowski, James R; Sahin, Kazim

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromium (Cr) is commonly used as a complementary medicine for diabetes mellitus. Several studies suggest that Cr intakes may improve glucose metabolism and decrease oxidative stress. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis) supplementation using a range of reliable biomarkers of oxidative damage and histopathological changes in rats with diabetic retinopathy. Methods Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin [(STZ), 55 mg/kg] by intraperitoneal inje...

  12. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enomfon J Akpan

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  13. Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude E Okokon

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  14. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Cardioprotective Effect of Sodium Ferulate in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Xu, Haijuan Xiao, Jiangpei Zhao, Tongfeng Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in the occurrence and development in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC. Ferulic acid is one of the ubiquitous compounds in diet. Sodium ferulate (SF is its sodium salt. SF has potent free radical scavenging activity and can effectively scavenge ROS. The study investigated the effect of SF on cardioprotection in diabetic rats. The diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ were treated with SF (110mg/kg by gavage per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that the levels of nitric oxide (NO and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly higher than those in diabetic control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in myocardium in SF-treated group was apparently lower than that in diabetic control group. Compared with normal control group, electron micrographs of myocardium in diabetic control group showed apparently abnormality, while that was significantly ameliorated in SF-treated group. The study demonstrated that SF has a cardioprotective effect via increasing SOD activity and NO levels in plasma and myocardium, inhibiting oxidative stress in plasma and myocardium, and inhibiting the expression of CTGF in myocardium in diabetes rats.

  16. Citrus flavonoid naringenin improves aortic reactivity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Fallahi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chronic treatment of diabetic rats with naringenin could prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity in diabetic rats through nitric oxide and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect.

  17. Fenugreek Prevents the Development of STZ-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Jin

    2014-01-01

    evidently reduced by fenugreek treatment. Furthermore, the upregulation of TGF-β1 and CTGF at a transcriptional and translational level in DN rats was distinctly inhibited by fenugreek. Consequently, fenugreek prevents DN development in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

  18. 四氧嘧啶糖尿病大鼠主动脉金属元素含量与收缩反应的相关性%Relationship between metal elements and contractile response in aorta of alloxan- induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学亮; 舒昌达; 何军

    2002-01-01

    @@ 本实验通过对4周四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠主动脉及对照大鼠主动脉12种金属元素含量、主动脉环收缩反应张力的测定及其相关性分析,旨在了解糖尿病时主动脉金属元素含量变化与收缩反应的关系.

  19. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl4 was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of 14C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin

  20. Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ting WANG; Jia LI; Li LIU; Nan HU; Shi JIN; Can LIU; Dan MEI; Xiao-dong LIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Diabetes is associated with elevated serum total cholesterol level and disrupted lipoprotein subfractions.The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the tissue cholesterol contents closely related to diabetic complications.Methods:Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.On d 35 after the injection,liver,heart,intestine,kidney,pancreas,cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated from the rats.The content of total and free cholesterol in the tissues was determined using HPLC.The ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) protein and ApoE mRNA were measured using Western blot and QT-PCR analyses,respectively.Results:In diabetic rats,the level of free cholesterol was significantly decreased in the peripheral tissues,but significantly elevated in hippocampus,as compared with those in the control rats.Diabetic rats showed a trend of decreasing the total cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues,but significant change was only found in kidney and liver.In diabetic rats,the level of the ABCA1 protein was significantly increased in the peripheral tissues and cerebral cortex; the expression of ApoE mRNA was slightly decreased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex,but the change had no statistical significance.Conclusion:Type 1 diabetes decreases the free cholesterol content in the peripheral tissues and increases the free cholesterol content in hippocampus.The decreased free cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues may be partly due to the increased expression of the ABCA1 protein.

  1. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus. PMID:27656611

  2. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Acetylsalicylic acid protects erectile function in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, G; Gonulalan, U; Kosan, M; Arioglu, E; Ozturk, B; Cetinkaya, M; Gur, S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment on diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: (i) control (C), (ii) diabetic (D), (iii) ASA-treated control (C+ASA) and (iv) ASA-treated diabetic (D+ASA) groups. In groups 2 and 4, diabetes was induced by injection of 35 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. ASA (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) , orally) was administrated to rats in groups 3 and 4 for 8 weeks. Both intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured in in vivo studies. In organ bath, the relaxation responses to acetylcholine (ACh), electrical field stimulation (EFS) and sodium nitroprusside were tested in corpus cavernosum (CC) strips. The mRNA expression for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was calculated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. In in vivo experiments, diabetic rats displayed reduced ICP/MAP values, which were normalised with ASA treatment. The relaxant response to high-dose ACh and EFS at low frequencies (1-8 Hz) in CC strips from the D+ASA group were significantly higher when compared to the D group. Treatment with ASA normalised the raised mRNA expressions of nNOS in diabetic penile tissues. ASA may be involved in mRNA of protein synthesis of NO released from nonadrenergic and noncholinergic cavernosal nerve in diabetes.

  4. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus.

  5. Acute effect of different antidepressants on glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a 20% higher risk of depression than the general population. Treatment with antidepressant drugs can directly interfere with blood glucose levels or may interact with hypoglycemic agents. The treatment of depression in diabetic patients must take into account variations of glycemic levels at different times and a comparison of the available antidepressant agents is important. In the present study we evaluated the interference of antidepressants with blood glucose levels of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In a first experiment, male adult Wistar rats were fasted for 12 h. Imipramine (5 mg/kg, moclobemide (30 mg/kg, clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg sertraline (30 mg/kg or vehicle was administered. After 30 min, fasting glycemia was measured. An oral glucose overload of 1 ml of a 50% glucose solution was given to rats and blood glucose was determined after 30, 60 and 90 min. Imipramine and clonazepam did not change fasting or overload glycemia. Fluoxetine and moclobemide increased blood glucose at different times after the glucose overload. Sertraline neutralized the increase of glycemia induced by oral glucose overload. In the second experiment, non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fasted, and the same procedures were followed for estimation of glucose tolerance 30 min after glucose overload. Again, sertraline neutralized the increase in glycemia after glucose overload both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. These data raise the question of whether sertraline is the best choice for prolonged use for diabetic individuals, because of its antihyperglycemic effects. Clonazepam would be useful in cases with potential risk of hypoglycemia.

  6. Effect of curcumin on diabetic rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Mingsan; Cheng, Bolin; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of curcumin on cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats the effects and features. intravenous injection alloxan diabetes model, to give alloxan first seven days the tail measured blood glucose value, the election successful model rats were fed with large, medium and small doses of curcumin suspension, Shenqijiangtang suspension and the same volume of saline, administered once daily. The first 10 days after administration 2h (fasting 12h) rat tail vein blood glucose values measured in the first 20 days after administration of 2h (fasting 12h), do cerebral ischemia surgery; rapid carotid artery blood after 30min rats were decapitated, blood serum, blood glucose and glycated serum protein levels; take part of the brain homogenates plus nine times the amount of normal saline, made 10 percent of brain homogenates. Another part of the brain tissue, in the light microscope observation of pathological tissue. Compared with model group, large, medium and small doses of curcumin can significantly lower blood sugar and glycated serum protein levels, significantly reduced brain homogenates lactic acid content and lactate dehydrogenase activity; large, medium-dose curcumin can significantly increase brain homogenates Na(+)-K(+)-ATP activity, dose curcumin can significantly improve brain homogenates Ca(+)-Mg(+)- ATP activity. Curcumin can reduce blood sugar in diabetic rat model of cerebral ischemia and improve brain energy metabolism, improve their brain tissue resistance to ischemia and hypoxia, cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats have a good drop the role of sugar and protect brain tissue. PMID:25631517

  7. Sympathoadrenal activity during exercise in partial diabetic and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, H; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E; Steffens, A.B

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with altered fat and carbohydrate metabolism and disturbed sympathoadrenal functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-term diabetic state alters the activity of the sympathoadrenal system and of the adrenal cortex during

  8. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Adogwa; Godwin Isitor; Marshall, Julien R.; B Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, li...

  9. Effect of carnosine on erythrocyte deformability in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapislar, Hande; Aydogan, Sami

    2012-12-01

    It is known that oxidative stress plays an important role in the chronic complications of diabetes. Lipid peroxidation is one of the consequences of oxidative stress. Erythrocyte deformability abilities are reduced as a result of lipid peroxidation. Conversely, a decrease nitric oxide (NO) production seems to be responsible in endothelial dysfunction which occurs in diabetic vascular complications. Carnosine is a molecule with anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte deformability indices and the effects of carnosine on erythrocyte deformability in diabetes and to determine a possible relationship between carnosine and nitric oxide. Male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Injections were administered to seven groups consisting of eight rats each. The groups were: Control, Carnosine, L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), Diabetic, STZ (Streptozotocin) +Carnosine, STZ+L-NAME and STZ+Carnosine+L-NAME. In addition, glucose, insulin, MDA (Malondialdehyde) and NO levels were measured and erythrocyte deformability indices were calculated in all groups. Erythrocyte deformability indices and NO levels were decreased and MDA levels were found to be increased in diabetic group. It was also found that carnosine can significantly reverse erythrocyte deformability, reduce lipid peroxidation and increase NO levels in diabetes. It can be concluded that carnosine can recover from microvascular circulation problems by increasing erythrocyte deformability, can protect cells and tissues against lipid peroxidation and can be used as a multi-functional anti-oxidant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus to prevent the complications of diabetes. PMID:22946660

  10. Comparison between the effect of ozone and vitamin C in treatment of diabetes mellitus

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    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab **and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is strong evidence that diabetes results a state of oxidative stress and that reactive oxygen species contribute to the production of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and both the microvascular and macrovascular long-term complications of diabetes. Antioxidants are used as supportive therapy in the treatment of DM, so, we use ozone and vitamin C to study if they can regulate the oxidative complications of DM. Material and method: twenty male adult albino rats were divided into two groups; group 1: control group, group 2: alloxan induced diabetic rats which divided into three subgroups. subgroup1: diabetic untreated rats, subgroup2: diabetic treated with ozone and subgroup 3: diabetic rats treated with vitamin C. After thirty days of treatment the body weight gain was detected. Blood sample were collected to1- estimate biochemical parameters as: glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles and liver and kidney functions 2- estimate some hematological parameters. Also, liver samples collected to determine their glycogen content and pancreatic samples were obtained for microscopic and quantitative evaluation. Results: in diabetic untreated rats the results showed reduction of gained body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions and change in lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, O3 and vitamin C treated rats reported an amelioration of the most toxic effect of alloxan and returned most of these parameters nearly normal. Microscopically pancreatic beta cells showed definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis in the diabetic group while pancreatic alpha and delta cells were not affected. The use of O3 and vitamin C treatment in this study showed significant improves of such cellular changes when compared to diabetic untreated rats but still abnormal when compared with normal rats. Conclusion: it was recommended that

  11. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  12. Diabetes and mitochondrial oxidative stress: A study using heart mitochondria from the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Dario Loureiro; Palmeira, Carlos Marques; Seiça, Raquel; Dias, José; Mesquita, José; Moreno, Antonio Joaquim; Santos, Maria Sancha

    2003-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induced by diabetic hyperglycemia, contributes to the development of several cardiopathologies. The susceptibility of diabetic hearts to oxidative stress, induced in vitro by ADP-Fe2+ in mitochondria, was studied in 12-month-old Goto-Kakizaki rats, a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and normal (non-diabetic) Wistar rats. In terms of lipid peroxidation the oxidative damage was evaluated on heart mito...

  13. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  14. Anti-diabetic activity of Celosia argentea root in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ghule Santosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic hypoglycaemic properties of an ethanolic extract of the root of Celosia argentea which is widely used in India as a traditional treatment for diabetes mellitus. An ethanolic extract of C. argentea root was found to lower blood glucose in basal conditions and after a heavy glucose load in normal rats. Maximum reduction in serum glucose was observed after 90 minutes at a dose of 500 mg/kg (63.28% of body weight, but petroleum ether and chloroform extracts (8.52% and 9.81%, respectively did not reduce the serum glucose. Ethanolic extract of C. argentea was also found to reduce the increase of blood sugar found in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (73.43% at 250 mg/kg and 80.20% at 500 mg/kg body weight on 15th day. Chronic administration of the extract significantly reduced the blood sugar in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for several days (15 days. The ethanolic extract was also found to reduce the increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and urea. The extract also restored the decreased level of proteins and liver glycogen in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals and inhibited the body weight reduction induced by streptozotocin administration. These results indicate that C. argentea root extracts are able to ameliorate biochemical damages induced by streptozotocin in diabetic rats.

  15. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia.

  16. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Teoh Seong Lin; Azian Abd Latiff; Noor Aini Abd Hamid; Wan Zurinah bt Wan Ngah; Musalmah Mazlan

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I) diabetic rats receiving control cream (n = 6), (II) diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream (n = 6), and (III) diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream (n = 6). Four cutaneous wounds were c...

  17. Microarray analysis of thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that diabetes imparts high sensitivity to numerous hepatotoxicants. Previously, we have shown that a normally non-lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats due to inhibited tissue repair allowing progression of liver injury. On the other hand, DB rats exposed to 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed tissue repair and delayed recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of impaired tissue repair and progression of liver injury in TA-treated DB rats by using cDNA microarray. Gene expression pattern was examined at 0, 6, and 12 h after TA challenge, and selected mechanistic leads from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and further investigated at protein level over the time course of 0 to 36 h after TA treatment. Diabetic condition itself increased gene expression of proteases and decreased gene expression of protease inhibitors. Administration of 300 mg TA/kg to DB rats further elevated gene expression of proteases and suppressed gene expression of protease inhibitors, explaining progression of liver injury in DB rats after TA treatment. Inhibited expression of genes involved in cell division cycle (cyclin D1, IGFBP-1, ras, E2F) was observed after exposure of DB rats to 300 mg TA/kg, explaining inhibited tissue repair in these rats. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed expression of genes involved in cell division cycle, explaining delayed tissue repair in these rats. In conclusion, impaired cyclin D1 signaling along with increased proteases and decreased protease inhibitors may explain impaired tissue repair that leads to progression of liver injury initiated by TA in DB rats

  18. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: effects of fenofibrate and metformin in an experimental model – the Zucker diabetic rat

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    Gadot Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM contributes to cardiac failure in diabetic patients. It is characterized by excessive lipids accumulation, with increased triacylglycerol (TAG stores, and fibrosis in left ventricle (LV. The mechanisms responsible are incompletely known and no specific treatment is presently defined. We evaluated the possible usefulness of two molecules promoting lipid oxidation, fenofibrate and metformin, in an experimental model of DCM, the Zucker diabetic rat (ZDF. Methods ZDF and controls (C rats were studied at 7, 14 and 21 weeks. After an initial study at 7 weeks, ZDF rats received no treatment, metformin or fenofibrate until final studies (at 14 or 21 weeks. C rats received no treatment. Each study comprised measurements of metabolic parameters (plasma glucose, TAG, insulin levels and sampling of heart for histology and measurements of TAG content and relevant mRNA concentration. Results ZDF rats were insulin-resistant at 7 weeks, type 2 diabetic at 14 weeks and diabetic with insulin deficiency at 21 weeks. Their plasma TAG levels were increased. ZDF rats had at 7 weeks an increased LV TAG content with some fibrosis. LV TAG content increased in untreated ZDF rats at 14 and 21 weeks and was always higher than in C. Fibrosis increased also moderately in untreated ZDF rats. Metformin and fenofibrate decreased plasma TAG concentrations. LV TAG content was decreased by metformin (14 and 21 weeks and by fenofibrate (14 weeks. Fibrosis was reduced by fenofibrate only and was increased by metformin. Among the mRNA measured, fenofibrate increased Acyl-CoA Oxidase mRNA level, metformin decreased Acyl-CoA Synthase and increased AdipoR1 and pro-inflammatory mRNA levels. Conclusion Fenofibrate had favourable actions on DCM. Metformin had beneficial effect on TAG content but not on fibrosis. PPARα agonists could be useful for the prevention and treatment of DCM.

  19. Cerebral Metabolic Alterations in Rats With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Nicole; Yuen, Natalie; Anderson, Steven E; Tancredi, Daniel J.; O'Donnell, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. Recent data suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion and activation of cerebral ion transporters may be involved, but data describing cerebral metabolic alterations during DKA are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated 50 juvenile rats with DKA and 21 normal control rats using proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS measured cerebral intracellular pH and ratio...

  20. Response of the lung after pneumonectomy in alloxan diabetic rats

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    Amélia Cristina Seidel

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the response of remaining lung after pneumonectomy during diabetes, female Wistar rats that received an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (D Group or saline (C Group were submitted to lung resection. Six days after alloxan injection (45 mg/kg, diabetes was confirmed. The rats were randomized divided in 3 subgroups: non-operated (NO, sham operation (SO and left pneumonectomy (PE. Thirty days after the surgery all rats were killed and the weight and volume of the lungs were measured. PE-diabetic rats showed smaller lung weight and volume than PE-non-diabetic animals. The results demonstrated that the compensatory lung growth postpneumonectomy were not observed in diabetic rats.Nosso objetivo foi investigar a resposta do pulmão remanescente à pneumonectomia. Para alcançar este propósito, ratas da linhagem Wistar receberam uma injeção intraperitoneal de aloxana (Grupo D ou salina (Grupo C. Seis dias após a administração de aloxana (45 mg/kg o diabetes mellitus foi confirmado e os animais aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 subgrupos: não operados, falsamente operados e submetidos a pneumonectomia. Trinta e seis dias após a cirurgia os animais foram sacrificados e o peso e volume dos pulmões avaliados. Animais diabéticos pneumonectomizados apresentaram menor volume e peso pulmonar em relação a animais não diabéticos pneumonectomizados. Assim, os resultados demonstraram que o crescimento pulmonar compensatório que ocorre após a pneumonectomia não foi observado em animais diabéticos.

  1. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Gehan S; Nassar, Noha N; Mansour, Hanaa A; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrolysin (CBL), a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i) vehicle- (ii) CBL- and (iii) STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv) STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%), which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF)-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp)-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU), glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and

  2. Effect of thyroparathyroidectomy on urinary acidification in diabetic rats

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    Zaladek-Gil F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies we have shown stimulation of renal acid excretion in the proximal tubules of rats with diabetes of short duration, with no important alterations in glomerular hemodynamics; on the other hand, in thyroparathyroidectomized rats (TPTX model, a significant decrease in renal acid excretion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow (RPF was detected. Since important changes in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-Ca axis are observed in the diabetic state, the present study was undertaken to investigate the renal repercussions of thyroparathyroidectomy in rats previously made diabetic by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg. Four to 6 days after the induction of diabetes (DM, a group of rats were thyroparathyroidectomized (DM + TPTX. Renal functional parameters were evaluated by measuring the inulin and sodium para-aminohippurate clearance on the tenth day. The decrease in the GFR and RPF observed in TPTX was not reversed by diabetes since the same alterations were observed in DM + TPTX. Net acid (NA excretion was unchanged in DM (6.19 ± 0.54, decreased in TPTX (3.76 ± 0.25 and returned to normal levels in DM + TPTX (5.54 ± 0.72 when compared to the control group (6.34 ± 0.14 µmol min-1 kg-1. The results suggest that PTH plays an important vasodilator role regarding glomerular hemodynamics, since in its absence the impairment in GFR and RPF was not reversed by the diabetic state. However, with respect to acid excretion, the presence of diabetes was able to overcome the negative stimulus represented by TPTX.

  3. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

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    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  4. Effects of Securigera securidaca Extract on Lipolysis and Adipogenesis in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghorbani; Reyhaneh Moradi Marjaneh; Ziba Rajaei; Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with dysregulation of adipose tissue metabolism and increased level of serum lipids. In our previous work we found that Securigera securidaca decreases cholesterol level in blood of diabetic rats. The present study was carried out to further investigate the effects of this plant on lipid metabolism, lipolysis, and adipogenesis, in diabetic rats. Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Retroperitoneal adipose tis...

  5. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

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    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  6. Evaluation of Chromosomal Instability in Diabetic Rats Treated with Naringin

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    Saleh A. Bakheet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the bone marrow DNA strand breaks, micronucleus formations, spermatocyte chromosomal aberrations, and sperm characteristic assays to investigate the chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cells of diabetic rats treated with multiple doses of naringin. The obtained results revealed that naringin was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic for the rats at all tested doses. Moreover, naringin significantly reduced the diabetes-induced chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, diabetes induced marked biochemical alterations characteristic of oxidative stress including enhanced lipid peroxidation, accumulation of oxidized glutathione, reduction in reduced glutathione, and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Treatment with naringin ameliorated these biochemical markers dose-dependently. In conclusion, naringin confers an appealing protective effect against diabetes-induced chromosomal instability towards rat somatic and germinal cells which might be explained partially via diminishing the de novo free radical generation induced by hyperglycemia. Thus, naringin might be a good candidate to reduce genotoxic risk associated with hyperglycemia and may provide decreases in the development of secondary malignancy and abnormal reproductive outcomes risks, which seems especially important for diabetic patients.

  7. Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karuna Rasineni; Ramesh Bellamkonda; Sreenivasa Reddy Singareddy; Saralakumari Desireddy

    2010-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Di...

  8. Fine structural abnormalities of the placenta in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewolb, I H; Merdian, W; Warshaw, J B; Enders, A C

    1986-11-01

    In the streptozocin-induced diabetic rat, the placenta is larger and the fetus is smaller than normal. To study cellular differences that might contribute to the size and functional disparity between diabetic and control placentas, a light- and electron-microscopic analysis was performed on 14-, 18-, and 22-day (term) control and diabetic placentas. Diabetic placentas, especially later in gestation, were marked by the presence of large numbers of glycogen-distended cells in the basal zone. Within the placental labyrinth, the trophoblastic layers of the interhemal membrane were significantly thicker in the diabetic placentas on days 18 and 22, and large accumulations of liid droplets were present, especially in the inner two trophoblastic layers. In normal placentas there is a marked thinning of the placental barrier in the labyrinth by day 22 of gestation, making the thickness of the labyrinthine layers in age-matched diabetic placentas even more impressive. Finally, the labyrinth of 22-day diabetic placentas contained more glycogen and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the inner trophoblastic layer, a feature that is found in less-mature (18-day) control placentas. Thus, the diabetic placentas have a number of features that are consistent with functional immaturity/dysmaturity. Cytologic evidence confirms the presence of increased glycogen and lipid reserves in both the junctional zone and the cellular area between maternal and fetal blood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3758495

  9. Effects of pomegranate juice on insulin and glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Rezaei; , Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini; Davood Mehrabani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Diabetes is one of the diseases resulting from defects in insulin secretion or action. Pomegranate juice is a nutrient used in the treatment of some diseases in traditional medicine. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on blood glucose and insulin levels in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: The present study was an empirical one in which 90 adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g each, were randomly divided into five groups ...

  10. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  11. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption. PMID:25900579

  12. Neonatally induced diabetes: liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats

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    Isabela Lovizutto Iessi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this sstudy was to evaluate the liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats presenting neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetes and to establish a relation with glycemia and insulin levels. Wistar rats were divided in to two groups: 1 Mild Diabetes (STZ - received streptozotocin (glycemia from 120 to 300 mg/dL, 2 Control - received vehicle (glycemia below 120 mg/dL. At days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy, body weight and glycemia were evaluated. At day 21 of the pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized for blood and liver collection so as to determine insulin and liver glycogen, which showed no changes in the STZ group as compared to the controls. In the STZ group, maternal weight gain were lower as compared to those in the control group. Significantly increased glycemia was observed at days 0 and 14 of the pregnancy in the STZ group. Therefore, neonatally induced diabetes in the rats did not cause metabolic changes that impaired insulin and liver glycogen relation in these rats.

  13. Protective Effects of Fufang Xueshuantong on Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats

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    Huihui Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Fufang Xueshuantong (FXT on diabetic retinopathy in rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. One week after STZ, FXT 0.525 g/kg or 1.05 g/kg was administrated to the rats by intragastric gavage (ig once daily consecutively for 24 weeks. The control rats and untreated STZ rats received vehicle the same way. At the end of the experiment, the erythrocyte aggregation and blood viscosity were assayed. The retina vessel morphology was observed in retinal digestive preparations. Expression of occludin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in retina was measured by western blotting. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF in retina was detected by immunohistochemistry. The activity of aldose reductase in retina was investigated with a NADPH oxidation method. The results showed that, in STZ rats, there were distinct lesions in retinal vessel, including decrease of pericytes and increase of acellular capillaries, together with dilatation of retinal veins. The expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 increased, while the expression of PEDF and occludin decreased. The activity of aldose reductase elevated, and the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation also increased after STZ stimulation. FXT 0.525 g/kg and 1.05 g/kg demonstrated significant protective effects against STZ induced microvessel lesion in the retina with increased pericytes and reduced acellular capillaries. FXT also reduced the expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 and enhanced the expression of PEDF and occludin in STZ insulted rats. The activity of aldose reductase, the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation also decreased after FXT treatment. The results demonstrated that FXT has protective effect on STZ induced diabetic retinopathy

  14. Anti-diabetic properties of rice-based herbal porridges in diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie; Ekanayake, Sagarika; Wanigatunge, Chandanie

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and toxic effects of long-term consumption of selected green leafy porridges in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rat model. Porridges made with Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Hemidesmus indicus (L) R. Br. W. T. Aiton (HI), Scoparia dulcis L. (SD) and coconut milk porridge (CM) were incorporated into diets of diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetic control (DM) and normal control groups (NC) were provided with standard rat diet. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c , C reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), liver enzymes and creatinine were measured. Feed and water intake among diabetic groups were significantly high when compared with those of NC (p  0.05). Among the diabetic groups, lowest TC (119 ± 20.6 mg/dL) and highest HDL-C (33 ± 6.3 mg/dL) were also detected in SD group. Alanine transaminase and creatinine were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among diabetic groups but significant when compared with those of NC. When compared with those of NC, aspartate transaminase levels were significantly (p < 0.05) high in SD, CM and DM groups. Body weight : liver weight and body weight : pancreas weight ratios and CRP were not significantly different among all groups. The study proved that SD porridge reduced weight loss, elicited hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic properties, and caused no toxicity in diabetes-induced Wistar rats. PMID:24840113

  15. Effect of Biophytum sensitivum on streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananda Prabu K; Kumarappan CT; Sunil Christudas; Kalaichelvan VK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous solution of Biophytum sensitivum leaf extract (BSEt) on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ-nicotinamide (40, 110 mg/kg b.w., respectively) intraperitoneally. BSEt (200 mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for 28 days. The effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, total haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver was studied in diabetic rats. Results: BSEt significantly reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels and significantly increased the total haemoglobin, plasma insulin and liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats. It also increased the hexokinase activity and decreased glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase activities in diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that BSEt possesses a promising effect on STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL RENAL GENE EXPRESSION IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETIC RATS AFTER ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; HUANG Sheng-lin; YING Lei; ZHAO Han-fang; YANG Rong; NI Zhao-hui

    2006-01-01

    Objective To find the genes involved in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy using gene chip technology. Methods We established a type 1 diabetic rat model by streptozotocin injection and divided these diabetic rats into two groups: diabetic rats group( D group) and diabetic rats group treated with Astragalus Membranaceus (DA group). The renal tissue was collected and total RNA was extracted for gene chips. With the help of gene chip, we tried to discover the differential-displayed genes between these two groups. Results Totally 201 differential-displayed genes were found between the two groups, among which 126 genes were up-regulated and 75 genes were down-regulated in the rat renal tissue. Conclusion With gene chip results, we find several genes which are associated with diabetes in the rat renal tissue. The further research on the function of these genes will be helpful to understand the mechanism of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Investigation on the effects of the atmospheric pressure plasma on wound healing in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollah, Sara; Mirpour, Shahriar; Mansouri, Parvin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Rahimi, Nastaran; Safaie Naraghi, Zahra; Chalangari, Reza; Chalangari, Katalin Martits

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that 15 percent of individuals with diabetes mellitus suffer from diabetic ulcers worldwide. The aim of this study is to present a non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment as a novel therapy for diabetic wounds. The plasma consists of ionized helium gas that is produced by a high-voltage (8 kV) and high-frequency (6 kHz) power supply. Diabetes was induced in rats via an intravascular injection of streptozotocin. The plasma was then introduced to artificial xerograph wounds in the rats for 10 minutes. Immunohistochemistry assays was performed to determine the level of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) cytokine. The results showed a low healing rate in the diabetic wounds compared with the wound-healing rate in non-diabetic animals (P diabetic rats (P diabetic wounds (P diabetic rats.

  18. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  19. Autonomic innervation of the pancreas in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. A new view on intramural sympathetic structural organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Horst, G.J. ter; Steffens, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods the intramural neural tissue of the pancreas was investigated in non-diabetic and in alloxan-diabetic rats. It was demonstrated that the non-diabetic pancreas contains an average of 2.71 cells/mm3 tissue that react positive for activity of acetylcho

  20. The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue sup 67 Cu retention kinetics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 {mu}Ci {sup 67}Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on {sup 67}Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained {sup 67}Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted.

  1. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A Komolafe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

  2. Berberine in Combination with Insulin Has Additive Effects on Titanium Implants Osseointegration in Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Lu; Huang Zhijian; Li Lei; Chen Wenchuan; Zhu Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of berberine in combination with insulin on early osseointegration of implants in diabetic rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: healthy rats were used as control (HC), and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with insulin, berberine, berberine + insulin (IB), or no treatment. Each rat received one machined-surface cp-Ti implant into the right tibia and was given insulin injection and/or gavage feeding with berb...

  3. Respiratory muscle weakness in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Melissa A; Foster, Andrew J; Arkell, Alicia M; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Snook, Laelie A; Romanova, Nadya; Murrant, Coral L; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C; Simpson, Jeremy A

    2015-10-01

    The obesity epidemic is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the modern world. Physical therapy is the most accessible form of treatment; however, compliance is a major obstacle due to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Respiratory muscle atrophy is a cause of dyspnea, yet little is known of obesity-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction. Our objective was to investigate whether obesity-induced skeletal muscle wasting occurs in the diaphragm, the main skeletal muscle involved in inspiration, using the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. After 14 wk, ZDF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, compared with lean controls. Hemodynamic analysis revealed ZDF rats have impaired cardiac relaxation (P = 0.001) with elevated end-diastolic pressure (P = 0.006), indicative of diastolic dysfunction. Assessment of diaphragm function revealed weakness (P = 0.0296) in the absence of intrinsic muscle impairment in ZDF rats. Diaphragm morphology revealed increased fibrosis (P signaling pathway with increased serum myostatin (P = 0.017), increased gene expression (P = 0.030) in the diaphragm and retroperitoneal adipose (P = 0.033), and increased SMAD2 phosphorylation in the diaphragm (P = 0.048). Here, we have confirmed the presence of respiratory muscle atrophy and weakness in an obese, diabetic model. We have also identified a pathological role for myostatin signaling in obesity, with systemic contributions from the adipose tissue, a nonskeletal muscle source. These findings have significant implications for future treatment strategies of exercise intolerance in an obese, diabetic population. PMID:26246509

  4. Renal and hepatic transporter expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Michael T; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Sawant, Sharmilee P; Dnyanmote, Ankur V; Mehendale, Harihara M; Manautou, José E

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transporters are critical for the uptake as well as elimination of chemicals and by-products of metabolism from the liver and kidneys. Since these proteins are important determinants of chemical disposition, changes in their expression in different disease states can modulate drug pharmacokinetics. The present study investigated alterations in the renal and hepatic expression of organic anion and cation transporters (Oats/Octs), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and hepatic Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in type 2 diabetic rats. For this purpose, type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats a high fat diet followed by a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p., in 0.01 M citrate buffer pH 4.3) on day 14. Controls received normal diet and vehicle. Kidney and liver samples were collected on day 24 for generation of crude plasma membrane fractions and Western blot analysis of Oat, Oct, Mrp, Bcrp, Pgp, and Ntcp proteins. With regards to renal uptake transporters, type 2 diabetes increased levels of Oat2 (2.3-fold) and decreased levels of Oct2 to 50% of control kidneys. Conversely, efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, and Bcrp were increased 5.4-fold, 2-fold, and 1.6-fold, respectively in type 2 diabetic kidneys with no change in levels of Mrp1, Mrp5, or Pgp. Studies of hepatic transporters in type 2 diabetic rats reveal that the protein level of Mrp5 was reduced to 4% of control livers with no change in levels of Bcrp, Mrp1, Mrp2, Mrp4, Ntcp, or Pgp. The changes reported in this study may have implications in type 2 diabetic patients.

  5. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  6. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn on skeletal growth in the neonates of diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla; K. Sreedhara Ranganath Pai; Bhat, Kumar M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infants of the diabetic mother are known to have reduced bone mineral content and hypocalcemia. Earlier, it has been shown that petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) can enhance the fetal skeletal ossification in normal rats. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of PECQ on skeletal growth in the neonatal rats of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: After confirmation of diabetes, the diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats were ...

  7. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of guar gum on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicine is widely used in the treatment of diseases like diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of guar gum in diabetic rats for the reduction of the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary pattern emphasizing foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with low blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: Diet containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w guar gum was fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, atherogenic index levels, body weights and food intake were monitored at 0, 7.14 and 28 days after induction of diabetes. Results: In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all rats after 14 days, the guar gum diet significantly decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol, triacylglicerols and LDL-C and atherogenic index. The most significant result in this study was the reduction of blood glucose in diabetic rats treated with the guar gum diet after 28 days versus non- and glibenclamide-treated rats. The gum promoted a general improvement in the condition of the diabetic rats in body weight and food intake in comparison with nontreated rats. Conclusion: The results of this research suggest that guar gum was significantly effective in comparison with glibenclamide in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes rats. Therefore, it may be suggested as a reliable fiber in diabetic regimes in diabetic patients.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF ALOE VERA IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Jyoti Sethi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Aloe vera (AV in alloxan induced diabetes in albino rabbits. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rabbits with alloxan(80mg/Kg body weightand animals showing fasting blood glucose levels more than 250mg/dl were considered as diabetics and divided into four groups of six each (n=6. Group I: Normal control rabbits, Group II: Alloxan induced diabetic rabbits, Group III: Diabetic rabbits received AV gel extract (300 mg/Kg in aqueous solution for 21 days, Group IV: diabetic rabbits given glibenclamide (600ug/kg in aqueous solution. All the drugs were administered orally (using an intra gastric tube in a single dose in the morning for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the marginal vein of pinna of overnight fasted rabbits (Blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total thiols (PSH and Superoxide dismutase (SOD. Oral administration of AV showed potent antihyperglycemic and anti-lipidperoxidative effect in diabetic animals. Simultaneously, the levels of protective antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH and PSH were significantly increased with AV supplementation. The results suggest potent antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of AV in experimental diabetes, and thus Aloe vera can be used as an alternative remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

  9. The Effect of the Flavonoid Quercetin on Pain Sensation in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Narenjkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperalgesia is considered as one of the marked signs of subchronic diabetes mellitus in patients that could affect their lifestyle. This study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of chronic administration of quercetin in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats using formalin and hot tail immersion tests. Methods: Rats were divided into control, control or diabetic groups receiving sodium salicylate, untreated diabetic, and quercetin-treated control and diabetic groups. The treatment groups received i.p. administration of quercetin at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Finally, hyperalgesia were assessed using standard formalin and hot tail immersion tests. Meanwhile, some markers of oxidative stress were also measured in brain tissue.Results: Quercetin or SS treatment of diabetic rats significantly reduced pain score in chronic phase of formalin test (p<0.05. Regarding hot tail immersion test, diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in tail flick latency as compared to control ones (p<0.05 and quercetin treatment of diabetic rats did significantly increase this latency relative to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. Quercetin treatment of diabetic rats also significantly decreased brain level of malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.05 and nitrite (p<0.05 and slightly increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD relative to diabetics. Discussion: Taken together, chronic administration of quercetin could attenuate nociceptive score in chronic phase of formalin test in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and could also increase threshold of thermal nociception.  

  10. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis.

  11. Effect of diabetes and insulin treatment on nitric oxide synthase content in rat corpus cavemosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Shun XU; Qiang FU; Sheng-Tian ZHAO; Hai-Nan LIU

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of diabetes mellitus and insulin treatment on rat penile nitric oxide synthase content.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided at random into two groups: the Control ( n = 8) and the Diabetic ( n =17). Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic animals were then ran domly divided into two subgroups: diabetic rats without insulin treatment ( n = 7) and diabetic rats with insulin treat ment ( n = 10). The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the penile corpus cavemosum were assayed by immrmo histochemical staining with specific antibody to nNOS and the nNOS-positive nerve fibers were counted semiquantita tively under a high power microscope. Results: The nNOS- positive nerve fibres in diabetic rats with treatment was higher than that in diabetic rats without treatment ( P < 0.05) and lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01 ). The nNOS-positive nerve fibres in diabetic rat without treatment were also lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01). Con clusion: In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, the nNOS content in the penile corpus cavernosum was significantly decre~ed. Insulin treatment at the dose level employed partially restores the penile nNOS content in these rats.

  12. Isolation and characterization of anti-diabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) fromOcimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and characterize antidiabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) from hydro alcoholic extract ofOcimum sanctum (O. sanctum) aerial part.Methods: Ten fractions(F1 - F10) were isolated from hydro alcoholic extract ofO. sanctum aerial part by column chromatography. All the fractions F1 toF10 were screened for antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats by estimating serum glucose level and lipid parameters. The isolated bioactive component was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, MS,1H and 13C NMR) data analysis.Results:The bioactive fraction(F5) was found to be potent antidiabetic by ameliorating glucose and lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol). The extensive spectroscopic data analysis reveals that, the isolated bioactive compound elucidated as tetracyclic triterpenoid [16-Hydroxy-4,4,10,13-tetramethyl-17-(4-methyl-pentyl)-hexadecahydro-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one]. Conclusions:Our present study concluded that, tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from aerial part ofO. sanctum has a great anti-diabetic potential.

  13. Endogenous L-Carnosine Level in Diabetes Rat Cardiac Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Su, Dan; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Shaofeng; Liu, Kuangyi; Peng, Mi; Li, Hanyun; Song, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL(-1) for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL(-1). The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard. We successfully applied this method to the analysis of endogenous carnosine in cardiac muscle of the diabetes rats and healthy control rats. The concentration of carnosine was significantly lower in the diabetes rats group, compared to that in the healthy control rats. These results support the usefulness of this method as a means of quantitating carnosine and illustrate the important role of L-carnosine in cardiac muscle. PMID:27190533

  14. Endogenous L-Carnosine Level in Diabetes Rat Cardiac Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL−1 for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL−1. The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard. We successfully applied this method to the analysis of endogenous carnosine in cardiac muscle of the diabetes rats and healthy control rats. The concentration of carnosine was significantly lower in the diabetes rats group, compared to that in the healthy control rats. These results support the usefulness of this method as a means of quantitating carnosine and illustrate the important role of L-carnosine in cardiac muscle.

  15. Systemic perturbations of key metabolites in diabetic rats during the evolution of diabetes studied by urine metabonomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidation of metabolic profiles during diabetes progression helps understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this study, urine metabonomics was used to identify time-related metabolic changes that occur during the development of diabetes mellitus and characterize the biochemical process of diabetes on a systemic, metabolic level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Urine samples were collected from diabetic rats and age-matched controls at different time points: 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks after diabetes modeling. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR spectra of the urine samples were obtained and analyzed by multivariate data analysis and quantitative statistical analysis. The metabolic patterns of diabetic groups are separated from the controls at each time point, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of diabetic rats were markedly different from the controls. Moreover, the samples from the diabetic 1-wk group are closely associated, whereas those of the diabetic 15-wk group are scattered, suggesting that the presence of various of complications contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Quantitative analysis indicated that urinary metabolites related to energy metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and methylamine metabolism are involved in the evolution of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlighted that the numbers of metabolic changes were related to diabetes progression, and the perturbed metabolites represent potential metabolic biomarkers and provide clues that can elucidate the mechanisms underlying the generation and development of diabetes as well as its complication.

  16. ISOLATION OF HEPATIC OVAL CELLS FROM DIFFERENT MODEL RATS INCLUDING DIABETIC RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying-li; YE Ting-ting; XIA Fang-zhen; WANG Ning-jian; YANG Hua; CHEN Yi

    2009-01-01

    Objective To acquire oval cells (progenitor stem cells) from adult rat liver of different models including diabetic rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 5 groups randomly: control, 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-AAF+partial hepatectomy (PH), 2-AAF+carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and diabetic groups. As two-step collagenase perfusion protocol of Seglen, oval cells were isolated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Thy1.1 positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and then cultured in Dulbeccos minimum Eagles medium (DMEM). Immunofluorescence staining was applied to labelling Thy1.1. Results Different rates of Thy1.1 positive oval cells were found in different rat model groups: 0.5% in 2-AAF, 0.3% in 2-hAAF+PH, 0.2% in 2-AAF+CCl4 , 0.1% in diabetic, and 0.0% in control. Isolated cells adhered to plate with fusiform or polygon as epithelial cells. Conclusion Progenitor stem cells exist in injured liver tissue including those from diabetic rats.

  17. Efficiency of noopept in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Ozerova, I V; Gudascheva, T A; Kapitsa, I G; Ivanova, E A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of new nootropic and neuroprotective drug Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) in various dosage regimens on the dynamics of glycemia, body weight, and pain sensitivity in rats receiving diabetogenic toxin streptozotocin. In experimental diabetic rats, Noopept alleviated glycemia and weight loss and normalized enhanced pain sensitivity. The normalizing effect of Noopept was most pronounced when it was administered as a preventive agent prior to injection of the toxin. Both preventive and therapeutic administration of Noopept (delayed injections included) significantly weakened the examined metabolic effects of diabetogenic toxin. Possible mechanisms of the antidiabetic action of Noopept are analyzed. PMID:23484194

  18. N-acetylcysteine attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ma; Shanglong Yao; Kezhong Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on iscbemia/ reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats. Methods:The I/R heart model was made by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) close to its origin. The LAD was occluded for 30 min followed by removal of ligation to allow subsequent reperfusion for 3 h. 72 rats were randomly divided into two groups: non-diabetic group (C, n = 36) and diabetic group (D, n = 36).The animals in C group were randomly reassigned into sham-ope rated group (CS, n = 12) , I/R group (C I/R, n = 12) and treated with NAC group (CN, n = 12). The rats in D group were also reassigned to sham-operated group (DS, n = 12) , I/R group (DI/R, n = 12) and treated with NAC group (DN, n = 12). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB) were measured. Infarct size(IS/AAR%), the apoptosis index(AI) by TUNEL staining, the number of the cells positive for Caspase-3 and positive expression index (PEI) were calculated. Results:After I/R, the IS/AAR%, CK-MB, MDA, AI and Caspase-3 PEI were higher in diabetic group than those in non-diabetic group. Treatment with NAC decreased the above parameters in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats, but the parameters in diabetic rats were higher than those in non-diabetic rats. Conclusion:Diabetic rat hearts are more susceptible to I/R-induced myocardial necrosis and myocyte apoptosis. NAC can decrease the infarct size and attenuate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats, but the therapeutic effects are less effective in diabetic rats than those in non-diabetic rats.

  19. Enhanced Expressions of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters in the Kidneys of Diabetic Zucker Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai, Niloofar M.; Sharma, Mukut; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Petering, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes-mediated changes in mRNA expressions of kidney glucose transporters SGLT1 and 2 were investigated in Zucker rats. SGLTs expressions in pre-diabetic obese rats were similar to leans. SGLT1 and SGLT2 levels in diabetic obese rats was 1.6 (P < 0.03) and 4.8 (P < 0.002) folds higher than age-matched leans, respectively.

  20. INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS ON THE LENS ALDOSE REDUCTASE OF HEALTHY AND DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    M.T. Goodarzi; Zal, F; M. Malakooti; M. R. Safari S. Sadeghian

    2006-01-01

    Aldose reductase is a critical enzyme in the polyol pathway that plays an important role in diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of the activity of this enzyme can prevent cataract in diabetic patients’lenses. In this study the inhibitory effect of two flavonoids, quercetin and naringin, in the activity of aldose reductase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and healthy rats were investigated. Thirty male rats were divided in six groups. The first, second and third group were healthy rats that receiv...

  1. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. Roghani; T Baluchnejad Mojarrad; N Andalibi; F Ansari; M Sharayeli

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ) was administered (60 mg/Kg). Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum g...

  2. Protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract against streptozotocin induced sperm damage in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Osman, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to male sexual dysfunction and infertility by modulating oxidative damage. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated antioxidant properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This study was designed to investigate the effects of H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety on sperm functioning of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into four groups, namely control group (C), H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) group, diabetes group (D) and diabete...

  3. Cell Treatment for Stroke in Type Two Diabetic Rats Improves Vascular Permeability Measured by MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Guangliang; Chen, Jieli; Chopp, Michael; Li, Lian; Yan, Tao; Li, Qingjiang; Cui, Chengcheng; Davarani, Siamak P. N.; JIANG, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) significantly enhances brain remodeling and improves neurological function in non-diabetic stroke rats. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and induces neurovascular changes which may impact stroke therapy. Thus, it is necessary to test our hypothesis that the treatment of stroke with BMSC has therapeutic efficacy in the most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by ...

  4. Hematological alterations in diabetic rats - Role of adipocytokines and effect of citrus flavonoids

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction in adipocytes is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-associated anemia has been reported due to the increased non-enzymatic glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins, which correlates with hyperglycemia. The present study was hypothesized to assess the effect of citrus flavonoids on hematological parameters and adipose tissue interleukin-6 and adiponectin in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with a high fat diet for 2 weeks follow...

  5. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal protective effect of Adenanthera pavonina (A. pavonina seed aqueous extract (APSAE, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: The renal protective effect of A. pavonina seed aqueous extract (APSAE was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. APSAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was given daily to diabetic rats for 13 weeks. Blood glucose, serum parameters such as albumin, creatinine, total protein, urea, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and urine parameters such as urine protein and albumin were examined. Kidney histopathology was also done. Results: After 13 weeks of treatment, in STZ-induced diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia was developed, with marked increase in proteinuria and albuminuria. However, APSAE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria, albuminuria, lipid levels, and HbA1c deposition in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract. PMID:27517894

  7. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  8. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ortiz-Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm, besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  9. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  10. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  11. Altered expression of mitofusin 2 in penile tissues of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Li, R; Wang, S; Xu, H; Liu, J; Ye, Z

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication in diabetes mellitus, and the efficacy of first-line therapies is not satisfactory. Recent studies revealed that corporal apoptosis was responsible for the nonresponsiveness of severe ED to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a versatile protein, regulating mitochondrial morphology and playing an important role in apoptosis. Several studies showed that expression of Mfn2 was decreased in STZ-induced diabetic rats' kidney, myocardium and retina, which was associated with diabetic nephropathy, cardiomyopathy and retinopathy respectively. In this study, our aim was to explore the expression of Mfn2 and apoptosis in diabetic rats' penes. We found that erectile function (ICP/MAP) elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve was markedly impaired in diabetic rats compared with the normal rats. The mRNA and protein levels of Mfn2 were found to be significantly reduced in diabetic rats' penile tissues. Compared with normal rats, the content of smooth muscle and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio were dramatically decreased, and penile apoptotic index and expression of activated-caspase-3 were dramatically increased in diabetic rats. This data indicated that repression of Mfn2 in diabetic rats' penes might be associated with excessive apoptosis in diabetes-induced severe ED. PMID:23682852

  12. Protective effect of potato peel powder in ameliorating oxidative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Kamath, Vasudeva; Rajini, P S

    2005-06-01

    The potential of dietary potato peel (PP) powder in ameliorating oxidative stress (OS) and hyperglycemia was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In a 4-week feeding trial, incorporation of potato peel powder (5 and 10%) in the diet of diabetic rats was found to significantly reduce the plasma glucose level and also reduce drastically the polyuria of STZ diabetic rats. The total food intake was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats fed 10% PP powder compared to the control diabetic rats. However, the body weight gain over 28 days was nearly four times greater in PP powder supplemented diabetic rats (both at 5 and 10%) compared to the control diabetic rats. PP powder in the diet also decreased the elevated activities of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and nearly normalized the hepatic MDA and GSH levels as well as the activities of specific antioxidant enzymes in liver of diabetic rats. The result of these studies clearly establishes the modulatory propensity of PP against diabetes induced alterations. Considering that potato peels are discarded as waste and not effectively utilized, these results suggest the possibility that PP waste could be effectively used as an ingredient in health and functional food to ameliorate certain disease states such as diabetes. PMID:16021831

  13. Myocardial metabolism of pantothenic acid in chronically diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinlich, C J; Naumovitz, R D; Song, W O; Neely, J R

    1990-03-01

    Transport and metabolism of [3H]pantothenic acid ([3H]Pa) was investigated in hearts from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In isolated perfused hearts from control animals, the transport of [3H]Pa was linear over 3 h of perfusion when 11 mM glucose was the only exogenous substrate. The in vitro transport of [3H]Pa by hearts from 48-h diabetic rats was reduced by 65% compared to controls and was linear over 2 h of perfusion with no further accumulation of Pa during the third hour. The defect in transport observed in vitro could be corrected by in vivo treatment with 4 U Lente insulin/day for 2 days. In vitro addition of insulin in the presence of 11 mM glucose or 11 mM glucose plus 1.2 mM palmitate had no effect on [3H]Pa transport in hearts from 48-h diabetic rats during 3 h of perfusion. Accumulation of [3H]Pa was not inhibited by inclusion of 0.7 mM amino acids, 1 mM carnitine, 50 microM mersalic acid or 1 mM panthenol, pantoyllactone or pantoyltaurine. Uptake was inhibited by 1 mM nonanoic, octanoic or heptanoic acid, 0.1 mM biotin or 0.25 mM probenecid, suggesting a requirement for the terminal carboxyl group for transport. Transport of pantothenic acid was reduced in hearts from diabetic rats within 24 h of injection of streptozotocin. In vitro accumulation of [3H]Pa decreased to 10% of control 1 week after streptozotocin injection and then remained at 30% of the control value over 10 weeks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141362

  14. Protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Peng; Pei-Yu Liang; Shan-Ji Ou; Xiong-Bing Zu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rat model and its mechanisms.Methods:Forty healthySpragueDawley rats were selected and randomly divided into five groups, with8 rats in each group.GroupA served as control group and were administered with sterile citrate buffer(i.p.) as placebo.GroupsB,C,D andE rats were injected(i.p.) with streptozotocin to induce typeⅠdiabetes.Diabetic rats inGroupB were intragastrically administered with sterile saline solution alone.GroupsC,D andE rats were intragastrically given pioglitazone hydrochloride suspension at doses of10,20,30 mg/kg per day, respectively.After eight weeks of treatment, all rats were anesthetized and blood was withdrawn from the abdominal aortic for detection of hemoglobinA1c, serum creatinine(SCr) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) levels.Rats were then sacrificed and the left kidney was excised for calculation of kidney hypertrophy index(KHI), observation of renal pathological changes using light microscope and electron microscope.Mean glomerular cross-sectional areas(MGA), mean glomerular volume (MGV), glomerular basement membrane thickness and foot process fusion ratio were calculated. RT-PCR was employed for detection of podocalyxin(PCX) protein expression.Results:Results showed that levels of hemoglobinA1c,BUN,SCr inGroupsB,C,D andE rats were significantly higher than those inGroupA(P<0.05), whileBUN andSCr levels in rats ofGroupsC,D andE were significantly lower than those inGroupB(P<0.05).KHI,MGA andMGV levels were significantly higher inGroupsB,C,D andE rats than those inGroupA(P<0.05);KHI andMGA levels inGroup B rats were significantly higher than those inGroupsC,D andE(P<0.05) andMGV inGroups D andE was significantly lower than that inGroupsB andC(P<0.05).Histology study showed normal glomerulus structure, morphology, volume, endothelial cells and mesangial cells as well as clear glomerular capillary inGroupA rats.Renal mesangial matrix proliferation and

  15. Protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui; Peng; Pei-Yu; Liang; Shan-Ji; Ou; Xiong-Bing; Zu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of pioglitazone on kidney injury in diabetic rat model and its mechanisms.Methods:Forty healthy Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into five groups,with 8 rats in each group.Group A served as control group and were administered with sterile citrate buffer(i.p.)as placebo.Groups B.C,D and E rats were injected(i.p.)with streptozotocin to induce type I diabetes,Diabetic rats in Group B were intragastrically administered with sterile saline solution alone.Groups C,D and E rats were iutragastrically given pioglitazone hydrochloride suspension at doses of 10,20,30 mg/kg per day.respectively.After eight weeks of treatment,all rats were anesthetized and blood was withdrawn from the abdominal aortic ofr detection of hemoglobin A1c,serum creatinine(SCr)and blood ures nitrogen(BUN)levels.Rats were then sacrificed and the left kidney was excised for calculation of kidney hypertrophy index(KHI),observation of renal pathological changes using light microscope and electron microscope.Mean glomerular cross-sectional areas(MGA).mean glomerular volume(MGV).glomerular basement membrane thickness and foot process fusion ratio were ealculated.RT-PCR was employed for detection of podocalyxin(PCX)protein expression.Results:Results showed that levels of hemoglobin A1c,BUN.SCr in Groups B,C.D and E rats were significantly higher than those in Group A(P<0.05),while BUN aud SCr levels in rats of Groups C,D and E were significantly lower than those in Group B(P<0.05).KHI,MGA and MGV levels were significantly higher in Groups B.C,D and E rats than those in Group A(P<0.05);KHI and MGA levels in Group B rats were significantly higher than those in Groups C.D and E(P<0.05)and MGV in Groups D and E was significantly lower than that in Gtoups B and C(P<0.05).Histology study showed normal glomerulus structure,morphology,volume,endothelial cells and mesangial cells as well as clear

  16. Decreased Neuronal Bursting and Phase Synchrony in the Hippocampus of Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimei Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the complications of diabetes. Cognitive dysfunction is the main consequence. Previous findings from neuroanatomical and in vitro electrophysiological studies showed that the structure and function of the hippocampus is impaired in diabetes, which may underlie the cognitive dysfunction induced by diabetes. However the study of electrophysiological abnormality of hippocampal neurons in intact networks is sparse. In the current study, we recorded the spontaneous firing of neurons in hippocampal CA1 area in anesthetized streptozotozin (STZ-diabetic and age-matched control rats. Profound reduction in burst activity was found in diabetic rats. Compared to control rats, the intra-burst inter-spike intervals were prolonged significantly in diabetic rats, while the burst ratio and the mean number of spikes within a burst decreased significantly. Treatment with APP 17-mer peptide retarded the effects of diabetes on these parameters. In addition, the average PLV of diabetic rats was lower than that of control rats. These findings provide in vivo electrophysiological evidence for the impairment of hippocampal function in STZ-diabetic rats, and may have some implications in the mechanisms associated with cognitive deficits in diabetes.

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

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    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    glucose levels of alloxan induced diabetic rats. This study is an experimental study with a post-test only control group design. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: negative control (KN, positive control (KP, treatment 1 (P1, treatment 2 (P2. Alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight induced in KP and P2 groups, aspartame 315 mg/kg body weight administered on P1 and P2 groups for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured after 4 weeks using a spectrophotometer. The results of this study, the mean fasting blood glucose levels KN group (88.39 mg/dL, KP (134.11 mg/dL, P1 (93.95 mg/dL, and P2 (66.66 mg/dL. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test, p-value=0.000 ( p<0.05 , there are differences in fasting blood glucose levels were significant in all groups. The conclusions of this study is the provision of aspartame in alloxan induced diabetic rats can cause a decrease in blood glucose levels significantly.Keywords: aspartame, blood glucose levels, diabetes mellitus, alloxan

  18. Effects of Spironolactone and Losartan on Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile there is an evidence that the anti-inflammatory properties of spironolactone can attenuate proteinuria in type 2 diabetes, its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in diabetic nephropathy have not been clearly defined. In this study, we examined the effects of spironolactone, losartan, and a combination of these two drugs on albuminuria, renal VEGF expression, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in a type 2 diabetic rat model.MethodsThirty-three Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty (OLETF rats were divided into four groups and treated with different medication regimens from weeks 25 to 50; OLETF diabetic controls (n=5, spironolactone-treated (n=10, losartan-treated (n=9, and combination of spironolactone- and losartan-treated (n=9.ResultsAt week 50, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased in the losartan and combination groups compared to the control OLETF group. No decrease was detected in the spironolactone group. There was a significant reduction in renal VEGF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, and type IV collagen mRNA levels in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups. Twenty-four hour urine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were comparable in all four groups but did show a decreasing trend in the losartan and combination regimen groups. Twenty-four hour urine malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups.ConclusionThese results suggest that losartan alone and a combined regimen of spironolactone and losartan could ameliorate albuninuria by reducing renal VEGF expression. Also, simultaneous treatment with spironolactone and losartan may have protective effects against diabetic nephropathy by decreasing TGF-β and type IV collagen expression and by reducing oxidative stress in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  19. Effects of training and nitric oxide on diabetic nephropathy progression in type I diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adelson M; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Araújo, Ronaldo C; Mouro, Margaret G; Rosa, Thiago S; Higa, Elisa M S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess nitric oxide (NO) production during aerobic training and its role on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats. Induction of diabetes mellitus (DM) was achieved in adult male Wistar rats with streptozotocin. Half of the animals underwent training on a treadmill and the others (sedentary) stayed on a turned-off treadmill for the same period according to the following groups: sedentary control (CTL + SE); training control (CTL + EX); sedentary diabetic (DM + SE); and training diabetic (DM + EX) (n = 9 for all groups). The training on treadmill was carried out at a work rate of 16 m/min, 60 min/d, 5 d/week for eight weeks. Before and after the exercises, rats were placed in individual metabolic cages with standard chow and water ad libitum, for 24-h urine collection, followed by three hours' fasting blood sample withdrawal from the retro-orbital plexus, under anesthesia. Diabetic animals showed reduction of body weight, creatinine and urea depurations and NO excretion, increased blood glucose concentrations, albuminuria and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) excretion, when compared with the respective controls. All these alterations induced by DM were attenuated in the DM + EX versus DM + SE group. Analysis of insulin concentrations at the end of the protocol showed no significant change between the DM + SE and DM + EX groups. In conclusion, our data show that a routine physical exercise resulted in a better control of glycemia with an increased NO bioavailability and oxidative stress control, associated with an amelioration of renal function. We suggest aerobic training and the control of oxidative and nitrosative stress as useful non-pharmacological tools to delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21930716

  20. Beneficial effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on the antioxidant defence system and regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells in experimental diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Yu; Sun, Jun-En; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dou, Wen-Fang; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2010-04-01

    The antihyperglycaemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth (DMCB) of Inonotus obliquus were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and the possible mechanism of action was also discussed. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, treatment with the ethanol extract from DMCB of I. obliquus (30 and 60 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.) for 21 days) showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level: the percentage reductions on the 7th day were 11.54 and 11.15%, respectively. However, feeding of this drug for three weeks produced reduction of 22.51 and 24.32%. Furthermore, the ethanol extract from the DMCB of I. obliquus treatment significantly decreased serum contents of free fatty acids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, whereas it effectively increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin levels and hepatic glycogen contents in livers of diabetic mice. Besides this, the ethanol extracts from the DMCB treatment significantly increased catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, except for decreasing the maleic dialdehyde level in diabetic mice. Histological morphology examination showed that the ethanol extract from the DMCB of I. obliquus restored the damage of pancreatic tissues in mice with diabetes mellitus. The results showed that the ethanol extract from the DMCB of I. obliquus possesses significant antihyperglycaemic, antilipidperoxidative and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. PMID:20397104

  1. ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CROTON ZAMBESICUS INHIBITS GASTRIC LESION IN STREPTOZOTOCINE INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ofusori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to appraise the antiulcerogenic effect of Croton zambesicus (C. zambesicus leaf extract in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Thrity-five adult male wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n=10. Group A, control rats; Group B, untreated diabetic rats; Group C, diabetic rats in which C. zambesicus therapy started 2 weeks prior to induction of diabetes; Group D and Group E, diabetic rats administered orally with C. zambesicus leaf extract for 2 and 4 weeks respectively; Group F, normal rats administered orally with C. zambesicus; Group G, diabetic rats administered with glimepiride (2 mg/kg/day. The leaf extract of C. zambesicus significantly (p<0.05 reduced the gastric lesion and normalized the integrity of some of the gastric cells compromised in diabetic animals.In conclusion, this study demonstrated that C. zambesicus leaf extract possesses antiulcerogenic activities in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats which may be useful in the management of gastric lesion in diabetes mellitus.

  2. Chromium and manganese interactions in streptozocin-diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.L.; Jarrett, C.R.; Adeleye, B.O.; Stoecker, B.J. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Weanling male rats were fed casein-based diets low in chromium and manganese ({minus}Cr-MN) or supplemented with 1 ppm chromium as chromium chloride (+Cr) and/or 55 ppm manganese as manganous carbonate in a factorial design. After 7 weeks on the experimental diets, half of the rats in each group were injected on 2 consecutive days with 55 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ) in citrate buffer pH 4. Four weeks after injection, serum glucose in the diabetic group supplement with both Cr and Mn was not different from non-diabetic animals; however, diabetic animals in {minus}Cr groups or in the +Cr-Mn group had significantly elevated serum glucose. Serum insulin was reduced by STZ. A significant interaction between Mn and diabetes affected serum cortisol concentrations. More new tissue was formed on a polyvinyl sponge inserted under the skin in +Mn animals. In this study, the STZ animals were more sensitive than the control animals to dietary Cr and Mn concentrations.

  3. Lead Nitrate Induced Toxic Effects on Small Intestine Tissues of Rats in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats: Role of Sodium Selenite

    OpenAIRE

    Adıgüzel, Çağlar; KALENDER, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    In this study, diabetic and non-diabetic male rats were given to sodium selenite, lead nitrate(LN) and sodium selenite plus lead nitrate through gavage. LN led to histopathological changes in small intestine tissue of non-diabetic LN and non-diabetic sodium selenite+LN groups. We observed that supplementation of sodium selenite has protective role on histopathological changes in small intestine tissue when the non-diabetic sodium selenite+LN group compared with non-diabetic LN group. In diabe...

  4. Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sunita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Pandey, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Singh, Raghvendar

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level. PMID:27600979

  5. The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Antioxidant Status in the Hearts of the Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by low secretion or resistance to the insulin action. Oxidative stress, as a result of imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defense systems is strongly related to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and forced treadmill exercise on oxidative stress indexes in heart tissue.Materials & Methods: 40 male wistar rats (20020g were divided into four groups(n=10: control, control with exercise, diabetic, diabetic with exercise. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p. Treadmill was performed for 1 hour, 5 days in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p and left ventricle dissociate from heart and maintenance in -80 ºC. Supernatant from homogenization were used to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX, gluthatione reductase (GR and catalase (CAT activities as enzymatic antioxidant status. Also Maolnyldealdehyde (MDA level as index of lipid peroxidation and total glutathione (T.GSH of the heart tissue were measured.Results: Diabetes significantly reduced CAT and GR activities in diabetic rats compared with control rats. SOD and GPX activities weren't changed in the hearts of the diabetic rats. MDA level, as a lipid peroxidation index, increased in non exercised diabetic rats. In response to exercise, MDA level, CAT, GR and SOD activities showed a significant increase in exercise diabetic rats compared with non exercise diabetic rats.Conclusion: Forced treadmill with moderate severity has harmful effects on cardiovascular system in diabetes because it increases MDA level of heart tissue in exercised diabetic rats.

  6. Comparison of the effects of levocetirizine and losartan on diabetic nephropathy and vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Hanan S; Shehatou, George S G; Suddek, Ghada M; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-06-01

    This work was designed to investigate the effects of levocetirizine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, on diabetes-induced nephropathy and vascular disorder, in comparison to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg). Diabetic rats were divided into three groups; diabetic, diabetic-levocetirizine (0.5mg/kg/day) and diabetic-losartan (25mg/kg/day). Treatments were started two weeks following diabetes induction and continued for additional eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, urine was collected and serum was separated for biochemical measurements. Tissue homogenates of kidney and aorta were prepared for measuring oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, histological analyses were conducted and aortic vascular reactivity was investigated. Levocetirizine improved renal function in diabetic rats (evidenced by mitigation of diabetes-induced changes in kidney to body weight ratio, serum albumin, urinary proteins and creatinine clearance). Moreover, levocetirizine attenuated the elevated renal levels of TNF-α and TGF-β1, ameliorated renal oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability in diabetic kidney. These effects were comparable to or surpassed those produced by losartan. Moreover, levocetirizine, similar to losartan, reduced the enhanced responsiveness of diabetic aorta to phenylephrine. Histological evaluation of renal and aortic tissues further confirmed the beneficial effects of levocetirizine on diabetic nephropathy and revealed a greater attenuation of diabetes-induced vascular hypertrophy by levocetirizine than by losartan. In conclusion, levocetirizine may offer comparable renoprotective effect to, and possibly superior vasculoprotective effects than, losartan in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. PMID:27012991

  7. Effect of vitamin D on bone metabolism in diabetic rats and its related mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3on bone metabolism in diabetic rats and the related molecular mechanism.Methods A total of 45healthy 6-8 weeks old male Sprague Dawley(SD)rats were treated with streptozotocin.The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly assigned to diabetic group(DM),low dose vitamin D treated group(LD),and high dose vitamin D treated group(HD).Another 12healthy SD rats were used as normol control group(NC).The rats in NC group and DM group were fed with 0.05

  8. Altered glucose kinetics in diabetic rats during Gram-negative infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study examined the purported exacerbating effect of sepsis on glucose metabolism in diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by an intravenous injection of 70 or 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. The higher dose produced severe diabetes, whereas the lower dose of streptozotocin produced a miler, latent diabetes. After a chronic diabetic state had developed for 4 wk, rats had catheters implanted and sepsis induced by intraperitoneal injections of live Escherichia coli. After 24 h of sepsis the blood glucose concentration was unchanged in nondiabetics and latent diabetics, but glucose decreased from 15 to 8 mM in the septic severe diabetic group. This decrease in blood glucose was not accompanied by alterations in the plasma insulin concentration. Glucose turnover, assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of [6-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose, was elevated in the severe diabetic group, compared with either latent diabetics or nondiabetics. Sepsis increased the rate of glucose disappearance in nondiabetic rats but had no effect in either group of diabetic animals. Sepsis also failed to alter the insulinogenic index, used to estimate the insulin secretory capacity, in diabetic rats. Thus the present study suggests that the imposition of nonlethal Gram-negative sepsis on severe diabetic animals does not further impair glucose homeostasis and that the milder latent diabetes was not converted to a more severe diabetic state by the septic challenge

  9. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

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    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  10. Phlorizin Prevents Glomerular Hyperfiltration but not Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats

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    Slava Malatiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of renal and glomerular hypertrophies to development of hyperfiltration and proteinuria early in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were explored. Control, diabetic, phlorizin-treated controls, and diabetic male Fischer rats were used. Phlorizin (an Na+-glucose cotransport inhibitor was given at a dose sufficient to normalize blood glucose. Inulin clearance (Cinulin and protein excretion rate (PER were measured. For morphometry, kidney sections were stained with periodic acid Schiff. At one week, diabetes PER increased 2.8-folds (P<.001, Cinulin increased 80% (P<.01. Kidney wet and dry weights increased 10%–12% (P<.05, and glomerular tuft area increased 9.3% (P<.001. Phlorizin prevented proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and kidney hypertrophy, but not glomerular hypertrophy. Thus, hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and whole kidney hypertrophy were related to hyperglycemia but not to glomerular growth. Diabetic glomerular hypertrophy constitutes an early event in the progression of glomerular pathology which occurs in the absence of mesangial expansion and persists even after changes in protein excretion and GFR are reversed through glycemic control.

  11. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shradha Bisht; Sisodia, S S

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally) for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose t...

  12. Effect of ligustrum fruit extract on reproduction in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Liang FENG; Shu-Hua LI; Yan WANG; Chang-Chun CHEN; Bin GAO

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of ligustrum fruit on spermatogenesis and blood gonadal hormones in diabetic rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with streptozotocin. Ligustrum fruit extract was given by gastric gavage at a dose of crude drug 30 g@ kg- 1@ d- 1 for 110 days. The serum gonadadotropic hormones and testosterone were determined on d 60 and testicular histology examined on d 110. Results: In the control diabetic rats, the seminiferous tubules were dilated and the spermatogenic cells irregularly arranged. Spermatogenesis was arrested with the number of spermatids highly reduced and spermatozoa not observed. In the treated rats, all types of spermatogenic cells were practically normal. The serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)and testosterone levels were higher in the treated than in the control rats, but the difference was insignificant. Conclusion: In experimental diabetic rats, ligustrum fruit extract protects the damaging effect of experimental diabetes on spermatogenesis.

  13. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Fan ZHANG; Benny Kwong-Huat TAN

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-diabetic effect of a crude ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in normal and streptozotocin ( STZ )-induced diabetic rats.METHODS & RESULTS: Oral administration of the extract at different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/body weight) significantly reduced the fasting serum glucose level in STZ-diabetic rats compared to the vehicle ( distilled water), but not in normal rots. This effect was dose-dependent. A similar result was seen with metfomnin (0.5 g/body weight). In the glucose tolerance test, an oral administration of the extract at the same doses suppressed the elevated glucose level in normal and diabetic rots, as did mefformin. The effects were also dose-respondent. In the long-term experiment, the extract ( 0.4 g/body weight ), mefformin ( 0.5 gz/body weight), and vehicle were given twice daily to diabetic rats for 14 d. On d 15, fasting serum glucose levels were found to be significantly lower in the extract-and mefformin-treated groups ( P<0.001 ) than in the vehicle-treated group. The mean food and water intakes over 14 days were significantly lower in the extract-treated group ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively) and also in the mefformin-treated group (both P < 0.001 ) when compared to the vehicle-treated group. No significant change in insulin level was observed among the 3 groups of diabetic rats. The extract, like mefformin, maintained the leptin levels after 14-d treatment, whereas this level was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) in the vehicle-treated group. The activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) was significantly reduced by the extract as well as by mefformin (both P < 0.05). No significant difference in hepatic glycogen stores was noted among the 3 groups. The extract caused 49.8 % reduction of fasting serum triglyceride levels, compared to 27.7 % with metformin. However, neither the extract nor mefformin significantly affected serum cholesterol level. CONCLUSION: The ethanolic

  14. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  15. The Influence of Goat Milk and Soybean Milk Kefir On IL-6 and Crp Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hyperglycemia increases inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Goat and soybean milks have been known to reduce inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of goat milk and soybean milk kefir on IL-6 and CRP levels in diabetic rats. Materials and Method: A total of 25 male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: 1 normal rats; 2 diabetic rats; 3 diabetic rats with intake of goat milk kefir; 4 diabetic rats with intake of soybean milk kefir; and 5 diabetic rats with combination of both types of kefir. Before kefir administration for 4 weeks, plasma glucose was measured. After treatment, plasma glucose, CRP and IL-6 levels were assessed. Results: There was a significant decline of plasma glucose in diabetic rats with goat milk kefir (p=0.021, and in diabetic rats with the combination of both goat milk and soybean milk kefir (p<0.001. After treatment, CRP level in diabetic rats was significantly higher when compared with those that had goat milk kefir (p=0.043. All of diabetic rats with kefir had IL-6 values significantly lower than diabetic rats without it (p=0.021. Conclusion: Both goat milk and soybean milk kefir can reduce IL-6 level, but only goat milk kefir can reduce CRP in diabetic rats.

  16. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Raafat, K.; Samy, W

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6 h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was ass...

  17. Enhanced permeability transition explains the reduced calcium uptake in cardiac mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo J; Seiça, Raquel; Coxito, Pedro M.; Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M.; Santos, Maria S.; Moreno, António J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is associated with diabetes. It was previously shown that heart mitochondria from diabetic rats have a reduced calcium accumulation capacity. The objective of this work was to determine whether the reduction in calcium accumulation by cardiac mitochondria from diabetic rats is related to an enhanced susceptibility to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used as a model to study the alterations caused by diabetes ...

  18. The effective impacts of Angi- Pars on Expression of Some CXC Chemokines Group in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    mm Taghavi; F. Fatehi; G Hassanshahi; SE Hoseini; J Hasani; Z Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has destructive tissue effects via inducing oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Angi Pars effects on the expression of some CXC group of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 48 male rats. Induced diabetic rats were done by 50 mg/ kg of Streptozotocin. 56 days after induction of diabetes, rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including control, untreated diabe...

  19. Intracranial aneurysm formation in type-one diabetes rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular complications including arteriosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Whether DM impacts intracranial aneurysm (IA formation has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we tested the underlying mechanism of type one DM (T1DM induced IA formation in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: T1DM was induced by streptozotocin injection. Rats were euthanized at 0, 4 and 10 weeks after T1DM induction. To evaluate cerebral vascular perfusion, Fluorescein isothiocyanate - dye was injected at 5 min prior to euthanasia. Vascular perfusion was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Trichrome, Elastica van Gieson, alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA and receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 immunostaining were performed. The IA formation was classified by 0-3 stages: 0: Normal; 1: Endothelial damage; 2: Moderate protrusion; and 3: Saccular aneurysm formation. RESULTS: T1DM significantly increased IA formation identified by the classification of aneurysmal changes compared with non-DM rats (p<0.05. However, T1DM induced IA formations were classified as stage 1 and stage 2, but not stage 3. Cerebral vascular perfusion was significantly decreased in T1DM rats compared to non-DM rats (p<0.01. DM10W rats exhibited a significant decrease of cerebral vascular perfusion compared to DM4W rats (p<0.05. T1DM rats also significantly increased the internal carotid artery (ICA intimae and media thickness, and decreased the internal carotid artery diameter compared to non-DM rats. RAGE, MMP9 and TLR4 expression were significantly increased in T1DM rats compared to non-DM rats. The increased RAGE, TLR4 and MMP9 significantly correlated with IA formation (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: T1DM increases IA formation. The increased RAGE, MMP9 and TLR4 expressions might contribute to IA formation in T1DM rats.

  20. Quercetin Attenuates Testicular Damage and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Alkhamees

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine the influence of Quercetin (QR in testis of Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (65 mg/kg, ip. Quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg/day was treated to normal and diabetic rats for 5 weeks. In serum, glucose, testosterone, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-1beta (IL-1&beta and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-&alpha levels were estimated and in testis tissues Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, sulfhydryl groups, nucleic acids and Total Protein (TP levels were estimated. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST activities were also determined in testicular cells. In penile tissue cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP levels were measured. Histopathological changes were evaluated in a cross-section of testis. Testosterone levels were decreased while pro-inflammatory markers were increased in diabetic rats. QR treatment to diabetic rats corrected these changes. In penile tissues cGMP content was markedly inhibited and normalized by the QR treatment. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, TBARS levels were significantly increased while T-GSH, NP-SH, DNA, RNA and TP levels were decreased and in QR treated groups showed significant inhibition in increased TBARS levels and decreased T-GSH and NP-SH levels. The inhibited activities of SOD, CAT and GST in testicular cells of diabetic rats were increased after QR treatment. The reduced levels of nucleic acids and TP in diabetic rats were markedly corrected in QR treated groups. Histopathological evaluation revealed damage in testicular cells of diabetic rats and the treatment with QR showed protection. These results suggest that, QR supplementation to STZ-induced diabetic rats for five consecutive weeks is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce testicular damage in adult diabetic rats, probably by decreasing oxidative stress.

  1. Streptozotocin induced diabetes as a model of phrenic nerve neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Omar Andrade; Fazan, Valéria Paula Sassoli

    2006-03-15

    Phrenic neuropathies are increasingly recognized in peripheral neuropathies but reports on experimental models of the phrenic nerves diabetic neuropathy are scanty. In the present study, we investigated the phrenic nerve neuropathy, due to experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and the evolution of this neuropathy in diabetic rats treated with insulin. Proximal and distal segments of the left and right phrenic nerves were morphologically and morphometrically evaluated, from rats rendered diabetic for 12 weeks, by injection of STZ. Control rats received vehicle. Treated rats received a single subcutaneous injection of insulin on a daily basis. The nerves were prepared for light microcopy study by means of conventional techniques. Morphometry was carried out with the aid of computer software. The phrenic nerves of diabetic rats showed smaller myelinated axon diameters compared to controls. The g ratio was significantly smaller for myelinated fibers from diabetic rats compared to controls. Insulin treatment prevented these alterations. Histograms of size distribution for myelinated fibers and axons from control rats were bimodal. For diabetic animals, the myelinated fiber histogram was bimodal while the axon distribution turned to be unimodal. Insulin treatment also prevented these alterations. Our results confirm the phrenic nerve neuropathy in this experimental model of diabetes and suggest that conventional insulin treatment was able to prevent and/or correct the myelinated axon commitment by diabetes. PMID:16125783

  2. Tissue-specific alterations in expression and function of P-glycoprotein in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-lu ZHANG; Guang-ji WANG; Lin XIE; Liang LU; Shi JIN; Xin-yue JING; Dan YAO; Nan HU; Li LIU; Ru DUAN; Xiao-dong LIU

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the changes of expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-GP) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, liver, intestinal mucosa and kidney of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetic rats were prepared via a single dose of streptozocin (65 mg/kg, ip). Abcb1/P-GP mRNA and protein expression levels in tissues were evaluated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and Western blot, respectively.P-GP function was investigated via measuring tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios and body fluid excretion percentages of rhodamine 123.Results: In 5- and 8-week diabetic rats, Abcb1a mRNA levels were significantly decreased in cerebral cortices and intestinal mucosa,but dramatically increased in hippocampus and kidney. In liver, the level was increased in 5-week diabetic rats, and decreased in 8-week diabetic rats. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and kidney, but reduced in liver and intestinal mucosa in the diabetic rats. Western blot results were in accordance with the alterations of Abcb1a mRNA levels in most tissues examined. P-GP activity was markedly decreased in most tissues of diabetic rats, except kidney tissues.Conclusion: Alterations in the expression and function of Abcb1/P-GP under diabetic conditions are tissue specific, Abcb1 specific and diabetic duration-dependent.

  3. Expression of Ghrelin and GHSR-1a in Long Term Diabetic Rat's Kidney

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    Aysegul Burcin Yildirim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relative ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a gene expression in the kidney of long-term diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: C- control group, DI- one month diabetic rats group, DII- two months diabetic rats group, and DIII- three months diabetic rats group. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin STZ (40mg/kg i.p. The rats were decapitated under ketamine anesthesia and their kidney tissues were removed. Tissue GHS-R mRNA levels, ghrelin expression, and histopathological damage scores were compared. Dilatation in the distal tubules, epithelial desquamation into the lumen of the tubules and transparent tubules showing glycogen vacuolation were observed in all the diabetic groups. Ghrelin immunoreactivity was significantly higher in group DI compared to group C, whereas in groups DII and DIII, ghrelin immunoreactivity was similar with group C. GHSR-1a mRNA level in group DIII was significantly lower than in group C. As a result, ghrelin immunoreactivity increased at the beginning of diabetes; however, with increase in the duration of diabetes ghrelin immunoreactivity approached to the control values. The expression of GHSR-1a mRNA decreased with increase in diabetes duration. It seemed that down-regulation of GHSR-1a contributed to the renal damage induced by long-term diabetes.

  4. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherien; Kamal; Hassan; Nermin; Mohammed; El-Sammad; Amria; Mamdouh; Mousa; Maha; Hashim; Mohammed; Abd; el; Razik; Hussein; Farrag; Amani; Nassir; Eldin; Hashim; Victoria; Werner; Ulrike; Lindequist; Mahmoud; Abd; El-Moein; Nawwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant ef ects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia ferrea(C. ferrea) leaf in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ(65 mg/kg body weight). C. ferrea extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration serum, liver and pancreas were used for evaluating biochemical and histopathological changes.Results: Oral administration of C. ferrea leaf extract significantly reduced elevated serum glucose, α-amylase, liver function levels and signii cantly increased serum insulin, total protein and body weight as well as improved lipid proi le due to diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione, and diminished levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas and liver damage and coni rmed the biochemical i ndings.Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract ef ectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin diabetic rats: effects of insulin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Biessels, G.J.; Kamal, A.; Urban, I.J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.; Erkelens, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Streptozotocin-diabetic rats express deficits in water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The present study examined whether these deficits could be prevented and/or reversed with insulin treatment. In addition, the water maze learning deficit in diabetic rats was further characteriz

  6. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by compound 21, selective agonist of angiotensin type 2 receptors, in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira Rt; Bombardi, Camila;

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of compound 21 (C21), selective AT2 receptor agonist, in diabetic nephropathy and the potential additive effect of C21, when associated to losartan treatment, on the development of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ...

  7. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  8. Effects of estrogen on hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction in diabetic male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Hassanein, Khaled M A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible beneficial effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol E2) on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and liver dysfunctions in STZ-induced diabetic rats. A total of 40 albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (I), a diabetic group (II), a group given 17β estradiol (E2) for 15 days (III), and a diabetic group given E2 for 30 days (IV). Diabetes was induced in the rats by 65 mg/kg streptozosin (STZ) via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. E2 was ...

  9. Novel role for gabapentin in neuroprotection of central nervous system in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giyasettin BAYDAS; Ertugrul SONKAYA; Mehmet TUZCU; Abdullah YASAR; Emir DONDER

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of gabapentin on neural [neuron-specific enolase (NSE)] and glial markers [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B] in different brain regions of diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocine (50 mg/kg body weight). Rats in one group received vehicle only for 6 weeks. The levels of GFAP, S 100B, and NSE were determined by immunoblotting in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Lipid peroxidation (LPO as malondialdehyde+ 4-hydroxyalkenals) and glutathione (GSH) levels were also determined in the same brain parts. Results: Total and degraded GFAP content and S100B protein expression in different areas of brain tissues significantly increased in diabetic rats compared to control rats. Similarly, NSE levels were also significantly elevated in hyperglycemic rats. In addition, there was a significant increase in LPO levels in the diabetic rat brain compared to control rat brains. Pretreatment with gabapentin prevented the upregulation of GFAP, S 100B, and NSE in all brain regions of diabetic rats. The level of LPO was reduced, but not completely halted, by treatment with gabapentin. Conclusion: These results suggest that diabetes causes glial and neuronal injury, possibly as a result of elevated oxidative stress, and that gabapentin protects neurons and glial cells. Thus, we predict that gabapentin treatment will attenuate the hippocampal and cortical neurodegeneration observed during diabetes mellitus in rats.

  10. The Protective Effect of Fucoidan in Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN has long been recognized as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, but the efficacy of available strategies for the prevention of DN remains poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of fucoidan (FPS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Wistar rats were made diabetic by injection of STZ after removal of the right kidney. FPS was administered to these diabetic rats for 10 weeks. Body weight, physical activity, renal function, and renal morphometry were measured after 10 weeks of treatment. In the FPS-treated group, the levels of blood glucose, BUN, Ccr and Ucr decreased significantly, and microalbumin, serum insulin and the β2-MG content increased significantly. Moreover, the FPS-treated group showed improvements in renal morphometry. In summary, FPS can ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities of diabetic rats and delay the progression of diabetic renal complications.

  11. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  12. Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in Treating Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-yu; LI Meng; WANG Rui; LI Bin; GUO Ya-jing

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang (Hypoglycemic Anti-Deafness Capsule) in treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hearing loss. Methods Two hundred ninety six patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hearing loss were randomly assigned to a treatment group(n=164, 208 ears) and a control group(n=132,184 ears). Patients in the treatment group were treated with the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang and supplement herbal preparations as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine dialectical assessment, while control patients received glibenclamide and conventional treatments for deafness. Hearing, fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial blood glucose(PBG), 24 hour urine sugar, platelet function indices, blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LPO) levels, and symptom improvement were compared between the two groups. Results The rate of hearing improvement was 56.7% for the treatment group and 26.6% for the control. FBG, PBG and 24 hour urine sugar improved in both groups, but the last two were superior in the treatment group compared to the control. Symptoms improvement was also superior in the treatment group compared to the control. In patients receiving Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang treatment, platelet function indices, SOD and LPO were all improved, while only LOP improvement was noticed in control patients. No acute or long-term toxicity was demonstrated for the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in animal tests. The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang lowered blood glucose and serum triglycerides in a rat model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang is effective in improving hearing and diabetic indices in diabetic patients with deafness, without significant side effects.

  13. DBiochemical effect of Ginko biloba extract on carbohydrate metabolism in (induced type two diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma A.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761 has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5000 years that possesses various biological activities and has been shown to be useful in diabetes treatment. This study was carried out on 120, 12-14 weeks old male rats and weighted 150-200 gm. Rats were classified into two main large experiments. Experiment 1: Non-diabetic rats Included 40 of normal male rats were divided into two groups each one comprises 20 rats kept in separate metal cages and classified as follows: Group 1: Non-diabetic rats were administered with 0.2 ml of normal saline only (control group.Group 2:Non-diabetic rats were received (GBE (120 mg/kg, given orally by stomach tube and daily for 6 weeks.Experiment 2: Diabetic rats "STZ group" Included 80 male diabetic rats were divided into four groups each one comprises 20 rats kept in a separate metal cages and classified as follows: Group 1: Diabetic rats were administered with 0.2 ml of normal saline only (diabetic control group.Group 2: Diabetic rats were received (GBE (120 mg/kg, given orally by stomach tube and daily for 6 weeks. Group 3: Diabetic rats were received glimepiride (20mg/kg, given orally by stomach tube and daily for 6 weeks. Group 4: Diabetic rats received glimepiride in combination with (GBE, given orally by stomach tube and daily (1:1 for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected from all animals groups after 3 and 6 weeks from treatment. Serum were separated and processed directly for (glucose, Lactate, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, Minerals (Na+, K+, Ca++, L-MDA concentration-(insulin, Glucagon, Testosterone levels- (AST and ALT activities were the parameters of biochemical interest investigated. The obtained results revealed that, a significant increase in serum glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, ALT, AST, L-MDA concentration. On contrary, a significant decrease in serum lactate, insulin, glucagon, testosterone, Na+, K+, Ca++ levels were observed in

  14. Carnosine Prevents Apoptosis of Glomerular Cells and Podocyte Loss in STZ Diabetic Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedl, Eva; Pfister, Frederick; Braunagel, Margarita; Brinkkoetter, Paul; Sternik, Paula; Deinzer, Martina; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Henning, Rob H.; van den Born, Jacob; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Navis, Gerjan; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Yard, Benito; Koeppel, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: We identified carnosinase-1 (CN-1) as risk-factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Carnosine, the substrate for CN-1, supposedly is a protective factor regarding diabetic complications. In this study, we hypothesized that carnosine administration to diabetic rats might protect the kid

  15. Cardioprotective effect of L-glutamate in obese type 2 diabetic Zucker fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Løfgren, Bo; Rasmussen, Lars Ege;

    2009-01-01

    -diabetic (Wistar-Kyoto) and diabetic (Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) rats, studied at 16 weeks of age. The infarct size (IS)/area-at-risk (AAR) ratio was the primary end-point. Expression of L-glutamate excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1 (mitochondrial) and EAAT3 (sarcolemmal) was determined by quantitative...

  16. Role of Peritoneal Macrophages in Cytomegalovirus-induced Acceleration of Autoimmune Diabetes in BB-rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Luuk Hillebrands

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As one of the natural perturbants, infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV is believed to play a role in the development of Type I diabetes. Using the DP-BB rat model for autoimmune diabetes, we here report about possible mechanisms responsible for R(atCMV-induced accelerated onset of diabetes.

  17. Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Commiphora mukul Gum Resin May Improve Cognitive Impairments in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi; Taheraslani; Moradkhani

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes causes cognitive impairment. Medicinal plants due to different mechanisms, such as antioxidant activities may improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae) has a significant antioxidant activity. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of C. mukul on passive-avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats. ...

  18. The Pattern of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in the Hippocampus of Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Salehi; Safar Farajnia; Mustafa Mohammadi; Masoud Sabouri Ghannad

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s)The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular exercise in preventing diabetes complication in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat.Materials and MethodsA total of 48 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (control, control exercise, diabetic and diabetic exercise). Diabetes was induced by injection of single dose of STZ. Exercise was performed for one hr every day, over a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, CAT and G...

  19. Berberine Ameliorates Cold and Mechanical Allodynia in a Rat Model of Diabetic Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Si Oh; Kim, Hyun Jee

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the antiallodynic properties of berberine on cold and mechanical allodynia after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes using a rat model. Diabetic neuropathy was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. To measure cold and mechanical allodynia, a 4°C plate and von Frey filament were used, respectively. Cold and mechanical allodynia induced by diabetes were significantly decreased by single and repeated intraperitoneal treatment of amitriptyline at 10 mg/kg, an...

  20. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on Insulin Release in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Nekooeian; Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari; Soroor Adibi; Abdloreza Rajaeifard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pomegranate seed oil and its main constituent, punicic acid, have been shown to decrease plasma glucose and have antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of pomegranate seed oil on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Six groups (n=8 each) of male Sprague-Dawley rats, comprising a control, a diabetic (induced by Streptozocin and Nicotinamide) receiving water as vehicle, a diabetic receiving pomegranate seed oil (200 mg/kg/day),...

  1. Prophylactic effects of swimming exercise on autophagy-induced muscle atrophy in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes decreases skeletal muscle mass and induces atrophy. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency modify muscle mass are not well defined. In this study, we evaluated the effects of swimming exercise on muscle mass and intracellular protein degradation in diabetic rats, and proposed that autophagy inhibition induced by swimming exercise serves as a hypercatabolic mechanism in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats, supporting a notion that swimming exercise cou...

  2. Effects of Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture on Diabetes Mellitus Induced by Streptozotocin in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-Young; Park, Hea-Su

    2000-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture on Diabetes Mellitus induced by streptozotocin in rat. Body weight, serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, free cholesterol and total protein were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat injected with Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture solution at Pisu(BL20) respectively for 30 days. In order to study the effects of Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture at Pisu(BL20) on Diabetes Melli...

  3. Regulative Function of Low Molecular Chitosan on Blood Sugar in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Bing YANG; Yong WU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Chitosan has good action on reducing blood sugar with low poisonous side-effect. Low molecular chitosan(LMC) is the oxide of high molecular chitosan, which has water-solubility and the function of lowering blood sugar of diabetic rats. In this experiment, STZ was adopted to duplicate the model rats of Type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus, the regulative function of LMC on Type Ⅱ diabetic blood sugar was observed for further inquiry into its functionary mechanism.

  4. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Y. Eng; Olumese, F. E.; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the gro...

  5. Renal Podocyte Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Is Prevented by Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Junghyun Kim; Eunjin Shon; Chan-Sik Kim; Jin Sook Kim

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress and hence generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug, possesses antioxidant effects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the protective effects of metformin on the injury of renal podocytes in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats, a new model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. Metformin (350 mg/kg/day) was given to SDT rats for 17 ...

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines. PMID:26102179

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines.

  8. Persistence of Inflammatory Response to Intense Exercise in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Bortolon; Antonio José de Almeida Silva Junior; Gilson Masahiro Murata; Philip Newsholme; Rui Curi; Tania Cristina Pithon-Curi; Elaine Hatanaka

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the onset and resolution of inflammation in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats subjected to a single session of intense exercise. The following measurements were carried out prior to, immediately after, and 2 and 24 hours after exercise: plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CINC-2α/β, MIP-3α, and IL-6), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgM), acute phase proteins (CRP and C3), and creatine kinase (CK) activity. We also examined the oc...

  9. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMSHUN NEHAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

  10. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  11. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  12. Effect of Root Kudzu on Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Rashidi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes, characterized by high blood glucose levels, is a serious chronic disease and antioxidant play an important role in the pathophysiology, complications, and management of the disease. Kudzu root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a long history of use for the treatment of headaches, cough, edema and extracts are a rich source of isoflavones and antioxidants property. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the kudzu root on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=32 including: Control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg kudzu root extract, and diabetic rats treated with 50mg/kg kudzu root extract. Diabetes was induced by STZ intraperitoneally administration (50 mg/kg and kudzu root extract was gavaged at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg for five weeks. Blood biochemical factors and insulin serum levels were also assessed. Results: The results show that in STZ induced diabetic rats, the serum levels of FBS, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG increased whiles the levels of HDL and Insulin were decreased. Moreover in diabetic kudzu treatment groups, the serum levels of of FBS, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride(TG decreased (P≤0.001 whiles the serum level of HDL and Insulin were increased. Conclusion: In addition the antioxidant effects, Kudzu root extract produced a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  13. Therapeutic effects of sericin on diabetic keratopathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    An Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat provides a useful model for studies to develop corneal wound healing drugs for use in diabetic keratopathy resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of sericin on corneal wound healing in OLETF rats. Corneal wounds were prepared by removal of the corneal epithelium and documented using a TRC-50X. Sericin was instilled into the eyes of rats five times a day following corneal abrasion. The plasma levels of glucose, trig...

  14. Pan-PPAR Agonist, Bezafibrate, Restores Angiogenesis in Hindlimb Ischemia in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaei, M; E Salehi; Rashidi, B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bezafibrate as a pan-PPAR agonist on angiogenesis and serum nitrite, the main metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) concentrations in hindlimb ischemia model of normal and type I diabetic rats. Methods. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Then, all rats underwent unilateral hindlimb ischemia. After recovery, they were randomly a...

  15. Treadmill Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Lung Damage Caused by Systemic Endotoxemia in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Hsia Hung; Jann-Inn Tzeng; Che-Ning Chang; Yu-Wen Chen; Chia-Ying Cho; Jhi-Joung Wang

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxemia induces a series of inflammatory responses that may result in lung injury. However, heat shock protein72 (HSP72) has the potential to protect the lungs from damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior exercise conditioning could increase the expression of HSP72 in the lungs and attenuate lung damage in diabetic rats receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to sedenta...

  16. Endurance Training and Glutathione-Dependent Antioxidant Defense Mechanism in Heart of the Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Atalay; Osmo Hanninen; Mustafa Gul

    2003-01-01

    Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozoto...

  17. Implantation of bFGF-treated islet progenitor cells ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ge; Huang, Li-song; Jiang, Ming-hong; Wu, Hui-Ling; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yin; Shen, Yan; He-Xi-Ge, SaiYin; Fan, Wei-wei; Lu, Zhi-qiang; Da-ru LU

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether implantation of islet preparation-derived proliferating islet cells (PIC) could ameliorate diabetes in rats. Methods: PIC were expanded from rat islet preparation by supplementation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and implanted into rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes through the portal vein. Body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. Serum insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The presence of insulin-positive cells was determi...

  18. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats. PMID:25539049

  19. The effects of Tremella aurantia on testosterone and corticosterone productions in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Jyuer-Ger; Liu, Bi-Ching; Chen, Yen-Wen; Huang, Yuan-Li; Poon, Song Ling; Liu, Ming-Yie; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2004-01-01

    Tremella aurantia (TA) has been traditionally used as food and crude medicine in Chinese society. The polysaccharide isolated from the fruiting bodies of TA exhibits significant hypoglycemic activity in diabetic mouse models of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Diabetes will cause sexual dysfunction in patients. In the present study, we examined if the treatment of TA on IDDM and NIDDM rats will restore steroidogenesis and then the reproductive function. The fruiting bodies (FB), mycelium (TM) and polysaccharide (GX) of TA were fed to the IDDM and NIDDM rats, and testosterone and corticosterone levels in plasma, the weight of steroidogenic organs, and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and P450scc enzyme were determined. Plasma testosterone productions were significantly suppressed with the feeding of FB or TM in normal rat (p diabetes rats (p 0.05). There was no significant difference of the testosterone production between normal and NIDDM rats (p > 0.05). In plasma corticosterone production, there were no differences among control, FB- or TM-fed normal rats (p > 0.05). Corticosterone levels were reduced in IDDM rats compared to control, and FB or TM could restore its level. Corticosterone levels were induced in NIDDM rats compared to control (p feeding in NIDDM rat had lesser testis weight compared to NIDDM rats. The expression of StAR protein and P450scc enzyme were not different among groups in IDDM and NIDDM rats. Plasma testosterone productions were suppressed in normal rats with the feeding of TA (FB and TM). IDDM rats did have lower testosterone, but not in NIDDM, and FB or TM could not restore the inhibitory effects. The induction of IDDM or NIDDM rats did affect steroidogenesis and steroidogenic organ weights, and the feeding of TA had different effects on steroidogenesis in different types of diabetic rats.

  20. Effect of KIOM-79 on Diabetes-Induced Myocardial Fibrosis in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

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    Junghyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available KIOM-79, a herbal mixture of parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix, and Euphorbiae radix, has a strong inhibitory effect on advanced glycation end products (AGEs formation. We investigated the beneficial effects of KIOM-79 on cardiac fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. KIOM-79 (50 or 500 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 13 weeks. AGEs formation and collagen expression in the myocardium were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, collagen IV, fibronectin, urotensin II, and urotensin II receptor were examined in the myocardial tissue of ZDF rats. KIOM-79 treatment at 500 mg/kg inhibited the accumulation of AGEs, reduced RAGE mRNA and protein expression, and reduced the upregulation of cardiac fibrogenic factors, such as fibronectin and collagen IV, in heart of ZDF rats. Additionally, KIOM-79 ameliorated urotensin II/receptor gene expression in the cardiac tissue of ZDF rats. Our findings indicate that KIOM-79 diminishes cardiac fibrosis in ZDF rats by preventing AGEs accumulation and RAGE overexpression and by modulating the cardiac urotensin II/receptor pathway, which decreases the amount of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-β1, fibronectin, and collagen in cardiac tissue.

  1. Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Karuna Rasineni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae, is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. roseus leaf powder suspension in 2 ml distilled water, orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day/60 days. In diabetic rats (D-group the plasma glucose was increased and the plasma insulin was decreased gradually. In the diabetic-treated group lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed after 15 days and by the end of the experimental period the plasma glucose had almost reached the normal level, but insulin had not. The significant enhancement in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of diabetic rats were normalized in diabetic-treated rats. Decreased hepatic and muscle glycogen content and alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, as observed in the diabetic control rats, were prevented with C. roseus administration. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes.

  2. Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasineni, Karuna; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2010-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. roseus leaf powder suspension in 2 ml distilled water, orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day/60 days). In diabetic rats (D-group) the plasma glucose was increased and the plasma insulin was decreased gradually. In the diabetic-treated group lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed after 15 days and by the end of the experimental period the plasma glucose had almost reached the normal level, but insulin had not. The significant enhancement in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of diabetic rats were normalized in diabetic-treated rats. Decreased hepatic and muscle glycogen content and alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), as observed in the diabetic control rats, were prevented with C. roseus administration. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes. PMID:21808566

  3. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chilaka K.C; Ifediba E.C; Ogamba J.O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P<0.001) in the early weeks of the study when compared with both the diabetic control group and the metformin-treated group. The seed oil significantly lowered serum triglyceride, the serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol; the activities of all the liver enzymes assayed (P<0.05) but significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol in the diabetic oil-treated rats as compared to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is

  4. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Heidari; Samad Zare; Farrin Babaei-Balderlou; Farah Farrokhi

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s)Previous studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study w...

  5. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  6. DBiochemical effect of Ginko biloba extract on carbohydrate metabolism in (induced type two) diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Omayma A.R.; Zaid A; Ali H.A.; EL-Regaily A.F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5000 years that possesses various biological activities and has been shown to be useful in diabetes treatment. This study was carried out on 120, 12-14 weeks old male rats and weighted 150-200 gm. Rats were classified into two main large experiments. Experiment 1: Non-diabetic rats Included 40 of normal male rats were divided into two groups each one comprises 20 rats kept in separate metal cages and classifi...

  7. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Han Yang; Hsien-Tsung Yao; Meng-Tsan Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA) is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group); (2) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4) rats with...

  8. Behavioral and endocrine responses of rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Wied, D. de

    1975-01-01

    Behavioral and endocrine profiles were established of homozygous (HO-DI) and heterozygous (HE-DI) rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in comparison to Wistar strain rats. HO-DI rats were inferior in acquiring and maintaining active and passive avoidance behavior. Behavioral deficits

  9. Characterization of the Prediabetic State in a Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes, the ZFDM Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ghupurjan Gheni; Norihide Yokoi; Masayuki Beppu; Takuro Yamaguchi; Shihomi Hidaka; Ayako Kawabata; Yoshikazu Hoshino; Masayuki Hoshino; Susumu Seino

    2015-01-01

    We recently established a novel animal model of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D), the Zucker fatty diabetes mellitus (ZFDM) rat strain harboring the fatty mutation (fa) in the leptin receptor gene. Here we performed a phenotypic characterization of the strain, focusing mainly on the prediabetic state. At 6–8 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance and severe insulin resistance. Although basal insulin secretion was remarkably high in the isolated pancreatic islets, the resp...

  10. Comparative study to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of commercially available extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica in streptozocin induced diabetic rat

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    Nishant Pathak

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Commercially available extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica have significant anti-diabetic activity in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1641-1646

  11. The potential role of IGF-I receptor mRNA in rats with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡洪宇; 邹伟; 刘丹; 史榕荇; 程丽华; 殷慧清; 刘晓民

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA(IGF-IR mRNA) in the onset and development of retinopathy in diabetic rats.Methods A diabetic model was duplicated in Wistar rats. The early changes in the retina were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of IGF-IR mRNA was analyzed using in situ hybridization.Results Weak expression of IGF-IR mRNA(5%) was found in retinas of normal rats, but was significantly increased (15% and 18%) in the retinas of diabetic rats after 3 and 6 months of diabetes (P<0.01). In situ hybridization and morphological study demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between IGF-IR mRNA expression and retinal changes at various stages.Conclusion Increased IGF-IR mRNA might play an important role in the onset and development of diabetic retinopathy.

  12. The morphological changes of cardiomyocytes and mitochondrial dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats with experimental diabetes mellitus

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    Kolesnyk M.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conception of energetic deficiency in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus presents new perspectives in the understanding of molecular and biochemical mechanisms of these diseases. It was performed the comparison between morphological changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats with experimental diabetes mellitus. The mitochondrial state was assessed by investigation of the permeability of the giant mitochondrial pore. It was found that the permeability of mitochondrial pore is increased in spontaneous hypertensive rats. It was registrated the significant increasing of mitochondrial membrane permeability in case of diabetes. It was observed the increased area of cardiomyocytes’ nuclei and decreased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio in diabetic animals. It was demonstrated that nucleic and cytoplasmic RNA concentration is decreased in comparison with the intact spontaneous hypertensive rats. The RNA biosynthesis abnormalities are associated with the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction in the myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats with experimental diabetes mellitus.

  13. Sitagliptin attenuates cardiomyopathy by modulating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in experimental diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Al-Amin, Maha A; Al-Ajmi, Hanaa N; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-01-01

    Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has been reported to promote cardioprotection in diabetic hearts by limiting hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known about the involvement of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway modulation in the cardioprotective effects of sitagliptin. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects of sitagliptin against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), focusing on the modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection, and rats received sitagliptin orally and daily for 90 days. Diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and a significant increase in heart-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio. Serum troponin I and creatine kinase MB, cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide levels showed significant increase in diabetic rats. In contrast, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses were significantly declined in the heart of diabetic rats. Histopathological study revealed degenerations, increased collagen deposition in the heart of diabetic rats. Sitagliptin alleviated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, HW/BW ratio, histological architecture, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and rejuvenated the antioxidant defenses. In addition, cardiac levels of pJAK2 and pSTAT3 were increased in diabetic rats, an effect which was remarkably decreased after sitagliptin treatment. In conclusion, these results confer an evidence that sitagliptin has great therapeutic potential on DCM through down-regulation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

  14. Effects of coffee and caffeine on bladder dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-ran YI; Zhong-qing WEI; Xiang-lei DENG; Ze-yu SUN; Xing-rang LI; Cheng-gong TIAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the effects and mechanisms of caffeine and coffee on bladder dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM with coffee treatment, and DM with caffeine treatment. The diabetic rat was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After 7 weeks of treatment with coffee and caffeine, cystometrogram, contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh), and cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration of the bladder body and base were measured. Results: The bladder weight, volume threshold for micturition and post-void residual volume (PVR) in the diabetic rats were significantly higher compared to those in the control animals. Coffee or caffeine treatment significantly reduced the bladder weight, bladder capacity and PVR in the diabetic rats. DM caused significant decreases in cAMP concentration of the bladder and coffee and caffeine caused upregulation of cAMP content in the diabetic bladder. In addition, coffee and caffeine tended to normalize the altered detrusor contractile responses to EFS and ACh in the diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that caffeine and coffee may have beneficial effects on bladder dysfunction in the early stage of diabetes by increasing cAMP content in the lower urinary tract, recovering the micturition reflex and improving the detrusor contractility.

  15. Antinociceptive effect of black seed feeding in streptozotocin-diabetic rats</