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Sample records for alloxan-induced diabetic rats

  1. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Group 4: Diabetic rats that were administered. 500 mg/kg body weight extracts. Group 5: Diabetic rats that were administered. 300 mg/kg body weight of metformin. The drug and extracts treatment was done for a period of 21 days using orogastric tube. Collection of blood samples. Following 21 days of extract administration, ...

  2. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  3. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECTS OF TURMERIC IN ALLOXAN INDUCE D DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevangi; Manjunath; Deepak D; Prakash G; Prashant; Chetan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the common constituents of our daily food. The present study wa s undertaken to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Rhizomes of curcuma longa in alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with of Pioglitazone, which is the standard anti-diabetic agent. METHODS: Alloxan monohydrate is used to induce diabetes mellitus in albino rats in the dose of 120mg/kg i.p. and ...

  4. Serum glucose and lipid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Aloe barbadensis Miller juice extract on serum glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 150mg/kg alloxan in 5% solution. Diabetes was confirmed 72 hours after alloxan injection, if fasting blood glucose (FBG) was equal to or greater ...

  5. Raw Camel Milk Properties on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

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    Kebir Nasr-Eddine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Diabetes is one of the most frequent and serious chronic diseases in humans all over the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of camel milk on serum glucose and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  7. Anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Selima Sultana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to atterosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. Zingiber officinale (ginger widely consumed as spice is known for its hypoglycemic and hypochlosteremic actions. The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic action of ginger juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wister rats, 130-150 g wt, fed on standard diet and water ad libitum were divided into 4 groups (n=6 in each group: group I non-diabetic control, group II non-diabetic treated; group III diabetic control and group IV diabetic treated. Diabetes was induced by Inj. alloxan 150 mg Kg–1 b.w., i.p. (group III & IV on Day 2. Rats having blood glucose level of >7 mmol/l on day 5 (72 hrs after alloxan Inj. were considered diabetic and selected for experimentation. Both non-diabetic and diabetic treated groups (Gr II & IV received Zingiber officinale (ginger juice (4 ml Kg–1 b.w., p.o. for 10 days (day 2-day 11 through Ryles tube. On Day 12, animals were sacrificed under light ether anaesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum separated for estimation of lipids. Zingiber officinale (ginger juice significantly (p<0.01 decreased alloxan induced hyperglycemia (group IV, but had no effect on blood glucose level in normal rats (group II; significantly (p<0.001 reduced alloxan induced hyperlipidemia, but produced no significant lipid lowering effects in normal rats (group II. The results suggest a significant anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The findings may be clinically significant and exploited. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 55-58

  8. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  9. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  10. Amelioration of Glomerulosclerosis by Satureja khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Satureja khuzestanica, an endemic plant of Iran, has been reported to be used traditionally to treat diabetes. We examined possible protective effect of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE on glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups randomly; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreated, and group 3 treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized; livers and kidneys were then removed immediately. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Results: Flow treatment of diabetic animals with SKE could significantly inhibit glomerular hypertrophy (22% leukocyte infiltration (31% and glomerulosclerosis (20% in comparison with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: The findings showed that SKE alleviates loss of glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  11. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  12. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

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    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p0.05 different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  13. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Anoja P; Jayatilaka, Kamani A P W; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K B

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  14. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  15. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic effects of oleuropein in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess effect of oleuropein on hemoglobin A1C, serum glucose, lipid profile and atherogenic index in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty Sprage-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups randomly; group one as control, group two diabetic untreatment, and group three treatments with oleuropein by 15 mg/kg i.p. daily, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, the levels of hemoglobin A1C, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and atherogenic index of all groups were analyzed. Results: Oleuropein significantly decreased hemoglobin A1C, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein. High density lipoprotein level was significantly increased when treated with oleuropein. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that oleuropein exert beneficial effects on serum glucose, hemoglobin A1C, lipid profile and atherogenic index in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats.

  16. Assessment of Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Calotropis Procera Leaves Lxtract on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Male Rats

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    Shaymaa Abd Al-Jasim Alshukri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims  studying the influences of treatment with methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera  on Fasting blood glucose and Insulin level in alloxan induced diabetic male rats. phytochemical analysis of leaves extract reveals presence of Glycosides, Tannines, phenols compound, Flavonoids, Coumarins, Resins and terpenes. Also methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera  dose 250 and 500mg/kg body weight showed significant lowering in the blood glucose from 348.16 ± 36.67 to 169.33 ±21.80 after 45 day of treatment. While showed non-significant enhancement in fasting serum Insulin level.

  17. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  18. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca-based diet in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Basiru O; Oloyede, Hussein O B; Salawu, Musa O

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca -based diets in alloxan-induced diabetic mellitus rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg b.w) in 48 randomly selected rats. The rats were randomly grouped into four as follows: normal rats fed Dioscorea rotundata -based diet, diabetic control rats fed D. rotundata -based diet, diabetic rats fed D. rotundata -based diet and administered metformin (14.2 mg/kg body weight) orally per day, and diabetic rats fed M. paradisiaca -based diet. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored, on 28th days the rats were sacrificed, liver was excised. Thereafter, the hyperglycemic and dyslipidemic statii of the induced diabetic animals were determined. The M. paradisiaca -based diet significantly ( p  paradisiaca -based diet demonstrated significant reduction ( p  paradisiaca -based diet significantly ( p  <   .05) reversed the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase when compared with diabetic control animals. The consumption of this diet may be useful in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  19. Lipid Profile Of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most common serious metabolic disease in the world, affecting hundreds of millions and ... 1922, the treatment of diabetes mellitus relied mainly on dietary measures ..... In liver, the free fatty acids are catabolized to acetyl CoA, and the excess acetyl. CoA is converted to cholesterol, triglyceride and ketone bodies resulting in.

  20. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (pArtocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  1. Healing potential of Iranian traditional medicinal plants on burn wounds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    A Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A. euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Burns were induced in Wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Group-II: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Groups-III and -VII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals, Groups VIII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabetic rats received the standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine. The efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001. At the 18th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. At the 9th and 18th days the experiment, the best results were obtained with A. communis and standard drug, when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. It may be concluded that almond leaves (sweet and bitter formulated in the simple ointment base is effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.

  2. Structural features of blood lymphocytes according to data of atomic force microscopy in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Stolbovskaya, Olga V.; Khayrullin, Radik M.; Kostishko, Boris B.; Bakhtiyarov, Rinat I.

    2018-04-01

    Structural changes in blood lymphocytes during the development of alloxan induced diabetes in rats were revealed. The changes were characterized by decreased volume, surface area, flatness coefficient of cells in comparison with normal lymphocytes. A consistent increase in the Young's modulus of rat lymphocytes during the development of diabetes in comparison with the Young's modulus of normal lymphocytes has been established, which indicates a decrease of the elastic-viscous properties of the cell membrane, changes in the molecular structure of its and in the organization of the lymphocyte cytoskeleton. It was found that during the development of induced diabetes the roughness and adhesiveness of the cytoplasmic membrane of blood lymphocytes decrease.

  3. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    P. P. Preetha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight. Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  4. Hypoglycaemic and coronary risk index lowering effects of Bauhinia thoningii in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Ojezele, M O; Abatan, O M

    2011-03-01

    Disease, one of humanity's greatest adversaries, has in recent times showed an intimidating increase in numerical and pathological strength. This stretched the available medications to the limit thereby necessitating the need for the discovery of new and alternative medications to combat the menace of disease. Diabetic mellitus is one disease condition for which ideal synthetic drugs are yet to be discovered. To this end, pharmaceuticals are looking in the direction of medicinal plants. This work aimed at screening Bauhinia thoningii (leaves) for its hypoglycaemic effect. The effect of the extract on lipid profile as a Coronary Risk Index (CRI) was also evaluated. Aqueous crude extract of the plant was administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats and fasting blood glucose monitored over a period of 7 days. Blood samples collected from the rats were assayed for full lipid profile and the CRI calculated. Bauhinia thoningii caused 81.37% reduction in blood glucose of the experimental animals over a period of 7 days from an initial 365 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl. The plant extract was also observed to have the capacity to ameliorate diabetic complications like cardiovascular disorders. The extract reduced the Low Density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced the CRI. Results from this study confirmed the hypoglycaemic efficacy of the extract and ability to ameliorate coronary diabetic complications. Further study is required to purify the plant extract to identify the fraction(s) that are responsible for the hypoglycaemic effects observed. This will also help to isolate the active components and elucidate the likely mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  5. Hypoglycemic and pancreatic protective effects of Portulaca oleracea extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-11

    Diabetes is a major public health concern. In spite of continuous new drug development to treat diabetes, herbal remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Portulaca oleracea has been traditionally used to manage several diseases due to the anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic effects it imparts. To better understand the mechanisms associated with potential protective effect of P. oleracea extract against diabetes, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were used in this study. Forty Wistar rats (male, 7-8-wk-old, 140-160 g) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): Group I (control), Group II (P. oleracea-treated; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks), Group III (diabetic control; daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days) and Group IV (P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks and then daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days). Body weight, food consumption, blood (serum) levels of glucose, C peptide, Hb A1C, insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined for all groups. The results indicated that while Hb A1C, serum levels of glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 were all significantly decreased in the P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic rats, these hosts also had significant increases in C peptide and insulin compared to levels in the counterpart diabetic rats. These results were confirmed by the histopathological assessments which showed marked improvement of the destructive effect on pancreatic islet cells induced by alloxan. P. oleracea extract is a general tissue protective and regeneartive agent, as evidenced by increasing β-cell mass and therefore improved the glucose metabolism. Thus, stimulation of Portulaca oleracea signaling in β- cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes prevention.

  6. Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Withania somnifera Root and Leaf Extracts on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Andy Ganapathi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant, which is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases.Flavonoids were determined in the extracts of W. somnifera root (WSREt and leaf (WSLEt. The amounts of total flavonoids found in WSREt and WSLEt were 530 and 520 mg/100 g dry weight (DW, respectively. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of WSREt and WSLEt were also investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. WSREt and WSLEt and the standard drug glibenclamide were orally administered daily to diabetic rats for eight weeks. After the treatment period, urine sugar, blood glucose, haemoglobin (Hb, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C, liver glycogen, serum and tissues lipids, serum and tissues proteins, liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P and serum enzymes like aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels were determined. The levels of urine sugar, blood glucose, HbA1C, G6P, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-c and tissues like liver, kidney and heart lipids were significantly (p < 0.05 increased, however Hb, total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin (A:G ratio, tissues protein and glycogen were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with WSREt, WSLEt and glibenclamide restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal level after eight weeks of treatment, indicating that WSREt and WSLEt possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DM rats.

  7. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

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    Zhang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, glutathione reductase (GR activity, catalase (CAT activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhang; Shao-long, Yang; Ai-hong, Wang; Zhi-chun, Sun; Ya-fen, Zhuo; Ye-ting, Xu; Yu-ling, He

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST) activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25960754

  9. Hypoglycemic Effect of Terminalia Chebula Retz. Fruit on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ei Pye Phyo Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. fruits on alloxaninduced diabetic rats compared with standard oral hypoglycemic drug, metformin. Methods: A randomized controlled experimental animal study was done. 30 Wistar albino rats were induced diabetes by alloxan (100 mg/kg. 80%-ethanolic extraction of fruits of terminalia chebula Retz. was performed by using Soxhlet extraction method. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was alloxan-induced diabetic control, group 3 was metformin 100 mg/kg standard group, groups 4, 5 and 6 were extracts 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally administered fruit extract for 28-days, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured at the end of the first, second, third and fourth weeks by using standardized glucometer. Results: At the end of first, second, third and fourth weeks, the FBG levels of diabetic control were 325.7±28.2, 308.5±69.8, 322.7±65.8 and 369.2±57.4 mg/dL, those of metformin (100 mg/kg were 76.2±9.5, 92.5±14.9, 94.5±17.9 and 90.8±9.9 mg/dL, those of the terminalia chebula Retz. extract 100 mg/kg were 232.5±78.6, 122.8±41.4, 109.2±33.6 and 132.3±41.1 mg/dL, extract 200 mg/kg were 82.7±8.2, 82.7±8.2, 89.7±9.8 and 89±15.2 mg/dL, and extract 400 mg/kg were 80.2±9, 83.5±7.1, 91±11.5 and 82.7±5.9 mg/dL, respectively. When all treatment groups were compared with diabetic control, the FBG levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in FBG levels between standard group and extract (200 and 400 mg/kg groups. Conclusion: The 80%-ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. has significant hypoglycemic effect on alloxaninduced diabetic rats and it was comparable with standard drug, metformin. The effective dose was 200 to 400 mg/kg.

  10. Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, extract shows hypoglycemic effect and eases oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Mohammad A. Alam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, a Bangladeshi medicinal plant, was studied for its potential hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant property in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, and transaminases, e.g. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatases (ALP, activities. Significant changes in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, peroxidase and catalase levels during the experimental period were also observed. The results established that the hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of A. cadamba possesses hypoglycemic property and is able to protect liver and brain from oxidative damages caused by diabetes.

  11. Effect of lawsonia innermis (linn) leaves ethanolic extract on blood glucose and malondialdehyde level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Indah Sari, Mutiara; Ilyas, Syafruddin; Widyawati, Tri; Anjelir Antika, Maya

    2018-03-01

    The case of diabetes mellitus (DM) tends to increase worldwide. DM triggers the oxidative stress condition that caused by the increasing of free radical. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of giving ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis (Linn) leaves to the glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar male rats. The powder of dry leaves of L.inermis was macerated in ethanol 96% to obtain ethanolic extract (LLEE).Thirty five of rats were divided into five groups, ie. K (normal and given 0.9% NaCl solution ), P1-P4 were induced using alloxan (120 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to get diabetic condition. Diabetic rats then were treated as follows: P1 (given 0.9% NaCl solution) P2 (LLEE (200 mg/kg BW), P3 (LLEE (400 mg/kg BW)), P4 ( LLEE (600 mg/kg BW)). All groups were treated for 28 days. The fasting blood glucose levels were measured at day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 whereas MDA levels were measured at the end of treatment. The result showed that LLEE improved blood glucose level (BGLs) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats significantly (p 0.5). The study concluded that LLEE have antihyperglycemic properties.

  12. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

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    Adeneye, A A

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol decoction of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) seed is reputed for the local management of array of human diseases including, anemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity by some Yoruba herbalists (SouthWest, Nigeria). Despite its historic use, scientific evaluation of its folkloric use in the management of diabetes mellitus is scarce. The present study was designed at investigating the glucose and lipid lowering effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (MECP) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the phytochemical analysis of the extract was also conducted using standard procedures. Young adult, male, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups I - VI with 12 rats in each group. Group I rats were the normal untreated rats while group II rats served as the diabetic untreated rats while Rats in groups III - VI served as diabetic rats treated with 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day MECP and 20 mg/kg/ day metformin, respectively, for 30 days. On the 15th and respectively, 31st day, blood samples from the fasted rats were obtained for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c) from the sacrificed rats. Oral treatment with 100 - 600 mg/kg/day MECP, for 30 days, resulted in significant (p extract also caused significant (p extract could be due to any or a combination of these phytochemical constituents. Results of this study lend support to the traditional use of grapefruit seeds in the management of type 1 diabetic patients and may suggest a role in orthodox management of the disease.

  13. Therapeutic potency of saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, P Saravana; Anaswara, P V; Muthuraman, A; Krishan, S

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is major metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. This leads to alter the multiple organ system. To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis (SRE-SD) using alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. The single dose of alloxan was injected for the induction of diabetes in rats. The SRE-SD and glibenclamide were administered for 15 consecutive days from the 3(rd) day of alloxan administration. Quantity of food and water intake was measured at day 0, and 18. Further, body weight was recorded and blood samples were collected at different time intervals that is, day 0, 3, 8, 13, and 18. The oxidative biomarkers (i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite (NO(2-)) levels were also estimated in the serum sample. The SRE-SD showed a remarkable dose and time-dependent changes in alloxan-induced rise in the level of food consumption and water intake, serum glucose level, TBARS, NO(2-) and fall in the level of GSH. Further, significant attenuation was observed at 20 and 30 mg/kg of SRE-SD treated group. These findings demonstrate that SRE-SD has both antidiabetic and antioxidant effects on the experimental model of diabetes in rat.

  14. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  15. Antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic effects of coenzyme Q10 in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, one of the leading metabolic syndromes, accounts for highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we examined possible protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on lipid profile, atherogenic index, and liver enzyme markers in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. METHODS: A total of 30 male rats were randomly divided into three groups; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreatment, and group 3 treatments with coenzyme Q10 by 15 mg/kg i.p. daily, respectively .Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, atherogenic index, atherogenic coefficient, cardiac risk ratio, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (using SPSS and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: Coenzyme Q10 inhibited significantly the activities of ALT (11.17%, AST (19.35% and ALP (36.67% and decreased FBG (21.19%, TG (37.24%, TC (17.15%, LDL (30.44%, VLDL (37.24%, atherogenic index (44.24%, atherogenic coefficient (49.69%, and cardiac risk ratio (37.97%, HDL level was significantly (33.38% increased when treated with coenzyme Q10. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that coenzyme Q10 exert beneficial effects on the lipid profile, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes activity in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.   Keywords: Diabetes, Lipid Profile, Atherogenic Index, Rats, Liver Enzymes, Coenzyme Q10 

  16. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Basiru O; Ojo, Oluwafemi A; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D; Fadaka, Adewale O; Osukoya, Adetutu O

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  17. The effect of food hardness on the development of dental caries in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats.

  18. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Yutaka Nakahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats.

  19. Duration Effect of Acacia Nilotica Leaves Extract and Glibenclamide as Hypolipidaemic and Hypoglycaemic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Shah, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the duration and effects of aqueous methanol Acacia-nilotica leaves extract and glibenclamide as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from September 2010 to August 2011.Male Sprague Dawley albino rats were taken and divided into 8 equal groups. Groups I and II were the normal and diabetic control rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in group II to VIII by administering 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan and at day 4, fasting blood glucose level of >200 mg/dl confirmed diabetes. Acacia-nilotica leaves extract was given to group III, IV and V and glibenclamide to group VI to VIII for a period of 1-3 weeks. Blood samples were analysed for lipid profile using enzymatic calorimetric method and serum insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: There were 64 rats in the study, with 8(12.5 percent) in each group. Statistically significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and an increase in high density lipoprotein and serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats compared to diabetic controls after 2 weeks of treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide (p<0.05 each).When plant extract and drug treated diabetic rats were compared, a significant difference in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were noted after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Acacia-nilotica leaves extract resulted in hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats similar to glibenclamide. (author)

  20. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

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    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in blood glucose as compared to control. Liver function test also showed significant changes (p<0.001 as compared to alloxan-treated group. The results of this study showed that crude P. lentiscus gum have considerable efficacy in curing diabetes and have hepatoprotective effect.

  1. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties.

  2. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and lupinus albus (lupine) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noaman, E; Mansour, S Z; Ibrahim, N K [Radiation Biology Dept., National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus Albus (Lupine). The parameters measured during the 45 days oral administration of seeds powder suspension of either Fenugreek or Lupine (1 g/ kg body wt) included: blood glucose, body wt, reduced glutathione content, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), plasma insulin and liver free fatty acids. Fenugreek and Lupine resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA; restored insulin normal range, ameliorated the contents of glutathione and reduced the increase in the content of plasma TBARS. Lupine at dose of 1 g/ kg body wt exhibited better glucose reduction, restored body wt and free fatty acids concentration than Fenugreek. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. Extracts of various plant materials capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models (Bopanna and Rathod, 1997). Many unknown and lesser known plants are used in traditional medicinal practices in Egypt. The medicinal values of these plants are not much known to the scientific world. Although herbal medicines have long been used effectively in treating many diseases throughout the world, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes are also used, but most of the evidence for their beneficial effects is anecdotal (Jelodar et al., 2005)

  3. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and lupinus albus (lupine) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella Foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus Albus (Lupine). The parameters measured during the 45 days oral administration of seeds powder suspension of either Fenugreek or Lupine (1 g/ kg body wt) included: blood glucose, body wt, reduced glutathione content, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA), plasma insulin and liver free fatty acids. Fenugreek and Lupine resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA; restored insulin normal range, ameliorated the contents of glutathione and reduced the increase in the content of plasma TBARS. Lupine at dose of 1 g/ kg body wt exhibited better glucose reduction, restored body wt and free fatty acids concentration than Fenugreek. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism, affecting about 200 million people worldwide. Extracts of various plant materials capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models (Bopanna and Rathod, 1997). Many unknown and lesser known plants are used in traditional medicinal practices in Egypt. The medicinal values of these plants are not much known to the scientific world. Although herbal medicines have long been used effectively in treating many diseases throughout the world, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes are also used, but most of the evidence for their beneficial effects is anecdotal (Jelodar et al., 2005)

  4. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membrane structural changes of soleus muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats were detected with a panel of six biotinylated lectins. Samples of muscles were obtained from normal and diabetic rats. The biotinylated lectins in staining were detected by avidin-peroxidase complex. Lectin stainning of soleus muscle cryostat sections ...

  5. Effects of Some Indigenous Plants of North Karnataka (India) on Cardiovascular and Glucose Regulatory Systems in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Chadchan, Kailash S; Reddy, R Chandramouli; Biradar, M S; Kanthe, Pallavi S; Patil, Bheemshetty S; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Bagoji, Ishwar B; Das, Swastika

    2017-11-08

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Pundi), Chick pea (Cicer arietinum Linn, Chana) and Prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola Linn, Hattaraki) leaves are a few of indigenous plants which are routinely consumed by the people of north Karnataka in the diet. Studies on these plants showed some potential anti-diabetic efficacies. To examine the effect of leaves extracts of Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Cicer arietinum Linn and Lactuca scariola Linn on cardiovascular integrity, glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In vitro and in vivo tests on glucose regulatory systems and molecular markers such as - NOS3, HIF- 1α and VEGF were conducted in alloxan induced diabetic rats supplemented with all the three plant extracts. Electrophysiological analysis (HRV, LF: HF ratio, baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) and histopathogy of myocardial tissues and elastic artery were evaluated in diabetic rats treated with L. scariola linn. Out of these three plant extracts, Lactuca scariola Linn supplementation showed significant beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and oxygen sensing cell signaling pathways in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Furthermore, effects of sub chronic supplementation of Lactuca scariola Linn aqueous extracts showed significant improvement in sympatho-vagal balance in diabetic rats by increase of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and regaining of Baroreflex Sensitivity (BRS). These results were also corroborated with myocardial and elastic artery histopathology of Lactuca scariola Linn supplemented diabetic rats. These findings indicate an adaptive pathway for glucose homeostasis, oxygen sensing cell signaling mechanisms and cardio protective actions in alloxan - induced diabetic rats supplemented with Lactuca scariola Linn extracts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  7. Evaluation of Biological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Flowers on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, Mohan; Yelwatkar, Samir; Manchalwar, Smita; Gujar, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    Aim and Objective The current study sought to investigate antidiabetic, hypolipidimic, antioxidant and histopathological effects of floral extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in Alloxan induced Diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods Study was conducted on 6 groups with 6 wistar rats in each group for the period of 4 weeks. Group I: served as normal control (NC), rats administered with gum acacia 1 ml daily, group II: consider as diabetic control (DC) treated with alloxon 150 mg/kg body wt. Whereas Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract was given orally in group III (DE1), group IV (DE2), group V (DE3) at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight dissolved in distilled water respectively. Group VI (DG) was given glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) as a standard drug and results were compared in reference to it. Results The results indicate that the test compound HEFHR (Hydroalcoholic extract of flower Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) has significant and sustained oral antidiabetic activity, comparable with the hypoglycemic effect of Glibenclamide and Sulphonylurea. Flower extract of HRS was more efficacious in lipid lowering effect and in antioxidative activity than glibenclamide. After 28 day treatment with flower extract, size of islets was significantly increased and necrosis and atrophy of islets were significantly improved; also increase in number and diameter of cell islets appeared to be regular as compared to the diabetic group. Conclusion HEFHR possesses significant antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties as well as regeneration of beta cells in rats. Further evaluation of HEFHR is in progress. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Souli, Abdelaziz; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2013-12-28

    The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy + Essential Oils (H + EO) and Diabetic + Essential Oils (D + EO).Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), α-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  9. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy + Essential Oils (H + EO) and Diabetic + Essential Oils (D + EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), α-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

  10. Lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weeks; Group 2, diabetes control rats, induced with 150 mg/kg b.w., i.p. administration of alloxan and thereafter given 0.2 ml distilled water throughout the study period; Groups 3, 4 and 5, diabetic (i.p., 150 mg/kg b.w. alloxan) rats were given single oral dose of MAD (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. respectively) for 4 weeks; ...

  11. Effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Linum usitatissimum (Linn. in hyperglycaemia associated ROS production in PBMNCs and pancreatic tissue of alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Arvindkumar E Ghule

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Linum usitatissimum (EELU in hyperglycemia associated reactive oxygen species (ROS production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs and pancreatic antioxidant enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p. . After acute and subacute treatment serum glucose was determined. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in EELU pretreated animals. ROS production in PBMNCs and pancreatic antioxidant enzymes were measured in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Results: Our results showed that, treatment of EELU (200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced serum glucose level in acute and subacute study. The antihyperglycaemic effects of EELU showed onset at 4th h (P<0.001 and peak effect at 6th h (P<0.001. The effect was sustained until 24th h with 400 mg/kg. In subacute study, significant antihyperglycaemic effect was observed from 14th day (P<0.001 onwards. In EELU treated rat the body weight was significantly (P<0.001 increased as compared to diabetic group on 21st day onwards. In OGTT, increased glucose utilization was observed. Treatment of EELU 400 mg/kg showed significant reversal in pancreatic GSH (P<0.01 and SOD (P<0.05 indicating antioxidant nature of EELU. Flow cytometric estimation of total ROS production in PBMNCs in diabetic rats was significantly increased (P<0.001, whereas EELU treatment showed significant (P<0.001 decrease in PBMNCs ROS. Conclusions: It is concluded from the investigation that EELU showed antihyperglycaemic effect mediated through inhibition of ROS level in PBMNCs and preservation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in pancreatic tissue in alloxan induced diabetic rat.

  12. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

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    Amanda Natália Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC and 30 untreated diabetic (UD rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

  13. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloulou, Ahmed; Hamden, Khaled; Elloumi, Dhouha; Ali, Madiha Bou; Hargafi, Khaoula; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ayadi, Fatma; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2012-05-16

    Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be considered as a potential strong

  14. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Aloulou Ahmed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Methods Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. Results The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Conclusions The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions

  15. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  16. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  17. [Correlations of bile acids in the bile of rats in conditions of alloxan induced diabetes melitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, N M; Vesel'skyĭ, S P; Tsudzevych, B O

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of bile acids in the bile of rats with alloxan diabetes was investigated using the method of thin-layer chromatography. Changes of coefficients of conjugation and hydroxylation of bile acids were calculated and analyzed in half-hour samples of bile obtained during the 3-hour experiment. It has been found that the processes of conjugation of cholic acid with glycine and taurine are inhibited in alloxan diabetes. At the same time a significant increase of free threehydroxycholic and dixydroxycholic bile acids and conjugates of the latter ones with taurine has been registered. Coefficients of hydroxylation in alloxan diabetes show the domination of "acidic" pathway in bile acid biosynthesis that is tightly connected with the activity of mitochondrial enzymes.

  18. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (pblood glucose levels were significantly reduced (palligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  19. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  20. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of aqueous root extract of Icacina senegalensis in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    GC Akuodor

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that the root extract of I. senegalensis possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, which might be a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications.

  1. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE POWDER OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME PLANT ON A CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AT ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. I. Aizman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of the powder of Curcuma longa plant rhizome as food additive on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in whole blood, concentration of hormones – insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus were studied.Material and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar adult male rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups: 1 and 2 – the controls, 3 and 4 – the rats with alloxan-induced model of diabetes mellitus. Animals of groups 1 and 3 were kept on standard chow, whereas the rats of groups 2 and 4 were feeded with additive of powder from Curcuma longa plant rhizome (2% by weight of feed.The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with picric acid method by intensity of colour reaction on spectrofotometer. Concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide was defined by immunoenzyme method with standard sets on tablet spectrofotometer. The morphological structure of a pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. Content of glycogen in a liver was measured by means of Shick-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on spectrofotometer.Results. Intake of the turmeric rhizomes powder by rats with diabetes, as compared with the diabetic animals on a standard diet, resulted in the lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and significant increase of glycogen content in the liver. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet.Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa

  2. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Himanshu; Soni, Manish; Silawat, Narendra; Mehta, Darshana; Mehta, B. K.; Jain, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v) extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg). Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9%) for the same duration. Glibenclamide was used as positive control reference drug against Stevia extract. Results: Medium-polar leaf extract of S. rebaudiana (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a delayed but significant (P Stevia extract was found to antagonize the necrotic action of alloxan and thus had a re-vitalizing effect on β-cells of pancreas. PMID:21687353

  3. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy by Carvacrol through Anti-oxidative Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hamid Reza Jamshidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is prevalent in many countries. Nephropathy is a main debate’s side effect. Role of oxidative stress is well known in induction of diabetic nephropathy while carvacrol is a potent anti-oxidant that might attenuate oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of carvacrol in decreasing nephropathy-induced oxidative damage in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty five Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided to 7 groups. The rats received alloxan (i.p., 200 mg/kg for induction of diabetes. After one week, fasting blood sugar (FBS was assessed and the rats with FBS>250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after alloxan injection, the blood urea (BUN and creatinine (Cr were determined for confirmation of inducing nephropathy. Then, the animals were treated with carvacrol for one week. Finally, they were anesthetized and blood was collected from animal’s heart for calculation of BUN and Cr. Furthermore, the kidneys were for oxidative stress markers such as glutathione capacity, protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Results: Our results showed that glutathione level and catalase activity significantly increased after treatment with carvacrol. Same results were found in rats that received vitamin E. Also, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, BUN and Cr levels significantly decreased after treatment with carvacrol in comparison with diabetic rats. Conclusion: Our results showed that carvacrol improved nephropathy-induced oxidative damage similar to vitamin E. Therefore, it may be suggested that carvacrol can be suggested as a useful supplement in decreasing diabetic complaints along with anti-diabetic drugs.

  4. Co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of Citrullus lanatus seeds improved testicular functions in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats

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    G.I. Onyeso

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seed extract have hypoglycemic effect and may consequently ameliorate the impaired testicular general architecture and inhibits sperm death or testicular damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.

  5. The effect of the glycolipoprotein extract (G-90) from earthworm Eisenia foetida on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Golnaz; Qujeq, Durdi; Elmi, Maryam M; Feizi, Farideh; Fathai, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem. The number of patients is estimated to increase to over 439 million cases by 2030. One of the major health clinical problems in patients with diabetes patients is impaired wound healing. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus in 12 to 25% of patients, which increases the risk of damage in the limbs or amputation. The earthworm Eisenia foetida glycolipoprotein (as known G-90) is a blend of macromolecules with some biological properties including mitogenicity, anticoagulation, fibrinolysis, bacteriostatic and antioxidatiaon. Given the biological properties of G-90, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of extract obtained from the homogenate of Eisenia foetida (G-90) on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment by using G-90 can speed up the wound healing process, which is exactly similar to the effect of D-panthenol treatment in rats. These findings also demonstrated that G-90 treatment decreases the risk of infection in the wound site compared with D-panthenol treatment. In addition, histological analysis indicated that a better extracellular matrix formation with increased fibroblast proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis and early epithelial layer formation was observed in G-90 treated group. Therefore, the G-90 could be considered as a new wound healing agent introducing promising therapeutic approaches in both human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Study of Antiglycation, Hypoglycemic, and Nephroprotective Activities of the Green Dwarf Variety Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Isabella F D; Silva, Railmara P; Chaves Filho, Adriano de B; Dantas, Lucas S; Bispo, Vanderson S; Matos, Isaac A; Otsuka, Felipe A M; Santos, Aline C; Matos, Humberto Reis

    2015-07-01

    Coconut water (CW) is a natural nutritious beverage, which contains several biologically active compounds that are traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and rehydration. Several works with CW have been related with antioxidant activity, which is very important in the diabetic state. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective activities of CW, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were pre- and post-treated by gavage with CW (3 mL/kg), caffeic acid (CA) (10 and 15 mg/kg), and acarbose (Acb) (714 μg/kg) during a period of 16 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Amadori products in plasma and kidney homogenates were evaluated in all groups and used as parameters for the monitoring of the diabetic state. The results showed that rats of the CW+diabetic group had maintenance in blood glucose compared with the control group (P<.05) in addition to a decrease of HbA1c levels and increase of body weight when compared with the diabetic group rats (P<.05). The animals of the CA and CA+diabetic groups did not have significant variation of body weight (P<.05) during the experiment; however, they showed decrease in their HbA1c and urea levels in plasma as well as Amadori products in kidney homogenates when compared with the diabetic group (P<.05). Our results indicate that CW has multiple beneficial effects in diabetic rats for preventing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress caused by alloxan.

  7. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Himanshu Misra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg. Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9% for the same duration. Glibenclamide was used as positive control reference drug against Stevia extract. Results: Medium-polar leaf extract of S. rebaudiana (200 and 400 mg/kg produced a delayed but significant (P < 0.01 decrease in the blood glucose level, without producing condition of hypoglycemia after treatment, together with lesser loss in the body weight as compared with standard positive control drug glibenclamide. Conclusions: Treatment of diabetes with sulfonylurea drugs (glibenclamide causes hypoglycemia followed by greater reduction in body weight, which are the most worrisome effects of these drugs. Stevia extract was found to antagonize the necrotic action of alloxan and thus had a re-vitalizing effect on β-cells of pancreas.

  8. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Swarnamoni; Barman, Sarajita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (Pgranatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:22529479

  9. Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Josline Y.; Michael, Helana N.; Eskande, Emad Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT) epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT) fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF. The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT) epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6”-O-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5, whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT) epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids PMID:23598921

  10. Increased Oxidative Stress and Imbalance in Antioxidant Enzymes in the Brains of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane B. Ceretta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system (SNC as well as alterations in oxidative stress. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan on memory and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by using a single injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg, and fifteen days after induction, the rats memory was evaluated through the use of the object recognition task. The oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT were measured in the rat brain. The results showed that diabetic rats did not have alterations in their recognition memory. However, the results did show that diabetic rats had increases in the levels of superoxide in the prefrontal cortex, and in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS production in the prefrontal cortex and in the amygdala in submitochondrial particles. Also, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the hippocampus and striatum, and in TBARS oxidation in the striatum and amygdala. The SOD activity was decreased in diabetic rats in the striatum and amygdala. However, the CAT activity was increased in the hippocampus taken from diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan did not cause alterations in the animals’ recognition memory, but it produced oxidants and an imbalance between SOD and CAT activities, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes.

  11. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Omabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P=0.0698; there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P>0.8115. However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P<0.0001, and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001; metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P<0.0001 and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001. Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  12. Investigation the Effect of Curcumin on the Hormones of Pituitary-Ovarian Axis in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeddamoon Sadoughi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes dysfunction of the endocrine glands and reproductive disorders. Due to the antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties of curcumin, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of curcumin on serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were allocated into four equal groups. Control, non-treated diabetic and diabetic treated with curcumin (100 and 200 mg/kg, ip. The diabetes in non-treated diabetic and treated diabetic groups was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Estrous cycles were identical using sex hormones. Curcumin was intraperitoneally injected to treated diabetic groups for 25 days. DMSO was injected to the animals of control and non-treated diabetic groups as a vehicle. At the end of treatment, the serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone were measured by ELISA. Statistical analysis carried out using one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Administration of curcumin with concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone, compared to non-treated diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicate significant effect of curcumin on serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone in diabetic rats. Therefore, curcumin could be effective in improving hormonal disorders in patients with diabetes.

  13. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  14. Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pari Leelavinothan; Saravanan Ramalingam

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was undertaken to investigation the effect of Diasulin, a poly herbal drug composed of ethanolic extract of ten medicinal plants on blood glucose, plasma insulin, tissue lipid profile, and lipidperoxidation in alloxan induced diabetes. Methods Ethanolic extract of Diasulin a, poly herbal drug was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. The different doses of Diasulin on blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats were studied and the level...

  15. Protective effect of pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L. on fetal testicular tissue damage in alloxan- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of abnormalities in different organs of the fetus and newborn of diabetic mothers has been proven today. Considering the irreversible damages of the disease in newborns’ reproductive system any action to reduce the abnormalities has an especial importance and necessity. In this experimental study, the protective effects of pumpkin powder on reducing testicular tissue damages of rats born from diabetic mothers has been studied. The pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats, as follows: 1 treatment group with pumpkin powder, 2 diabetic control group, 3 treatment group (diabetic animals treated with pumpkin powder and 4 healthy control group. Experimental diabetes was induced in pregnant rats by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg b.w. alloxan monohydrate. The first and third groups received 2 g/kg b.w. pumpkin powder for 4 weeks via gavage. The histological and morphometric changes such as weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, spermatogonia, leydig and sertoli cell numbers were compared. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons test and p

  16. Beneficial effects of origanum majorana on some biochemical and histological changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oaman, H.F; Abbas, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    The phyto-chemical potential of marjoram (origanum majorana)is related to its total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Marjoram is used in food preservation and in traditional medicine for the treatment of common oxidation-linked diseases such as diabetes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of gavage water extract of marjoram, given for two weeks in low and high doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, in both non diabetic and alloxan diabetic adult male albino rats. The results revealed highly significant decrease of glucose, amylase, insulin, testosterone, cholesterol, AST, ALT, urea and creatinine, in both diabetic groups treated with low and high doses of marjoram, compared to the untreated diabetic group and the values became close to control value. However, the high dose of marjoram increased ALT activity while the lower one decreased it significantly, compared to control . On the other hand , triglycerides was increased in marjoram treated groups and that increase became highly significant in the diabetic marjoram treated ones. The histopathological examination revealed that marjoram is a useful herbal remedy, especially for controlling oxidative damages of pancreas and testis tissues, oral administration of marjoram exerted noticeable amelioration of diabetes and its complications in male adult rats.

  17. [Platelet hyperreactivity and antiaggregatory properties of nootropic drugs under conditions of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A É; Mamchur, V I

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nootropic drugs (noopept, pentoxifylline, piracetam, pramiracetam, Ginkgo biloba extract, entrop, cerebrocurin and citicoline) on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes have been studied. It is established that all these drugs exhibit an inhibitory action of various degrees against platelet hyperreactivity under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The maximum universality of the antiaggregatory action is characteristic of pramiracetam, entrop and Ginkgo biloba extract.

  18. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

  1. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.

  2. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-wee...

  3. Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Moreno, Jorge; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Junod, Julio; Aguayo, Claudio; Acurio, Jesenia; Escudero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (∼50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Leelavinothan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to investigation the effect of Diasulin, a poly herbal drug composed of ethanolic extract of ten medicinal plants on blood glucose, plasma insulin, tissue lipid profile, and lipidperoxidation in alloxan induced diabetes. Methods Ethanolic extract of Diasulin a, poly herbal drug was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The different doses of Diasulin on blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats were studied and the levels of lipid peroxides [TBARS, and Hydroperoxide] and tissue lipids [cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipides and free fatty acids] were also estimated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effects were compared with glibenclamide. Result Treatment with Diasulin and glibenclamide resulted in a significant reduction of blood glucose and increase in plasma insulin. Diasulin also resulted in a significant decrease in tissue lipids and lipid peroxide formation. The effect produced by Diasulin was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Conclusion The decreased lipid peroxides and tissue lipids clearly showed the antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin apart from its antidiabetic effect.

  5. Anti-diabetic properties of Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Shan, Bin; Liao, Cai-Hu; Xie, Jian-Hua; Wen, Ping-Wei; Shi, Jia-Yi

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (MCP) was isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia L., and the hypoglycemic effects of MCP were investigated in both normal healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MCP was orally administered once a day after 3 days of alloxan-induction at 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight for 28 day. Results showed that fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was significantly decreased, whereas the glucose tolerance was marked improvement in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and loss in body weight was also prevented in diabetic mice compared to the diabetic control group. The dosage of 300mg/kg body weight exhibited the best effects. In addition, MCP did not exhibit any toxic symptoms in the limited toxicity evaluation in mice. The results suggest that MCP possess significantly dose-dependent anti-diabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hence, MCP can be incorporated as a supplement in health-care food, drugs and/or combined with other hypoglycemic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In Vivo Hypoglycemic Effect of Kigelia africana (Lam): Studies With Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njogu, Stephen M; Arika, Wycliffe M; Machocho, Alex K; Ngeranwa, Joseph J N; Njagi, Eliud N M

    2018-01-01

    The claims by the traditional herbal medicine practitioners that Kigelia africana has bioactivity against several diseases, including diabetes mellitus, were investigated in this study. Type I diabetes mellitus was induced in mice by intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate followed by treatment with the therapeutic doses of the aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extract of K africana to the experimentally diabetic mice. The treatment effects were compared with the normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control rats treated with a standard antidiabetic drugs (insulin administered intraperitoneally at 1 IU/kg body weight in 0.1 mL physiological saline or glibenclamide administered orally at 3 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 mL physiological saline). Phytochemical composition of the leaf extract was assessed using standard procedures and mineral elements assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence system. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extract caused a statistically significant dose-independent reduction in plasma glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The observed hypoglycemic activity of this plant extract could be attributed to the observed phytochemicals and trace elements, which have been associated with exhibiting antidiabetic properties. Therefore, the data appear to support the hypoglycemic effects of K africana validating its folkloric usage.

  7. Arachidonic acid and lipoxin A4 attenuate alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Naveen K V; Naidu, Vegi G M; Das, Undurti N

    2017-03-01

    We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action. In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied. Expression of PDX1, P65 NF-kB and IKB in RIN5F cells and Nrf2, GLUT2, COX2, iNOS protein levels in the pancreatic tissue and plasma glucose, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-α and antioxidants, lipid peroxides and nitric oxide were measured. Of all, arachidonic acid (AA) was found to be the most effective against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and preventing type 1 DM. Both cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors did not block the beneficial actions of AA in vitro and in vivo. Alloxan inhibited LXA4 production by RIN5F cells and in alloxan-induced type 1 DM Wistar rats. AA-treatment restored LXA4 levels to normal both in vitro and in vivo. LXA4 protected RIN5F cells against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity and prevented type 1 DM and restored expression of Nrf2, Glut2, COX2, and iNOS genes and abnormal antioxidants to near normal. AA seems to bring about its beneficial actions against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity and type 1 DM by enhancing the production of LXA4. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):251-271, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Alloxan-induced diabetes and insulin resistant effects on ovulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    characterized based on the proportion of 3 cell types. (epithelial cells, cornified cells, and leukocytes) observed in the vaginal smear. Diabetes mellitus has been shown to interfere with ..... (1996). Altered prostanoid production by cumulus- oocyte complexes in a rat model of non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus.

  9. Alloxan-induced and Insulin-resistant Diabetes Mellitus affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance on semen parameters, histology of reproductive organs and serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 - 200g were made diabetic by intravenous injection of ...

  10. Garlic used as an alternative medicine to control diabetic mellitus in alloxan-induced male rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, H.; Bhutto, M.A.; Khand, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used because of their effectiveness, less side effects and low cost, so investigation on such agents from traditional medicinal plants has become more important in present day studies on medical sciences. Garlic is one of the most popular herbs used as an anti-diabetic agent. In present study possible anti diabetic effects of garlic were studied in alloxan induced diabetic male rabbits, compared to normal control and diabetic control male rabbits. The blood samples were collected every third day and anti-diabetic effects of garlic were observed every time. The serum cholesterol level and body weight were also studied. With an aqueous extract of garlic (1% solution/Kg) body weight for 30 days significantly lowered serum glucose level (38.88%) and serum cholesterol level (57%). Results and Conclusion: The results indicate that garlic possesses a beneficial anti-hyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced rabbits. (author)

  11. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20–120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. ► DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries disturbed due to alloxan toxicity. ► DSL inhibits pancreatic β-cells apoptosis

  12. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  13. Small Molecule Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-kB Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Suppresses Renal Inflammation in Early Stage of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Manash P; Lahkar, Mangala; Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Chowdhury, Liakat; Kumar, Saurabh; Pant, Rajat; Choubey, Abhinav

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which ultimately gives rise to cardiovascular diseases. Prolonged hyperglycaemia and chronic renal inflammation are the two key players in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB)-mediated inflammatory cascade is a strong contributor to the renovascular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we studied the effects of piceatannol, a potent NF-kB inhibitor, on various oxidative stress markers and NF-kB dependent diabetic renoinflammatory cascades in rat induced by alloxan (ALX). Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal dose, 150 mg/kg body-weight (b.w.) of ALX. Diabetic rats were treated with Piceatannol (PCTNL) at a dose of 30 and 50 mg/kg b.w. After 14 days of oral treatment, PCTNL significantly restored blood sugar level, glomerular filtration rate, serum markers and plasma lipids. PCTNL administration also reversed the declined activity of cellular antioxidant machineries namely superoxide dismutase and glutathione and the elevated levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. Moreover, piceatannol-treated groups showed marked inhibition of renal pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-kB p65/p50 binding to DNA. Renal histopathological investigations also supported its ameliorative effects against diabetic kidney damage. Importantly, effects were more prominent at a dose of 50 mg/kg, and in terms of body-weight gain, PCTNL failed to effect significantly. However, overall findings clearly demonstrated that PCTNL provides remarkable renoprotection in diabetes by abrogating oxidative stress and NF-kB activation - and might be helpful in early stage of diabetic nephropathy. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  14. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  15. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  16. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effect of Fagonia cretica L. methanolic extract and Citrus paradise Macfad. juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sairah H. Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fagonia cretica is a medicinal herb reported to have flavanoids of potential therapeutic value and Citrus paradisi is a fruit, whose juice is of great therapeutic value due to its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Aims: To determine anti-hyperglycemic and renal protective effect of methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica and Citrus paradisi juice (grapefruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rabbits by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.. The therapies including Fagonia cretica methanolic extract (500 mg/kg, Citrus paradisi juice (7 mL/kg and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg were administered (p.o. to diabetic groups for 14 days. The biochemical parameters, glucose, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were estimated. Results: Fagonia cretica extract and grapefruit juice therapy significantly (p<0.05 reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Fagonia cretica extract was more effective anti-hyperglycemic agent than Citrus paradisi juice and sitagliptin. Significant (p<0.05 improvement in kidney function was observed in treated groups, the plant extract showing significant improvement as compared to the other two treatments. The histopathological results verified improvement in structural damage of kidney, liver and pancreas with these treatments. Conclusions: Fagonica cretica and Citrus paradisi juice therapy markedly improved hyperglycemia and kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  17. Hypoglycemic Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats of the Phenolic Extract from Mongolian Oak Cups Enriched in Ellagic Acid, Kaempferol and Their Derivatives

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    Peipei Yin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Our previous reports showed that crude extract prepared with 50% ethanol (ethanol crude extract, ECE from Mongolian oak cups possessed excellent in vitro antioxidant capacities as well as inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein glycation caused by its enrichment in phenolics, including mainly ellagic acid, kaempferol and their derivatives. Nevertheless, few in vivo studies on antidiabetic activities of these phenolics were conducted. The present study investigated hypoglycemic effects with normal and diabetic rats being administrated orally without or with ECE at 200 and 800 mg/kg for 15 days. In normal rats, no significant differences were exhibited after ECE administration in body weight, fasting blood glucose level, levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and AST in serum, organ indexes, and levels of GSH and MDA in organs. In diabetic rats, the fasting blood glucose level, indexes of heart and liver, and levels of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and MDA in heart tissue were significantly decreased. Moreover, HDL levels in serum and SOD activities in the four organs of diabetic rats were significantly improved after ECE administration at 800 mg/kg. Thus, in addition to inhibiting α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein glycation reported previously, oak cups might contain novel dietary phytonutrients in preventing abnormal changes in blood glucose and lipid profile and attenuating oxidant stress in vivo. The results also implied that it is ellagic acid, kaempferol and their derivatives enriched in ECE that might play vital roles in managing type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes.

  18. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O A; Odesanmi, O E; Oladele, F C

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  19. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Fermented and Nonfermented Mung Bean Extracts on Alloxan-Induced-Diabetic Mice

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    Swee Keong Yeap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts.

  20. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

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    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  1. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  2. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  3. whole plant extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was evaluated. Two control groups (non-diabetic control and diabetic control) received normal saline ... rules for experimental use of animals complied .... Figure 1: Bar-graph representing the blood glucose levels at different treatment days.

  4. Long term evaluation of functional and morphological bladder alterations on alloxan-induced diabetes and aging: experimental study in rats Avaliação funcional e morfológica tardia de alterações na bexiga secundárias ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e no envelhecimento: estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Antunes Rodrigues Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate structural and functional effects of Alloxan- induced diabetes and aging on bladder of rats. METHODS: evaluations were performed in three groups: A - 8 weeks of age, B - 44 weeks of age, C - 44 weeks of age with alloxan-induced diabetes. Muscle layer thickness, extracellular matrix fibrosis and collagen were quantified on digital images of bladder samples. Cystometric evaluations before surgical vesical denervation (SVD, included maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, maximum bladder pressure (MBP, bladder contraction frequency (VCF, duration of bladder contraction (DC, threshold pressure (TP and bladder compliance (BC. After SVD, maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, BC and maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP were also measured. RESULTS: Reduced extracellular matrix fibrosis concentration and contraction strength were found in the bladders of group C. Before SVD, bladder compliance was not different between groups. Alterations were observed in MCC after SVD. CONCLUSIONS: We did not notice smooth muscle hypertrophy in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 44 weeks. There was alteration in the total and relative amount of fibrosis and collagen. The cystometric studies support the idea that this morphological alterations are important to determine the different bladder functional patterns found in the aging and the Alloxan-induced diabetic animals.OBJETIVOS: avaliar alterações estruturais e funcionais da bexiga de ratos machos, associadas ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e ao envelhecimento. MÉTODOS: três grupos de animais: A - 8 semanas de idade; B- 44 semanas de idade; C - 44 semanas de idade com diabetes induzido por aloxano, foram avaliados. Realizadas medidas de espessura da camada muscular, fibrose de matriz extracelular e quantidade de colágeno, através de análise de imagem digital dos tecidos. Realizados também testes cistométricos, antes da desnervação vesical cirúrgica (DVC, para avaliar capacidade vesical (CV

  5. Alloxan-induced diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Jill K; Kole, Ayeeshik; Stivers, Benjamin; Progar, Victor; Pareddy, Anisha; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael

    2018-03-09

    There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months. Alloxan-induced pancreatic beta cell damage was examined by immunohistochemical staining of insulin. The metabolic profile was confirmed by body weight, complete blood panel, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and meal tolerance test. CAD severity was assessed with intravascular ultrasound and histology. [Ca 2+ ] i handling in coronary smooth muscle (CSM) cells was assessed with fura-2 ratiometric imaging. Fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, total cholesterol, and serum triglycerides were elevated in MetS-diabetic swine. This group also exhibited hypoinsulinemia during IVGTT and less pancreatic beta cell mass when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. IVUS analysis revealed that MetS-diabetic swine had greater percent wall coverage, percent plaque burden, and calcium index when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. Fura-2 imaging of CSM [Ca 2+ ] i revealed that MetS-nondiabetic swine exhibited increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ store release and Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels compared to lean swine. MetS-diabetic swine exhibited impaired Ca 2+ efflux. Diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with MetS, accompanied by progression of [Ca 2+ ] i dysregulation in advanced CAD/CAC. These results recapitulate increased CAD in humans with diabetes and establish Ossabaw miniature swine as an animal model for future MetS/diabetes

  6. Effect of Magnesium pre-treatment on Alloxan induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of vitamins and mineral supplementation in the prevention of diabetes mellitus is not well elucidated. Objective: The effect of prior administration of magnesium on alloxan induced diabetes was assessed in rats. Methods: 36 Male albino rats were used for this study. The animals were divided into 6 ...

  7. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei.

  8. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Muhammad Bilal Azmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg, negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg, positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg. All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  9. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  10. Effect of Curcumin on Blood Glucose Level and Some Neurobehavioral Responses in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    U. A. Garkuwa; A. W. Alhassan; Y. Tanko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on blood glucose level and neurobehavioral response in Alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss Albino mice. The animals were divided into five (5) groups of four each (n=4). Group I served as control and received distilled water, group II, III, IV and V were diabetic and received olive oil 1 ml/kg, glibenclamide 1 mg/kg, curcumin 50 mg/kg and curcumin 100 mg/kg respectively. Diabetes was induced using Alloxan (150 mg/kg). All administrations...

  11. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  12. Comparative Anti-Diabetic Evaluation of Different Parts of Himalrandia tetrasperma in Alloxan Induced Diabetic in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiments were designed to investigate the acute effects of methanolic extracts of various parts of H. tetrasperma in diabetic mice. The basic phyto-chemical study showed the occurrence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and tannins as main phyto-constituents in the methanolic extract. Diabetes was induced experimentally in mice by intra peritoneally injecting alloxan (150 mg/kg i.p.). In acute study, methanolic H. tetrasperma extracts of various parts of plant were evaluated for anti-diabetic potential in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Extracts of leaves, bark and seeds (250 mg/kg, i.p) and metformin (250 mg/kg i.p) were given intra peritoneal in alloxan treated diabetic mice and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 360 and 24 h. There was significant lowering of blood glucose level at 1 h after treatment, in diabetic mice treated with methanolic extracts of bark (182.3 ± 3.6 mg/dL), leaves (178.5 ± 1.2 mg/dL) and seeds (156.3 ± 11.3 mg/dL) when compared with control diabetic group (280 ± 7.92 mg/dL). Highly significant results were also obtained at 24 h after treatment with methanolic extracts of bark (187.67 ±1.2 mg/dL), leaves (170.66 ± 2.3 mg/dL) and seeds (142 ± 8.7 mg/dL) when compared with control diabetic group (257.7 ± 6.7 mg/dL). It is concluded that methanolic extract of all parts possess significant anti-diabetic activity which is due to the presence of phytochemicals, i.e. alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins and it can be further evaluated for the mechanism involved. (author)

  13. Antihyperlipidemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Leaves Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    Maqsood Ahmad, Qaisar Mahmood, Kamran Gulzar1, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar1, Mohammad Saleem and Muhammad Imran Qadir*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is associated with diabetes and hepatotoxicity has emerged as a common clinical complication by antidiabetics. The present study was conducted to determine the antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective activity of Dodonaea viscosa leaves extracts in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The rabbits (n = 70 were divided into seven groups including normal and diabetic control, the remaining were aqueous, aqueous:methanol (70:30, aqueous:methanol (50:50, aqueous: methanol (30:70, and methanol extracts given for 30 days. Serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, ALT and AST were estimated by using commercially available kits. The oral administration of aqueous:methanol (70:30 extract of the Dodonaea viscosa leaves significantly (P<0.01 decreased the raised parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to normal values. But the extract has significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, ALT and AST levels. For the aqueous:methanol (70:30 extract given animals, the average serum level of total cholesterol was 60.00±1.30 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol was 92.80±2.29 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol was 31.80±1.0 mg/dL and triglyceride was 15.40±0.75 mg/dL while the average serum levels of ALT and AST were 45.60±3.08 and 27.20±1.36 IU/dL, respectively. It is concluded from the study that aqueous:methanolic (70:30 extract of Dodonaea viscosa leaves exerts antihy- perlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  14. Sitagliptin–Moringa oleifera coadministration did not delay the progression nor ameliorated functional and morphological anomalies in alloxan-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort Omoigemete; Kwanashie, Helen Ochuko; Zezi, Abdulkadiri Umar; Danjuma, Nuhu Mohammed; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sitagliptin (ST) and Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam (Moringaceae) are used concomitantly by diabetic patients, with no study ascertaining for potential favorable or otherwise renal implications. We investigated the effect of coadministration of ST and MO leaf extract on functional and morphological biomarkers of alloxan-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced with a single dose of 150 mg/kg of alloxan intraperitoneally. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with Groups I, II, and VII as normal (NS), diabetic control (DC), and postprandial controls. Groups III, IV, V, and VI were diabetic rats on ST, MO, ST and MO (SM), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a postprandial hyperglycemic group (PPSM), respectively. Serum urea, albumin, electrolyte levels, lipid profile, and kidney tropism were determined in addition to histological examinations. RESULTS: There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in kidney tropism comparing all drug-treated groups and DC to normal rats. Significant increases in serum urea were observed (P = 0.02) in DC, MO-treated, and SM-treated rats compared to normal rats and also in serum triglyceride (P < 0.05) in MO-treated and SM-treated rats compared to controls and other drug-treated groups. A mild reduction in severity of pathologic lesions was observed (glomerulosclerosis Grade 1) in SM-treated rats compared to a marked necrosis in DC (Grade 3). CONCLUSION: The coadministration of ST–MO did not delay the progression of functional anomalies and renal injury nor ameliorated the lesions associated with chronic DN in Wistar rats. PMID:29515277

  15. Evaluation of protective effect of cactus pear seed oil (Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL.) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

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    Berraaouan, Ali; Abderrahim, Ziyyat; Hassane, Mekhfi; Abdelkhaleq, Legssyer; Mohammed, Aziz; Mohamed, Bnouham

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant power of cactus pear seed oil [Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL. (CPSO)] and its protective effect against chemically induced diabetes mellitus in mice. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPSO was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The preventive effect was conducted on Swiss albino mice treated with CPSO (2 mL/kg, per os), before and after a single intraperitoneal alloxan administration (100 mg/kg). Survival rate, body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured and histopathological analysis of pancreas was performed to evaluate alloxan-induced tissue injuries. CPSO exhibited an antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging assay. Moreover, the administration of CPSO (2 mL/kg) significantly attenuated alloxan-induced death and hyperglycemia (P < 0.001) in treated mice. Morphometric study of pancreas revealed that CPSO significantly protected islets of langerhans against alloxan induced-tissue alterations. Based on theses results, CPSO can prevente alloxan-induced-diabetes by quenching free radicals produced by alloxan and inhibiting tissue injuries in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SIFAT HIPOGLISEMIK PAKAN TINGGI PROTEIN KEDELAI PADA MODEL DIABEIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Hypoglicemic Property of a High-Protein Soybean Based Feed in Model alloxan Induced Diabetic

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    C. Retnaningsih 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglicemic properties of soybean protein were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty eight mature male Sprague Dawley (SD rats (250-300g were used and divided into four groups of seven rats. They were: 1 Placebo Standars (PS; 2 Alloxan Injection Standard (AS; 3 Alloxan injection soybean protein 250% (APK 250 dan 4 Alloxen injection soybean protein 100% (APK 100. One group was injected with aquabidest (Placebo and three group were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intramuscular injection.Placebo-Standard (PS and Alloxan injection Standar (AS groups were fed standard diet whereas APK 250 100 were fed soybean protein deit for 42 days. Concentration of serum glucose was determined before incention (0day and 1, 2, 143, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after injection.The result showed that alloxan injection increased the level of serum glucose. Bioassay experiment demonstrated that diet on high conceration of soybean protein (250% decreased the level of serum glucose from 351,44 mg/dl to 230,62 mg/dl (34,37% while soy protein 100% descreased the level of serum glucose.

  17. Effect of Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

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    Qazi, Nasreen; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major threat to present and future generations. The role of herbal medication has emerged as a safe alternative to currently available medication due to its decreased potential to produce side effects, hence effect of Carthamus tinctorius was observed on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Thirty five healthy male rabbits were divided into 5 groups with 7 rabbits in each (Normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, diabetic treated with Carthamus tinctorius extract at doses of 200 and 300mg/kg of body weight). Drug and extract were given orally for 30 days and the values for blood glucose levels were observed after 15(th) and 30(th) day of treatment by using standard reagent kits provided by Human Germany. While insulin levels were checked at the end of the study by using Architect i1000 by Abbott Diagnostics USA. Animals were also observed for any gross toxicity during the study. Results revealed that Carthamus tinctorius has significant hypoglycemic effect at 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg doses as compared to diabetic control group. Insulin levels were significantly increased in Glibenclamide treated as well as Carthamus tinctorius treated groups as compared to diabetic control.

  18. Glutamine or whey-protein supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Effects on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes Efeitos da oferta de glutamina ou de proteína do soro de leite sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos

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    Renato Motta Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of glutamine (L-Gln or whey-protein supplementation on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. Eight rats served as baseline controls (G-1. The remaining 24 animals received alloxan 150mg/Kg intraperitonially dissolved in buffer solution and were equally distributed in 3 subgroups, upon induction of diabetes mellitus, and treated as follows: (G2: saline, 2.0ml; (G3: glutamine solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml; and (G4: whey-protein (WPS solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml. All solutions were administered by daily 7:00 AM gavages during 30 days. Next, arterial blood samples (3.0 ml were collected from anesthetized rats for CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte count through flow cytometry technology. RESULTS: CD4+ and CD8+ counts decreased significantly in all groups compared with baseline values (G1. G2 rats CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly compared with G1. CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased significantly (>260% in L-Gln treated group (G3 compared with saline-treated rats (G2. There were no statistical differences in lymphocyte counts (CD4+ and CD8+ between L-Gln (G3 and saline-treated (G2 groups. There was a significant reduction in CD8+ cell count compared with CD4+ cell count in L-Gln treated rats (G3. CONCLUSION: The offer of L-Gln to experimental diabetic rats enhances the immunologic response to infection.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de glutamina ou proteína do soro de leite ( PSL sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar machos, saudáveis, foram utilizados no estudo. Oito ratos foram usados como controles basais (G1. Os 24 animais remanescentes foram equitativamente distribuídos em 3 subgrupos, após indução do diabetes mellitus por injeção intraperitonial de aloxano (150mg/Kg e tratados como se segue: (G2: salina; (G3: 2,0 ml de solução de glutamina

  19. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Hymete, Ariaya; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Tadesse, Mekuria

    2017-05-02

    Ajuga remota Benth is traditionally used in Ethiopia for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. After acute toxicity test, the Swiss albino mice were induced with alloxan to get experimental diabetes animals. The fasting mean blood glucose level before and after treatment for two weeks in normal, diabetic untreated and diabetic mice treated with aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were performed. Data were statistically evaluated by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20. P-value Phytochemical screening of both extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids, which might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The extracts, however, did not contain alkaloids and anthraquinones. The aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) showed the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels and the ability of A. remota extracts in reducing blood glucose levels presumably due to the presence of antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids. The effect of the extract supported the traditional claim of the plant.

  20. A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Paulo C. Paula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively. The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes.

  1. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Aloe vera peel extract on blood sugar level of alloxan-induced Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniati, E.; Setiadi, E.; Susanti, R.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Aloe vera peel contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and sterols as its secondary metabolites. This research explores the effect of Aloe vera peel extract on blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced Wistar rats in a laboratory experimental scale. Blood glucose examination was performed by using GOD-PAP method. Twenty five 2 months old-white rat (Rattus norvegicus) male wistar strain weigh 150-200 grams body weight, and in healthy condition, was randomly divided into five groups. Those five groups were negative control group (K-), positive control group (K+), treatment group 1 (P1), treatment group 2 (P 2), and treatment group 3 (P 3). Each group was fed by standard diet and ad-libitum drinking. Treatments were given for 28 days. On the day 29, blood glucose level of all groups were analyzed. The results showed that the highest blood glucose levels in control group rat were positive (191.2 mg/dl). Aloe vera extract was able to decrease blood sugar level up to 104,6mg/dl in P3 group treatment rats (served Aloe vera extract 350 mg/kg BW/day). It comes to the conclusion that giving Aloe vera peel extract for 28 days decreases blood sugar level of hyperglycemic rat.

  2. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

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    Anggit Listyacahyani Sunarwidhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extract s in alloxan - induce d diabetic rats. Metho ds : Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens w ere performed by TLC - densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study . Results: A. i ndica contained 2. 90 ±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica : 112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68 . 74±4 . 83% (preprandial and 73 . 9 1 ±3 . 18% (postprandial. Histolog ical studies indicated that this combination improved the mor ph ology of the islets of Langerhans and β cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated - glucose concentrations . Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens . Combination of both extracts was potential to develo p as a blood glucose - lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  3. Hypoglycaemic activity of Scopariadulcis L. extract in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, L; Venkateswaran, S

    2002-11-01

    Scoparia dulcis L. commonly known as 'Sweet Broomweed' is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 g/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of the Scoparia dulcis leaves (SLEt) for 45 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total haemoglobin but in the case of 0.45 g/kg body weight the effect was highly significant. The aqueous extract also prevented a decrease in the body weight. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in experimental diabetic rats, in which there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in animals treated with SLEt and the effect was comparable to that of glibenclamide. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

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    Idris Ahmed Issa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50 for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p<0.005 and 56.9% (p<0.0004 in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p<0.0001 at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity.

  5. Bone regeneration in cranioplasty and clinical complications in rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes

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    Evanice Menezes Marçal Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the bone repair process in surgical defects created on the parietal bones of diabetic rabbits using the guided bone regeneration technique to observe the effects of alloxan in the induction of diabetes mellitus. Twenty-four adult rabbits were divided into three study groups: control (C, diabetic (D and diabetic associated to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane (D-PTFE. For diabetes induction the animals received one dose of monohydrated alloxan (90 mg/kg by intravenous administration in the auricular or femoral vein. In group D-PTFE the membrane covered both the floor and the surface of the bone defect. In groups D and C, the bone defect was filled up with blood clot. The specimens were fixed in 10% formol and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The results showed that the 90 mg/kg dose of monohydrate alloxan was sufficient to promote diabetes mellitus when administered in the auricular vein. Bone regeneration was slower in the diabetic group when compared with the control and diabetic-PTFE groups, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two experimental groups (D and D-PTFE. The oral and general clinical complications among the diabetics were weight loss, polyuria, polyphagia and severe chronic gingivitis.

  6. Healing of excisional wound in alloxan induced diabetic sheep: A planimetric and histopathologic study

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    Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healing of skin wound is a multi-factorial and complex process. Proper treatment of diabetic wounds is still a major clinical challenge. Although diabetes mellitus can occur in ruminants, healing of wounds in diabetic ruminants has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing of ovine excisional diabetic wound model. Eight 4-month-old Iranian Makoui wethers were equally divided to diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Alloxan monohydrate (60 mg kg-1, IV was used for diabetes induction. In each wether, an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animal. Photographs were taken in distinct times for planimetric evaluation. Wound samples were taken on day 21 post-wounding for histopathologic evaluations of epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of new blood vessels. The planimetric study showed slightly delay in wound closure of diabetic animals, however, it was not significantly different from nondiabetic wounds (p ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of blood vessels were significantly lower in diabetic group (p < 0.05. We concluded that healing of excisional diabetic wounds in sheep may be compromised, as seen in other species. However, contraction rate of these wounds may not be delayed due to metabolic features of ruminants and these animals might go under surgeries without any serious concern. However, healing quality of these wounds may be lower than normal wounds.

  7. Alloxan-induced diabetes reduces sarcolemmal Na+-K+ pump function in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

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    Hansen, Peter S; Clarke, Ronald J; Buhagiar, Kerrie A; Hamilton, Elisha; Garcia, Alvaro; White, Caroline; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2007-03-01

    The effect of diabetes on sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump function is important for our understanding of heart disease associated with diabetes and design of its treatment. We induced diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia but no other major metabolic disturbances in rabbits. Ventricular myocytes isolated from diabetic rabbits and controls were voltage clamped and internally perfused with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p), arising from the 3:2 Na(+)-to-K(+) exchange ratio) was identified as the shift in holding current induced by Na(+)-K(+) pump blockade with 100 micromol/l ouabain in most experiments. There was no effect of diabetes on I(p) recorded when myocytes were perfused with pipette solutions containing 80 mmol/l Na(+) to nearly saturate intracellular Na(+)-K(+) pump sites. However, diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in I(p) measured when pipette solutions contained 10 mmol/l Na(+). The decrease was independent of membrane voltage but dependent on the intracellular concentration of K(+). There was no effect of diabetes on the sensitivity of I(p) to extracellular K(+). Pump inhibition was abolished by restoration of euglycemia or by in vivo angiotensin II receptor blockade with losartan. We conclude that diabetes induces sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition that can be reversed with pharmacological intervention.

  8. Antioxidant Role of Vitamin D in mice with Alloxan-Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sarah; Khan, Saman; Naseem, Imrana

    2017-12-04

    The discovery of vitamin D receptors has revolutionized the understanding of vitamin D biology, which is now thought to influence a wide array of cell pathways. The antihyperglycemic actions of vitamin D involving calcium metabolism have been widely discussed, but studies are now suggesting a possibility of vitamin D-induced amelioration of oxidative stress. Despite its significance in disease pathogenesis, oxidative status remains poorly investigated with respect to vitamin D treatment in the biology of diabetes mellitus. The present study was aimed at assessing the antioxidant therapeutic potential of vitamin D in diabetes mellitus. Balb/c mice were induced to experimental diabetes with a single dose of alloxan. Following a 15-day treatment period, various parameters pertaining to glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, zinc concentration and DNA damage were analyzed. With the exception of superoxide dismutase and catalase, the antioxidant enzyme activities were slightly altered in various groups. However, improved glucose homeostasis and zinc concentration and reduced DNA damage were observed in the group treated with vitamin D. The present work accounts for the ubiquitous roles of vitamin D in various diseases and highlights its role as a therapeutic intervention in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Hypoglicemic Effect of Momordica Charantia Linn in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    Horea Sărăndan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was intended to test the hypoglycemiant effect of an alcoholic extract of roots or of the fruit seeds from “in vitro” regenerated Momordica charantia Linn. plants grown at USAMVB Timisoara. Diabetes was induced to domestic rabbits by administrating alloxan in dose of 80 mg/ kg body weight. In diabetic rabbits the glycemia decreased by 15.93% ten hours after the administration of the alcoholic extract in dose of 2 ml/kg body weight; the seeds of Momordica charantia Linn. reduced glycemia by 27.42% when administered in dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight. In alloxan recuperated rabbits, 5 hours after administration of the seeds, glycemia dropped 19.26%. The “in vitro” regenerated plants of Momordica charantia Linn. keep their hypoglycemiant effects.

  10. Oral Hypoglycaemic Drugs in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs

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    É. Balogh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the alpha-glycosidase inhibitor acarbose, the insulin sensitiser metformin and the insulin secretiser gliclazide on blood glucose level of dogs were examined in experimental diabetes. Dogs were randomly divided into three groups. During the first week of the experimental period control blood glucose data were determined. During the subsequent five weeks, the first group (n = 6 was administered acarbose (200 mg/dog/day, the second (n = 5 was treated with metformin (1700 mg/dog/day, and the third was given gliclazide (160 mg/dog/day. The drug was administered twice daily when feeding at 7:00 and 15:00 h. The average difference between postprandial and fasting blood glucose was determined for the treated and the control period, and the statistical significance of their difference (mean decrease was evaluated by two-sampled t-test. The mean decrease in blood glucose was 0.49 mmol/l (P = 0.09 for acarbose, 1.15 mmol/l (P = 0.01 for metformin, and 0.08 mmol/l (P = 0.88 for gliclazide. According to the results of statistical evaluation, metformin was the only drug that caused a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose.

  11. Ameliorative effect of dietary genistein on diabetes induced hyper-inflammation and oxidative stress during early stage of wound healing in alloxan induced diabetic mice.

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    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lee, Hea-Ji; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-09-23

    Among the diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer due to delayed wound healing is one of the most significant clinical problems. Early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis during wound healing. Thus, regulation of inflammatory response during early stage of wound healing is main target for complete cutaneous recovery. This study investigated the role of genistein supplementation in inflammation and oxidative stress, which are related to NLRP3 inflammasome, NFκB and Nrf2 activation, during cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice with diabetes with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels > 250 mg/dl were fed diets with AIN-93G rodent diet containing 0%, 0.025% (LG) or 0.1% (HG) genistein. After 2 weeks of genistein supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Genistein supplementation improved fasting glucose levels and wound closure rate. Moreover, genistein supplementation restored NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1) at the basal level and ameliorated both inflammation (TNFα, iNOS, COX2 and NFκB) and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2, HO-1, GPx, and catalase) during early stage of wound healing in diabetic mice. Taken together, genistein supplementation would be a potential therapeutic nutrient in prevention and treatment of delayed wound healing by modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress during inflammatory stage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

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    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  13. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Taurine against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Retinal Changes via Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology with New Zealand White Rabbits

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    Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only; Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection; Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine; and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine. The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P0.05 between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina.

  14. Hypoglycaemic activity of Telfairia occidentalis in rats | Eseyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Telfairia occidentalis possess hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this could be beneficial in the ethnotherapy of diabetes mellitus. Key words: Telfairia occidentalis; Glibenclamide; Hypoglycaemic activity; Alloxan-induced diabetes. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  15. Glucose and Lipid Lowering Potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats

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    Rasheed Bolaji IBRAHIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. leaf aqueous (HILA extract used for the management of diabetes by Traditional Medicinal Practitioners (TMPs in Nigeria was assessed. Alloxan (ALX-induced hyperglycaemic rats were orally administered with known folkloric dosage of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. of HILA extract, once a day, for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were monitored and pancreatic histology was examined. Net hepatic glycogen (GLY concentration and lipid profiles were also determined. Prior to treatment, ALX-induced hyperglycaemia (>250 mg/dL was established in rats. Oral administration of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. HILA extract to diabetic rats for 14 days caused significant reduction in FBG to baseline values observed in non-diabetic conditions. Treatment with HILA extract also showed improvement in lipid abnormalities observed in hyperglycaemic condition, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced and HDL-cholesterol increased resulting in improved artherogenic index. Hepatic GLY concentration was significantly increased in diabetic rat treated with the extract. Histological examinations showed degenerated and sparse pancreatic islets β-cells in non-treated diabetic rat, whereas microscopy of treated rats showed mild to normal architecture with enriched β-cells. Preliminary phytochemical profiling of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids (2.54 mg/g, saponins (0.28 mg/g, phenols (0.04 mg/g and anthraquinones (0.01 mg/g. Results from this study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum possesses not only antihyperglycaemic, but also antidyslipidemic activities, that may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of diabetes and associated secondary complications.

  16. The Effect of Honey on Plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA Level onAlloxan-Induced hyperglycemic Rats An Experimental studies in rats Galur Wistar White Males

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    Bela Risqiyani Fajrilah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malondialdehyde (MDA is the end product of lipid peroxidation and a marker of free radicals. Honey is a safe sweetener proven to lower blood glucose level and contains flavonoids, vitamin A, C, E as a source of antioxidant that can capture free radicals. This study aims to determine the effect of honey on plasma MDA level ionalloxan-induced hyperglycemicrats. This was an experimental study with post-test only control group design conducted for 25 days using 18 white male Wistar rats divided into 3 groups randomly. A negative control group, group B were given honey orally at the dose of 0.54 ml/mice/day, and group C were given honey orally at the of dose 0.9 ml/head/day. Each group consisted of 6 rats. Blood plasma MDA was evaluated by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS test assay. One way ANOVA analysis test followed post hoc were applied for data analysis. The results showed that mean levels of MDA in group A, B, and C were 6.02 mmol/l ± 0.36, 4.37 mmol/± 0.30, and 1.12 mmol/l ± 0.11 respectively. Bivariate analysis One way ANOVA test showed a significant difference (p<0,05. Post hoc tests showed a significant differences between the study groups (p<0,05. It can be concluded that honey had an effect on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the blood plasma of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats.

  17. Autologous circulating angiogenic cells treated with osteopontin and delivered via a collagen scaffold enhance wound healing in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit ear ulcer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Aonghus; Kulkarni, Mangesh; Vaughan, Erin E; Creane, Michael; Liew, Aaron; Dockery, Peter; Pandit, Abhay; O'Brien, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is the leading cause of amputation in people with diabetes mellitus. Peripheral vascular disease is present in the majority of patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Despite standard treatments there exists a high amputation rate. Circulating angiogenic cells previously known as early endothelial progenitor cells are derived from peripheral blood and support angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, providing a potential topical treatment for non-healing diabetic foot ulcers. A scaffold fabricated from Type 1 collagen facilitates topical cell delivery to a diabetic wound. Osteopontin is a matricellular protein involved in wound healing and increases the angiogenic potential of circulating angiogenic cells. A collagen scaffold seeded with circulating angiogenic cells was developed. Subsequently the effect of autologous circulating angiogenic cells that were seeded in a collagen scaffold and topically delivered to a hyperglycemic cutaneous wound was assessed. The alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit ear ulcer model was used to determine healing in response to the following treatments: collagen seeded with autologous circulating angiogenic cells exposed to osteopontin, collagen seeded with autologous circulating angiogenic cells, collagen alone and untreated wound. Stereology was used to assess angiogenesis in wounds. The cells exposed to osteopontin and seeded on collagen increased percentage wound closure as compared to other groups. Increased angiogenesis was observed with the treatment of collagen and collagen seeded with circulating angiogenic cells. These results demonstrate that topical treatment of full thickness cutaneous ulcers with autologous circulating angiogenic cells increases wound healing. Cells exposed to the matricellular protein osteopontin result in superior wound healing. The wound healing benefit is associated with a more efficient vascular network. This topical therapy provides a potential novel therapy for the treatment of non

  18. Níveis glicêmicos e de colesterol em ratos com Diabetes Mellitus aloxano induzido, tratados com infusão de Bauhinia candicans ou Syzygium Jambolanum Glucose and cholesterol plasma levels in rats with alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus treated with infusion of Bauhinia candicans or Syzygium Jambolanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Mendes Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência de infusão de duas plantas usadas na medicina popular, Syzygium jambolanum (Sj e Bauhinia candicans (Bc. Sessenta (60 ratos adultos, machos, da linhagem Wistar, pesando entre 220 e 240g, foram submetidos à indução de Diabetes mellitus insulino dependente (DMID com Aloxano. O estudo foi dividido em dois experimentos. No primeiro, 15 ratos receberam a administração de Aloxano na dosagem de 40mg/kg em dose única e no segundo, 60mg/kg uma vez ao dia, durante três dias, ambos por via intraperitonial. A hiperglicemia foi confirmada no terceiro dia de cada experimento. Após esta confirmação, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de cinco e quinze animais para o primeiro e segundo experimento, respectivamente. O grupo 1 (C serviu como controle, o grupo 2 (TI recebeu infusão de Sj "ad libitum" como fonte líquida e o grupo 3 (TII recebeu infusão de Bc, por um período de 21 e 40 dias, para o primeiro e segundo experimento, respectivamente. A colheita de sangue foi realizada por punção do plexo venoso retro-orbitário com os animais anestesiados, nos dias 3, 9, 16 e 23 do primeiro experimento e nos dias 3, 16, 24 e 40 do segundo. Após vinte e um dias da fase de tratamento, o grupo TI do primeiro experimento apresentou marcante redução de hiperglicemia (P The present study verified the efficiency of two plants used in folk medicine for the reduction of hyperglycemia in diabetic people. Sixty adult male wistar rats, with body weights ranging from 220 to 240g were treated with Alloxan to induce insulin-dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Two experiments were performed. In the first, 15 rats were treated with a single dose of alloxan (40mg/kg, i.p.; while in the second experiment animals received 60mg/kg, daily for three days. Three days after the last injection, hyperglycemia was confirmed. Positive animals were allocated into 3 groups of 5 and 15 rats for experiments I and II

  19. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. ► Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. ► Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. ► L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. ► Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg −1 body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-κB. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be

  20. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  1. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Olive Oil in Normal and Diabetic Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazza, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The lipid hydroperoxide level and lipid profile were investigated in plasma of normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with olive oil for six weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in the levels of hydroperoxide, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The administration of olive oil showed a better profile in the lipid as well as decreases in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides either in normal or diabetic rats. The results are discussed according to antioxidant property of olive oil. (author)

  2. Alloxan-induced diabetes, a common model for evaluating the glycemic-control potential of therapeutic compounds and plants extracts in experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro

    Full Text Available Glycemic homeostasis refers to glucose balance or control within circulation in living organisms. It is normally and largely compromised in diabetes. The compromise when exacerbated, leads to several complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy which are collectively known as diabetic complications and are the principal actors in co-morbidity and eventual mortality often associated with diabetes. The ability of therapeutic compounds including medicinal plants to restore glycemic balance or homeostasis in hyperglycemic condition is an index of their antidiabetic function and relevance. Alloxan and streptozotocin are the most popular diabetogenic agents used for assessing the antidiabetic or hypoglycemic capacity of test compounds. Notably, alloxan is far less expensive and more readily available than streptozotocin. On this ground, one will logically expect a preference for use of alloxan in experimental diabetes studies. Surprisingly, a sub meta-analysis of randomly selected studies conducted within the last one and half decade revealed otherwise. This observation necessitated the review of alloxan as a diabetogenic agent in animal studies. Keywords: Alloxan, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin, Animals

  3. Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica Plenck and Cassia absus L. extracts reduce oxidative stress, alloxan induced hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Tipu, M.K.; Ali, H.

    2018-01-01

    The nature's endowment of medicinal plants in successful management of diabetes necessitates their further exploration. Therefore, the present study was designed to comprehend ameliorating role of Brassica oleracea var. italic (BO) and Cassia absus (CA) in oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications. Among all the extracts of BO and CA, aqueous extract was the most proficient in terms of extract recovery (9.0 and 10.2%) and DPPH radical scavenging efficiency (IC50 = 11.90 +- 1.70 and 8.26 +- 1.20 mu g/ml) respectively. Maximum phenolic content [BO = 184.0 +- 0.17 and CA = 406.7 +- 0.08 mu g gallic acid equivalent/mg extract (E)], flavonoid content (BO = 160.9 +- 0.1 and CA = 361.9 +- 0.09 mu g quercetin equivalent/mg E) and total antioxidant capacity (BO = 223.7 +- 0.20 and CA = 257.2 +- 3.30 mu g ascorbic acid equivalent/mg E) was recorded in their ethanol extract. Highest reducing power potential was quantified in BO ethanol and CA aqueous extractsas 427.9 +- 0.10 and 480.0 +- 2.10mu g ascorbic acid equivalent/mg E respectively. Brine shrimp assay expounded petroleum ether extract of BO and CA to have some cytotoxicity (LC50 = 200+- 2.3 and 86.6 +- 3.1 mu g/ml respectively). In vivo studies established their aqueous extract as proficient in reducing the serum glucose (BO = 142.3 +- 7.10 and CA = 161.5 +- 4.40 mg/dl at day 21) as well as blood cholesterol, ALT and urea levels. Findings of the present study prospects BO and CA a useful treatment of diabetes and its escorting complications. (author)

  4. Effects of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum in alloxan-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    8613170662021. (Zhi et al., 2004; Gan et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2004). LBP have been recently studied for their physiological and pharmaceutical activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of LBP in alloxan-induced.

  5. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF HELIOTROPIUM STRIGOSUM IN RAT MODELS OF TYPE I AND TYPE II DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Akram, Adnan; Aslam, Naveed; Asif, Muhammad; Wajid, Muhammad; Kinfe, Thomas; Jabeen, Qaiser; Muhammad, Sajjad

    2016-11-01

    Heliotropiumz stnigosum Wilid. (Boraginaceae) is used traditionally as a laxative, diuretic, and as a treatment for snake bites and stings of nettles. Recent investigations have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of H. sorigosum. However, antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of H. strigosum has not been investigated to date and we aimed to explore these activities of the crude aqueous methanolic extract of thEaerial parts of H. strigosum (Hs.Cr). Hs.Cr was administered orally at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (type I diabetes) and fructose-fed rats (type II diabetes). The fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration was assessed by glucometer, while semum total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL were estimated by using standard kits. The FBG concentration significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in dose-dependent pattern in both alloxan-induced diabetic and fructose-fed rats on Hs.Cr administration. The percentage glucose reductions in alloxanized rats with glibenclamide, Hs.Cr 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg were obeserved to be 67, 36, 56 and 62%, respectively. In fructose-fed rats, the percentage glucose redutions associated with metformin, Hs.Cr 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg were 23, 5, 11 and 12%, respectively. The extract also corrected the dyslipidemia associated with fructose and alloxan-induced diabetes by significantly (p < 0.00 1) decreasing the concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and by increasing HDL concentration. Our data demonstrate that the H. stigosum has antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effects, thus encouraging further studies.

  6. Analysis of protein profiles in diabetic rat blood plasma that induced by alloxan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Setiyawan, Hengki; Trisnawati, Indah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis

    2017-06-01

    Proteomics is the study to identify the proteins involved in physiological metabolic pathway. The protein profiles of blood plasma from alloxan-induced diabetic rats has investigated using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Data were analyzed descriptively based on variations of the type and intensity of the protein. There were identified the similarity of protein variant between diabetic and control rats included ankyrin (200kDa), IgG (150kDa), nephrin (136 kDa), IDE (112 kDA), albumin (66 kDa), prealbumin (55 kDA), CICP (43 kDa), ApoA-V (39 kDa), GAPDH (35 kDa), C-RP (27,1 kDa), leptin (16 kDa) and apelin (13 kDa). However, the apelin profile at diabetic rats shows the higher intensity than control.

  7. Hypoglicemic activity of gambier (Uncaria gambir robx.) drinks in alloxan-induced mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebua, E. A.; Silalahi, J.; Julianti, E.

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes may cause complications in various parts of the body and increase the risk of early death. Gambier contains bioactive compounds and can be used as raw material in preparing gambier drink. The purpose of this study was to extract gambier, to determine the hypoglycemic activity of gambier drinks in alloxan-induced mice. In this study, gambier were extracted by 3 types of solvents with distilled water, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The gambier drinks was tested on 5 groups of mice wich consisting of 5 male mice. Group 1 was given 0.5% CMC 1%/bw, group 2 was given metformin 65 mg/kg bw, groups 3, 4 and 5 were given gambier drinks with dosage of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg bw. The results showed that extraction using distiled water produced the best gambier drinks. Gambier drinks with dosage 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bb given for 15 days decreased the blood glucose level 27.69%, 38.75%, and 50.62% respectively, and increased the body weight 13.14%, 10, 91%, and 10.18% respectively. Treatment with gambier drinks was found to improve the condition of pancreatic langerhans island of alloxan-induced mice.

  8. Ultrastructural evaluation of the effects of cinnamon on the nervus ischiadicus in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahceci, Selen; Akkus, Murat; Aluclu, Mehmet U; Canoruc, Naime; Bahceci, Mithat; Gokalp, Deniz; Baran, Sedat; Akbalik, Mehmet E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of oral cinnamon supplementation on the nervus ischiadicus at the electron microscopical level in rats. This study was performed between 2004-2006 in Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey in 15 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups; control (C) (n=5), diabetic without cinnamon (D) (n=5), and diabetic with cinnamon (D-C) (n=5). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal alloxan administration. All diabetic rats were treated with human insulin. All rats were fed with standard pellet chow. The D-C group rats were fed with standard pellet chow plus Cinnamomum cassia at the dose of 400mg/kg. All rats were sacrificed after 3 months and we obtained the nervus ischiadicus of all rats. Contrast stained thin sections evaluated by Jeol-TEM-1010 electron microscope, were not statistically different in both groups and photo samples were obtained. Mean blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, and lipid profile were not statistically different in both groups. Marked detachment of myelin lamellae at Schmidt-Lanterman clefts, lysis in cristae mitochondrialis and degenerative changes, severe dispersion of organelles in neurolemma, mesoaxon region, and remarkable edema at the endoneurium were found in diabetic rats. On the contrary, mesoaxon, nucleus, nucleolus and myelin sheet were almost of normal appearance at the ultra-structural level in the D-C group. Cinnamon extracts may have beneficial effects on the development of diabetic neuropathy in alloxan induced diabetic rats. (author)

  9. [Study of acetylsalicylic acid role in the potentiation of antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties of piracetam in rats with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A E; Mamchur, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that prolonged alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats potentiates amnesic properties of scopolamine hydrobromide. It was characterized by shortening of the latent period by 44% (ppiracetam with acetylsalicylic acid was accompanied by an expressed antiamnetic potential - the reduction of early markers of proteins degradation (aldehydephenylhydrazones, APH) by 21,7% (ppiracetam according to the effect upon KPH. NO2-/NO3- level was also decreased by 30,3% (ppiracetam may be assumed to be directly related to the ability of acetylsalicylic acid to improve microcirculation in the ischemic areas of the brain in diabetes and probably to its neuroprotective potential.

  10. β-Cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore extract against alloxan-induced oxidative stress via regulation of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Entaz; Akter, Kazi-Marjahan; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Rashid, Harun-Or; Choi, Min-Kyung; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Hossain, Mir Mohammad Monir; Ara, Joushan; Mazumder, Kishor; Raihan, Obayed; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-03-29

    Medicinal plants are becoming more popular in the treatment of various diseases because of the adverse effects of the current therapy, especially antioxidant plant components such as phenols and flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases like diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore. The in-vitro study was conducted by the pancreatic β-cell culture and α-amylase inhibition technique which includes two methods, namely starch-iodine method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method. On the other hand, the in-vivo study was performed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) method and alloxan-induced diabetes method by using Wistar albino rat. At the end pancreatic specimens were removed and processed for histopathological study. The plant extract showed significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia as compared to standard (Gliclazide) in OGTT. The plant extract showed efficient protection activity of pancreatic β-cell from cell death in INS-1 cell line by significantly reduced (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) the levels alloxan-induced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In addition, the plant extract showed a significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia by increases in percent of β-cells present in each islet (45% - 60%) compared to the diabetic group. The result showed that C. crepidioides had β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities in pancreatic β-cell culture and Wistar albino rat.

  11. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  12. Experimental study on early detection of alloxan-induced pulmonary injury by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awai, Kazuo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Susumu; Fujikawa, Koichi; Utsumi, Toshio; Kajima, Toshio; Azuma, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Katsuhide.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the early detection of alloxan-induced pulmonary injury by magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Permeability edema was induced in ten rats by intravenous injection of alloxan at 100 mg/Kg. T1-and T2-weighted images were acquired in five rats every 30 min for 120 min after alloxan injection. Five rats served as controls. The rats were sacrificed immediately after imaging and examined microscopically. CT images were also acquired in five rats every 30 min for 120 min after alloxan injection. Five rats served as controls. The rats were sacrificed immediately after imaging, and the wet-to-dry ratio of the lung was measured. In T1-weighted images, relative signal intensity from the lung with permeability edema rose from 30 min to 120 min, and was greater than that from normal lung every time. In T2-weighted images, there was no statistically significant difference in relative signal intensity of the lung between permeability edema and the control during 120 min. In CT images, there was also no statistically significant difference in lung density between permeability edema and the control during 120 min. There was no statistically significant difference in the wet-to-dry lung ratio between edematous lung and normal lung. In histological study, mild congestion and interstitial edema were observed in edematous lung. These results suggest the potential capability of MR imaging in detecting the early phase of permeability pulmonary edema. (author)

  13. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  14. Amelioration of Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycemia by Touraine Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharoud, M.N.M.; Mahmoud, A.H.; Abbas, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and altered intermediary metabolism of major nutrients associated with absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and /or resistance to its action. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of taurine, in diabetic rats induced by alloxan as a result of induction of diabetes mellitus. Glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin (Hb A1 c), serum lipids profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL), lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) in liver tissue were increased significantly. This effect was concomitant with a significant decrease in serum insulin level, body weight and the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH), glutathione reductase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S transferase (GST) in liver as well. The administration of taurine to diabetic rats minimized the harmful effects accompanied with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Suggesting that oxidative stress plays a key role in diabetes and treatment with taurine is useful in controlling not only the glucose and lipid levels but all these components may also be helpful in strengthening the antioxidant potential

  15. Amelioration of Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycemia by Touraine Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharoud, M.N.M.; Mahmoud, A.H.; Abbas, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and altered intermediary metabolism of major nutrients associated with absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and /or resistance to its action. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of taurine, in diabetic rats induced by alloxan as a result of induction of diabetes mellitus. Glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum lipids profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL), lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) in liver tissue were increased significantly. This effect was concomitant with a significant decrease in serum insulin level, body weight and the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH), glutathione reductase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S transferase (GST) in liver as well. The administration of taurine to diabetic rats minimized the harmful effects accompanied with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Suggesting that oxidative stress plays a key role in diabetes and treatment with taurine is useful in controlling not only the glucose and lipid levels but all these components may also be helpful in strengthening the antioxidant potential

  16. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  17. Kidney and Liver Function Parameters in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. The effect of alloxan diabetes on the activity of some mixed function oxidases in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjar, A; Stoytchev, T

    1990-01-01

    The effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the duration of hexobarbital sleep (HB sleep) the activity of ethylmorphine-N-demethylase (EMND), aniline hydroxylase (AH), the content of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and b5, on the activity of ethoxycumarine-0-deethylase (ECOD) and ethoxyresorufine-0-deethylase (EROD) after induction with beta naphthoflavone (beta-NF), as well as the activity of benzphetamine-N-demethylase and pentoxyresorufine-O-dealkylase (PROD) after induction with phenobarbital (PB), was studied in experiments on male Wistar rats. In rats with alloxan diabetes there was a significant prolongation of HB sleep (by 106%) and inhibition of the liver EMND (by 54%), while the AH activity increased by 131%, with a parallel rise in the content of microsomal cytochromes P-450 (by 67%) and b5 (by 113%). In rats with alloxan diabetes the enzyme-inducing effect of beta-NF with respect to the activities of EROD and ECOD is reduced, although diabetes by itself causes a rise in the ECOD activity in untreated animals. When induced with PB, the PROD and benzphetamine-N-demethylase activity in diabetic rats is lower than in the healthy animals. However, if the enzyme activity after the application of inducers is referred to the respective starting enzyme activities of the two groups of animals, it is found that the enzyme-inducing effect of PB is preserved and even slightly potentiated in the diabetic rats compared with the healthy ones: the increases in the benzphetamine-N-demethylase activity is by 60% in the diabetic rats, compared with a rise of 28% in the healthy animals, of the PROD activity 19 times for the diabetic compared with 16 times increase for the healthy rats.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND CURCUMA LONGA IN AMELIORATING DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.; FARAG, M.F.S.; DARWISH, M.M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes leads to the overproduction of free radicals and the evidence is increasing because these radicals are responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is an important microvascular complication and one of the main causes of end stage renal disease. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that combined treatment with Nigella sativa (NS) and Curcuma longa (CL) is more effective than each of them alone in improving renal function and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Diabetes was induced in male albino rats with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Two weeks after alloxan injection, rats were divided into five groups; control, diabetic and diabetic rats received either NS (10ml/kg/day), or CL (80mg/kg/day) and their combination by gastric intubation for 4 weeks.Diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in TBARS (lipid peroxidation marker) was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in GSH content, SOD and CAT activities in the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion of NS and/or CL extract for 4 weeks has attenuated the oxidative stress in the kidney and reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats by lowering blood glucose levels, increased plasma insulin and restored body weight loss and renal function.These results confirm the role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetic nephropathy and point to the possible anti-oxidative mechanism being responsible for the nephroprotective action of NS and CL.

  20. Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, L A; Soladoye, A O

    2007-06-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the primary causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Agents that improve lipid profile and reduce oxidative stress have been shown to reduce the ensuing risk factors. In the present study, we investigated whether increased magnesium intake could improve hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and reduce oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic (ND), diabetic (DM) and diabetic fed on a high magnesium diet (DM-Mg) groups. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma levels of ascorbic acid, magnesium and calcium were also determined. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan (100 mg/kg B.W). The fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the DM-Mg rats than in the DM rats. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, TBARS levels were significantly higher while plasma HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio, ascorbic acid levels were significantly lowered in DM rats compared with the ND rats. Increased intake of magnesium significantly abrogated these alterations. There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of magnesium and calcium between the DM and ND groups. However, plasma levels of magnesium but not calcium were significantly elevated in DM-Mg rats when compared with other groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that diet rich in magnesium could exert cardioprotective effect through reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, oxidative stress and ameliorated HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio as well as increased plasma ascorbic acid and magnesium in diabetic rats.

  1. Sodium Orthovanadate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Prevents Neuronal Parameters Decline and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

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    Pardeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is the most important contributor in the onset and progress of diabetic complications mainly by producing oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to observe, the antihyperglycemic effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, membrane linked enzymes (monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, Ca2+ATPase, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in brain of the alloxan induced diabetic rats and to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for three weeks. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia with almost four fold high blood glucose levels. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and Ca2+ATPase decreased in diabetic rat brain. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of intracellular Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, neurolipofuscin accumulations and monoamine oxidase activity. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, SOV and a combined therapy of lower dose of SOV with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin accumulation. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml could be used in combination with TSP in normalization of altered metabolic parameters and membrane linked enzymes without any harmful side effect.

  2. Sodium Orthovanadate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Prevents Neuronal Parameters Decline and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kumar, Nitin; Kumar, Vinod; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most important contributor in the onset and progress of diabetic complications mainly by producing oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to observe, the antihyperglycemic effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, membrane linked enzymes (monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, Ca2+ATPase), intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in brain of the alloxan induced diabetic rats and to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight) and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for three weeks. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia with almost four fold high blood glucose levels. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and Ca2+ATPase decreased in diabetic rat brain. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of intracellular Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, neurolipofuscin accumulations and monoamine oxidase activity. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, SOV and a combined therapy of lower dose of SOV with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin accumulation. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml) could be used in combination with TSP in normalization of altered metabolic parameters and membrane linked enzymes without any harmful side effect.

  3. Lipidemic effects of common edible oils and risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic Wistar rats

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    Olulola Olutoyin Oladapo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic state potentiates atherosclerosis and the type of edible oil consumed by the individual may affect this further. This study aimed to determine if the common edible oils in Nigeria have any effects on the lipid profiles and arteries of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of normal control, diabetic control, animals on diet enriched with refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO, animals on diet enriched with soya oil, and animals on diet enriched with olive oil. At the end of 8 weeks, the lipid profiles of the animals were determined before sacrificing them. Their aortas were subsequently harvested for histological examination. RESULTS: The olive oil fed group had the highest level of total cholesterol (TC, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C, lowest HDL-C, and highest artherogenic index (AI. Diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had a lower non-HDL-C, higher HDL-C, and lower AI than diabetic animals fed on olive oil or soya oil. However, the diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had the highest triglyceride level. When the aortas were examined histologically, there were no atherosclerotic lesions in all the control and experimental groups except those fed on 10% soya oil enriched diet that had type II atherosclerotic lesions according to American Heart Association (AHA. CONCLUSION: The result of our study showed that RBD-PO appears to offer a better lipid profile in the diabetic animals compared with olive oil and soya oil. Soya oil appears to cause the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic state.   

  4. The optimal extraction parameters and anti-diabetic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetic activity of FIBL on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. The optimal extraction parameters of FIBL were obtained by single factor test and orthogonal test, as follows: ethanol concentration 60 %, ratio of solvent to raw material 30 ...

  5. Targeting the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio by L-arginine and SOD mimic in diabetic rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Ferreri, Carla; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2016-11-01

    Setting the correct ratio of superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) and nitric oxide ( • NO) radicals seems to be crucial in restoring disrupted redox signaling in diabetic skin and improvement of • NO physiological action for prevention and treatment of skin injuries in diabetes. In this study we examined the effects of L-arginine and manganese(II)-pentaazamacrocyclic superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic - M40403 in diabetic rat skin. Following induction of diabetes by alloxan (blood glucose level ≥12 mMol l  -1 ) non-diabetic and diabetic male Mill Hill hybrid hooded rats were divided into three subgroups: (i) control, and receiving: (ii) L-arginine, (iii) M40403. Treatment of diabetic animals started after diabetes induction and lasted for 7 days. Compared to control, lower cutaneous immuno-expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), manganese SOD (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), in parallel with increased NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nitrotyrosine levels characterized diabetic skin. L-arginine and M40403 treatments normalized alloxan-induced increase in nitrotyrosine. This was accompanied by the improvement/restitution of eNOS and HO1 or MnSOD and GSH-Px protein expression levels in diabetic skin following L-arginine, i.e. SOD mimic treatments, respectively. The results indicate that L-arginine and M40403 stabilize redox balance in diabetic skin and suggest the underlying molecular mechanisms. Restitution of skin redox balance by L-arginine and M40403 may represent an effective strategy to ameliorate therapy of diabetic skin.

  6. Induction of Severe Chronic Hyperplastic Candidiasis in Rat by Opportunistic Infection of C. albicans through Combination of Diabetes and Intermittent Prednisolone Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis progresses from squamous cell hyperplasia to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, the oncogenic mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we attempted to induce opportunistic Candida albicans infection and establish chronic hyperplastic candidiasis in rats by combining diabetic condition and prednisolone administration, followed by analysis of the inflammatory cells involved in the disease progression. Female Wistar Bunn/Kobori (WBN/Kob) rats were divided into 3 groups: alloxan-induced diabetic rats (A group) along with diabetic (AP group) and nondiabetic (P group) rats intermittently treated with prednisolone. Animals were euthanized at 42 weeks of age. Squamous cell hyperplasia following C. albicans infection in the forestomach was observed in almost all AP and A group rats. The lesions in the AP group were significantly more severe than those in the A group. In addition, SCC was detected in 1 AP group animal. Cluster of differentiation (CD)4-positive T cell and CD68-positive macrophage infiltration in the AP group was significantly stronger than that in the A group. These findings suggest that the combination of diabetes and intermittent prednisolone administration could induce chronic hyperplastic candidiasis without direct C. albicans inoculation and that CD4-positive T cells and CD68-positive macrophages may be highly involved in the pathogenesis of these hyperplastic lesions.

  7. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  8. Investigation of antihyperglycaemic activity of banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud rasa bale) pseudostem in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Zameer, Farhan; Prasad, M N Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetes could be ameliorated by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidases, responsible for starch hydrolysis and its absorption. Different parts of banana have been in use in conventional medicinal formulations since ancient times. Its role as an antihyperglycaemic agent has also been studied. This study was aimed at explaining the mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect by ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE). Additionally, studies on the active components involved in the effect have also been attempted. EE significantly inhibited mammalian intestinal α-glucosidases and yeast α-glucosidase (IC50 , 8.11 ± 0.10 µg mL(-1) ). The kinetic studies showed that EE inhibited sucrase, maltase and and p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside hydrolysis by mixed-type inhibition. Further, in vivo studies identified that the oral administration (100-200 mg kg(-1) body weight) of EE significantly suppressed the maltose/glucose-induced postprandial plasma glucose elevation and wielded an antihyperglycaemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. GC-MS analysis of EE revealed high levels of β-sitosterol (29.62%), stigmasterol (21.91%), campesterol (10.85%) and other compounds. These findings suggest that EE might exert an anti-diabetic effect by inhibition of α-glucosidases from the intestine, in turn suppressing the carbohydrate absorption into the bloodstream. Hence the results extend a foundation to the future prospects of the food-derived enzyme inhibitors in treatment of diabetes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of crude extracts and chromatographic fractions of Morinda morindoides root bark in diabetic rats

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    Johnny Olufemi Olukunle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of different extracts and fractions of root bark from the plant Morinda morindoides (Baker Milne-Redh of the family Rubiaceae were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were administered to 48 rats orally at a dose of 400 mg·kg-1 for 21 days. Fractions (hydromethanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate from bio-activity guided fractionation and chromatographic sub fractions (CsF A-F from accelerated gradient chromatography were also evaluated in 45 rats for the hypoglycaemic activity at doses of 400 mg·kg-1, 200 mg·kg-1 and 100 mg·kg-1 of solvent fractions and (CsF A-F, respectively. Glibenclamide was used as positive control. Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and distilled water administered to rats were used as negative controls. The dose of 400 mg·kg-1 of aqueous and methanolic extracts and 100 mg·kg-1 of chloroform CsF B of Morinda morindoides caused (62.8%, 56% and 74%, respectively reductions in blood glucose level (BGL. The aqueous extract caused significant (P -1, low density lipoprotein (66.38 ± 2.5 mg·dl-1 and significant (P -1 when compared to the control. These results confirm the folkloric claim of the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities of Morinda morindoides root bark.

  10. Analysis of the influence of low-power HeNe laser on the healing of skin wounds in diabetic and non-diabetic rats

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    Carvalho Paulo de Tarso Camillo de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the influence of HeNe laser irradiation on the collagen percentage in surgically-induced skin wounds in rats with and without alloxan-induced diabetes, by morphometric analysis of collagen fibers. METHODS: 48 male Wistar rats were used, divided into groups: laser-treated diabetic (group 1; untreated diabetic (group 2; treated non-diabetic (group 3; and untreated non-diabetic (group 4. For groups 1 and 2, diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of alloxan (2,4,5,6-tetraoxypyrimidine; 5,6-dioxyuracil; Sigma, into the dorsal vein of the penis, at a rate of 0.1 ml of solution per 100 g of body weight. A wound was made on the back of all the animals. Groups 1 and 3 were treated with HeNe laser (4 J/cm² for 60 s. One animal from each group was sacrificed on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days after wounding. Samples were taken, embedded in paraffin, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome, and morphometrically analyzed using the Imagelab software. The percentages of collagen fibers were determined from the samples from the euthanasia animals. The data were treated statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Student t and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance level was set at 0.05 or 5%. RESULTS: The results obtained from the samples taken on the third, seventh and fourteenth days after wounding demonstrated that the laser-treated group presented a statistically significant (p<0.05 greater mean quantity of collagen fibers than in the non-treated group, both for diabetic rats (p = 0.0104 and for non-diabetic rats (p = 0.039. CONCLUSION: The low-power laser (632.8 nm was shown to be capable of influencing the collagen percentage in skin wounds by increasing the mean quantity of collagen fibers, both for the diabetic and for the non-diabetic group.

  11. ACUTE EFFECT OF FLUCONAZOLE, ITRACONAZOLE AND VORICONAZOLE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE IN NORMOGLYCEAMIC & DIABETIC RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

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    Jadhav Amol, Nayak BB, Vakade Kiran P, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Vijay Kumar AN, Vrushali Nibrad, Raul AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fungal and antimicrobials are frequently co-prescribed either to manage or treat either the secondary complications or other diseases. Among antifungal drugs Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriconazole are most commonly used. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effect of Voriconazole as well as other antifungal drugs on blood Glucose level. Aim & Objectives: 1. To Study the effect of Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriaconazole in Normoglycemic & Diabetic Rats on Blood Glucose. 2. To compare the effects between all drugs. Material & Methodology: Grouping: Animals divided into 8 groups in each group 6 animals. Group 1- 4: Normoglycemic rats, Group 5-8 Diabetic rats (alloxan induced Group 1,5: received vehicle (Normal saline Group 2,6: received Fluconazole (18mg/kg BW, Group 3,7 received Itraconazole (18mg/kg BW Group 4,8 received Voriconazole (18mg/kg BW. The glucose levels were estimated by Glucometer method (Accu-check active at the interval of 0, ½ hr, 1hrs, 2hrs & 4hrs after drug administration. Results: Effect on blood glucose in Normoglycemic Rats: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value= 0.0102 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.0001. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in normoglycemic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole. Effect on blood glucose in Diabetic Rats: (Table 2: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value=0.013 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.001 in acute studies. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in diabetic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole treated. Conclusion: Itraconazole, Fluconazole can be safely used in diabetic with fungal infections. Voriconazole should be avoided in diabetics to

  12. Early energy metabolism-related molecular events in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats: The effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancic, Ana; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2017-06-25

    Considering the vital role of skeletal muscle in control of whole-body metabolism and the severity of long-term diabetic complications, we aimed to reveal the molecular pattern of early diabetes-related skeletal muscle phenotype in terms of energy metabolism, focusing on regulatory mechanisms, and the possibility to improve it using two redox modulators, l-arginine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg) were treated with l-arginine or the highly specific SOD mimic, M40403, for 7 days. As appropriate controls, non-diabetic rats received the same treatments. We found that l-arginine and M40403 restored diabetes-induced impairment of phospho-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) signaling by upregulating AMPKα protein itself and its downstream effectors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Also, there was a restitution of the protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components (complex I, complex II and complex IV) and mitofusin 2. Furthermore, l-arginine and M40403 induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the membrane and upregulation of protein of phosphofructokinase and acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, diminishing negative diabetic effects on limiting factors of glucose and lipid metabolism. Both treatments abolished diabetes-induced downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase proteins (SERCA 1 and 2). Similar effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic treatments suggest that disturbances in the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio may be responsible for skeletal muscle mitochondrial and metabolic impairment in early diabetes. Our results provide evidence that l-arginine and SOD mimics have potential in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances accompanying this widespread metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  14. Effects of a triplex mixture of Peganum harmala, Rhus coriaria, and Urtica dioica aqueous extracts on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi Gaballu, Fereydoon; Abedi Gaballu, Yousef; Moazenzade Khyavy, Omid; Mardomi, Alireza; Ghahremanzadeh, Kazem; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Mamandy, Himan

    2015-08-01

    Several therapeutic effects such as antioxidant and blood glucose-lowering activities have been reported for Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) (PH) seeds, Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) (RC) fruits, and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) (UD) leaves. This study investigates the effects of a triplex mixture (1:1:1) of these medicinal plants on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats. Aqueous extracts of PH, RC and UD were administered as either monotherapy or in combination at a final dose of 200 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily gavage. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, liver function-related enzymes, lipid profile, and creatinine were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Tissues from the liver and kidney stained with hematoxylin/eosin were histologically examined. The results obtained from the exposure groups were compared to either healthy or diabetic control groups. Compared with the diabetic control rats, all aqueous extracts (ED50 = 11.5 ± 2.57 mg/ml) led to significant decreases in the levels of ALP (1.39-2.23-fold, p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.79-3.26-fold, p < 0.05), and blood glucose (1.27-4.16-fold, p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of TG was decreased only by treatment with UD and triplex mixture (1.25- and 1.20-fold, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the studied parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), LDL-C, TG, and creatinine recovered to healthy control levels after 4 weeks of treatment with the extract mixture. This study showed that PH, RC, and UD extracts, especially their combination, had significant antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and liver and renal damage recovering effects.

  15. The effect of dental bleaching on pulpal tissue response in a diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, L T A; Ferreira, L L; Benetti, F; Gastélum, A A; Gomes-Filho, J E; Ervolino, E; Briso, A L F

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate pulpal tissue response after dental bleaching in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight rats were divided into two groups of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats (n = 14). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced with alloxan. After DM confirmation, all rats were anaesthetized and dental bleaching was performed with 35% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the right maxillary molars for 30 min. Left molars were used as controls. Bleaching resulted in four hemimaxillae groups: normoglycaemic (N), N-bleached (NBle), diabetic (D) and D-bleached (DBle). After 2 or 30 days, the animals were euthanized and the hemimaxillae were removed, processed for histopathological analysis and stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson's trichrome (MT) and picrosirius red (PSR). Results obtained within animals (normoglycaemic or diabetic rats) were submitted to Wilcoxon or paired t-tests, and between animal (normoglycaemic and diabetic rats), to Mann-Whitney test or t-tests. At 2 days, the NBle group had a mild inflammatory infiltration in the pulpal tissue, whilst the DBle had severe inflammation or necrosis (P bleaching was greater in diabetic rats. Additionally, the increase in reactionary dentine deposition and mature collagen fibres observed in diabetic rats needs further evaluation to confirm the present results. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-01-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte? immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We enca...

  17. X-ray lethality in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cember, H.; Thorson, T.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin and were irradiated with X-rays at various exposure levels in order to determine the LD-50/30 day dose. Non-diabetic control rats were exposed in a similar manner. The LD-50 exposures for the diabetic rats and the control rats were 436 R, and 617 R respectively. In view of the high prevalence of diabetes among the adult population, this finding may have important implications for diabetic workers who may be exposed accidentally to high levels of ionizing radiation

  18. Curcumin Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy in Experimental Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yu, Jinqiang; Ke, Feng; Lan, Mei; Li, Dekun; Tan, Ke; Ling, Jiaojiao; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kaili; Li, Dai

    2018-03-29

    To investigate the potential protective effects of curcumin on the retina in diabetic rats. An experimental diabetic rat model was induced by a low dose of streptozotocin combined with a high-energy diet. Rats which had blood glucose levels ≥11.6 mmol/L were used as diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic rats with no treatment (DM), diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 100 mg/kg), and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 200 mg/kg). Curcumin was orally administered daily for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of administration, the rats were euthanized, and eyes were dissected. Retinal histology was examined, and the thickness of the retina was measured. Ultrastructural changes of retinal ganglion cells, inner layer cells, retinal capillary, and membranous disks were observed by electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were measured by ELISA. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retina tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and ELISA. Expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in retina tissues were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Curcumin reduced the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats and decreased diabetes-induced body weight loss. Curcumin prevented attenuation of the retina in diabetic rats and ameliorated diabetes-induced ultrastructure changes of the retina, including thinning of the retina, apoptosis of the retinal ganglion cells and inner nuclear layer cells, thickening of retinal capillary basement membrane and disturbance of photoreceptor cell membranous disks. We also found that curcumin has a strong antioxidative ability in the retina of diabetic rats. It was observed that curcumin attenuated the expression of VEGF in the retina of diabetic rats. We also discovered that curcumin had an antiapoptotic effect by upregulating the expression of Bcl-2 and downregulating

  19. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  20. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  1. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  2. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1999-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...... treated with either saline or adrenergic antagonists and compared to controls and sham-operated controls, respectively. 24-hour urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14, and 21 and renal tissue samples on day 21. The 24-hour urinary excretion of EGF from controls and saline-treated diabetic rats...... was comparable. In adrenergic antagonist treated diabetic rats, it was reduced by at least 40% throughout the study period. Uninephrectomy caused a 50% reduction in the urinary excretion of EGF. This was not influenced by treatment with an adrenergic antagonist. After 3 weeks, saline-treated diabetic rats had...

  3. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow......Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisopus Manni Stem in Alloxan-Induced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osibemhe et al.

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of carbohydrate .... beta cells of the pancreas. The toxic action of alloxan on pancreatic beta cells ... Chronic hyperglycemia is known to precipitate complications in diabetes via formation of ...

  5. Inhibition of alloxan diabetes by low dose {gamma}-irradiation before alloxan administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Takehara, Yoshiki; Yoshioka, Tamotsu; Utsumi, Kozo

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of whole body {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation at a single low dose on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. (1) In rats that received alloxan, SOD activity in pancreas significantly decreased, but the decrease was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. (2) Similarly, plasma peroxide, pancreatic peroxide, and blood glucose increased. However, the increase in pancreatic peroxide was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy and the increase in blood glucose by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (3) After alloxan administration, degranulation was observed in cells, but this was inhibited by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. These results suggest that alloxan diabetes was inhibited by the increase of SOD activity in pancreas after low dose irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (author).

  6. Inhibition of alloxan diabetes by low dose γ-irradiation before alloxan administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Takehara, Yoshiki; Yoshioka, Tamotsu; Utsumi, Kozo.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of whole body 60 Co-γ irradiation at a single low dose on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. (1) In rats that received alloxan, SOD activity in pancreas significantly decreased, but the decrease was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. (2) Similarly, plasma peroxide, pancreatic peroxide, and blood glucose increased. However, the increase in pancreatic peroxide was inhibited by irradiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy and the increase in blood glucose by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (3) After alloxan administration, degranulation was observed in cells, but this was inhibited by irradiation at 0.5 Gy. These results suggest that alloxan diabetes was inhibited by the increase of SOD activity in pancreas after low dose irradiation at 0.5 Gy. (author)

  7. Effect of antioxidant extract from cherries on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, Tahsini

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has continuously increased worldwide over the past few decades. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in diabetic subjects have been reported. It has been suggested that enhanced production of free radicals and oxidative stress is the central event for the development of diabetic complications. Antioxidants can play an important role in the improvement of diabetes. There are many reports on the effects of antioxidants in the management of diabetes. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of antioxidant extract and purified sweet and sour Cherries on hyperglycemia, microalbumin and creatinine level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty six adult Male Wistar rats were divided equally into six groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by an intraperitoneal injection with 120 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Oral administration of cherry extract at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose, and urinary microalbumin. Also an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urine was observed in the diabetic rats treated with the cherry extract as compared to untreated diabetic rats. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of diabetes is used. In conclusion, cherry antioxidant extract proved to have a beneficial effect on the diabetic rats in this study. In light of these advantageous results, it is advisable to broaden the scale of use of sweet and sour cherries extract in a trial to alleviate the adverse effects of diabetes.

  8. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using 15 N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats

  9. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced

  10. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pC18:2) ratios. Greater vitaminE/triglyceride (TG) ratio, however, appeared in the control group. The corresponding vitamin A ratios (vitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected.

  11. Anti-diabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-diabetic potential of aqueous extracts of leaves of both Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina were investigated in rabbits. Ten female rabbits were grouped into five groups (1-5) of two rabbits each. Group 1 is the control. Groups (2-5) was alloxan induced diabetic. Group 3 was then treated with 200mg/kg ...

  12. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber Officinale on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilbis, LS. Vol 18, No 1 (2010) - Articles Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Root Extracts of Albizzia chevalieri in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Abstract PDF · Vol 18, No 1 (2010) - Articles Haematological and Antioxidant Properties of Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Rats Supplemented with Antioxidant Micronutrients

  14. The plant Extracts of Momordica Charantia and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Have Antioxidant and Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties for Cardiac Tissue During Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nath Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG extracts (aqueous on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p<0.001 and significant increase in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH contents in heart tissue of diabetic rats were observed (group V and VI upon MC and TFG treatment. Our studies demonstrate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue.

  15. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  16. Effects of L-Carnitine and Taurine on associated biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carnitine and taurine in healthy and alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Results showed that diabetic rats had significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, creatinine and the activity of serum asparate ...

  17. Telmisartan attenuates diabetes induced depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswar, Urmila; Chepurwar, Shilpa; Shintre, Sumit; Aswar, Manoj

    2017-04-01

    Role of brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well understood and various clinical studies have proposed neuroprotective effects of ARB's. It is also assumed that diabetic depression is associated with activation of brain RAS, HPA axis dysregulation and brain inflammatory events. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant effect of low dose telmisartan (TMS) in diabetes induced depression (DID) in rats. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin. After 21days of treatment the rats were subjected to forced swim test (FST). The rats, with increased immobility time, were considered depressed and were treated with vehicle or TMS (0.05mg/kg, po) or metformin (200mg/kg, po) or fluoxetine (20mg/kg, po). A separate group was also maintained to study the combination of metformin and TMS. At the end of 21days of treatments, FST, open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm were performed. Blood was drawn to estimate serum cortisol, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Persistent hyperglycemia resulted in depression and anxiety in rats as observed by increased immobility, reduced latency for immobility, reduced open arm entries and time spent. The depressed rats showed a significant rise in serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepression and anxiety. It also significantly attenuated serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepressive mood, reduces pro-inflammatory mediators and ameliorates the HPA axis function; thereby providing beneficial effects in DID. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  18. The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum have antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Uma Nath

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG) extracts (aqueous) on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI) of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day) and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day) extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (pMomordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue. PMID:20716916

  19. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  20. Efeito do extrato da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em ratos normais e diabéticos Syzygium cumini bark extract effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Melazzo Mazzanti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência do extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre o sistema colinérgico de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos com aloxano. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (C, tratado com Syzygium cumini (TS, diabético (D e diabético tratado com Syzygium cumini (DS. A atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE foi analisada nas seguintes estruturas cerebrais: cerebelo, córtex, estriado e hipocampo. O extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini na dose de 1g.kg-1 foi administrado diariamente por um período de trinta dias. Foi verificado após este período que o extrato inibiu a atividade da AChE no cerebelo e córtex cerebral dos ratos do grupo DS (PThe present study verified the efficiency of the bark ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini on the cholinergic system of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty-nine female rats were divided in control (C, treated with Syzygium cumini (TS, diabetic (D and diabetic treated with Syzygium cumini (DS. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE was analyzed in the following cerebral structures: cerebellum, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini in the dose of 1g.kg-1 was administered orally daily for a period of thirty days. After this period the extract inhibited the activity of the AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of the rats in the DS group (P<0.05 as, compared to TS. In the striatum there was a significant increase in the activity of the AChE in rats of the TS group (P<0.01 when compared to the C group, and in the hippocampus there was no significant variation. These results indicate that the bark extract of "Jambolão"has an inhibitory effect on AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex and an stimulatory effect on striatum, indicating a possible alteration in the functionality of the cholinergic system in such cerebral structures.

  1. Protective effect of melatonin in the diabetic rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzadi, Saeed; Motevalian, Manijeh; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Fatemi, Iman; Ghaznavi, Habib; Shahriari, Mansoor

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common and serious microvascular complications of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin (MEL) on retinal injury in diabetic rats. In this study, 21 rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic + MEL. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes at a dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p., and blood glucose was measured to choose the diabetic rats for the study. MEL (20 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 weeks in diabetic rats starting 1 week after induction of diabetes. After 8 weeks, the groups were compared in terms of mean scores of fluorescein leakage, using fluorescein angiography. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in retina using commercially available assays. Structural changes in retinas were evaluated by light microscopy. Results showed that diabetes significantly increased the mean scores of fluorescein leakage, and MDA and ROS levels compared to control group. Treatment of the diabetic rats with MEL for 7 weeks prevented the alterations induced by diabetes in comparison with the diabetic control group.Based on these findings, it can be concluded that MEL might have beneficial effects in prevention of DR. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties of Mucuna pruriens seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majekodunmi, Stephen O; Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Umukoro, Solomon; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2011-08-01

    To explore the antidiabetic properties of Mucuna pruriens(M. pruriens). Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice. Results showed that the administration of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose > 450 mg/dL) resulted in 18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day) resulted in 59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (Ppruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration of M. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes. The study clearly supports the traditional use of M. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fenugreek, A Potent Hypoglycaemic Herb Can Cause Central Hypothyroidism Via Leptin - A Threat To Diabetes Phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Jayjeet; Chakraborty, Pratip; Mitra, Analava; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Sarkar, Supriti

    2017-07-01

    Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum) , a medicinal herb with potent antihyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic effects, is used to treat diabetes. This study is aimed to explore the interaction of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and HPT (hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid) axis in context of leptin secretion which have important role in normal and type-1 diabetic subjects. FSE (confirmed to contain trigonelline, diosgenin, 4 hydroxyisoleucine) was gavaged (0.25 gm/kg body weight/day) to normal and alloxan-induced type-1 diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Expression of hypothalamic prepro-TRH (Thyrotropin releasing hormone) mRNA, serum levels of TRH, TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone), fT 3 , fT 4 , insulin, leptin, glucose; thyroperoxidase activity and growth of thyroid gland, food intake, adiposity index were also studied FSE significantly down regulated prepro-TRH mRNA expression; decreased serum TRH, TSH, fT 3 , fT 4 levels, and regressed thyroid gland in FSE-fed normal and diabetic rats than those observed in normal diet-fed control and diabetic rats. FSE decreased (psecretion, increased food intake and body weight in all FSE-fed rats. FSE improved insulin secretion, decreased glucose level but impaired HPT axis in diabetic rats, indicating insulin-independent central hypothyroidism. Results suggested that the dominant signal to hypothalamus suppressing HPT axis is the fall in leptin level which i resulted from decreased adiposity index following FSE feeding. Fenugreek simultaneously having hypoglycaemic and hypothyroidal actions raises questions whether it can be safely used to treat diabetes and/or hyperthyroidism as was suggested by many workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Type I diabetes mellitus decreases in vivo macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport despite increased biliary sterol secretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Annema, Wijtske; Schreurs, Marijke; van der Veen, Jelske N; van der Giet, Markus; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J F

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) increases atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. We investigated whether experimental T1DM impacts HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). C57BL/6J mice with alloxan-induced T1DM had

  5. Nutritional supplement for control of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vsevolodovich Sadovoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of diabetic patients’ dietary habits indicate that there is an imbalance of selected vitamins and minerals. A nutrient supplement composition; intended for prophylactic administration, was developed to correct this imbalance. It was composed of dried eggs and yeast component (60%, vitamin В1 (0.02% and nicotinamide (0.04%, chromium chelate (0.02%, “selen-active” (0.02% and lecithin (39.9%. The dried eggs and yeast component was prepared by homogenization of lysozyme rich chicken eggs and yeast followed by storage and drying at a pre-defined temperature and to a set water content respectively. The nutritional supplement was incorporated at 5% concentration into a cooked sausage recipe. An assessment of the safety and efficacy of the prophylactic nutritional supplement was performed in an alloxan induced diabetic rat model. The developed composition, as a part of feedstuff, improved metabolic processes, increased antioxidant activity, reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased blood cholesterol, and improved the carbohydrate metabolism.

  6. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  7. Skin changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Masson-Meyers, Daniela Santos; Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira; Terra, Vânia Aparecida; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão-Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani

    2017-09-02

    Diabetes can cause serious health complications, which can affect every organ of the body, including the skin. The molecular etiology has not yet been clarified for all diabetic skin conditions. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the changes of diabetes in skin compared to non-diabetic skin in rats. Fifteen days after establishing the diabetic status, skin samples from the dorsum-cervical region were harvested for subsequent analysis of alterations caused by diabetes. Our results demonstrate that diabetes stimulated higher inflammation and oxidative stress in skin, but antioxidant defense levels were lower compared to the non-diabetic group (p skin changes compared to non-diabetic skin in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug–drug Interaction between Pravastatin and Gemfibrozil (Antihyperlipidemic) with Gliclazide (Antidiabetic) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanpur, CM; Satyanarayana, S; Reddy, NS; Kumar, KE; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a condition of increased blood glucose level in the body. Antihyperlipidemic drugs like statins and fibrates are widely used for prophylactic treatment in dyslipideamia and atherosclerosis. Diabetic dislipidemia exists with increased triglycerides, low HDL and high LDL levels. Hence, with oral hypoglycemic drugs, the addition of a lipid-lowering drug is necessary for controlling dislipidemia. In such a situation, there may be chances of drug–drug interactions between antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic drugs. The present study is planned to evaluate the safety of gliclazide (antidiabetic) in the presence of pravastatin and gemfibrozil (antihyperlpidemic) in rats. Studies in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were conducted with oral doses of gliclazide and their combination with pravastatin and gemfibrozil, with an adequate washout period in between the treatments. Blood samples were collected in rats by retroorbital puncture at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h. All the blood samples were analyzed for glucose by GOD –POD. Gliclazide (½ TD) produced hypoglycemic activity in normal and diabetic rats, with peak activity at 2 and 8 h. Pravastatin (TD) + gemfibrozil (TD) combination treatment increased the hypoglycemic effect of gliclazide in normal rats or diabetic rats when administered together. The interaction observed due to inhibition of both the enzymes (CYP 450 2C9 and CYP 450 3A4) responsible for the metabolism of gliclazide showed increased half-life, which was seen in the present study. Because concomitant administration of gliclazide with provastatin and gemfibrozil in diabetes is associated with atherosclerosis, it should be contraindicated or used with caution. PMID:21264118

  9. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a pathophysiological model for the combined effects of hypertension and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, A. J.; van der Wal, A. C.; Mathy, M. J.; Kam, K. L.; Hendriks, M. G.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the combined effects of hypertension and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in the rat. Accordingly, four groups of rats were studied: Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), diabetic WKY, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and diabetic SHR, respectively.

  10. Lupine Alleviate Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin Diabetic gamma- Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was to examine the regulatory effect of lupine on the diabetic profile developed in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. The effectiveness of lupine against diabetes in gamma irradiated rats was purposed in the present study. Rats were received lupine seeds powder suspension (1 g/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days) before whole body exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation and /or STZ (55 mg/kg body weight, single dose) injection. The results pointed out that radiation exposure sustained the diabetic profile in rats received STZ comparing with STZ diabetic not irradiated rats. The prolonged administration of lupine suspension before STZ induction of diabetic and/or irradiated rats reduced the changes in the level of blood glucose, insulin concentration, liver glycogen, and the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase associated with significant amelioration in blood antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G-6-PD activities and reduced glutathione concentration GSH). Also, the level of blood lipid peroxides (TBARS) were reduced greatly when compared with its matched value in diabetic and /or gamma irradiated rats. It could be postulated that lupine powder suspension might be attenuate the diabetic profile development throughout reducing oxidative damages and modulating the antioxidant status. In addition, lupine could be considered as one of a remarkable radio protective agent owing to its antioxidants property

  11. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of 35 S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively

  12. Evaluation for antidiabetic activity in selected medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii Khamis; Siti Harjieh Ibrahim; Noorul Azliana Jamaludin; Muhammad Hanafi Mohamad Mokhtar; Nor Azizah Marsiddi

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes were investigated. The nuts of Areca cathecu, leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa and Ficus deltoidea were each extracted by boiling in distilled water. The aqueous extracts were filtered and the filtrates were then spray dried. Their biological evaluation was conducted to determine their blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Commercially available antidiabetic drug, glybenclamide was used as positive control. Toxicity of the extracts was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality assay and in vivo acute toxicity test in rats. Aqueous extracts of all the plants studied showed significant reduction in blood glucose level up to 50% in rats over a period of 3 to 4 weeks. The largest reduction in blood glucose levels was exhibited by the aqueous extracts of the Lagestroemia speciosa, followed by the Ficus deltoidea and Areca cathecu. There was no evidence of toxicity of the extracts against the brine shrimp (up to 4,000 μg/ml) and in rats (up to 0.2% body weight). (Author)

  13. Metabolic Disorders and Diabetic Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa Rat: A New Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

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    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat, established by introducing the fa allele of the Zucker fatty rat into SDT rat genome, is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a young age as compared with SDT rats. With early incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, in SDT fatty rats were seen at younger ages compared to those in the SDT rats. In this paper, we overview pathophysiological features in SDT fatty rats and also describe new insights regarding the hematology, blood pressure, renal complications, and sexual dysfunction. The SDT fatty rats showed an increase of leukocytes, especially the monocyte count, prominent hypertension associated with salt drinking, end-stage renal disease with aging, and hypogonadism. Unlike other diabetic models, the characteristic of SDT fatty rat is to present an incidence of diabetes in females, hypertension, and retinopathy. SDT fatty rat is a useful model for analysis of various metabolic disorders and the evaluation of drugs related to metabolic disease.

  14. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy.

  15. Gallic acid improves the memory and pain in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Rafieirad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complications of diabetes can be caused by the production of free radicals, which lead to memory problems and increase the risk of dementia. Diabetics are at risk of nervous pains. Gallic acid has antioxidant properties and activity against free radicals. In this study the effect of oral administration of Gallic acid, were examined on passive‌ avoidance ‌memory and pain in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into control, diabetes with STZ (60mg/kg, 3-groups of control and 3‌groups of diabetic rats and received Gallic ‌‌acid (10, 50&100 mg/kg oral, for two weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured from tail. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in memory (delayed coming down from the podium in the diabetic group all days except day of learning (P≤0.01. Dose of 50 mg/kg Gallic‌ acid caused a significant increase in non-diabetic rats on the first day of memory (P≤0.01, third and seventh (P≤0.05 and dose of 10 mg/kg on the first day (P≤0.05. Compared with diabetic group a significant increase was observed in the first day (P≤0.01, third and seventh (P≤0.05 in diabetics receiving doses of 50 and 10mg/kg Gallic‌ acid. The reflex for tail pulling away from the center of pain was significantly lower (P≤0.01 in the diabetic group. And only the dose of 50 caused a significant increase in the diabetic group (P≤0.01. Conclusion: Probably Gallic‌ acid with strong antioxidant effect led to scavenge free radicals and reduced the complications of diabetes, including pain and may have effects on neural pathways in specific brain regions and has led to improved memory in normal rats and diabetic.

  16. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-09-10

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoguang; Li, Wei; Chen, Qingying; Jiang, Yuxin; Lu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of hydrogen sulfide on wound healing in diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer, Ph 4.5) at dose of 70 mg/kg. Diabetic and age-matched non-diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three groups: untreated diabetic controls (UDC), treated diabetic administrations (TDA), and non-diabetic controls (NDC). Wound Healing Model was prepared by making a round incision (2.0 cm in diameter) in full thickness. Rats from TDA receive 2% sodium bisulfide ointment on wound, and animals from UDC and NDC receive control cream. After treatment of 21 days with sodium bisulfide, blood samples were collected for determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), antioxidant effects. Granulation tissues from the wound were processed for histological examination and analysis of western blot. The study indicated a significant increase in levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and a decline in activity of coagulation in diabetic rats treated with sodium bisulfide. Sodium bisulfide treatment raised the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) protein expression in diabetic rats. The findings in present study suggested that hydrogen sulfide accelerates the wound healing in rats with diabetes. The beneficial effect of H2S may be associated with formation of granulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and the increased level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

  19. Beetle (Ulomoides dermestoides) fat improves diabetes: effect on liver and pancreatic architecture and on PPARγ expression

    OpenAIRE

    Jasso-Villagomez, E.I.; Garcia-Lorenzana, M.; Almanza-Perez, J.C.; Fortis-Barrera, M.A.; Blancas-Flores, G.; Roman-Ramos, R.; Prado-Barragan, L.A.; Alarcon-Aguilar, F.J.

    2018-01-01

    Ulomoides dermestoides is a beetle traditionally consumed to treat diabetes. In this study, we performed a composition analysis of U. dermestoides to obtain the principal fractions, which were used to assess the effect on glycemia, liver and pancreatic architecture, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Normal mice and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered fractions of chitin, protein or fat, and the acute hypoglycemic effect was evaluated. A subacute study involving daily administration ...

  20. Histopathological, Ultrastructural and Apoptotic Changes in Diabetic Rat Placenta

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    Mehmet Gül

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exchange of substances between mother and fetus via the placenta plays a vital role during development. A number of developmental disorders in the fetus and placenta are observed during diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes, together with placental apoptosis, can lead to developmental and functional disorders. Aims: Histological, ultrastructural and apoptotic changes were investigated in the placenta of streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: In this study, a total of 12 female Wistar Albino rats (control (n=6 and diabetic (n=6 were used. Rats in the diabetic group, following the administration of a single dose of STZ, showed blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL after 72 hours. When pregnancy was detected after the rats were bred, two pieces of placenta and the fetuses were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy by cesarean incision under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia from in four rats from the control and diabetic groups. Placenta tissues were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff-diastase (PAS-D staining for light microscopic and caspase-3 staining for immunohistochemical investigations were performed for each placenta. Electron microscopy was performed on thin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead nitrate. Results: Weight gain in the placenta and fetuses of diabetic rats and thinning of the decidual layer, thickening of the hemal membrane, apoptotic bodies, congestion in intervillous spaces, increased PAS-D staining in decidual cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were observed in the diabetic group. After the ultrastructural examination, the apoptotic appearance of the nuclei of trophoblastic cells, edema and intracytoplasmic vacuolization, glycogen accumulation, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum and myelin figures were observed. In addition, capillary basement membrane thickening

  1. In vivo postprandial lipid partitioning in liver and muscle of diabetic rats is disturbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prompers, J.J.; Jonkers, R.A.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Nicolay, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study in vivo lipid partitioning in insulin-resistant liver and muscle of diabetic rats using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: Four groups of n=6 male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were used for this study: obese, pre-diabetic fa/fa rats and lean, non-diabetic fa/+

  2. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilang Yang

    Full Text Available Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8 weeks high fat diet (HFD feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds.

  3. Sulforaphane Prevents Neuronal Apoptosis and Memory Impairment in Diabetic Rats

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    Gengyin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To explore the effects of sulforaphane (SFN on neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and memory impairment in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into normal control, diabetic model and SFN treatment groups (N = 10 in each group. Streptozotocin (STZ was applied to establish diabetic model. Water Morris maze task was applied to test learning and memory. Tunel assaying was used to detect apoptosis in hippocampus. The expressions of Caspase-3 and myeloid cell leukemia 1(MCL-1 were detected by western blotting. Neurotrophic factor levels and AKT/GSK3β pathway were also detected. Results: Compared with normal control, learning and memory were apparently impaired, with up-regulation of Caspase-3 and down-regulation of MCL-1 in diabetic rats. Apoptotic neurons were also found in CA1 region after diabetic modeling. By contrast, SFN treatment prevented the memory impairment, decreased the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. SFN also attenuated the abnormal expression of Caspase-3 and MCL-1 in diabetic model. Mechanically, SFN treatment reversed diabetic modeling-induced decrease of p-Akt, p-GSK3β, NGF and BDNF expressions. Conclusion: SFN could prevent the memory impairment and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in diabetic rat. The possible mechanism was related to the regulation of neurotropic factors and Akt/GSK3β pathway.

  4. Evaluation of Urinary Tryptophan Metabolite Levels in Non-diabetic Compared to Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Elena OLAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders in animals. Thus, currently, it is imperative to introduce non-invasive, economical and rapid methods for the investigation of diabetes in animals. In this study, the urine samples collected from 10 non-diabetic and 10 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated by the spectrofluorimetric technique. Emission spectra for the urine samples were obtained following an excitation wavelength of 280 and 400 nm. The investigated fluorophores were mainly tryptophan metabolites, and significant differences resulted between the mean heights of the emission bands attributed to these fluorophore compounds in diabetic compared to non-diabetic rats. The shape of the spectral windings after the utilization of these two excitation wavelengths was almost similar for diabetic and non-diabetic rats; however, there were some discriminatory elements between the two types of investigated samples. In conclusion, the obtained urine fluorescence spectra allow a clear differentiation between diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  5. Arginase promotes skeletal muscle arteriolar endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruzsina K. Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic feature in diabetes that contributes to the development of vascular disease. Recently, arginase has been implicated in triggering endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients and animals by competing with endothelial nitric oxide synthase for substrate L-arginine. While most studies have focused on the coronary circulation and large conduit blood vessels, the role of arginase in mediating diabetic endothelial dysfunction in other vascular beds has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we determined whether arginase contributes to endothelial dysfunction in skeletal muscle arterioles of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin injection. Four weeks after streptozotocin administration, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and vascular arginase activity were significantly increased. In addition, a significant increase in arginase I and II mRNA expression was detected in gracilis muscle arterioles of diabetic rats compared to age-matched, vehicle control animals. To examine endothelial function, first-order gracilis muscle arterioles were isolated, cannulated in a pressure myograph system, exposed to graded levels of luminal flow, and internal vessel diameter measured. Increases in luminal flow (0-50µL/min caused progressive vasodilation in arterioles isolated from control, normoglycemic animals. However, flow-induced vasodilation was absent in arterioles obtained from streptozotocin-treated rats. Acute in-vitro pretreatment of blood vessels with the arginase inhibitors Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine or S-(2-boronoethyl-L-cysteine restored flow-induced responses in arterioles from diabetic rats and abolished differences between diabetic and control animals. Similarly, acute in-vitro pretreatment with L-arginine returned flow-mediated vasodilation in vessels from diabetic animals to that of control rats. In contrast, D-arginine failed to restore flow

  6. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

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    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Increased intraretinal PO2 in short-term diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer C M; Linsenmeier, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    In diabetic retinopathy, neovascularization is hypothesized to develop due to hypoxia in the retina. However, evidence for retinal hypoxia is limited, and the progressive changes in oxygenation are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if retinal hypoxia occurs early in the development of diabetes. Intraretinal oxygen (PO2) profiles were recorded with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes in control and diabetic Long-Evans rats at 4 and 12 weeks after induction of diabetes. Diabetes did not affect oxygen consumption in the photoreceptors in either dark or light adaptation. Oxygenation of the inner retina was not affected after 4 weeks of diabetes, although vascular endothelial growth factor levels increased. At 12 weeks, average inner retinal PO2, normalized to choriocapillaris PO2, was higher in diabetic rats than in age-matched controls, which was opposite to what was expected. Thus retinal hypoxia is not a condition of early diabetes in rat retina. Increased inner retinal PO2 may occur because oxygen consumption decreases in the inner retina. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Protective effects of a coumarin derivative in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucolo, Claudio; Ward, Keith W; Mazzon, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2009-08-01

    Retinal microvascular cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The endothelial effects of cloricromene, a novel coumarin derivative, on diabetic retinopathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in the rat were investigated. Cloricromene (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was administered daily in diabetic rats, and 60 days later eyes were enucleated for localization of nitrotyrosine, ICAM-1, VEGF, ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5, and VE-cadherin by immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of treatment was also evaluated by TNFalpha, ICAM-1, VEGF, and eNOS protein levels measurement in the retina with the respective ELISA kits. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) integrity was also evaluated by Evans blue. Increased amounts of cytokines, adhesion molecule, and nitric oxide synthase were observed in retina. Cloricromene treatment significantly lowered retinal TNFalpha, ICAM-1, VEGF, and eNOS. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis for VEGF, ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine (a marker of peroxynitrite), and tight junctions revealed positive staining in the retina from STZ-treated rats. The degree of staining for VEGF, ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and tight junctions was markedly reduced in tissue sections obtained from diabetic rats treated with cloricromene. Treatment with cloricromene suppressed diabetes-related BRB breakdown by 45%. This study provides the first evidence that the new coumarin derivative cloricromene attenuates the degree of inflammation preserving the BRB in diabetic rats.

  9. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  10. RES hyperphagocytosis by rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, R P

    1981-03-01

    In contrast to previous studies of neutrophils from diabetic animals and humans in vitro and of macrophages from diabetic humans in vivo, which reported phagocytic depression, reticuloendothelial system (RES) hyperphagocytosis of colloidal carbon was observed in rats at 14 and 28 days after diabetes induction with streptozotocin (STZ). Carbon clearance half times were significantly enhanced to 6.3 +/- 0.79 and 8.1 +/- 1.04 min at 14 and 28 days post-STZ, respectively, compared with the nondiabetic value (12.7 +/- 0.98 min). The severity of uncontrolled STZ-induced diabetes in rats was confirmed by significant hypoinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. Although body weights of STZ-diabetic animals declined progressively, liver weights as a percent of body weight increased above the control value at 14 and 28 days post-STZ. In fact, expression of carbon phagocytosis as the corrected phagocytic index, which accounts for changes in liver and spleen weights relative to body weight, eliminated the significant difference between STZ-diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Antibiotic treatment of diabetic rats failed to alter the hyperphagocytosis, implying that a chronic bacterial infection was not the cause of phagocytic stimulation. Daily insulin replacements, but not a single large insulin dose to 14-day post-STZ rats, reversed the enhanced phagocytosis of colloidal carbon.

  11. Antioxidant Effects of Biochanin A in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Sadri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bioflavonoid-containing diets have been reported to be beneficial in diabetes. In the current study, the effect of Biochanin A (BCA on blood glucose, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats were investigated. 30 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Two of them were selected as control; group1: control (receiving 0.5%DMSO, and group2: Control+BCA (receiving 10 mg/kg.bw BCA. Diabetes was induced in other rats with injection of (55 mg/kg.bw streptozotocin; group3: diabetic control (receiving 0.5%DMSO, groups 4 and 5 were treated with 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw BCA respectively. After 6 weeks the following results were obtained. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, Triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C and malondialdehyde (MDA levels significantly increased and body weight, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity and total antioxidant status (TAS significantly decreased in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Oral administration of BCA in 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw, FBG, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C were decreased significantly in all treated rats. MDA was decreased in all treated rats but it was significant just in 15 mg/kg.bw BCA. HDL, CAT, SOD, and TAS were significantly increased in treated group with 15 mg/kg.bw. The obtained results indicated hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of BCA. Also BCA reduced oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  12. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl 4 was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of 14 C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin

  13. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide. Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting serum insulin (FINS, insulin sensitivity index (ISI, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA, and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  14. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zang, Xueli; Ma, Jinshu; Xu, Guangyu

    2016-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide). Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD) were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-31

    Jan 31, 2015 ... EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ALLIGATOR PEPPER (AFRAMOMUM ... Blood samples from the experimental animals in group B, C, D and E were ... glucose in alloxan induced diabetic rats faster than the conventional ...

  16. Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Leptadenia hastata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in the treatment of numerous diseases without ... The rats in the alloxan induced diabetic group were injected .... actions of lipolytic hormones on the fat depots. Although an increase .... auriculata flowers on blood sugar levels, serum and ...

  17. The effects of diabetes on the rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chull Jea; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe microscopic change of salivary gland tissue, which is a cause of xerostomia in diabetic condition; for this target, the author injected streptozotocin 0.1 ml/100 gm b.w. on the rat, Sprague Dawley, to induce diabetes, and then observed microscopic changes in parotid gland tissue using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. Parotid gland tissue of the diabetic rat was atrophied or degenerated in lapse of experimental time, but began to re pair from 14 days alter diabetic induction. 2. In the basal lamina of the vessel of parotid gland tissue in the diabetic rat, lamina lucida was discontinued and la mina densa was increased in thickness, but the number of capillary was gradually increased and dilated. 3. In acinic and intercalated ductal cells of parotid gland in the diabetic rat, changes of mitochondria, RER, secretor y granule, free ribosome were prominent. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that degenerative changes of the parotid gland tissue were due to not completely thickening of the basal lamina of vessels, but many other causal factors, because thickness of the basal lamina of vessels was not related with degenerative changes.

  18. Impaired insulin secretion in the spontaneous diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Toyota, T; Kakizaki, M; Kudo, M; Takebe, K; Goto, Y

    1982-08-01

    Dynamics of insulin and glucagon secretion were investigated by using a new model of spontaneous diabetes rats produced by the repetition of selective breeding in our laboratories. The perfusion experiments of the pancreas showed that the early phase of insulin secretion to continuous stimulation with glucose was specifically impaired, although the response of the early phase to arginine was preserved. The glucose-induced insulin secretion in the nineth generation (F8) which had a more remarkably impaired glucose tolerance was more reduced than in the sixth generation (F5). No significant difference of glucagon secretion in response to arginine or norepinephrine was noted between the diabetes rats and control ones. The present data indicate that the defective insulin secretion is a primary derangement in a diabetic state of the spontaneous diabetes rat. This defect in the early phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion suggests the specific impairment of the recognition of glucose by the pancreatic beta-cells. The spontaneous diabetes rats are very useful as a model of disease for investigating pathophysiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  19. Topical erythropoietin promotes wound repair in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Ullmann, Yehuda; Masoud, Muhannad; Hellou, Elias; Khamaysi, Ziad; Teot, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing in diabetic patients is slower than in healthy individuals. Erythropoietin (EPO) has non-hemopoietic targets in the skin, and systemically administered EPO promotes wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of topical EPO treatment on defective wound repair in the skin of diabetic rats. Full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made in 38 rats, of which 30 had diabetes. The wounds were then treated topically with a cream that contained either vehicle, 600 IU ml(-1) EPO (low dose), or 3,000 IU ml(-1) (high dose) EPO. We assessed the rate of wound closure during the 12-day treatment period, and microvascular density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hydroxyproline (HP) contents, and the extent of apoptosis in wound tissues at the end of the 12-day treatment period. Topical EPO treatment significantly reduced the time to final wound closure. This increased rate of closure of the two EPO-treated wounds in diabetic rats was associated with increased MVD, VEGF, and HP contents, and a reduced extent of apoptosis. In light of our finding that topical EPO treatment promotes skin wound repair in diabetic rats, we propose that topical EPO treatment is a therapeutically beneficial method of treating chronic diabetic wounds.

  20. Effect of starvation, diabetes and insulin on the casein kinase 2 from rat liver cytosol.

    OpenAIRE

    Martos, C; Plana, M; Guasch, M D; Itarte, E

    1985-01-01

    Starvation, diabetes and insulin did not alter the concentration of casein kinases in rat liver cytosol. However, the Km for casein of casein kinase 2 from diabetic rats was about 2-fold lower than that from control animals. Administration of insulin to control rats did not alter this parameter, but increased the Km for casein of casein kinase 2 in diabetic rats. Starvation did not affect the kinetic constants of casein kinases. The effect of diabetes on casein kinase 2 persisted after partia...

  1. Jiangtang Xiaozhi Recipe () prevents diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Yan-Lin; Zhou, Yun-Feng; Ge, Zheng-Yan; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Yu-Jie; Jin, Long; Ren, Ye; Liu, Jian-Xun; Xu, Yang

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the prevention effect of diabetic retinopathy of Jiangtang Xiaozhi Recipe (, JXR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group and diabetic group. Rats in the diabetic group were induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg), and subdivided into 5 groups. Rats in the diabetic control group were given saline; four treatment groups were given metformin (300 mg/kg), JXR (2, 4 and 8 g/kg) respectively for 8 weeks, while rats in the normal control group were injected with citrate buffer and given the same volume of vehicle. Body weight and food intake were measured every week. The hypoglycaemic effects were determined by testing fasting blood glucose (FBG) every other week, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, and glucagon at the end of the treatment. The preventive effects of JXR on STZ-induced diabetic rats were determined by histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and periodic acid-schiff staining. The effects were further evaluated by serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA). High-dose JXR significantly reduced FBG and HbA1c level at the 8th week of administration (Pdiabetic rats. Histopathological studies revealed that there were no basement membrane thickening and mild destruction in the treated groups. Morphometric measurements of retina microvascular showed that acellular capillary and capillary density decreased in treated rats while pericyte and endothelial cell increasing after the treatment. JXR have protective effect of diabetic retinopathy and its mechanism may be associated with the obvious hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect.

  2. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Oral Magnesium Treatment Reduces Anemia and Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, A O; Adewoye, E O

    2016-07-26

    Magnesium has been reported to improve glucose utilization in diabetes mellitus. However, information on its effects on anemic and inflammatory markers in diabetes mellitus is limited. This study investigated the effect of oral magnesium (Mg) treatment on some markers of anemia and inflammation in 25 male Wistar rats. Rats (200 ± 15 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5). Group 1 was control (received orally 0.2 mL distilled water daily), group 2 (Diabetic Untreated), group 3 (Diabetic Mg treated-100 mg/kg bw), group 4 (Diabetic Mg treated-250 mg/kg bw), group 5 (Diabetic Insulin treated-1 IU/kg bw). Diabetes was induced with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)). All treatments were done for 14 days. Anemic and inflammatory markers were investigated on blood samples obtained from each animal using standard laboratory methods. Significant increase (p DMg 100 (5.86 ± 0.74 × 10 9 /L) and DMg 250 (5.06 ± 0.78 × 10 9 /L). Hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell (RBC) count was decreased (p DMg 100, and DI rats. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly increased (p DMg 100, DMg 250, and DI groups. Fibrinogen level was increased (p DMg 100 (0.30 ± 0.03 g/dL), DMg 250 (0.22 ± 0.04 g/dL), and DI (0.36 ± 0.02 g/dL) rats were comparable to control (0.26 ± 0.02 g/dL). Total protein, albumin, and globulin levels were decreased in DU rats compared to normal control, DMg 100, DMg 250, and DI rats. In conclusion, anemia and increased hematologic and metabolic inflammatory markers may be associated with untreated diabetes mellitus. Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with magnesium improved the anemic state and reduced hematologic and metabolic inflammatory markers.

  4. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  6. Microarray analysis of thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that diabetes imparts high sensitivity to numerous hepatotoxicants. Previously, we have shown that a normally non-lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats due to inhibited tissue repair allowing progression of liver injury. On the other hand, DB rats exposed to 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed tissue repair and delayed recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of impaired tissue repair and progression of liver injury in TA-treated DB rats by using cDNA microarray. Gene expression pattern was examined at 0, 6, and 12 h after TA challenge, and selected mechanistic leads from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and further investigated at protein level over the time course of 0 to 36 h after TA treatment. Diabetic condition itself increased gene expression of proteases and decreased gene expression of protease inhibitors. Administration of 300 mg TA/kg to DB rats further elevated gene expression of proteases and suppressed gene expression of protease inhibitors, explaining progression of liver injury in DB rats after TA treatment. Inhibited expression of genes involved in cell division cycle (cyclin D1, IGFBP-1, ras, E2F) was observed after exposure of DB rats to 300 mg TA/kg, explaining inhibited tissue repair in these rats. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed expression of genes involved in cell division cycle, explaining delayed tissue repair in these rats. In conclusion, impaired cyclin D1 signaling along with increased proteases and decreased protease inhibitors may explain impaired tissue repair that leads to progression of liver injury initiated by TA in DB rats

  7. Acute effect of different antidepressants on glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a 20% higher risk of depression than the general population. Treatment with antidepressant drugs can directly interfere with blood glucose levels or may interact with hypoglycemic agents. The treatment of depression in diabetic patients must take into account variations of glycemic levels at different times and a comparison of the available antidepressant agents is important. In the present study we evaluated the interference of antidepressants with blood glucose levels of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In a first experiment, male adult Wistar rats were fasted for 12 h. Imipramine (5 mg/kg, moclobemide (30 mg/kg, clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg sertraline (30 mg/kg or vehicle was administered. After 30 min, fasting glycemia was measured. An oral glucose overload of 1 ml of a 50% glucose solution was given to rats and blood glucose was determined after 30, 60 and 90 min. Imipramine and clonazepam did not change fasting or overload glycemia. Fluoxetine and moclobemide increased blood glucose at different times after the glucose overload. Sertraline neutralized the increase of glycemia induced by oral glucose overload. In the second experiment, non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fasted, and the same procedures were followed for estimation of glucose tolerance 30 min after glucose overload. Again, sertraline neutralized the increase in glycemia after glucose overload both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. These data raise the question of whether sertraline is the best choice for prolonged use for diabetic individuals, because of its antihyperglycemic effects. Clonazepam would be useful in cases with potential risk of hypoglycemia.

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of instant aloe vera on the diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Instant aloe vera contains phenolic compounds which has antioxidative activity. However, this product is hygroscopic and damaged easily during storage. The critical condition of the instant occurs at the moisture content of 12.52 ± 0.24% (wb. Increasing the moisture content could accelerate oxidation of the phenolic compounds, thus decrease the antioxidative activity. Previous research showed that the antioxidative activity of instant aloe vera could lower the blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of instant aloe vera during storage until the critical condition. The hypoglycemic effect was determined with the in vivo method using diabetic Wistar rats as experimental animals. The diabetic rats were fed with a standard feed combined with instant aloe vera which has been stored at various storage time i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks and used normal rats fed without instant aloe vera as a control. The blood glucose was analyzed every week until 4 weeks. The research showed that the diabetic rats fed with standard feed without instant aloe vera had high blood glucose (219.40 mg/dL after 4 weeks treatment. Otherwise, the blood glucose of diabetic rats fed with instant aloe vera decreased from 214.00 mg/dL to 97.57 mg/dL after 4 weeks.

  9. Sympathoadrenal activity during exercise in partial diabetic and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, H; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E; Steffens, A.B

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with altered fat and carbohydrate metabolism and disturbed sympathoadrenal functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-term diabetic state alters the activity of the sympathoadrenal system and of the adrenal cortex during

  10. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Nitin Mestry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum, due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p. in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Snehal Nitin; Dhodi, Jayesh Bachu; Kumbhar, Sangita Balbhim; Juvekar, Archana Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum , due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS) positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  13. High fructose diet feeding accelerates diabetic nephropathy in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kaoru; Suzuki, Yusuke; Muta, Kyotaka; Masuyama, Taku; Kakimoto, Kochi; Kobayashi, Akio; Shoda, Toshiyuki; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the complications of diabetes and is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Fructose is a simple carbohydrate that is present in fruits and honey and is used as a sweetener because of its sweet taste. Fructose has been reported to have the potential to progress diabetes and DN in humans even though fructose itself does not increase postprandial plasma glucose levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of high fructose intake on the kidney of the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats which have renal lesions similar to those in DN patients and compared these with the effects in normal SD rats. This study revealed that a 4-week feeding of the high fructose diet increased urinary excretion of kidney injury makers for tubular injury and accelerated mainly renal tubular and interstitial lesions in the SDT rats but not in normal rats. The progression of the nephropathy in the SDT rats was considered to be related to increased internal uric acid and blood glucose levels due to the high fructose intake. In conclusion, high fructose intake exaggerated the renal lesions in the SDT rats probably due to effects on the tubules and interstitium through metabolic implications for uric acid and glucose.

  14. Effect of thyroparathyroidectomy on urinary acidification in diabetic rats

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    Zaladek-Gil F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies we have shown stimulation of renal acid excretion in the proximal tubules of rats with diabetes of short duration, with no important alterations in glomerular hemodynamics; on the other hand, in thyroparathyroidectomized rats (TPTX model, a significant decrease in renal acid excretion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow (RPF was detected. Since important changes in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-Ca axis are observed in the diabetic state, the present study was undertaken to investigate the renal repercussions of thyroparathyroidectomy in rats previously made diabetic by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg. Four to 6 days after the induction of diabetes (DM, a group of rats were thyroparathyroidectomized (DM + TPTX. Renal functional parameters were evaluated by measuring the inulin and sodium para-aminohippurate clearance on the tenth day. The decrease in the GFR and RPF observed in TPTX was not reversed by diabetes since the same alterations were observed in DM + TPTX. Net acid (NA excretion was unchanged in DM (6.19 ± 0.54, decreased in TPTX (3.76 ± 0.25 and returned to normal levels in DM + TPTX (5.54 ± 0.72 when compared to the control group (6.34 ± 0.14 µmol min-1 kg-1. The results suggest that PTH plays an important vasodilator role regarding glomerular hemodynamics, since in its absence the impairment in GFR and RPF was not reversed by the diabetic state. However, with respect to acid excretion, the presence of diabetes was able to overcome the negative stimulus represented by TPTX.

  15. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

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    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  16. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  17. Genetic control of differential acetylation in diabetic rats.

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    Pamela J Kaisaki

    Full Text Available Post-translational protein modifications such as acetylation have significant regulatory roles in metabolic processes, but their relationship to both variation in gene expression and DNA sequence is unclear. We address this question in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK rat inbred strain, a model of polygenic type 2 diabetes. Expression of the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin-3 is down-regulated in GK rats compared to normoglycemic Brown Norway (BN rats. We show first that a promoter SNP causes down-regulation of Sirtuin-3 expression in GK rats. We then use mass-spectrometry to identify proteome-wide differential lysine acetylation of putative Sirtuin-3 protein targets in livers of GK and BN rats. These include many proteins in pathways connected to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We finally sequence GK and BN liver transcriptomes and find that mRNA expression of these targets does not differ significantly between GK and BN rats, in contrast to other components of the same pathways. We conclude that physiological differences between GK and BN rats are mediated by a combination of differential protein acetylation and gene transcription and that genetic variation can modulate acetylation independently of expression.

  18. Effects of diabetes mellitus on gastric motility in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafsanjani, F.N.; Adeli, S.; Ardakani, Z.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ghotbi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases that affects most body organs. Peristaltic disorders and gastric distension have also been observed in diabetes. Because the effect of diabetes on gastric motility has not been fully examined, we decided to determine if gastric motility is also affected by diabetes in rat. This study was carried out at Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran from October 2004 to February 2005. Three groups of male wistar rats (control, vehicle, diabetic) weighing 200-250 g were used. Diabetic state was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. Animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg thiopental sodium. After tracheostomy and laparatomy, a balloon was inserted into the stomach, which was attached to a pressure transducer system via a cannula and this whole system was connected to a physiograph. Acetylcholine (Ach) was the stimulant agent which was used intraperitoneally. There was no significant difference between basal intragastric pressures in three groups. Also there was no significant difference in the basal and Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure among the three groups. But Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure was more than the basal state in each group (control 28.3+-1.77 vs 14+-1.4, vehicle 30.8+-2.03 vs 15.9+-1.56 and diabetic 30.6+-0.05 vs 13.7+-0.84 mmHg). Although it has been shown that diabetes can change gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats, no significant change in gastric motility could be shown. (author)

  19. Topical fentanyl stimulates healing of ischemic wounds in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAROOQUI, Mariya; ERICSON, Marna E; GUPTA, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Background Topically applied opioids promote angiogenesis and healing of ischemic wounds in rats. We examined if topical fentanyl stimulates wound healing in diabetic rats by stimulating growth-promoting signaling, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and nerve regeneration. Methods We used Zucker diabetic fatty rats that develop obesity and diabetes on a high fat diet due to a mutation in the Leptin receptor. Fentanyl blended with hydrocream was applied topically on ischemic wounds twice daily, and wound closure was analyzed regularly. Wound histology was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, nerve fibers and phospho-PDGFR-β were visualized by CD31-, lymphatic vessel endothelium-1, protein gene product 9.5- and anti-phospho PDGFR-β-immunoreactivity, respectively. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and PDGFR-β signaling were analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Results Fentanyl significantly promoted wound closure as compared to PBS. Histology scores were significantly higher in fentanyl-treated wounds, indicative of increased granulation tissue formation, reduced edema and inflammation, and increased matrix deposition. Fentanyl treatment resulted in increased wound angiogenesis, lymphatic vasculature, nerve fibers, nitric oxide, NOS and PDGFR-β signaling as compared to PBS. Phospho PDGFR-β co-localized with CD31 co-staining for vasculature. Conclusions Topically applied fentanyl promotes closure of ischemic wounds in diabetic rats. Increased angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, peripheral nerve regeneration, NO and PDGFR-β signaling are associated with fentanyl-induced tissue remodeling and wound healing. PMID:25266258

  20. Insulin-mimetic activity of stevioside on diabetic rats: biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical, molecular and histopathological studies have been done to evaluate the therapeutic effect of stevioside on minimizing levels of glucose and its ... For mRNA expression, stevioside up-regulated the expressions of PK and IRS-1 genes, which are down-regulated in diabetic rats, and was very effective in the ...

  1. Effect of Scrophularia ningpoensis extract on diabetes in rats | Lu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Scrophularia ningpoensis extract (SNE) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: SNE was obtained by steeping the dried Scrophularia ningpoensis in water at 60 oC three times, each for 1 h, before first drying in an oven at 100 oC and then freeze-drying the last extract thus ...

  2. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  3. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  4. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  5. Effect of Livingstone Potato ( N.E.Br on Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats

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    Chinedum Ogbonnaya Eleazu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br on diabetes and its complications in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was investigated. The duration of the experiment was 4 weeks.MethodsThe blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The liver and kidney function parameters in the serum of the rats were determined using Biosystem Kits.ResultsThe diabetic rats given livingstonepotato incorporated feeds, had 129.7% decrease in their hyperglycemia with corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity, renal growth, liver growth as well as 15.64% decrease in body weights compared with the nondiabetic rats that had 5.54% decrease in blood glucose and 20.39% increase in body weight unlike the diabetic control rats that had 18.34% decrease in blood glucose and 52.68% decrease in body weight. There were significant differences (P0.05 in the relative heart weights of all the rats in the three different groups. In terms of liver and kidney function parameters, values obtained for the diabetic rats given livingstone potato incorporated feeds were not significantly different from that of the nondiabetic rats except for total bilurubin, aspartate transaminase, and creatinine (P>0.05 while they were significantly different from the values obtained for the diabetic control rats (P<0.05. In addition, the serum amylase of the diabetic control rats were significantly higher (P<0.05 than that of the nondiabetic and diabetic rats treated with livingstone potato incorporated feeds.ConclusionResults show the antidiabetic actions of livingstone potato and its ability to ameliorate glomerular complication and liver hypertrophy in diabetics.

  6. Effect of irradiation on the acinar cells of submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic changes and clusterin expression in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting streptozotocin, while the control rats were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Morphologic change of acinar cells was remarkable in the diabetic group, but was not observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Necrotic tissues were observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Coloring of toluidine blue stain was most increased at 14 days in the diabetic group, however there were no significant change throughout the period of the experiment in the diabetic-irradiated group. Expression of clusterin was most significant at 14 days in the diabetic group, but gradually decreased with time after 7 days in the diabetic-irradiated group. Degeneration of clusterin was observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. This experiment suggests that the acinar cells of submandibular gland in rats are physiologically apoptosis by the induction of diabetes, but that the apoptosis is inhibited and the acinar cells necrotized after irradiation.

  7. Autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we have sought to isolate in vitro, from acutely diabetic BB rats, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which exhibit specific cytotoxicity toward islet cells. Thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) from acutely diabetic BB rats cultured with irradiated MHC matched (RT1.u) islet cells and dendritic cells in vitro were shown to be specifically cytotoxic to MHC matched and mismatched allogeneic (RT1.1) and xenogeneic (hamster) islet target cells in a 3 H-leucine release assay. Two cell lines (V1A8 and V1D11) derived from the TDL culture showed similar patterns of non-MHC restricted islet cell killing which could be blocked by islet cells and cultured rat insulinoma cells (RIN5mF) but not by non-islet cells of various tissue origins. Both V1A8 and V1D11 were not cytotoxic to Natural Killer (NK) sensitive target cells, G1TC and YAC-1. Conventional surface markers for rat helper and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells were not detectable on either cell lines. The V1D11 cell line was positive for W 3/13 (rat T/NK marker) on OX-19 (rat T/macrophage marker), whereas the V1A8 cell line was only positive for W 3/13

  8. Anti-Diabetic Potential of the Leaves of Anisomeles malabarica in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Peddanna Kotha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic metabolic disorder that is affecting a majority of populations in recent years. There is a requirement for new drugs that are safer and cheaper due to the side effects associated with the available medications. Methods: We investigated the anti-diabetic activity of leaves of Anisomeles malabarica following bioactivity guided fractionation. The different solvent (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of A. malabarica leaves were used in acute treatment studies to evaluate and identify the active fraction. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to further fractionation using silica gel column chromatography and the compounds were identified by LC-SRM/MS and GC-MS. Additional chronic treatment studies were carried out using this active fraction (AMAF for 30 days in experimental diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance were measured along with insulin resistance/sensitivity indicators (HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI to assess the beneficial effects of A. malabarica in the management of diabetes mellitus. Results: Among the different solvent extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract showed maximum (66% anti-hyperglycemic activity. The hexane and ethyl acetate (1: 1 fraction that has maximum anti-diabetic activity was identified as active fraction of A. malabarica (AMAF. The FBG, HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity/resistance indicators such as glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI were significantly improved to near normal in diabetic rats treated with AMAF. Further, we identified key flavonoids and fatty acids as the anti-diabetic active principles from the AMAF of A. malabarica leaves. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that Anisomeles malabarica has potential anti-diabetic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  9. The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue 67Cu retention kinetics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 μCi 67 Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on 67 Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained 67 Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained 67 Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained 67 Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of 67 Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of 67 Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted

  10. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons responding to esophageal distension in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Chao; Ghorbani, Marie L M; Wu, Mingyuan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine spinal neuronal processing of innocuous and noxious mechanical inputs from the esophagus in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce diabetes in 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and vehicle (10 mM citrate buffer) was injected into 15 rats...

  11. Anti-diabetic properties of rice-based herbal porridges in diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie; Ekanayake, Sagarika; Wanigatunge, Chandanie

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and toxic effects of long-term consumption of selected green leafy porridges in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rat model. Porridges made with Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Hemidesmus indicus (L) R. Br. W. T. Aiton (HI), Scoparia dulcis L. (SD) and coconut milk porridge (CM) were incorporated into diets of diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetic control (DM) and normal control groups (NC) were provided with standard rat diet. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c , C reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), liver enzymes and creatinine were measured. Feed and water intake among diabetic groups were significantly high when compared with those of NC (p  0.05). Among the diabetic groups, lowest TC (119 ± 20.6 mg/dL) and highest HDL-C (33 ± 6.3 mg/dL) were also detected in SD group. Alanine transaminase and creatinine were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among diabetic groups but significant when compared with those of NC. When compared with those of NC, aspartate transaminase levels were significantly (p < 0.05) high in SD, CM and DM groups. Body weight : liver weight and body weight : pancreas weight ratios and CRP were not significantly different among all groups. The study proved that SD porridge reduced weight loss, elicited hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic properties, and caused no toxicity in diabetes-induced Wistar rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    glucose levels of alloxan induced diabetic rats. This study is an experimental study with a post-test only control group design. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: negative control (KN, positive control (KP, treatment 1 (P1, treatment 2 (P2. Alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight induced in KP and P2 groups, aspartame 315 mg/kg body weight administered on P1 and P2 groups for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured after 4 weeks using a spectrophotometer. The results of this study, the mean fasting blood glucose levels KN group (88.39 mg/dL, KP (134.11 mg/dL, P1 (93.95 mg/dL, and P2 (66.66 mg/dL. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test, p-value=0.000 ( p<0.05 , there are differences in fasting blood glucose levels were significant in all groups. The conclusions of this study is the provision of aspartame in alloxan induced diabetic rats can cause a decrease in blood glucose levels significantly.Keywords: aspartame, blood glucose levels, diabetes mellitus, alloxan

  14. Protective effects of sodium selenite on lead nitrate-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Suna; Apaydin, Fatma Gökçe; Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of sodium selenite on lead induced toxicity was studied in Wistar rats. Sodium selenite and lead nitrate were administered orally for 28 days to streptozotocin induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Eight groups of rats were used in the study: control, sodium selenite, lead nitrate, lead nitrate+sodium selenite, streptozotocin-induced diabetic-control, diabetic-sodium selenite, diabetic-lead nitrate, diabetic-lead nitrate+sodium selenite groups. Serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and histopathological changes in liver tissues were investigated in all groups. There were statistically significant changes in liver function tests, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in lead nitrate and sodium selenite+lead nitrate treated groups, also in diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Furthermore, histopathological alterations were demonstrated in same groups. In the present study we found that sodium selenite treatment did not show completely protective effect on diabetes mellitus caused damages, but diabetic rats are more susceptible to lead toxicity than non-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of diabetes in diabetic BB prone rats: effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K

    2000-06-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flaxseed has antioxidant activity and has been shown to prevent hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. An investigation was made of the effects of SDG on the development of diabetes in diabetic prone BioBreeding rats (BBdp rats), a model of human type I diabetes [insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)] to determine if this type of diabetes is due to oxidative stress and if SDG can prevent the incidence of diabetes. The rats were divided into three groups: Group I, BioBreeding normal rats (BBn rats) (n = 10); group II, BBdp untreated (n = 11); and group III, BBdp treated with SDG 22 mg/kg body wt, orally) (n = 14). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) an index of level of reactive oxygen species in blood and pancreas; and pancreatic chemiluminescence (Pancreatic-CL), a measure of antioxidant reserve. Incidence of diabetes was 72.7% in untreated and 21.4% in SDG-treated group as determined by glycosuria and hyperglycemia. SDG prevented the development of diabetes by approximately 71%. Development of diabetes was associated with an increase in serum and pancreatic MDA and a decrease in antioxidant reserve. Prevention in development of diabetes by SDG was associated with a decrease in serum and pancreatic-MDA and an increase in antioxidant reserve. These results suggest that IDDM is mediated through oxidative stress and that SDG prevents the development of diabetes.

  16. Dynamic Aerobic Exercise Induces Baroreflex Improvement in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on arterial pressure (AP, heart rate (HR, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (n=8 and diabetic (n=8 groups. AP, HR, and BRS, which were measured by tachycardic and bradycardic (BR responses to AP changes, were evaluated at rest (R and postexercise session (PE on a treadmill. At rest, STZ diabetes induced AP and HR reductions, associated with BR impairment. Attenuation in resting diabetes-induced AP (R: 103±2 versus PE: 111±3 mmHg and HR (R: 290±7 versus PE: 328±10 bpm reductions and BR dysfunction (R: -0.70±0.06 versus PE: -1.21±0.09 bpm/mmHg was observed in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the hemodynamic and arterial baro-mediated control of circulation improvement in the postexercise period reinforces the role of exercise in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes.

  17. Dynamic Aerobic Exercise Induces Baroreflex Improvement in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Luciana; da Pureza, Demilto Y.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and diabetic (n = 8) groups. AP, HR, and BRS, which were measured by tachycardic and bradycardic (BR) responses to AP changes, were evaluated at rest (R) and postexercise session (PE) on a treadmill. At rest, STZ diabetes induced AP and HR reductions, associated with BR impairment. Attenuation in resting diabetes-induced AP (R: 103 ± 2 versus PE: 111 ± 3 mmHg) and HR (R: 290 ± 7 versus PE: 328 ± 10 bpm) reductions and BR dysfunction (R: −0.70 ± 0.06 versus PE: −1.21 ± 0.09 bpm/mmHg) was observed in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the hemodynamic and arterial baro-mediated control of circulation improvement in the postexercise period reinforces the role of exercise in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes. PMID:22203833

  18. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  19. Effects of diabetes on tooth movement and root resorption after orthodontic force application in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, K; Hotokezaka, H; Hashimoto, M; Nakano-Tajima, T; Kurohama, T; Kondo, T; Darendeliler, M A; Yoshida, N

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of diabetes on orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. Twenty-three 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into control (n = 7), diabetes (n = 9), and diabetes + insulin (n = 7) groups. Diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats with a blood glucose level exceeding 250 mg/dl were assigned to the diabetes group. Insulin was administered daily to the diabetes + insulin group. A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring of 10 g was applied for 2 weeks to the maxillary left first molar in all rats to induce mesial tooth movement. Tooth movement was measured using microcomputed tomography images. To determine the quantity of root resorption, the mesial surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of the first molar were analyzed using both scanning electron microscopy and scanning laser microscopy. After 2 weeks, the amount of tooth movement in the diabetic rats was lower than that in the control rats. Root resorption was also significantly lower in the diabetic rats. These responses of the rats caused by diabetes were mostly diminished by insulin administration. Diabetes significantly reduced orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. The regulation of blood glucose level through insulin administration largely reduced these abnormal responses to orthodontic force application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Chrysophyllum cainito

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysophyllum cainito leaves were processed into a herbal tea and the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of this herbal tea were evaluated on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. . The rats were grouped into four treatment groups: DC (diabetic group fed with rat feed and water), CON1 (diabetic group fed with rat ...

  1. Muscarinic receptors mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Gautam, Sudha Silwal; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    This study determined if muscarinic receptors could mediate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity induced in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. Ten-week-old female Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (n = 12) and Wister Kyoto non-diabetic rats (n = 12) were maintained on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric investigations of the unanesthetized rats were carried out at room temperature (27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. They were intravenously administered imidafenacin (0.3 mg/kg, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6). After 5 min, the rats were transferred to a low temperature (4 ± 2°C) for 40 min where the cystometry was continued. The rats were then returned to room temperature for the final cystometric measurements. Afterwards, expressions of bladder muscarinic receptor M3 and M2 messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats, imidafenacin did not reduce cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats, just after transfer to a low temperature, the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in imidafenacin-treated rats was reduced compared with vehicle-treated rats. Within the urinary bladders, the ratio of M3 to M2 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was significantly higher than that of the non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. The proportion of muscarinic M3 receptor-positive area within the detrusor in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was also significantly higher than that in non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. Imidafenacin partially inhibits cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. In this animal model, muscarinic M3 receptors partially mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis

  3. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Therapeutic Effect of Zuogui Wan in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qianjin; Niu, Xin; Liu, Xinshe; Xu, Kaixia; Yang, Xiangzhu; Wang, Huifeng

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, we established an animal model of gestational diabetes mellitus rats using streptozotocin. Using the rat model of GDM, the pregnant rats in 1-19d were divided into three groups: (1) Zuogui Wan gestational diabetes mellitus group (group I, n = 12), (2) gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group (group II, n = 11), and (3) rats of normal pregnancy group (group III, n = 11). Compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group, Zuogui Wan can change the indexes of fasting blood glucose, body weight, total cholesterol, insulin, and metabolism cage index significantly in Zuogui Wan gestational diabetes mellitus group. We can conclude that Zuogui Wan has the therapeutic effect on gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:25136475

  5. Reproduction in Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; Boer, G. J.; Swaab, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    The Brattleboro diabetes insipidus mutant is incapable of synthesizing vasopressin, but is activated in its production and release of oxytocin. In the homozygous female mutant, there were abnormally short and long oestrous cycles and reduced conception rates after mating with mutant males, a

  6. The effects of Hydroalcolic extract of Cyperus rotundus on nociception in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nasri

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Administration of Cyperus rotundus extract for 2 weeks .increased thermoalgia tolerance and reducedchemical pain in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus rats . Thus, this administration can act as an auxiliary treatment for diabetic hyperalgesia.

  7. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  8. Effect of carbamylated erythropoietin on retinopathy of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) on retinopathy of diabetic rats.Methods: Male SD rats were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into control group, DM group and CEPO group, and diabetic animal models were established and then given CEPO intervention. 2 weeks after intervention, the retina was collected to detect the expression of angiogenesis molecules, apoptosis molecules and oxidative stress pathway molecules.Results: HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-1, Bax, Caspase-3, Nrf-2, ARE, HO-1 and NQO-1 mRNA expression in retina of DM group were significantly higher than those of control group while TKLK, PEDF, Bcl-2 and Survivin mRNA expression were significantly lower than those of control group; HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-1, TKLK and PEDF mRNA expression in retina of CEPO group were not significantly different from those of DM group, Bcl-2, Survivin, Nrf-2, ARE, HO-1 and NQO-1 mRNA expression were significantly higher than those of DM group, and Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression were significantly lower than those of DM group.Conclusion:CEPO can reduce the apoptosis and oxidative stress injury of the retina tissue in diabetic rats without affecting the angiogenesis.

  9. Study on cognitive impairment in diabetic rats by different behavioral experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-bin, Ji; Zeng-yi, Li; Guo-song, Xin; Chi, Wei; Hong-jian, Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Object recognition test and Y maze test are widely used in learning and memory behavior evaluation techniques and methods. It was found that in the new object recognition experiment, the diabetic rats did more slowly than the normal rats in the discrimination of the old and new objects, and the learning and memory of the rats in the diabetic rats were injured. And the ratio of retention time and the number of errors in the Y maze test was much higher than that in the blank control group. These two methods can reflect the cognitive impairment in diabetic rats.

  10. d-limonene ameliorates diabetes and its complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanlı, Merve; Anlar, Hatice Gül; Aydın, Sevtap; Çal, Tuğbagül; Arı, Nuray; Ündeğer Bucurgat, Ülkü; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2017-12-01

    It is known that diabetes causes some complications including alterations in lipid profile, hepatic enzyme levels but also it causes oxidative stress. Limonene, a major component of Citrus oils, has important health beneficial effects in lowering the level of oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D-limonene on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. For this purpose, DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. Changes in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), insulin, total bilirubin and BCA protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride were also evaluated. D-limonene treatment was found to significantly decrease DNA damage, GR enzyme activities and MDA levels and significantly increase GSH levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities and altered lipid and liver enzyme parameters in diabetic rats. According to our results, it seems that D-limonene might have a role in the prevention of the complication of diabetes in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  12. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  13. The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Antioxidant Status in the Hearts of the Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by low secretion or resistance to the insulin action. Oxidative stress, as a result of imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defense systems is strongly related to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and forced treadmill exercise on oxidative stress indexes in heart tissue.Materials & Methods: 40 male wistar rats (20020g were divided into four groups(n=10: control, control with exercise, diabetic, diabetic with exercise. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p. Treadmill was performed for 1 hour, 5 days in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p and left ventricle dissociate from heart and maintenance in -80 ºC. Supernatant from homogenization were used to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX, gluthatione reductase (GR and catalase (CAT activities as enzymatic antioxidant status. Also Maolnyldealdehyde (MDA level as index of lipid peroxidation and total glutathione (T.GSH of the heart tissue were measured.Results: Diabetes significantly reduced CAT and GR activities in diabetic rats compared with control rats. SOD and GPX activities weren't changed in the hearts of the diabetic rats. MDA level, as a lipid peroxidation index, increased in non exercised diabetic rats. In response to exercise, MDA level, CAT, GR and SOD activities showed a significant increase in exercise diabetic rats compared with non exercise diabetic rats.Conclusion: Forced treadmill with moderate severity has harmful effects on cardiovascular system in diabetes because it increases MDA level of heart tissue in exercised diabetic rats.

  14. Effects of Spironolactone and Losartan on Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile there is an evidence that the anti-inflammatory properties of spironolactone can attenuate proteinuria in type 2 diabetes, its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in diabetic nephropathy have not been clearly defined. In this study, we examined the effects of spironolactone, losartan, and a combination of these two drugs on albuminuria, renal VEGF expression, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in a type 2 diabetic rat model.MethodsThirty-three Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty (OLETF rats were divided into four groups and treated with different medication regimens from weeks 25 to 50; OLETF diabetic controls (n=5, spironolactone-treated (n=10, losartan-treated (n=9, and combination of spironolactone- and losartan-treated (n=9.ResultsAt week 50, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased in the losartan and combination groups compared to the control OLETF group. No decrease was detected in the spironolactone group. There was a significant reduction in renal VEGF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, and type IV collagen mRNA levels in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups. Twenty-four hour urine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were comparable in all four groups but did show a decreasing trend in the losartan and combination regimen groups. Twenty-four hour urine malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups.ConclusionThese results suggest that losartan alone and a combined regimen of spironolactone and losartan could ameliorate albuninuria by reducing renal VEGF expression. Also, simultaneous treatment with spironolactone and losartan may have protective effects against diabetic nephropathy by decreasing TGF-β and type IV collagen expression and by reducing oxidative stress in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  15. Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on lipid peroxidation and lipids in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Pidaran; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2006-08-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. We recently reported that tetrahydrocurcumin lowered the blood glucose in diabetic rats. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of tetrahydrocurcumin, one of the active metabolites of curcumin on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Tetrahydrocurcumin 80 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to diabetic rats for 45 days, resulted a significant reduction in blood glucose and significant increase in plasma insulin in diabetic rats, which proved its antidiabetic effect. Tetrahydrocurcumin also caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids) in serum and tissues, suggesting its role in protection against lipid peroxidation and its antihyperlipidemic effect. Tetrahydrocurcumin showed a better effect when compared with curcumin. Results of the present study indicate that tetrahydrocurcumin showed antihyperlipidaemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats.

  16. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum O; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications.

  17. Systemic perturbations of key metabolites in diabetic rats during the evolution of diabetes studied by urine metabonomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidation of metabolic profiles during diabetes progression helps understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this study, urine metabonomics was used to identify time-related metabolic changes that occur during the development of diabetes mellitus and characterize the biochemical process of diabetes on a systemic, metabolic level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Urine samples were collected from diabetic rats and age-matched controls at different time points: 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks after diabetes modeling. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR spectra of the urine samples were obtained and analyzed by multivariate data analysis and quantitative statistical analysis. The metabolic patterns of diabetic groups are separated from the controls at each time point, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of diabetic rats were markedly different from the controls. Moreover, the samples from the diabetic 1-wk group are closely associated, whereas those of the diabetic 15-wk group are scattered, suggesting that the presence of various of complications contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Quantitative analysis indicated that urinary metabolites related to energy metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and methylamine metabolism are involved in the evolution of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlighted that the numbers of metabolic changes were related to diabetes progression, and the perturbed metabolites represent potential metabolic biomarkers and provide clues that can elucidate the mechanisms underlying the generation and development of diabetes as well as its complication.

  18. Abnormal levels of histone methylation in the retinas of diabetic rats are reversed by minocycline treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenjun; Sidoli, Simone; Zhang, Wenquan

    2017-01-01

    67% of these marks had their relative abundance restored to non-diabetic levels after minocycline treatment. Mono-and di-methylation states of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1/me2), markers related to DNA damage response, were found to be up-regulated in the retinas of diabetic rats and restored......In this study we quantified the alterations of retinal histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) in diabetic rats using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. Some diabetic rats were subsequently treated with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, which has...... been shown to inhibit the diabetes-induced chronic inflammation in the retinas of rodents. We quantified 266 differentially modified histone peptides, including 48 out of 83 methylation marks with significantly different abundancein retinas of diabetic rats as compared to non-diabetic controls. About...

  19. Neutrophils Infiltrate the Spinal Cord Parenchyma of Rats with Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Newton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal glial cell activation and cytokine secretion have been implicated in the etiology of neuropathic pain in a number of experimental models, including diabetic neuropathy. In this study, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with gabapentin (50 mg/kg/day by gavage for 2 weeks, from 6 weeks after STZ. At 8 weeks after STZ, hypersensitivity was confirmed in the untreated diabetic rats as a reduced response threshold to touch, whilst mechanical thresholds in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats were no different from controls. Diabetes-associated thermal hypersensitivity was also ameliorated by gabapentin. We performed a cytokine profiling array in lumbar spinal cord samples from control and diabetic rats. This revealed an increase in L-selectin, an adhesion molecule important for neutrophil transmigration, in the spinal cord of diabetic rats but not diabetic rats treated with gabapentin. Furthermore, we found an increase in the number of neutrophils present in the parenchyma of the spinal cord, which was again ameliorated in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats. Therefore, we suggest that dysregulated spinal L-selectin and neutrophil infiltration into the spinal cord could contribute to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Effects of total glucosides of paeony on oxidative stress in the kidney from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Qi, Xiang-Ming; Wu, Yong-Gui; Shen, Ji-Jia

    2010-03-01

    TGP, extracted from the traditional Chinese herb root of Paeonia lactiflora pall, has been shown to have therapeutic effect in experimental diabetic nephropathy. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the effects of TGP on oxidative stress were investigated in the kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. TGP (50, 100, 200mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 8 weeks. TGP treatment in all three doses significantly lowered 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate in diabetic rats and attenuated glomerular volume. TGP treatment with 100 and 200mg/kg significantly reduced indices for tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic rats. The level of MDA was significantly increased in the kidney of diabetic rats and attenuated by TGP treatment at the dose of 200mg/kg. TGP treatment in a dose-dependent manner decreased the level of 3-NT protein of the kidney which increased under diabetes. T-AOC was significantly reduced in diabetic rat kidney and remarkably increased by TGP treatment at the dose of 100 and 200mg/kg. Activity of antioxidant enzyme such as SOD, CAT was markedly elevated by TGP treatment with 200mg/kg. Western blot analysis showed that p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB p65 protein expression increased in diabetic rat kidney, which were significantly decreased by TGP treatment. It seems likely that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidneys, while TGP can prevent diabetes-associated renal damage against oxidative stress.

  1. Phlorizin Prevents Glomerular Hyperfiltration but not Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats

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    Slava Malatiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of renal and glomerular hypertrophies to development of hyperfiltration and proteinuria early in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were explored. Control, diabetic, phlorizin-treated controls, and diabetic male Fischer rats were used. Phlorizin (an Na+-glucose cotransport inhibitor was given at a dose sufficient to normalize blood glucose. Inulin clearance (Cinulin and protein excretion rate (PER were measured. For morphometry, kidney sections were stained with periodic acid Schiff. At one week, diabetes PER increased 2.8-folds (P<.001, Cinulin increased 80% (P<.01. Kidney wet and dry weights increased 10%–12% (P<.05, and glomerular tuft area increased 9.3% (P<.001. Phlorizin prevented proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and kidney hypertrophy, but not glomerular hypertrophy. Thus, hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and whole kidney hypertrophy were related to hyperglycemia but not to glomerular growth. Diabetic glomerular hypertrophy constitutes an early event in the progression of glomerular pathology which occurs in the absence of mesangial expansion and persists even after changes in protein excretion and GFR are reversed through glycemic control.

  2. Glycosylation patterns of kidney proteins differ in rat diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravidà, Alessandra; Musante, Luca; Kreivi, Marjut; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Byrne, Barry; Saraswat, Mayank; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Clynes, Martin; Holthofer, Harry

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy often progresses to end-stage kidney disease and, ultimately, to renal replacement therapy. Hyperglycemia per se is expected to have a direct impact on the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycoproteins. This study aims to establish the link between protein glycosylation and progression of experimental diabetic kidney disease using orthogonal methods. Kidneys of streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats were harvested at three different time points post streptozotocin injection. A panel of 12 plant lectins was used in the screening of lectin blots. The lectins UEAI, PHA-E, GSI, PNA, and RCA identified remarkable disease-associated differences in glycoprotein expression. Lectin affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometric analyses led to the identification of several glycoproteins involved in salt-handling, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix degradation. Our data confirm a substantial link between glycosylation signature and diabetes progression. Furthermore, as suggested by our findings on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, altered protein glycosylation may reflect changes in biochemical properties such as enzymatic activity. Thus, our study demonstrates the unexplored potential of protein glycosylation analysis in the discovery of molecules linked to diabetic kidney disease.

  3. Altered aortic and cremaster muscle prostaglandin synthesis in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.O.; Messina, E.J.; Rodrigues, A.M.; Gerritsen, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Alterations in the synthesis and release of prostaglandins have been reported in humans and animal models of diabetes mellitus. In the present study synthesis and release of prostaglandins by thoracic aorta and cremaster muscle of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes of 8 wk duration was compared with age-matched controls. Prostaglandin synthesis was assessed by the measurement of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) release and by quantifying metabolism of exogenous [1- 14 C]arachidonic acid by thoracic aortic rings and minced cremaster muscle. These studies indicate that diminished prostacyclin (PGI2) and/or PGE2 production is not a general feature of all diabetic vascular tissues, suggesting that large and small blood vessels may not be similarly affected by diabetes in regard to the metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid and the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Furthermore, the vascular changes often observed in conjunction with diabetes, i.e., alterations in vascular reactivity and microangiopathy in small blood vessels and atherosclerosis of large blood vessels may be related in some way to the segmental differences observed in prostaglandin synthesis

  4. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

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    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  5. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) does not reduce the diabetes incidence in diabetes-prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Mørch, L; Markholst, H

    1994-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL-1) has been implicated as a pathogenetic factor in the initial events leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Previous studies investigating the impact of IL-1 on diabetes incidence in spontaneously diabetic rodent models have been conflicting. IL-1...... concentrations at diagnosis, but did not change the diabetes incidence in DP BB rats. The results are not in conflict with the hypothesis that IL-1 is a pathogenetic factor in IDDM, caused by high local concentrations of rat IL-1 in the islets during early insulitis. The results also show the necessity of pair...

  6. Altered glucose kinetics in diabetic rats during Gram-negative infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, C.H.; Dobrescu, C.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The present study examined the purported exacerbating effect of sepsis on glucose metabolism in diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by an intravenous injection of 70 or 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. The higher dose produced severe diabetes, whereas the lower dose of streptozotocin produced a miler, latent diabetes. After a chronic diabetic state had developed for 4 wk, rats had catheters implanted and sepsis induced by intraperitoneal injections of live Escherichia coli. After 24 h of sepsis the blood glucose concentration was unchanged in nondiabetics and latent diabetics, but glucose decreased from 15 to 8 mM in the septic severe diabetic group. This decrease in blood glucose was not accompanied by alterations in the plasma insulin concentration. Glucose turnover, assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of [6- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]glucose, was elevated in the severe diabetic group, compared with either latent diabetics or nondiabetics. Sepsis increased the rate of glucose disappearance in nondiabetic rats but had no effect in either group of diabetic animals. Sepsis also failed to alter the insulinogenic index, used to estimate the insulin secretory capacity, in diabetic rats. Thus the present study suggests that the imposition of nonlethal Gram-negative sepsis on severe diabetic animals does not further impair glucose homeostasis and that the milder latent diabetes was not converted to a more severe diabetic state by the septic challenge

  7. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was administered to wistar albino rats via the intraperitoneal route. The diabetic rats were then placed in 5 groups, following stabilization of hyperglycemia.

  8. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

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    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  9. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annida, B; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Tangzhining exhibits a protective effect against cognitive dysfunction in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaomei; Wang, Wei; Kang, Yaguo; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Yi; Yue, Zhenggang; Tang, Zhishu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diabetes significantly impairs the cognitive function. Tangzhining (TZN), as a kind of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been widely used to treat diabetes in China. However, the effect of TZN on treatment of diabetes-induced learning and memory deficits has not been well documented. The present study was to investigate the effect of TZN on diabetes-induced learning and memory deficits and delineate the underlying molecular mechanism. Diabetic rats w...

  11. Anti-diabetic effects of Sargassum oligocystum on Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rat

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome which is associated with the worldwide major public health problems. There are many natural compounds from the sea-market, as a valuable aquatic source, along with the variety of health and therapeutic benefits. In the present research, with respect to the traditional and ethnic uses of Sargassum oligocystum algae for healing of some diseases which have similar metabolic mechanism to the diabetes, its anti-diabetic effects in animal model was proposed. Materials and Methods: The animals (rat were divided into the normal control, diabetic control, positive control and, the test groups. The test groups were gavaged with oral doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg of algae hydroalcoholic extracts. After 30 days of intervention the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDLC, LDLC, insulin, insulin resistance, β-cells function and, the histopathology of pancreatic tissue were evaluated. Results: In animals that were fed with algae extracts a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and HOMA-IR and an increase in the HOMA-B with no significant impacts on the insulin, cholesterol and HDL were observed. Also, the histopathology evaluations in the groups which were treated with algae extract revealed the regeneration and reconstitution of damaged pancreatic β-cells. Conclusion: The results give evidence that, the S. oligocystum algae extract has a healing effect on diabetes which can be considered as a new research prospect for the natural therapy of diabetes.

  12. Protective and Therapeutic Role of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.; Hafez, H.F.; Shouman, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by vascular and renal complication. This study was initiated to investigate the protective and the therapeutic effect of low dose of gamma radiation (LDR) on diabetic complications. A total of 30 adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: Group I: served as control and injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group II: rats became diabetic via intraperitoneal injection with 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group III irradiated rats (IRR): submitted to fractionated dose of whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days (whole dose 0.5 Gy), group IV diabetic irradiated rats (STZ + IRR): rats became diabetic as group II then four weeks after diabetes induction (day 28), rats were submitted to 2 fractions of whole body gamma rays as in group III, and group V irradiated diabetic rats (IRR + STZ): rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer then submitted to whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days then one hour after the last IRR dose, rats were made diabetic as group II. In pre and post-irradiation of STZ rats, significant changes were observed in serum lipid profiles, hepatic and cardiac serum enzymes. Significant decrease in hepatic and cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) levels, and significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were observed as compared to diabetic group. The study suggests that LDR may provide useful protective and therapeutic option in the reversal of oxidative stress induced in diabetic rats

  13. Tangshen Formula Attenuates Colonic Structure Remodeling in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Haojun

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine Tangshen Formula (TSF) on GI structure remodeling in the rat model of diabetes. Methods. Type 2 diabetic rats were used. Wet weight per unit length, layer thicknesses, levels of collagens I and III, nuclear factor...

  14. LEW.1WR1 RATS DEVELOP AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES SPONTANEOUSLY AND IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL PERTURBATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordes, John P.; Leif, Jean H.; Woda, Bruce A.; Flanagan, Joan F.; Greiner, Dale L.; Kislauskis, Edward H.; Tirabassi, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new rat model of autoimmune diabetes that arose in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) congenic LEW rat. Spontaneous diabetes in LEW.1WR1 rats (RT1u/u/a) occurs with a cumulative frequency of ∼2% at a median age of 59 days. The disease is characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and polyuria. Both sexes are affected, and islets of acutely diabetic rats are devoid of beta cells whereas alpha and delta cell populations are spared. The peripheral lymphoid phenotype is normal, including the fraction of ART2+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). We tested the hypothesis that the expression of diabetes would be increased by immunological perturbation of innate or adaptive immunity. Treatment of young rats with depleting anti-ART2.1 mAb increased the frequency of diabetes to 50%. Treatment with the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid increased the frequency of diabetes to 100%. All diabetic rats exhibited end-stage islets. The LEW.1WR1 rat is also susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis but is free of spontaneous thyroiditis. The LEW.1WR1 rat provides a new model for studying autoimmune diabetes and arthritis in an animal with a genetic predisposition to both disorders that can be amplified by environmental perturbation. PMID:16123363

  15. Impact of opium on the serum levels of TGF-β in diabetic, addicted and addicted-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Asiabanha, Majid; Sayadi, Ahmadreza; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2010-09-01

    Several cells of immune system such as regulatory T cells and macrophages secrete transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to different stimuli. This cytokine has inhibitory effect on immune system and diminished production of this cytokine is associated with autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of opium addiction on serum level of TGF-β in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium addicted, diabetic and addicted-diabetic male and female rats. Serum level of TGF-β was measured by ELISA. The results of our study indicated that the mean serum level of TGF-β in female addicted rats was significantly increased compared to control group (popium and its derivatives have differential inductive effects on the cytokine expression in male and female rats.

  16. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  17. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

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    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  18. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  19. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Conclusion Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy. PMID:28644857

  20. Urtica Dioica Distillate Regenerates Pancreatic Beta Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Akmali, Masoumeh; Zamani-Garmsiri, Fahimeh; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh

    2018-01-01

    Background Urtica dioica is known as an anti-hyperglycemic plant. Urtica dioica distillate (UD) is a traditional Iranian drink, locally known as “aragh gazaneh”. In spite of its widespread consumption in Iran, according to traditional Iranian medicine, there is no scientific report on the usefulness of UD for diabetic patients. This survey was designed to evaluate its protective effects for the recovery from diabetes by determining the serum insulin, blood glucose, volume of pancreatic islets, and the number and volume of β-cells in diabetic rats. Methods A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley male rats (200-250 g) were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=8), including non-diabetic plus distilled water (DW), non-diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus DW, diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus insulin, and diabetic plus glibenclamide. DW, UD, and glibenclamide were administered via intragastric gavage and insulin was injected subcutaneously. After four weeks of experiments, blood samples were collected for serum insulin and blood glucose assay. Pancreas was also evaluated using stereological method. The SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal-Wallis, repeated measurements, and Mann-Whitney U test were applied for comparisons between the groups. Results The treatment of diabetic rats with UD reduced the blood glucose dramatically (P<0.001) and increased serum insulin levels significantly (P=0.03) in comparison to the diabetic plus DW rats. Treatment with UD did not affect the mean β-cell volumes in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic plus DW rats, but the islet volumes and β-cell numbers were significantly recovered. Conclusion UD treatment in diabetic rats improves hyperglycemia by partially restoring plasma insulin levels. The data suggest that UD prevents islet atrophy and/or regenerate pancreatic β-cells. PMID:29749986

  1. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Alves Freitas Afiune

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes.Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group: non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed.The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI and coronary artery risk index (CRI, and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group.Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  2. Long-term effects of duodenojejunal bypass on diabetes in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kuon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: We have shown that DJB alone does not improve glucose tolerance in obese, diabetic OLETF rats. Therefore, it may be that DJB alone is insufficient for diabetic control in obese diabetic rats. The addition of a restrictive component such as sleeve gastrectomy, or a new drug may be necessary for achieving diabetes reversal.

  3. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly against Renal Damage in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly has been shown to have antioxidant and antidiabetic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of RJ against kidney damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n=8 per group. Normal control and diabetic control groups received 1cc/day distilled water, normal RJ-treated and diabetic RJ-treated groups received 100mg RJ/kg body weight daily. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. At the end of the experiment, urine and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: The results showed that diabetes could increase levels of urine urea, total protein and albumin significantly, and could decrease the levels of creatinine and uric acid in urine. In the kidney tissue homogenates, catalase activity and antioxidant power were significantly lower, whereas malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in diabetic group when compared with control group. Diabetic rats showed severe histological changes in kidney tissues. Treatment of diabetic rats with RJ improved significantly all of these parameters. Conclusion: The present study revealed that treatment with RJ resulted in significant improvement in histopathological alterations in kidney tissue and urine parameters of diabetic rats. This could be due to its antioxidant activity and the ability of RJ for scavenging the free radicals released in diabetes. These findings suggest that RJ has protective effects on kidneys affected by diabetes mellitus.

  4. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  5. The Protective Effect of Fucoidan in Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN has long been recognized as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, but the efficacy of available strategies for the prevention of DN remains poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of fucoidan (FPS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Wistar rats were made diabetic by injection of STZ after removal of the right kidney. FPS was administered to these diabetic rats for 10 weeks. Body weight, physical activity, renal function, and renal morphometry were measured after 10 weeks of treatment. In the FPS-treated group, the levels of blood glucose, BUN, Ccr and Ucr decreased significantly, and microalbumin, serum insulin and the β2-MG content increased significantly. Moreover, the FPS-treated group showed improvements in renal morphometry. In summary, FPS can ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities of diabetic rats and delay the progression of diabetic renal complications.

  6. Cell apoptosis of taste buds in circumvallate papillae in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B; Pan, S; Liu, X; Zhang, S; Sun, X

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus may result in taste disturbance. The present study has revealed that cell apoptosis of taste buds in circumvallate papillae may contribute to the taste disturbance in a rat model of type2 diabetes. Type2 diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them with a high-fat diet (30% fat), and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). The increased cell apoptosis of taste buds in circumvallate papilla sections was detected by TUNEL staining in diabetic rats, and the ultrastructure was further examined by transmission electronic microscopy. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses revealed the downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, and increased activation of caspase-9 and -3, in diabetic rats, indicating that the apoptosis of taste bud cells may be mediated via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway in diabetics. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  8. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes.

  9. Hypoglycemic of Cajanus scarabaeoides in glucose overloaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Pattanayak, Siva Shankar Nayak, Durgaprasad Panda and Vikas Shende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of traditional claim of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L in the treatment of diabetes, we studied the effects of different solvent extracts in normal, glucose over loaded normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg orally was produce significantly reduce blood glucose level at normal, glucose over loaded normal rats, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after 15 days treatment; whereas petroleum ether and chloroform extract (500 mg/kg orally did not exhibit any significant effect on three groups of rats. Histopathology studies on pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats shows inflammatory changes in pancreatic islets, results from selective destroy of insulin producing β-cells. These changes are inhibited by C. scarabaeoides methanolic extract and gliclazide. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  10. Epidermal growth factor and lung development in the offspring of the diabetic rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    2000-01-01

    Fetuses of diabetic mothers who were exposed to excessive glucose show delayed maturation. Under these conditions, altered growth factor expression or signaling may have important regulatory influences. We examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in lung development and maternal diabetes...... in the rat. In order to evaluate the possible role of glucose for the expression of EGF and the growth of lung tissue, we performed in vitro studies with organotypic cultures of fetal alveolar cells obtained from control rats. Compared to pups of normal rats, the newborn rats of untreated diabetic rats had...... and was associated with a reduced intensity of surfactant protein A-IR. The only difference observed between pups of treated diabetic rats and controls was a decrease in the lung weight:body weight ratio. In organotypic cultures, the presence of 13 mmol/L glucose in the cell media increased immunoreactive staining...

  11. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in sand rats. II. In vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with the effects of daily intermittent fasting for 15 h upon the development of diabetes in sand rats exposed to a hypercaloric diet. The same pattern of daily intermittent fasting was imposed on sand rats maintained on a purely vegetal diet (control animals). Over the last 30 days of the present experiments, non-fasting animals gained weight, whilst intermittently fasting sand rats lost weight. In this respect, there was no significant difference between control animals and either diabetic or non-diabetic sand rats exposed to the hypercaloric diet. The postprandial glycemia remained fairly stable in the control animals. During a 3-week transition period from a purely vegetal to a hypercaloric diet, the post-prandial glycemia increased by 5.95 ± 1.26 mM (n=6) in diabetic sand rats, as distinct from an increase of only 0.45 ± 0.56 mM (n=6) in the non-diabetic animals. During the intermittent fasting period, the postprandial glycemia decreased significantly in the diabetic animals, but not so in the non-diabetic sand rats. Before the switch in food intake, the peak glycemia at the 30th min of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was already higher in the diabetic than non-diabetic rats. In both the non-diabetic and diabetic sand rats, intermittent fasting prevented the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise observed in non-fasting animals. These findings reveal that, at least in sand rats, intermittent daily fasting prevents the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise taking place when these animals are exposed to a hypercaloric diet.

  14. Determination of trace elements in tissues of diabetic rats by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Mingguang; Wang Yinsong; Qian Yine; Zhang Guilin

    2000-01-01

    By using streptozotocin (STZ) injection to induce model diabetic rats, instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to analyze elemental; concentrations in liver, kidney and pancreas tissues in diabetes and control rats. Results obtained for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cl, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, Se and Zn in those tissues show that some elemental contents in diabetic group change obviously when compared with those of the controls. The changes of elemental contents and their significance are discussed

  15. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and a...

  16. Protective effect of pomegranate juice on retinal oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Betul Tugcu; Senay Asik Nacaroglu; Asuman Gedikbasi; Mehmet Uhri; Nur Acar; Hakan Ozdemir

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) intake on overall oxidation status in retinas of diabetic rats. METHODS: Twenty-seven rats were divided into four groups as control (CO), diabetic (DM), control treated with PJ (CO-PJ), and diabetic treated with PJ (DM-PJ).The retina tissues were used to determine 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxi...

  17. Role of Momordica Charantia L. as Herbal Medicine to Cure Hyperglycemia In Vitro on Induced Diabetic Model Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, W.; Ishtiaq, M.; Hussain, T.; Tariq, M.; Asghar, R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore antidiabetic potential of wild fruit of Momordica charantia L. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) from local germplasm of District Bhimber Communities, Azad Kashmir. The purpose was to evaluate the herbal recipe of food folklores of the remote rural area, where majority population relies on herbal therapeutics. Ethnomedicinal knowledge was collected through Rapid Appraisal Approach (RAA) along with structured and semi-structured interviews with local people and herbalist. Pharmacological analysis was conducted in the laboratory using Rabbits as model organisms, diabetics were induced by use of alloxan. The antihyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract at 1mg/kg and 3mg/kg is studied in normal, glucose loaded hyperglycemic and alloxan induced Type2 diabetic rats by oral dose administration for 7, 15 and 30 days. The blood glucose level of normal control and treatment groups were monitored by using Star glucometer. This research explored that considerable reduction in sugar level was observed on 7th and 15th days samplings in both treatments (T/sub 1-group/ with 1g dose has 224+-12 value and T/sub 2-group/ with 3g dose has 149+-1.4 value) in comparison with control group which showed 542+-6 glucose reading. The body weights was increased by 4.4 percent in normal control group, in diabetic control group decreased by 1.35 percent, in T/sub 1-group/ decreases by 19 percent and in T/sub 2-group/ by decrease 37 percent. Serum insulin level was also improved in both treatment groups but comparatively in T/sub 2-group/, its improvement was more. The study demonstrated that ethanolic extract of Momordica charantiaL has potential antidiabetic property in Type2 diabetes mellitus, thus justifying the traditional usage of plant as food medicine. (author)

  18. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1- control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg or saline subcutaneously (s.c for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001 and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively; also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.

  19. Garcinia kola aqueous suspension prevents cerebellar neurodegeneration in long-term diabetic rat - a type 1 diabetes mellitus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahna, Mohammed; Seke Etet, Paul F; Osman, Sayed Y; Yurt, Kıymet K; Amir, Naheed; Vecchio, Lorella; Aydin, Isınsu; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Sheikh, Azimullah; Chijuka, John C; Kaplan, Süleyman; Adem, Abdu

    2017-01-04

    The development of compounds able to improve metabolic syndrome and mitigate complications caused by inappropriate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus is challenging. The medicinal plant with established hypoglycemic properties Garcinia kola Heckel might have the potential to mitigate diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome and complications. We have investigated the neuroprotective properties of a suspension of G. kola seeds in long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model. Wistar rats, made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were monitored for 8 months. Then, they were administered with distilled water or G. kola oral aqueous suspension daily for 30 days. Body weight and glycemia were determined before and after treatment. After sacrifice, cerebella were dissected out and processed for stereological quantification of Purkinje cells. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of markers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were performed. Purkinje cell counts were significantly increased, and histopathological signs of apoptosis and neuroinflammation decreased, in diabetic animals treated with G. kola compared to diabetic rats given distilled water. Glycemia was also markedly improved and body weight restored to non-diabetic control values, following G. kola treatment. These results suggest that G. kola treatment improved the general condition of long-term diabetic rats and protected Purkinje cells partly by improving the systemic glycemia and mitigating neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by compound 21, selective agonist of angiotensin type 2 receptors, in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira Rt; Bombardi, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of compound 21 (C21), selective AT2 receptor agonist, in diabetic nephropathy and the potential additive effect of C21, when associated to losartan treatment, on the development of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ...

  1. Effect of vitamin D3 on behavioural and biochemical parameters in diabetes type 1-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaroto, Nicéia Spanholi; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; da Costa, Pauline; Baldissareli, Jucimara; Hussein, Fátima Abdala; Schmatz, Roberta; Rubin, Maribel A; Signor, Cristiane; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is associated with long-term complications in the brain and reduced cognitive ability. Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) appears to be involved in the amelioration of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our aim was to analyse the potential of VD3 in avoiding brain damage through evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+) K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5): control/saline, control/metformin (Metf), control/VD3 , control/Metf + VD3 , diabetic/saline, diabetic/Metf, diabetic/VD3 and diabetic/Metf + VD3 . Thirty days after treatment, animals were submitted to contextual fear-conditioning and open-field behavioural tests, after which they were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was dissected. Our results demonstrate a significant memory deficit, an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels and a decrease in δ-ALA-D and Na(+) K(+) -ATPase activities in diabetic rats when compared with the controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with Metf and VD3 prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared with the diabetic/saline group. In treated diabetic rats, the decrease in Na(+) K(+) -ATPase was reverted when compared with non-treated rats, but the increase in δ-ALA-D activity was not. VD3 prevented diabetes-induced TBARS level and improved memory. Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects on Glycemic Control in Impaired Wound Healing in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) Fatty Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhiro, Miyajima; Hui Teoh, Soon; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Shinohara, Masami; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Ohta, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahisa

    2018-02-01

    Impaired diabetic wound healing is an important issue in diabetic complications. The present study aims to evaluate the protective effect on glycemic control against impaired diabetic wound healing using a diabetic rat model. We investigated the wound healing process and effect on the impaired wound repair by glycemic control in the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat, which is a new animal model of obese type 2 diabetes and may be a good model for study impaired wound healing. Male SDT fatty rats at 15 weeks of age were administered orally with sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor for 3 weeks. Wounds were induced at 2 weeks after SGLT 2 inhibitor treatment, and the wound areas were periodically examined in morphological and histological analyses. The SDT fatty rats showed a delayed wound healing as compared with the normal rats, but a glycemic control improved the impaired wound healing. In histological analysis in the skin of SDT fatty rats showed severe infiltration of inflammatory cell, hemorrhage and many bacterial masses in the remaining and slight fibrosis of crust on skin tissue . Thought that this results skin performance to be a delay of crust formation and regeneration of epithelium; however, these findings were ameliorated in the SGLT 2 inhibitor treated group. Glycemic control is effective for treatment in diabetic wounds and the SDT fatty rat may be useful to investigate pathophysiological changes in impaired diabetic wound healing.

  3. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  4. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  5. Effect of irradiation on the healing of extraction sockets in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To observe the histologic pattern of healing in molar tooth extraction sockets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin. Control rats were injected with a citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the right maxillary first molar was extracted under general anesthesia from each of the rats. After the extraction, rats in the diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. In the diabetic and diabetic-irradiated groups, the early healing process of the socket extraction was similar to the control group, but bone formation was delayed at 7 days after the treatment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, alveolar bone surrounding the extraction socket showed sighs of necrosis at 3 days after treatment, and hemorrhage was observed in connective tissue within the extraction socket at 14 days after treatment. The experiment revealed that the healing process of the extraction socket was severely delayed and retarded by irradiation in the diabetic state.

  6. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of glibenclamide in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of glibenclamide (Gli administrated orally and intravenously to normal and diabetic rats. The AUC(0–720 min of orally administered Gli in diabetic rats (321.24 mg min/L was greater than that (57.752 mg min/L in normal rats. CL (0.019 L/min/kg was significantly slower than that (0.092 L/min/kg of normal rats. The AUC(0–480min of intravenous Gli in diabetic rats (1528.280 mg min/L also was significantly greater than that (509.523 mg min/L in normal rats, and CL was decreased approximately 3-fold. No significant difference in intestinal absorption of Gli was observed between normal and diabetic rats as determined by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion. The clearance of Diclofenac (a substrate of CYP2C9 was determined to evaluate changes in hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rats. The CL in diabetic rats was significantly lower (42.43% decrease than that in normal rats. Hepatic protein expression of CYP2C9 was measured using Western blot analysis; compared with normal rats, the hepatic protein expression of CYP2A9 was decreased in diabetic rats. Therefore, the slower clearance of Gli in diabetic rats can be attributed primarily to the lower expression of hepatic CYP2C9.

  7. Behavioral and endocrine responses of rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Wied, D. de

    Behavioral and endocrine profiles were established of homozygous (HO-DI) and heterozygous (HE-DI) rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in comparison to Wistar strain rats. HO-DI rats were inferior in acquiring and maintaining active and passive avoidance behavior. Behavioral deficits

  8. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcelo S; Rodrigues, Luhara S; S, Leila; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Q; Soares, Thaigra S; Américo, Madileine F; Campos, Kleber E; Damasceno, Débora C; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as "cow's hoof", is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

  9. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

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    Gisou Mohaddes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week, Diabetic (12 weeks, Loganin, Diabetic (1 week + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Loganin (40 mg/kg, po was administrated 1 hour before test. Then, spatial memory was compared between groups with Morris Water Maze tests. Results: Administration of loganin during acquisition, significantly (p<0.05 decreased both escape latency and traveled distance to find hidden platform in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. In evaluation of recall phase of memory, loganin significantly (p<0.05 increased time and distance spent in the target quadrant in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. Conclusion: Acute administration of loganin could improve spatial memory in diabetic rats.

  10. Glucose metabolic alterations in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Beibei; Cai, Ming; Lin, Xiaojing; Lou, Shujie

    2017-11-04

    Diabetes could negatively affect the structures and functions of the brain, especially could cause the hippocampal dysfunction, however, the potential metabolic mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of glucose metabolism in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise, and to analyze the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by high-fat diet feeding in combination with STZ intraperitoneal injection, then 4 weeks of aerobic exercise was conducted. The glucose metabolites and key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism in hippocampus were respectively detected by GC/MS based metabolomics and western blot. Metabolomics results showed that compared with control rats, the level of citric acid was significantly decreased, while the levels of lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate, xylulose 5-phosphate and glucitol were significantly increased in the diabetic rat. Compared with diabetic rats, the level of citric acid was significantly increased, while the lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate were significantly decreased in the diabetic exercise rats. Western blot results showed that lower level of citrate synthase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, higher level of aldose reductase and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase were found in the diabetic rats when compared to control rats. After 4 weeks of aerobic exercise, citrate synthase was upregulated and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase was downregulated in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that diabetes could cause abnormal glucose metabolism, and aerobic exercise plays an important role in regulating diabetes-induced disorder of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2006-10-01

    Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes leads to the overproduction of free radicals and evidence is increasing that these contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Among the spices, turmeric (Curcuma longa) is used as a flavouring and colouring agent in the indian diet every day and is known to possess anti-oxidant properties. The present study was designed to examine the effect of curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric, on renal function and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg) in rats. Four weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into four groups, namely control rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with curcumin (15 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Renal function was assessed by creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urea clearance and urine albumin excretion. Oxidative stress was measured by renal malonaldehyde, reduced glutathione and the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Streptozotocin-injected rats showed significant increases in blood glucose, polyuria and a decrease in bodyweight compared with age-matched control rats. After 6 weeks, diabetic rats also exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine and urea clearance and proteinuria, along with a marked increase in oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation and activities of key anti-oxidant enzymes. Chronic treatment with curcumin significantly attenuated both renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. These results provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy and point towards the possible anti-oxidative mechanism being responsible for the nephroprotective action of curcumin.

  12. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Han Yang; Hsien-Tsung Yao; Meng-Tsan Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA) is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group); (2) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4) rats with...

  13. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity.

  14. [Protective effects of compound shenhua tablet on diabetic nephropathy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wen-Jia; Wei, Ri-Bao; Mao, Wei

    2012-03-01

    To observe the renal protection effects of Compound Shenhua Tablet (CST) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. DN rats were given a normal diet for 9 months after they were induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ at the dose of 65 mg/kg after uninephrectomized. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, i. e., the normal control group, the model control group, the CST group, and the Irbesartan group. The intervention was given by gastrogavage for 6 weeks. The general state, 24 h urine protein, urine micro-albumin (mAlb), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (GLU), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB) levels were observed before and after intervention. Renal pathological changes were observed by PAS staining and transmission electron microscope. After 6 weeks of drug intervention, when compared with the model control group, the general state was improved in the CST group and the Irbesartan group. The levels of 24 h urine protein, urine mAlb, SCr, BUN, GLU, TG, and TC were obviously lower in the CST group and the Irbesartan group than in the model group as well as in the same group before treatment (P0.05). The renal pathological changes and the renal ultrastructure were improved to some degree in the two groups when compared with those in the model control group. CST could attenuate the renal damage of diabetes and delay renal deterioration process. Its effectiveness was equivalent to that of Irbesartan.

  15. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

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    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w, respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa.

  16. Effects of taurine on oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingjian; Tu Xiaowen; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chenjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine on the oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic models of rat were induced with streptozotocin. Half of the models (n=7) were treated with taurine for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, uric acid and MDA, 24h urinary albumin and renal cortical homogenate MDA, SOD, GSH-Px contents were determined with appropriate laboratory technics in 1) diabetic rats without taurine treatment, n=7 2) diabetic rats treated with taurine, n=7 and 3) control rats, n=7. Results: There were no significant differences between the blood glucose levels in the two groups of diabetic rats. Blood uric acid and 24h urinary albumin contents in the untreated diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). However, in the taurine treated rats, the blood uric acid levels approximated to those in the controls, with decreased but still higher than normal 24h urinary albumin contents. In the untreated rats, the renal cortical SOD and GSH-Px activities were about the same as those in control rats but there were significantly higher levels of blood and cortical MDA contents (P<0.01). With taurine treatment, the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly higher than those in the two other groups (P<0.05); the MDA contents were lower than those in non-treated rats (P<0.05), but still higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taurine could enhance the anti-oxidative capability and attenuated the oxidative stress in diabetic rats renal tissue with partial protection of renal function. (authors)

  17. Polarized light improves cutaneous healing on diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Oliveira, Priscila Chagas; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio L.

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of 3rd degree burn on diabetic rats submitted or not to treatment with Polarized Light. Diabetes mellitus (Streptozotocin, 60mg/kg) was induced on 45 male Wistar albinus rats and a third degree burn (1.5× 1.5cm) was created in the dorsum of each animal under general anesthesia. After a regular quarantine period, the animals were randomly distributed into three groups as follows: G1: control (no treatment, n =15); G2: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 20J/cm2) and G3: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 40J/cm2). The phototherapy performed on group G2 was Polarized Light dose 20J/cm2 and G3 was Polarized Light dose 40J/cm2 (Bioptron®, λ400-2000 nm, 40mW; 2.4J/cm2 per minute; Φ +/- 5.5 cm; Bioptron AG, Monchaltorf, Switzerland). The phototherapy started immediately post-burning and was repeated daily until the day before the animal death. The energy was applied transcutaneously respecting the focal distance of 10cm as recommended by the manufacturer. The dose was 20 or 40J/cm2 (4min 15s or 8min.and 30s). At each time point chosen (7, 14, and 21 days post-burning) and following macroscopic examination, each animal was killed by an overdose of general anesthesia. Slides were stained with HE, Sirius Red, and CK AE1/AE3 antibody. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses were performed under light microscopy. The animals submitted to phototherapy (20J/cm2) showed significant differences on regards revascularization and epithelialization. The use of 20J/cm2 was effective on improving the healing of third degree buns on diabetic animals at both early and late stages of the repair.

  18. 170 - 174 Firdausi paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    LIPID PROFILE IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS. Sani, F. A.,1 ... sugar levels (hyperglycemia) (Patel et al., 2012). Being a degenerative disease, diabetes is found in all parts of the world ..... glucose in diabetic rats fed a high- fat and.

  19. The potential role of IGF-I receptor mRNA in rats with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡洪宇; 邹伟; 刘丹; 史榕荇; 程丽华; 殷慧清; 刘晓民

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA(IGF-IR mRNA) in the onset and development of retinopathy in diabetic rats.Methods A diabetic model was duplicated in Wistar rats. The early changes in the retina were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of IGF-IR mRNA was analyzed using in situ hybridization.Results Weak expression of IGF-IR mRNA(5%) was found in retinas of normal rats, but was significantly increased (15% and 18%) in the retinas of diabetic rats after 3 and 6 months of diabetes (P<0.01). In situ hybridization and morphological study demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between IGF-IR mRNA expression and retinal changes at various stages.Conclusion Increased IGF-IR mRNA might play an important role in the onset and development of diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Hongyue; Xiao, Xinhua; Hu, Ling; Xin, Fengjiao; Yu, Xiaobing

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats. A diabetic rat model was generated by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injections (HF/STZ). Inulin was orally administered to normal and diabetic rats. To determine the composition of the gut microbiota, fecal DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing were performed. We found that inulin treatment reduced fasting blood glucose levels and alleviated glucose intolerance and blood lipid panels in diabetic rats. Additionally, inulin treatment increased the serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level, reduced serum IL-6 level, Il6 expression in epididymal adipose tissue, and Pepck , G6pc expression in liver of diabetic rats. Pyrophosphate sequencing of the 16s V3-V4 region demonstrated an elevated proportion of Firmicutes and a reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes at the phylogenetic level in diabetic rats compared to normal control rats. The characteristics of the gut microbiota in control and inulin-treated rats were similar. Inulin treatment can normalize the composition of the gut microbiota in diabetic rats. At the family and genus levels, probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria Lachnospiraceae , Phascolarctobacterium , and Bacteroides were found to be significantly more abundant in the inulin-treated diabetic group than in the non-treated diabetic group. In addition, inulin-treated rats had a lower abundance of Desulfovibrio , which produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The

  1. Pioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPARγ expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Theo; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Segerer, Stephan; Lichtenwald, Margit; Law, Marilyn P.; Schaefers, Michael; Ertl, Georg; Neyses, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPARγ in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPARγ agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPARγ, glucose transporter-4 and α-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPARγ, glut-4, and α-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPARγ agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPARγ expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin

  2. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  3. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  4. Resistant starch but not enzymatic treated waxy maize delays development of diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Sven

    2017-01-01

    excretion during week 8 in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets than that of rats fed S and RS showed that they were diabetic. Urinary nontargeted metabolomics revealed that the diabetic state of rats fed S, GLU, and EMS diets influenced microbial metabolism, as well as amino acid, lipid, and vitamin metabolism......Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D. Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset...... glucose concentrations in feed-deprived rats, none of the groups developed diabetes. However, in week 9, plasma glucose after feed deprivation was significantly lower in rats fed the S and RS diets (13.5 mmol/L) than in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets (17.0–18.9 mmol/L), and rats fed RS had lower HbA1c (4...

  5. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Kalaivanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2011-06-17

    The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative potential and antihyperlipidemic activity of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight, BW). Rats with glucose levels >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into five groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered daily with seed extract (SME) at a dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and another group orally administered 600 μg/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Repeated daily oral administration of S. macrophylla significantly reduced blood glucose levels after 45 days of treatment. The lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides of SME treated rats decreased in the plasma, liver and kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were significantly increased in SME treated rats. Antioxidants such as reduced glutathione level in the plasma, liver and kidney and vitamins C and E levels in the plasma increased in SME treated rats. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids and lipoproteins levels increased. Altered lipid profile of treated rats lead to normality with treatment of S. macrophylla. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of 100 mg/kg BW SME restores near normal blood glucose, redox status and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic rats.

  6. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CHUB MACKEREL EXTRACT ON LIPID METABOLISM OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented chub mackerel extract(FCME on lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. Four week-old male Wistar rats were divided into threegroups based on weight. All rats were induced with diabetes mellitus by single intraperitoneal injectionof streptozotocin at 45 mg/kg body weight. Thereafter, they were randomly distributed to threetreatments with 7 rats assigned to each treatment. One group was the control with no additive, and twotreatmentgroups were given the purified diets supplemented with 1% or 2% FCME. Experimentalresults showed that in comparison to the control, diabetic rats fed FCME increased feed intake (P<0.01and body weight gain (P<0.05. FCME inclusion significantly reduced the activities of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase (P<0.01 and fatty acid synthetase (P<0.05 in diabetic rats. FCME significantly increasedcholesterol 7 -hydroxylase with no effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. FCME had no effect onhepatic triglyceride, free cholesterol and phospholipid. FCME inclusion at 1% level significantlyreduced serum triglyceride. FCME significantly increased HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05 with no effect onLDL + VLDL-cholesterol, and significantly reduced atherogenic index. FCME did not significantlyaffect serum insulin and glucose concentration. In conclusion, FCME supplementation altered lipidmetabolism in diabetic rats. FCME supplementation reduced the risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic rats.

  7. The effects of chronic resveratrol treatment on vascular responsiveness of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silan, Coskun

    2008-05-01

    Deficiency in the vasorelaxant capacity is a result of an oxidative stress in diabetic animals and seems to be an etiological factor of vascular complications of diabetes. The present study was designed to examine whether resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound which is naturally present in grape and red wine, has a protective effect on diabetic aorta. Resveratrol (5 mg/kg/d, i.p.) was administered for 42 d to streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats. Loss of weight, hyperglycemia, and elevated levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in diabetic rats. Resveratrol treatment was significantly effective for these metabolic and biochemical abnormalities. The contractile responses of the aorta were recorded. Compared with control subjects, the aorta showed significantly enhanced contractile responses to noradrenaline (NA), but not to potassium chloride (KCl), in diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with resveratrol significantly reversed the increases in responsiveness and sensitivity of aorta to noradrenaline. In diabetic aorta, the relaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) was found to be significantly decreased compared with control subjects, and resveratrol treatment reversed this; no such change was observed in the relaxation response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). These results indicated that resveratrol significantly improved not only glucose metabolism and oxidative injury but also impaired vascular responses in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  8. Salicylate prevents virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the BBDR rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxing Yang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1β and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

  9. Morphine hyposensitivity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: Reversal by dietary l-arginine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Smith, Maree T

    2018-01-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a long-term complication of diabetes. Defining symptoms include mechanical allodynia (pain due to light pressure or touch) and morphine hyposensitivity. In our previous work using the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat model of PDN, morphine hyposensitivity developed in a temporal manner with efficacy abolished at 3 months post-STZ and maintained for 6 months post-STZ. As this time course mimicked that for the temporal development of hyposensitivity to the pain-relieving effects of the furoxan nitric oxide (NO) donor, PRG150 (3-methylfuroxan-4-carbaldehyde) in STZ-diabetic rats, we hypothesized that progressive depletion of endogenous NO bioactivity may underpin the temporal loss of morphine sensitivity in STZ-diabetic rats. Furthermore, we hypothesized that replenishment of NO bioactivity may restore morphine sensitivity in these animals. Diabetes was induced in male Dark Agouti rats by intravenous injection of STZ (85 mg/kg). Diabetes was confirmed on day 7 if blood glucose concentrations were ≥15 mmol/L. Mechanical allodynia was fully developed in the bilateral hindpaws by 3 weeks of STZ-diabetes in rats and this was maintained for the study duration. Morphine hyposensitivity developed in a temporal manner with efficacy abolished by 3 months post-STZ. Administration of dietary l-arginine (NO precursor) at 1 g/d to STZ-diabetic rats according to a 15-week prevention protocol initiated at 9 weeks post-STZ prevented abolition of morphine efficacy. When given as an 8-week intervention protocol in rats where morphine efficacy was abolished, dietary l-arginine at 1 g/d progressively rescued morphine efficacy and potency. Our findings implicate NO depletion in the development of morphine hyposensitivity in STZ-diabetic rats. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Effect of hypocholesterolemia on cholesterol synthesis in small intestine of diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feingold, K.R.; Moser, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Studies by our and other laboratories have demonstrated that cholesterol synthesis is increased in the small intestine of insulinopenic diabetic animals. In normal animals, many factors have been shown to regulate cholesterol synthesis in the small intestine, including changes in plasma cholesterol levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lowering plasma cholesterol levels on small intestine cholesterol synthesis in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (4-APP)-induced hypocholesterolemia (plasma cholesterol levels less than 20 mg/dl) resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in small intestine cholesterol synthesis, which was most marked in the distal small intestine, decreasing proximally. In the distal small intestine the incorporation of 3 H 2 O into cholesterol was 0.28 +/- 0.04 mumol.h-1.g-1 in diabetic rats versus 1.60 +/- 0.38 in diabetic rats administered 4-APP (P less than .01). This stimulation of cholesterol synthesis occurred in the upper villus, middle villus, and crypt cells isolated from the middle intestine of the 4-APP-treated diabetic animals. In agreement with these observations, functional hypocholesterolemia due to Triton WR-1339 administration also stimulated cholesterol synthesis 2.5-fold in the small intestine of normal and diabetic animals. In the distal small intestine, cholesterol synthesis was 0.43 +/- 0.10 mumol.h-1.g-1 in the diabetic rats versus 1.08 +/- 0.21 in diabetic rats treated with Triton WR-1339 (P less than .05). In both the 4-APP and Triton WR-1339 experiments, the response of the diabetic rats was similar to that observed in normal rats

  11. Effects of advanced glycation end-product inhibition and cross-link breakage in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, P S; Christensen, M; Rolin, B

    2000-01-01

    ), and a breaker of already formed AGE cross-links, N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB), were investigated in streptozotocin-diabetic female Wistar rats. Diabetes for 24 weeks resulted in decreased tail collagen pepsin solubility, reflecting the formation of AGE cross-linking. Collagen solubility was significantly...... ameliorated by treatment with NNC39-0028, whereas PTB had no effect. Increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic rats was observed in serial measurements throughout the study period, and was not reduced by any treatment. Vascular dysfunction in the eye, measured as increased clearance of 125I......-albumin, was induced by diabetes. NNC39-0028 did not affect this abnormality. This study demonstrated a pharmacological inhibition of collagen solubility alterations in diabetic rats without affecting diabetes-induced pathophysiology such as the increase in UAE or albumin clearance. Treatment with PTB, a specific...

  12. Cardioprotective effect of L-glutamate in obese type 2 diabetic Zucker fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Løfgren, Bo; Rasmussen, Lars Ege

    2009-01-01

    (Wistar-Kyoto) and diabetic (Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) rats, studied at 16 weeks of age. The infarct size (IS)/area-at-risk (AAR) ratio was the primary end-point. Expression of L-glutamate excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1 (mitochondrial) and EAAT3 (sarcolemmal) was determined by quantitative...... was downregulated in hearts from ZDF rats at both the mRNA and protein levels (P diabetic hearts (P obese diabetic rats have......1. Because diabetic hearts have an increased threshold for cardioprotection by ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), we hypothesized that protection by L-glutamate during reperfusion is restricted in Type 2 diabetic hearts. Previously, we found that L-glutamate-mediated postischaemic cardioprotection...

  13. Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes Enhances In-Stent Restenosis after Aortic Stenting in Diabetes-Prone BB Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina Onuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetic patients have increased risk of developing in-stent restenosis following endovascular stenting. Underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are not fully understood partly due to the lack of a relevant animal model to study the effect(s of long-term autoimmune diabetes on development of in-stent restenosis. We here describe the development of in-stent restenosis in long-term (~7 months spontaneously diabetic and age-matched, thymectomized, nondiabetic Diabetes Prone BioBreeding (BBDP rats (n=6-7 in each group. Diabetes was suboptimally treated with insulin and was characterized by significant hyperglycaemia, polyuria, proteinuria, and increased HbA1c levels. Stented abdominal aortas were harvested 28 days after stenting. Computerized morphometric analysis revealed significantly increased neointima formation in long-term diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic controls. In conclusion, long-term autoimmune diabetes in BBDP rats enhances in-stent restenosis. This model can be used to study the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetes-enhanced in-stent restenosis as well as to test new therapeutic modalities.

  14. Type 2 Diabetes and Metformin Influence on Fracture Healing in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fontaine, Javier; Chen, Chris; Hunt, Nathan; Jude, Edward; Lavery, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Persons with diabetes have a greater incidence of fractures compared with persons without diabetes. However, very little published information is available concerning the deleterious effect of late-stage diabetes on osseous structure and bone healing. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of diabetes on fracture healing in a rat femur repair model. Thirty-six lean and diabetic Zucker rats were subdivided into 3 groups: (1) 12 lean rats as the control group; (2) 12 diabetic rats without blood glucose control (DM group); and (3) 12 diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg metformin to reduce the blood glucose levels (DM + Met group). Radiographs were taken every week to determine the incidence of bone repair and delayed union. All the rats were killed at 6 weeks after surgery. In both the sham-operated and the fractured and repaired femurs, significant decreases in the fracture-load/weight and marginal decreases in the fracture-load between the lean and DM groups were found. Metformin treatment significantly reduced the blood glucose and body weight 12 days postoperatively. Furthermore, a decrease in the fracture-load and fracture-load/weight in the repaired femurs was found in the DM + Met group. Diabetes impairs bone fracture healing. Metformin treatment reduces the blood glucose and body weight but had an adverse effect on fracture repair in diabetic rats. Further investigations are needed to reveal the mechanisms responsible for the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on bone and bone quality and the effect of medications such as metformin might have in diabetic bone in the presence of neuropathy and vascular disease. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  16. Amelioration of renal lesions associated with diabetes by dietary curcumin in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, P; Srinivasan, K

    1998-04-01

    Curcumin, the coloring principle of the commonly used spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) was fed at 0.5% in the diet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats for 8 weeks. Renal damage was assessed by the amount of proteins excreted in the urine and the extent of leaching of renal tubular enzymes: NAG, LDH, AsAT, AlAT, alkaline and acid phosphatases. The integrity of kidney was assessed by measuring the activities of several key enzymes of the renal tissue: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and LDH (Carbohydrate metabolism), aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase (polyol pathway), transaminases, ATPases and membrane PUFA/SFA ratio (membrane integrity). Data on enzymuria, albuminuria, activity of kidney ATPases and fatty acid composition of renal membranes in diabetic condition suggested that dietary curcumin brought about significant beneficial modulation of the progression of renal lesions in diabetes. These findings were also corroborated by histological examination of kidney sections. It is inferred that this beneficial ameliorating influence of dietary curcumin on diabetic nephropathy is possibly mediated through its ability to lower blood cholesterol levels.

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation prevents diabetes mellitus in the Bio-Breeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, A.A.; Slavin, S.; Woda, B.A.; Geisberg, M.; Like, A.A.; Mordes, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) at doses of 2200 rads or greater prevented diabetes in susceptible BB/W rats. Two of 29 (7%) treated rats became diabetic compared with 23 of 39 (59%) controls. TLI did not, however, prevent insulitis or thyroiditis in nondiabetic rats, nor did it restore the depressed concanavalin-A responsiveness of BB rat lymphocytes. T-lymphocyte subset proportions were the same in both groups. TLI was associated with significant radiation-related mortality, and nondiabetic TLI-treated rats weighed significantly less than controls. It was concluded that TLI is effective in the prevention of BB rat diabetes. However, TLI fails to correct the subclinical immunologic abnormalities of the model and is associated with significant morbidity

  18. Effect of irradiation on the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To investigate the histopathological changes in the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 250 gm were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control group were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the temporomandibular joint were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetic group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed throughout the period of experiment. Necrosis of bone marrow and trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state. Atrophy and fibrosis in the retrodiscal tissue was gradually progressed during the time of the experiment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed during the early experimental phases, but regeneration of bone marrow was initiated at 14 days after diabetic state and irradiation. Also, calcification of abnormal trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state and irradiation. The retrodiscal tissue was degenerated in the early experimental phases, but it had been gradually regenerated during the experimental time. This experiment suggests that bone resorption and degeneration in the mandibular condyle are caused by the induction of diabetes, and abnormal bone formation is induced after irradiation in diabetic state.

  19. Penile alterations at early stage of type 1 diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Tao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Diabetes affects the erectile function significantly. However, the penile alterations in the early stage of diabetes in experimental animal models have not been well studied. We examined the changes of the penis and its main erectile components in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetics and age-matched controls. Three or nine weeks after diabetes induction, the penis was removed for immunohistochemical staining of smooth muscle and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in midshaft penile tissues. The cross-sectional areas of the whole midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were quantified. The smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa and nNOS in the dorsal nerves were quantified. Results The weight, but not the length, of the penis was lower in diabetics. The cross-sectional areas of the total midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were lower in diabetic rats compared with controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. The cross-sectional area of smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa as percentage of the overall area of the corpora cavernosa was lower in diabetic rats than in controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Percentage change of nNOS in dorsal nerves was similar at 3 weeks, and has a decreased trend at 9 weeks in diabetic rats compared with controls. Conclusions Diabetes causes temporal alterations in the penis, and the significant changes in STZ rat model begin 3-9 weeks after induction. Further studies on the reversibility of the observed changes are warranted.

  20. Effect of irradiation on the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the histopathological changes in the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 250 gm were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control group were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the temporomandibular joint were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetic group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed throughout the period of experiment. Necrosis of bone marrow and trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state. Atrophy and fibrosis in the retrodiscal tissue was gradually progressed during the time of the experiment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed during the early experimental phases, but regeneration of bone marrow was initiated at 14 days after diabetic state and irradiation. Also, calcification of abnormal trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state and irradiation. The retrodiscal tissue was degenerated in the early experimental phases, but it had been gradually regenerated during the experimental time. This experiment suggests that bone resorption and degeneration in the mandibular condyle are caused by the induction of diabetes, and abnormal bone formation is induced after irradiation in diabetic state.

  1. Sensory nerve conduction in the caudal nerves of rats with diabetes Condução nervosa sensorial no nervo caudal de ratos com diabetes experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Celina Cordeiro de Carvalho; Juliana Netto Maia; Otávio Gomes Lins; Sílvia Regina Arruda de Moraes

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate sensory nerve conduction of the caudal nerve in normal and diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in twenty 8-weeks old Wistar male rats. Twenty normal rats served as controls. Caudal nerve conduction studies were made before diabetes induction and the end of each week for six consecutive weeks. The caudal nerve was stimulated distally and nerve potentials were recorded proximally on the animal's tail using common "alligator" clips as surface electrodes. RESULTS:...

  2. Cardioprotection by controlling hyperamylinemia in a "humanized" diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Sanda; Sharma, Savita; Harris, Todd R; Dong, Hua; Li, Ning; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margulies, Kenneth B; Hammock, Bruce D; Despa, Florin

    2014-08-21

    Chronic hypersecretion of the pancreatic hormone amylin is common in humans with obesity or prediabetic insulin resistance and induces amylin aggregation and proteotoxicity in the pancreas. We recently showed that hyperamylinemia also affects the cardiovascular system. Here, we investigated whether amylin aggregates interact directly with cardiac myocytes and whether controlling hyperamylinemia protects the heart. By Western blot, we found abundant amylin aggregates in lysates of cardiac myocytes from obese patients, but not in controls. Aggregated amylin was elevated in failing hearts, suggesting a role in myocyte injury. Using rats overexpressing human amylin in the pancreas (HIP rats) and control myocytes incubated with human amylin, we show that amylin aggregation at the sarcolemma induces oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. In time, HIP rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. We then tested whether metabolites with antiaggregation properties, such as eicosanoid acids, limit myocardial amylin deposition. Rats were treated with an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades endogenous eicosanoids. Treatment doubled the blood concentration of eicosanoids, which drastically reduced incorporation of aggregated amylin in cardiac myocytes and blood cells, without affecting pancreatic amylin secretion. Animals in the treated group showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. The cardioprotective mechanisms included the mitigation of amylin-induced cardiac oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. The results suggest blood amylin as a novel therapeutic target in diabetic heart disease and elevating blood levels of antiaggregation metabolites as a pharmacological strategy to reduce amylin aggregation and amylin-mediated cardiotoxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Impact of streptozotocin on altering normal glucose homeostasis during insulin testing in diabetic rats compared to normoglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinna NA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nidal A Qinna,1 Adnan A Badwan2 1Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, 2Research and Innovation Centre, The Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Co. Plc. (JPM, Amman, Jordan Abstract: Streptozotocin (STZ is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL, noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were

  4. L-glutamine supplementation prevents the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L Badole

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of L-glutamine on cardiac myopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted Sprague Dawely rats by using intraperitonial injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 20 min before administration of streptozotocin. Experimental rats were divided into Group I: non-diabetic control (distilled water; 10 ml/kg, p.o., II: diabetic control (distilled water, 10 ml/kg, p.o., III: L-glutamine (500 mg/kg, p.o. and IV: L-glutamine (1000 mg/kg, p.o.. All groups were diabetic except group I. The plasma glucose level, body weight, electrocardiographic abnormalities, hemodynamic changes and left ventricular contractile function, biological markers of cardiotoxicity, antioxidant markers were determined after 4 months after STZ with nicotinamide injection. Histopathological changes of heart tissue were carried out by using H and E stain. L-glutamine treatment improved the electrocardiographic, hemodynamic changes; LV contractile function; biological markers; oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results from the present investigation demonstrated that L-glutamine has seemed a cardioprotective activity.

  5. Restriction fragment polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex of diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastern, W.; Dyrberg, T.; Scholler, J.

    1984-01-01

    DNA isolated from diabetic BB (BB/Hagedorn) rats was examined for restriction fragment length differences within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as compared with nondiabetic (W-subline) BB rats. Polymorphisms were detected using a mouse class I MHC gene as probe. Specifically, a 2-kb Bam......HI fragment was present in all the nondiabetic rats examined, but absent in the diabetic rats. Similar polymorphisms were observed with various other restriction enzymes, particularly XbaI, HindII, and SacI. There were no polymorphisms detected using either a human DR-alpha (class II antigen heavy chain...

  6. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group ...

  7. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  8. Ameliorative effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid, on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Numair, Khalid S; Chandramohan, Govindasamy; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Alsaif, Mohammed A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of kaempferol against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male, adult albino rats of the Wistar strain, by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was administered orally once daily for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significantly increased levels of plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart whereas they showed significantly decreased level of plasma insulin. The levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione) in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) in liver, kidney, and heart were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Administration of kaempferol to diabetic rats was showed brought back in plasma glucose, insulin, lipid peroxidation products, enzymatic, and non-enzymatic antioxidants to near normal. The present study indicates that kaempferol has a good antioxidant property, as evidenced by its increase of antioxidant status and decrease of lipid peroxidation markers, thus providing protection from the risks of diabetic complications.

  9. Effect of glycation of albumin on its renal clearance in normal and diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G.J.; Jerums, G.

    1988-01-01

    Two independent techniques have been used to study the renal clearances of nonenzymatically glycated albumin and nonglycated albumin in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 16 to 24 weeks after the onset of diabetes. In the first technique, serum and urinary endogenous glycated and nonglycated albumin were separated using m-aminophenylboronate affinity chromatography and subsequently quantified by radioimmunoassay. Endogenous glycated albumin was cleared approximately twofold faster than nonglycated albumin in normal and diabetic rats. However, no difference was observed in the glycated albumin/nonglycated albumin clearance ratios (Cga/Calb) in normal and diabetic rats, respectively (2.18 +/- 0.39 vs 1.83 +/- 0.22, P greater than 0.05). The second technique measured the renal clearance of injected 125I-labelled glycated albumin and 125I-labelled albumin. The endogenous results were supported by the finding that 125I-labelled glycated albumin was cleared more rapidly than 125I-labelled albumin in normal (P less than 0.01) and diabetic (P less than 0.05) rats. The Cga/Calb ratio calculated for the radiolabelled albumins was 1.4 and 2.0 in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. This evidence suggests that nonenzymatic glycation of albumin increases its renal clearance to a similar degree in normal and diabetic rats

  10. Modification of the β-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Pathway in Zucker Obese and Obese Diabetic Rat Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Carillion, Aude; Na, Na; De Jong, Audrey; Feldman, Sarah; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Amour, Julien

    2015-07-01

    Although metabolic syndrome is associated with increased sympathetic activity that chronically stimulates β-adrenoceptors, the β-adrenoceptor signaling pathway has been poorly studied in this situation. We studied the β-adrenoceptor signaling pathway in Zucker lean, obese, and obese diabetic rats. Experimental, prospective study. University medical research laboratory. Adult male Zucker lean (control), obese, and obese diabetic rats. The effects of β-adrenoceptor stimulation were investigated in vitro in isolated left ventricular papillary muscles in control, obese, and obese diabetic rats. β1-, β2-, and β3-adrenoceptors and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 were quantified by Western Blotting. Triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin, and C-peptide plasma concentrations were measured. Data are mean ± SD. Hyperlipidemia, high leptin, and C-peptide concentrations were observed in obese and obese diabetic strains, whereas hyperglycemia occurred only in the diabetic strain. The positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol was slightly reduced in obese rats (183% ± 11% of baseline; p = 0.003; n = 7) and markedly reduced in obese diabetic rats (137% ± 18% of baseline; p < 0.001; n = 10) when compared with control rats (210% ± 17% of baseline; n = 9). β1-adrenoceptors were down-regulated in obese (-41%; p = 0.02) and diabetic (-54%; p = 0.003) when compared with control rats, whereas β3-adrenoceptors and multidrug resistance-associated protein expression remained unchanged. Direct stimulation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin or administration of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate suggests that subtle impairments also occurred beside the down-regulation of β1-adrenoceptor. The positive inotropic effect of β-adrenoceptor stimulation is slightly decreased in Zucker obese rats and was more markedly decreased in Zucker diabetic rats. These decreases are mainly related to β1-adrenoceptor down-regulation.

  11. Repopulation of the atrophied thymus in diabetic rats by insulin-like growth factor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binz, K.; Joller, P.; Froesch, P.; Binz, H.; Zapf, J.; Froesch, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Atrophy of the thymus is one of the consequences of severe insulin deficiency. The authors describe here that the weight and the architecture of the thymus of diabetic rats is restored towards normal not only by insulin but also by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. In contrast to insulin, this effect of IGF-I occurs despite persisting hyperglycemia and adrenal hyperplasia. They also investigated the in vivo effect of IGF-I on replication and differentiation of thymocytes from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thymocytes from diabetic rats incorporated less [ 3 H]thymidine than did thymocytes from healthy rats. Insulin, as well as IGF-I treatment of diabetic rats increased [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by thymocytes. Flow cytometry of thymocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies revealed a decreased expression of the Thy-1 antigen in diabetic rats compared with control rats. In addition, a major deficiency of thymocytes expressing simultaneously the W3/25 and the Ox8 antigens was observed. These changes were restored towards normal by insulin as well as by IGF-I treatment. The antibody response to a T cell-dependent antigen (bovine serum albumin) was comparable in normal and diabetic rats. They conclude that IGF-I has important effects on the thymocyte number and the presence of CD4 + /CD8 + immature cells in the thymus of diabetic rats despite persisting hyperglycemia. However, helper T-cell function for antibody production appears to be preserved even in the severely diabetic state

  12. Polyamine and amino acid content, and activity of polyamine-synthesizing decarboxylases, in liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brosnan, Margaret E.; Roebothan, Barbara V.; Hall, Douglas E.

    1980-01-01

    1. Concentrations of polyamines, amino acids, glycogen, nucleic acids and protein, and activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, were measured in livers from control, streptozotocin-diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats. 2. Total DNA per liver and protein per mg of DNA were unaffected by diabetes, whereas RNA per mg of DNA and glycogen per g of liver were decreased. Insulin treatment of diabetic rats induced both hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as indicat...

  13. Chronic Opium Treatment Can Differentially Induce Brain and Liver Cells Apoptosis in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asiabanha, Majid; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Rahnema, Amir; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Hasanshahi, Gholamhosein; Hashemi, Mohammad; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that some opium derivatives promote cell death via apoptosis. This study was designed to examine the influence of opium addiction on brain and liver cells apoptosis in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium-addicted, diabetic and diabetic opium-addicted male and female rats. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and DNA fragmentation assays. Results of this study showed that apoptosis in opium-addicted and dia...

  14. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shaik Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the

  15. Protein kinase C is activated in glomeruli from streptozotocin diabetic rats. Possible mediation by glucose

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    Craven, P.A.; DeRubertis, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular inositol content and the turnover of polyphosphoinositides was reduced by 58% in 1-2 wk streptozotocin diabetic rats. Addition of inositol to the incubation medium increased polyphosphoinositide turnover in glomeruli from diabetic rats to control values. Despite the reduction in inositol content and polyphosphoinositide turnover, protein kinase C was activated in glomeruli from diabetic rats, as assessed by an increase in the percentage of enzyme activity associated with the particulate cell fraction. Total protein kinase C activity was not different between glomeruli from control and diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin to achieve near euglycemia prevented the increase in particulate protein kinase C. Moreover, incubation of glomeruli from control rats with glucose (100-1,000 mg/dl) resulted in a progressive increase in labeled diacylglycerol production and in the percentage of protein kinase C activity which was associated with the particulate fraction. These results support a role for hyperglycemia per se in the enhanced state of activation of protein kinase C seen in glomeruli from diabetic rats. Glucose did not appear to increase diacylglycerol by stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in glomeruli. Other pathways for diacylglycerol production, including de novo synthesis and phospholipase C mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan are not excluded

  16. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

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    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  17. Gallic acid and p-coumaric acid attenuate type 2 diabetes-induced neurodegeneration in rats.

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    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Yousef, Ahmed I; Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Abdel Reheim, Eman S; Ashour, Mohamed B

    2017-08-01

    The brain of diabetics revealed deterioration in many regions, especially the hippocampus. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gallic acid and p-coumaric acid against the hippocampal neurodegeneration in type 2 diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats were randomly allocated into four groups: Group 1 served as control ones and others were induced with diabetes. Group 2 considered as diabetic, and groups 3 and 4 were further orally treated with gallic acid (20 mg/kg b.wt./day) and p-coumaric acid (40 mg/kg b.wt./day) for six weeks. Diabetic rats revealed significant elevation in the levels of serum glucose, blood glycosylated hemoglobin and serum tumor necrosis factor-α, while the level of serum insulin was significantly declined. Furthermore, the brain of diabetic rats showed a marked increase in oxidative stress and a decrease of antioxidant parameters as well as upregulation the protein expression of Bax and downregulation the protein expression of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. Treatment of diabetic rats with gallic acid and p-coumaric acid significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance, diminished the brain oxidative stress and improved antioxidant status, declined inflammation and inhibited apoptosis in the hippocampus. The overall results suggested that gallic acid and p-coumaric acid may inhibit hippocampal neurodegeneration via their potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, both compounds can be recommended as hopeful adjuvant agents against brain neurodegeneration in diabetics.

  18. Chronic Rumex Patientia Seed Feeding Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

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    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP, this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, RP-treatedcontrol and -diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered at a dose of 60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, RP-treated groups received RP seed powder mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6% for 4 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found out that regarding initial latency, there was no significant difference among the groups. In addition, diabetic rats developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p<0.01, as it is evident by a lower STL. Furthermore, RP treatment of diabetic rats did produce a significant improvement in retention and recall (p<0.05. Discussion: Taken together, chronic RP feeding could improve retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats

  19. Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Effects Of Parsley Extract (Petroselinum Crispum) On Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is one of the medicinal herbs in Egypt. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of parsley (10 mg/kg/day) on diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). The volatile compounds were separated by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) for analysis of essential oils. The results showed that 18 compounds could be identified (natural antioxidants). Experimental rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic received parsley, and diabetic received irradiated parsley through gastric intubation for 4 weeks. A single administrative dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg) resulted in hyperglycemia, increase in AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and decrease in body weight, serum insulin, total protein and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Concurrent with those changes, an increased TBARS level was observed. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels of alloxan diabetic rats. Intake of parsley extract after diabetes ameliorated hyperglycemia, AST, ALT, body weight, total protein insulin and lipid profiles, and blunted the increase in TBARS and modulated the levels of SOD, CAT and GSH of alloxan treated rats. It could be concluded that parsley extract has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity caused by diabetes

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  1. Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors in the Retinas of Diabetic Rats

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    Shu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports show that ER stress plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy (DR, but ER stress is a complicated process involving a network of signaling pathways and hundreds of factors, What factors involved in DR are not yet understood. We selected 89 ER stress factors from more than 200, A rat diabetes model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The expression of 89 ER stress-related factors was found in the retinas of diabetic rats, at both 1- and 3-months after development of diabetes, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. There were significant changes in expression levels of 13 and 12 ER stress-related factors in the diabetic rat retinas in the first and third month after the development of diabetes, Based on the array results, homocysteine- inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1(HERP, and synoviolin(HRD1 were studied further by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses showed that the expression of HERP was reduced in the retinas of diabetic rats in first and third month. The expression of Hrd1 did not change significantly in the retinas of diabetic rats in the first month but was reduced in the third month.

  2. Altered synthesis of some secretory proteins in pancreatic lobules isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, R.D.; Erlanson-Albertsson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro incorporation of [35S]cysteine into lipase, colipase, amylase, procarboxypeptidase A and B, and the serine proteases and total proteins was studied in pancreatic lobules isolated from normal and diabetic rats with or without insulin treatment. The incorporation of [35S]cysteine into total proteins was 65% greater in pancreatic lobules from diabetic animals than from normal rats. The increased incorporation was partly reversed by insulin treatment (2 U/100 g/day for 5 days) of diabetic rats. The relative rates of biosynthesis for amylase and the procarboxypeptidases in diabetic pancreatic lobules were decreased by 75 and 25%, respectively, after 1 h of incubation, while those for lipase, colipase, and the serine proteases were increased by 90, 85, and 35%, respectively. The absolute rates of synthesis for these enzymes changed in the same direction as the relative rates in diabetic lobules, except that for the procarboxypeptidases, which did not change. The changed rates of biosynthesis for the pancreatic enzymes were reversed by insulin treatment of the diabetic rats. Kinetic studies showed that the incorporation of [35S]cysteine into amylase, lipase, and colipase was linear until up to 2 h of incubation in normal pancreatic lobules, while in the diabetic lobules the incorporation into lipase and colipase was accelerated, reaching a plateau level already after 1 h of incubation. It is concluded that the biosynthesis of pancreatic secretory proteins in diabetic rats is greatly changed both in terms of quantity and kinetics

  3. Gender-Dimorphic Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Proteins in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Minji Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that sexual differences increase diabetic risk and contribute to the need for gender-specific care, there remain contradictory results as to whether or not sexual dimorphism increases susceptibility to the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: To examine gender-dimorphic regulation of skeletal muscle proteins between healthy control and STZ-induced diabetic rats of both genders, we performed differential proteome analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry. Results: Animal experiments revealed that STZ treatment rendered female rats more susceptible to induction of diabetes than their male littermates with significantly lower plasma insulin levels due to hormonal regulation. Proteomic analysis of skeletal muscle identified a total of 21 proteins showing gender-dimorphic differential expression patterns between healthy controls and diabetic rats. Most interestingly, gender-specific proteome comparison showed that male and female rats displayed differential regulation of proteins involved in muscle contraction, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative phosphorylation and cellular stress. Conclusion: The current proteomic study revealed that impaired protein regulation was more prominent in the muscle tissue of female diabetic rats, which were more susceptible to STZ-induced diabetes. We expect that the present proteomic data can provide valuable information for evidence-based gender-specific treatment of diabetes.

  4. Decreased autophosphorylation of EGF receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Kahn, C.R.; Maron, R.; White, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that despite an increase in receptor concentration, there is a decrease in autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats. To determine if other tyrosine kinases might be altered, they have studied the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase in wheat germ agglutinin-purified, Triton X-100-solubilized liver membranes from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the insulin-deficient BB rat. They find that autophosphorylation of EGF receptor is decreased in proportion to the severity of the diabetic state in STZ rats with a maximal decrease of 67%. A similar decrease in autophosphorylation was observed in diabetic BB rats that was partially normalized by insulin treatment. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a decrease in labeling at all sites of autophosphorylation. A parallel decrease in EGF receptor phosphorylation was also found by immunoblotting with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. EGF receptor concentration, determined by Scatchard analysis of 125 I-labeled EGF binding, was decreased by 39% in the STZ rat and 27% in the diabetic BB rat. Thus autophosphorylation of EGF receptor, like that of the insulin receptor, is decreased in insulin-deficient rat liver. In the case of EGF receptor, this is due in part to a decrease in receptor number and in part to a decrease in the specific activity of the kinase

  5. Brain Aging and AD-Like Pathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Jian-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear. Research Design and Methods. Forebrain and hippocampal volumes were measured using stereology in serial coronal sections of the brain in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced rats. Neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus was evaluated using Fluoro-Jade C (FJC. Aβ aggregation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was tested using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Dendritic spine density in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was measured using Golgi staining, and western blot was conducted to detect the levels of synaptophysin. Cognitive ability was evaluated through the Morris water maze and inhibitory avoidant box. Results. Rats are characterized by insulin deficiency accompanied with polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss after STZ injection. The number of FJC-positive cells significantly increased in discrete brain regions of the diabetic rats compared with the age-matched control rats. Hippocampal atrophy, Aβ aggregation, and synapse loss were observed in the diabetic rats compared with the control rats. The learning and memory of the diabetic rats decreased compared with those of the age-matched control rats. Conclusions. Our results suggested that aberrant metabolism induced brain aging as characterized by AD-like pathologies.

  6. Brain Aging and AD-Like Pathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Wang, Jian-Qin; Yin, Jie; Song, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Lang; Ren, Ying-Xiang; Wang, De-Gui; Gao, Li-Ping; Jing, Yu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM) with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear. Research Design and Methods. Forebrain and hippocampal volumes were measured using stereology in serial coronal sections of the brain in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced rats. Neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus was evaluated using Fluoro-Jade C (FJC). Aβ aggregation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was tested using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Dendritic spine density in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was measured using Golgi staining, and western blot was conducted to detect the levels of synaptophysin. Cognitive ability was evaluated through the Morris water maze and inhibitory avoidant box. Results. Rats are characterized by insulin deficiency accompanied with polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss after STZ injection. The number of FJC-positive cells significantly increased in discrete brain regions of the diabetic rats compared with the age-matched control rats. Hippocampal atrophy, Aβ aggregation, and synapse loss were observed in the diabetic rats compared with the control rats. The learning and memory of the diabetic rats decreased compared with those of the age-matched control rats. Conclusions. Our results suggested that aberrant metabolism induced brain aging as characterized by AD-like pathologies. PMID:25197672

  7. Red algae (Gelidium amansii reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide

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    Tsung-Han Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium amansii (GA is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1 rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group; (2 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet and GA. The experimental diet and drinking water were available ad libitum for 11 weeks. After the 11-week feeding study, plasma glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol concentrations were lower in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet than in animals with diabetes fed the control diet. In addition, cholesterol and triglyceride excretion were significantly higher in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet. Moreover, GA feeding induced lipolysis in both paraepididymal and perirenal adipose tissues. Adipose tissue (paraepididymal and perirenal weight and triglyceride contents were lower after GA treatment. Plasma adipocytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were reduced by GA feeding in rats with diabetes. The results of the current study suggest that GA feeding may regulate plasma glucose and lipid levels and prevent adipose tissue accumulation in rats with diabetes.

  8. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide.

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    Yang, Tsung-Han; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-12-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA) is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group); (2) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet and GA. The experimental diet and drinking water were available ad libitum for 11 weeks. After the 11-week feeding study, plasma glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol concentrations were lower in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet than in animals with diabetes fed the control diet. In addition, cholesterol and triglyceride excretion were significantly higher in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet. Moreover, GA feeding induced lipolysis in both paraepididymal and perirenal adipose tissues. Adipose tissue (paraepididymal and perirenal) weight and triglyceride contents were lower after GA treatment. Plasma adipocytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were reduced by GA feeding in rats with diabetes. The results of the current study suggest that GA feeding may regulate plasma glucose and lipid levels and prevent adipose tissue accumulation in rats with diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Prevention of diabetes: effect of mycophenolate mofetil and anti-CD25 on onset of diabetes in the DRBB rat.

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    Ugrasbul, Figen; Moore, Wayne V; Tong, Pei Ying; Kover, Karen L

    2008-12-01

    Anti-CD25 and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment of patients with new-onset diabetes is currently being tested as one of the trials in TrialNet. We tested the effectiveness of MMF and anti-CD25 in preventing autoimmune diabetes in the diabetes-resistant biobreeding (DRBB) rat. Autoimmune diabetes in the DRBB rat was induced with a Treg cell depletion regimen starting at 24-26 d of age. Treatment was started on the first day of the depletion regimen in the following groups: (i) control (vehicle); (ii) MMF 25 mg/kg/d intramuscularly daily for 8 wk; (iii) anti-CD25 0.8 mg/kg/d intraperitoneally 5 d/wk for 3 wk; and (iv) combination of MMF and anti-CD25. In a second set of experiments, treatments were started on day 5 of the depletion regimen (delayed treatment) with groups 1, 3, and 4. Rats that had diabetes-free survival for at least 30 d after the treatment was stopped underwent a second Treg depletion (redepletion). In each of the three treatment groups (n = 10/group), onset of diabetes was delayed or prevented in 20, 40 and 80% in groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. After redepletion, diabetes-free survival was unchanged in group 2 and decreased to 10 and 30% in groups 3 and 4, respectively. With delayed treatment, groups 3 and 4 had 33 and 50% diabetes-free survival that decreased to 0 and 33% after redepletion. MMF and anti-CD25 alone or in combination are effective in delaying and preventing diabetes in the DRBB rat especially if treatment is started before stimulation and expansion of the autoreactive T cells.

  10. The Effect of Trans-Chalcone on Amylase Activity, Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Rats

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    M Najafian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of trans-chalcone on amylase activity, blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic and non diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 1388 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sixty rats were randomly divided to ten equal groups: non diabetic control, diabetic control, four non diabetic experiments and four diabetic experiments. Control groups received grape seed oil and experimental groups received 2, 8,16 and 32 mg/kg of body weight in a period of 24 days with a gastric cannula. Blood sugar, every two days, serum insulin levels in days 0,12, and 24 and at the end of the experiment, lipoproteins and alpha amylase activity were measured.The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance, ANOVA, followed by Turkey,s test with SPSS soft ware . Results: On average Chalcone reduced 25.5% of blood sugar in normal and diabetic rats. IT also decreased the serum insulin level. On average, chalcone decreased 34.9% of alpha amylase activity in normal and diabetic rats. Following disturbances in lipids metabolism caused by diabetes, this drug improved lipoproteins metabolism and reduced water, food and urine volume. Conclusion: This study shows that trans-Chalcone reduces blood sugar and body weight via inhibition of alpha amylas. Moreover, improvement of lipoprotein metabolism may happen via the inhibitory effect of this drug on hydroxyl methyl glutaryl -COA reductase and phosphodiesterase.

  11. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  12. Protective role of marine macroalgae extracts against STZ induced diabetic rats

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    Marine macroalgae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anti-diabetic activity of marine macroalgae extracts (n = 31, purification and characterization of sulphated galactopyran (SGP from Gracilaria opuntia (FM4 in diabetic rats. Methods: The animals were separated into groups and STZ (55 mg/kg body weight was used to induce diabetics. Glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide levels and in vivo antioxidant levels were estimated and histopathological studies were done in STZ-induced diabetic and marine macroalgae treated rats. Results: Based on glucose and HbA1c levels and in vivo antioxidant levels, among the 31 marine macroalgae extracts, FM4 has showed high anti-diabetic activity. Hence, FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FT-IR as sulphated galactopyran. During the survival analysis, SGP at dose of 100 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05 survival rate and elevations in C-peptide and insulin levels. The histopathological modulations of SGP were observed in diabetic rat tissues such as liver, kidney and brain. Hence obtained results reveal that SGP treated diabetic rats has significant changes in C-peptide and insulin levels which regulates the blood glucose levels and recovered the histopathological changes. Conclusions: Marine macroalgae have significant anti-diabetic activity. Hence, they could be used as nutraceutical supplement or natural green remedy against diabetes mellitus.

  13. Investigation on the effects of the atmospheric pressure plasma on wound healing in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollah, Sara; Mirpour, Shahriar; Mansouri, Parvin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Rahimi, Nastaran; Safaie Naraghi, Zahra; Chalangari, Reza; Chalangari, Katalin Martits

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that 15 percent of individuals with diabetes mellitus suffer from diabetic ulcers worldwide. The aim of this study is to present a non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment as a novel therapy for diabetic wounds. The plasma consists of ionized helium gas that is produced by a high-voltage (8 kV) and high-frequency (6 kHz) power supply. Diabetes was induced in rats via an intravascular injection of streptozotocin. The plasma was then introduced to artificial xerograph wounds in the rats for 10 minutes. Immunohistochemistry assays was performed to determine the level of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) cytokine. The results showed a low healing rate in the diabetic wounds compared with the wound-healing rate in non-diabetic animals (P diabetic rats (P treatment compared with untreated diabetic wounds (P treatment also resulted in the release of TGF-β1 cytokine from cells in the tissue medium. The findings of this study demonstrate the effect of plasma treatment for wound healing in diabetic rats.

  14. Effect of dietary fish oil and corn oil on blood biochemical factors in diabetic Rat

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    Mehdi Shariati

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential role of omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids on blood biochemical factors are in interest and controversy. Some experiences showed that omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids have a potential effect on triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in diabetes mellitus. Methods: Male rats were divided into four groups (one normal group and three diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes was done by streptozotocin [50mg/kg, s.c. (STZ]. In diabetic groups, one group was Control, received STZ alone, and the other diabetic groups were fed with fish oil or corn oil for 8 weeks after 4 weeks of induction of diabetes. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- choleserol and HDL-cholesterol were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Results: Fish oil and corn oil diets had an inhibitory effect on increased plasma glucose in diabetic rat by 46.8% and 40.7%, respectively. Diabetic rats in the control group demonstrated increased plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels, but plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol level was increased by both diets in interventional groups. Conclusion: Corn oil and fish oil supplementation have a role on plasma glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. To understand the functional mechanisms of these diets, further studies remain to be accomplished.

  15. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

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    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  16. Up-regulation of Hsp72 and keratin16 mediates wound healing in streptozotocin diabetic rats

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    Rasha R. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired wound healing is a complication of diabetes and a serious problem in clinical practice. We previously found that whey protein (WP was able to regulate wound healing normally in streptozotocin (STZ-dia-betic models. This subsequent study was designed to assess the effect of WP on heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72 and keratin16 (Krt16 expression during wound healing in diabetic rats. METHODS: WP at a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight was orally administered daily to wounded normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 8 days. RESULTS: At day 4, the WP-treated diabetic wound was significantly reduced compared to that in the corresponding control. Diabetic wounded rats developed severe inflammatory infiltration and moderate capillary dilatation and regeneration. Treated rats had mild necrotic formation, moderate infiltration, moderate to severe capillary dilatation and regeneration, in addition to moderate epidermal formation. Hsp72 and Krt16 densities showed low and dense activity in diabetic wounded and diabetic wounded treated groups, respectively. At day 8, WP-treatment of diabetic wounded animals revealed great amelioration with complete recovery and closure of the wound. Reactivity of Hsp72 and Krt16 was reversed, showing dense and low, or medium and low, activity in the diabetic wounded and diabetic wounded treated groups, respectively. Hsp72 expression in the pancreas was found to show dense reactivity with WP-treated diabetic wound rats. CONCLUSION: This data provides evidence for the potential impact of WP in the up-regulation of Hsp72 and Krt16 in T1D, resulting in an improved wound healing process in diabetic models.

  17. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac and/or somatic inputs in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise M; Qin, Chao; Wu, Mingyuan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine spinal processing of cardiac and somatic nociceptive input in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (50mg/kg) in 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats and citrate buffer was injected in 14 control rats. After 4-11weeks...

  18. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilatera......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...... in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia....

  19. The effect of Resveratrol flavonoid on learning and memory in passive avoidance and Y maze in diabetic rat

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    Sima Nasri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type I is accompanied with disturbances in cognitive skills, memory and learning. In this research, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol chronic treatment on learning and memory in diabetic male rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control, resveratrol-treated control, diabetic and resveratrol-treated diabetic groups. We used streptozotosin for inducing diabetes. Resveratrol (10mg/kg I.p. was administered for 8 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, passive avoidance test and Y-maze task were used. For Statistical analysis, SPSS software and paired T-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results: Resveratrol decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats (P<0.01. In passive avoidance learning, there wasn’t any significant difference in initial latency between diabetic and treated- diabetic group. Also, a significant decrease of step latency was observed in diabetic and treated diabetic rats (P<0.01. In Y maze, Resveratrol improved alternation percentage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Probably due to different mechanism of long term and short term memory, long term resveratrol treatment didn’t improve memory and learning in passive avoidance learning. In Y maze, method for determining the spatial memory, resveratrol improved spatial memory in diabetic rats. Resveratrol not only regulates glucose in diabetic rats but also it improves short term memory.

  20. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic status of Heliotropium zeylanicum extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesh, Kandasamy; Yeligar, Veerendra; Dash, Deepak Kumar; Sengupta, Pinaki; Maiti, Bhim Chandra; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2006-11-01

    The potential role of the methanolic extract of Heliotropium zeylanicum (BURM.F) LAMK (MEHZ) in the treatment of diabetes along with its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of (MEHZ) 150 and 300 mg/kg/d for 14 d significantly decreased the blood glucose level and considerably increased the body weight, food intake, and liquid intake of diabetic-induced rats. MEHZ significantly decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and significantly increased reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at the end of 14 d of treatment. The study also investigated the antihyperlipidemic potential of MEHZ. The results show that the active fraction of MEHZ is promising for development of a standardized phytomedicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Light Modulates Ocular Complications in an Albino Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrawus, Elias; Veildbaum, Gizi; Zemel, Esther; Leibu, Rina; Perlman, Ido; Shehadeh, Naim

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess potential interactions of light exposure and hyperglycemia upon ocular complications in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic rats ( N = 39) and non-diabetic rats ( N = 9) were distributed into eight groups according to the irradiance and color of the light phase during the 12/12-hour light/dark regime. Follow-up lasted 90 days and included assessment of cataract development and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. Stress to the retina was also assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunocytochemistry. Cataract development was fast in diabetic rats that were exposed to unattenuated white light or to bright colored lights during the light phase. Diabetic rats that were kept under attenuated brown or yellow light during the light phase exhibited slower rate of cataract development. Electroretinogram responses indicated very severe retinal damage in diabetic rats kept under bright colored lights in the blue-yellow range or bright white light during the light phase. Electroretinogram damage was milder in rats kept under bright red light or attenuated yellow or brown light during the light phase. Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in retinal Müller cells was consistent with ERG assessment of retinal damage. Attenuating white light and filtering out short wavelengths have a protective effect on the eyes of diabetic rats as evident by slower rate of cataract formation and a smaller degree of retinal damage. Our findings suggest that special glasses attenuating light exposure and filtering out short wavelengths (400-530 nm) may be beneficial for diabetic patients.

  2. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erythrocyte Membrane in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Jihan; Mostafa, Ehab; El-Waseef, Maha; El-Khayat, Zakarya; Badawy, Ehsan; Medhat, Dalia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, almost always with a major contribution from insulin resistance which may be affected by cell membrane fatty acids and phospholipids fractions.Aim: To evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on erythrocyte membrane and also in decreasing oxidative stress in diabetic rats.Material and Methods: Sixty healthy male albino rats weighting 180-200 g divided int...

  3. Bacterial Flora Changes in Conjunctiva of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Fei, Yuda; Qin, Yali; Luo, Dan; Yang, Shufei; Kou, Xinyun; Zi, Yingxin; Deng, Tingting; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of both humans and animals plays an important role in their health and the development of disease. Therefore, the bacterial flora of the conjunctiva may also be associated with some diseases. However, there are no reports on the alteration of bacterial flora in conjunctiva of diabetic rats in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the changes in bacterial flora in bulbar conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. A high dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The diabetic rats were raised in the animal laboratory and at 8 months post-injection of STZ swab samples were taken from the bulbar conjunctiva for cultivation of aerobic bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical features. The identified bacteria from both diabetic and healthy rats were then compared. The diabetic and healthy rats had different bacterial flora present in their bulbar conjunctiva. In total, 10 and 8 bacterial species were found in the STZ and control groups, respectively, with only three species (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum and Escherichia coli) shared between the two groups. Gram-positive bacteria were common in both groups and the most abundant was Enterococcus faecium. However, after the development of T1DM, the bacterial flora in the rat bulbar conjunctiva changed considerably, with a reduced complexity evident. STZ-induced diabetes caused alterations of bacterial flora in the bulbar conjunctiva in rats, with some bacterial species disappearing and others emerging. Our results indicate that the conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic humans should be surveyed for potential diagnostic markers or countermeasures to prevent eye infections in T1DM patients.

  4. Myocardial impulse propagation is impaired in right ventricular tissue of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats

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    Olsen Kristine Boisen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular complications including arrhythmias, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. Decreased conduction velocity (CV, which is an independent risk factor for re-entry arrhythmias, is present in models with streptozotocin (STZ induced type 1 diabetes. Whether CV is also disturbed in models of type 2 diabetes is currently unknown. Methods We used Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats, as a model of type 2 diabetes, and their lean controls Zucker Diabetic Lean (ZDL rats to investigate CV and its response to the anti-arrhythmic peptide analogue AAP10. Gap junction remodeling was examined by immunofluorescence and western blotting. Cardiac histomorphometry was examined by Masson`s Trichrome staining and intracellular lipid accumulation was analyzed by Bodipy staining. Results CV was significantly slower in ZDF rats (56±1.9 cm/s compared to non-diabetic controls (ZDL, 66±1.6 cm/s, but AAP10 did not affect CV in either group. The total amount of Connexin43 (C×43 was identical between ZDF and ZDL rats, but the amount of lateralized C×43 was significantly increased in ZDF rats (42±12 % compared to ZDL rats (30±8%, p Conclusion CV is reduced in type 2 diabetic ZDF rats. The CV disturbance may be partly explained by increased lateralization of C×43, but other factors are likely also involved. Our data indicates that lipotoxicity potentially may play a role in development of conduction disturbances and arrhythmias in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Dual therapy of vildagliptin and telmisartan on diabetic nephropathy in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Kanawat, Devendra Singh; Mishra, Akanksha; Dhakad, Prashant Kumar; Sharma, Prashant; Srivastava, Varnika; Joshi, Sneha; Joshi, Megha; Raikwar, Sachin Kumar; Kurmi, Muneem Kumar; Srinivasan, Bharthu Parthsarthi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the combination of telmisartan with vildagliptin therapy versus monotherapy of vildagliptin and telmisartan on diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. In adult rats streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally to produce diabetic nephropathy. Rats of either sex allotted to the following groups: (i) triple therapy: metformin (120 mg/kg, o.d.) + pioglitazone (1.25 mg/kg, o.d.) + glimepiride (0.7 mg/kg, o.d.); (ii) dual therapy: vildagliptin (8.76 mg/kg, o.d.) + telmisartan (6.48 mg/kg, o.d.); (iii) vildagliptin (8.76 mg/kg, o.d.); and (iv) telmisartan (6.48 mg/kg, o.d.); therapy was carried out for 35 days orally. Weekly at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, blood pressure, blood glucose level, body weight, blood serum creatinine level, protein albumin level in urine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were estimated. Renal structural changes were observed. Blood pressure, blood glucose level, blood serum creatinine level, protein albumin level in urine, BUN and renal deterioration increased significantly in diabetic rats compared with normal control rats. The vildagliptin + telmisartan treatment group showed no weight gain and controlled blood pressure, renovascular structural and biochemical parameters in diabetic neuropathy rats. The addition of telmisartan to vildagliptin demonstrated the best control over blood pressure, glycemia and diabetic nephropathy markers, renal structural changes and improvement of renal function as opposed to monotherapy with either drug, possibly because of the dual inhibitory effect on the renin-angiotensin system. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. The effect of low dose radiation on the neuronal cell proliferation in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doo Soon; Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon; Kim, Sang Ki; Lee, Taeck Hyun; Kim, Chang Ju

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dose radiation on neuronal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. A group of rats (first group) were divided into three subgroups (nondiabetic control, nondiabetic 0.1 Gy and nondiabetic 10 Gy groups) to determine the effect of radiation on normal hippocampal neuronal cell proliferation. A further group of rats (second group) were divided into six subgroups (nondiabetic control, diabetic control, diabetic 0.01 Gy, diabetic 0.1 Gy, diabetic 1 Gy and diabetic 10 Gy groups) to determine the effect of radiation on hippocampal neuronal cell proliferation under diabetic conditions. Using immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), the number of neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of all the groups was counted. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate Gyrus of the nondiabetic control, nondiabetic 0.1 Gy and nondiabetic 10 Gy subgroups of the first group were 45.96 ± 3.42, 59.34 ± 5.20 and 19.26 ± 2.98/mm 2 , respectively. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the diabetic control, diabetic 0.01 Gy, diabetic 0.1 Gy, diabetic 1 Gy and diabetic 10 Gy subgroups of the second group were 55.44 ± 8.57, 33.33 ±6.46, 67.75 ± 10.54, 66.63 ± 10.05, 23.59 ± 6.37 and 14.34± 7.22/mm 2 , respectively. Low dose radiation enhances cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of STZ-induced diabetic rats

  7. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Bruce A Berkowitz

    Full Text Available Investigations into the mechanism of diffuse retinal edema in diabetic subjects have been limited by a lack of animal models and techniques that co-localized retinal thickness and hydration in vivo. In this study we test the hypothesis that a previously reported supernormal central retinal thickness on MRI measured in experimental diabetic retinopathy in vivo represents a persistent and diffuse edema.In diabetic and age-matched control rats, and in rats experiencing dilutional hyponatremia (as a positive edema control, whole central retinal thickness, intraretinal water content and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC, 'water mobility' were measured in vivo using quantitative MRI methods. Glycated hemoglobin and retinal thickness ex vivo (histology were also measured in control and diabetic groups. In the dilutional hyponatremia model, central retinal thickness and water content were supernormal by quantitative MRI, and intraretinal water mobility profiles changed in a manner consistent with intracellular edema. Groups of diabetic (2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 mo of diabetes, and age-matched controls were then investigated with MRI and all diabetic rats showed supernormal whole central retinal thickness. In a separate study in 4 mo diabetic rats (and controls, MRI retinal thickness and water content metrics were significantly greater than normal, and ADC was subnormal in the outer retina; the increase in retinal thickness was not detected histologically on sections of fixed and dehydrated retinas from these rats.Diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate a persistent and diffuse retinal edema in vivo, providing, for the first time, an important model for investigating its pathogenesis and treatment. These studies also validate MRI as a powerful approach for investigating mechanisms of diabetic retinal edema in future experimental and clinical investigations.

  8. Furan-induced hepatotoxic and hematologic changes in diabetic rats: the protective role of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Hatice; Pandır, Dilek; Kalender, Suna

    2016-09-01

    Furan forms as a result of thermal treatment of food and induces harmful effects on organisms. In our work, lycopene, furan, and a combination of the two were given to diabetic male rats for 28 days. Hematological changes, total protein and cholesterol, triglyceride, and albumin levels, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities of the serum, malondialdehyde levels, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase activities, DNA damage in liver tissues and hepatic histopathological alterations were compared to a control group. There were significant changes in the liver function tests, DNA damage, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde levels between diabetic control and non-diabetic control groups, between diabetic control and diabetic lycopene groups, and also between diabetic furan and diabetic control groups. In diabetic lycopene and diabetic furan + lycopene treated groups we designated the preventive effects of lycopene against diabetes and furan, however, on the analysed parameters only. In spite of some pathological alterations designated in diabetic furan treated group's liver, fewer pathological alterations were observed in furan+lycopene treated groups at the end of week 4. Consequently, lycopene significantly reduced furan- and diabetes-induced toxicity in rat liver.

  9. Furan induced ovarian damage in non-diabetic and diabetic rats and cellular protective role of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Semra; Pandir, Dilek

    2017-11-01

    In our work, furan, lycopene, and furan + lycopene treatments were applied to non-diabetic and diabetic female rats via gavage. Ovarian tissue alterations with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, malondialdehyde levels, oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and harmful effect on ovarian tissue DNA were evaluated in all groups for 28 days. Furan caused the changes histological, ovarian cell's DNA structure, malondialdehyde levels, antioxidant enzymes activities as in a statistically significant manner in each group. Useful effect of lycopene was determined both in non-diabetic and diabetic treatment groups against furan according to the used experimental parameters. Although some histopathological alterations were seen in diabetic and non-diabetic/diabetic plus furan-treated group's ovarians, lycopene restored these variations near to normal levels in furan + lycopene treated groups for in 28 days. Additionally, the results of our immunohistochemical analysis and alterations of the oxidative stress parameters results also supported these findings. Our result confirms that lycopene has protective effect and significantly altered diabetes and furan-induced toxicity in the rat ovarian tissue.

  10. Free radical activity during development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, O.M.; Akerblom, H.K.; Sariola, H.; Andersson, S.M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Martin, J.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Hallman, M. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation was quantified by measuring expired pentane from diabetic prone BB Wistar rats of 45-90 d of age. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was manifest at the age of 71 {plus minus} 8 d. Expired pentane increased from 2.1 {plus minus} 0.7 to 5.0 {plus minus}3.0 pmol/100g/min (p <0.01) at manifestation of the disease and remained high throughout the test period. In healthy age-matched control rats it persisted low. In rats made diabetic with streptozotocin, expired pentane remained low. The changes in expired pentane suggest that the development of endogenous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in BB rats is associated with increased free radical activity. This is not due to hyperglycemia or ketosis per se, and reflects a fundamental difference in the free radical activity between the spontaneously diabetic BB rats and the disease produced by streptozotocin. Development of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes in BB rats is associated with increased free radical activity that persists after the manifestation of the disease.

  11. Effects of insulin combined with idebenone on blood-brain barrier permeability in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Na; Liu, Li-Bo; Xue, Yi-Xue; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of insulin combined with idebenone on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as well as the underlying mechanisms. With a diabetic rat model, we show that insulin and idebenone normalize body weight and water intake and restore BBB permeability and that their combination displays a synergistic effect. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that the combination of insulin and idebenone significantly closed the tight junction (TJ) in diabetic rats. The results from Western blotting in diabetic rats show that the upregulation of TJ-associated proteins occludin, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1 caused by the combination of insulin and idebenone is more remarkable than that with either agent alone. In addition, the activations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the expression levels of receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were significantly decreased after treatment with insulin and idebenone in diabetic rats. These results suggest that the combination of insulin and idebenone could decrease the BBB permeability in diabetic rats by upregulating the expression of occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 and that the ROS/AGE/RAGE/NF-κB signal pathway might be involved in the process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Momordica charantia polysaccharides mitigate the progression of STZ induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Jan, Basit L; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Mohsin, Kazi; Jenoobi, Fahad Al; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease. Several complex dynamics converge together to accelerate the advancement of DN. The present investigation was postulated to explore the mechanism of reno-protective nature of Momordica Charantia polysaccharides (MCP) by evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic as well as markers for oxidative stress and antioxidant proficiency in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of MCP showed a significant normalization in the levels of kidney function test in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea protein and creatinine increased by 316.58%, 195.14% and 800.97% respectively, in STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with normal rats. MCP treatment also illustrated a significant improvement in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels, with a significant decline in MDA in diabetic kidneys. Immunoblots of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Nrf2 of MCP treated diabetic rats showed a significant up-regulation of HO-1 and Nrf2 protein. Histological and ultra-structural observations also reveal that MCP efficiently protects the kidneys from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage. These findings illustrate that the reno-protective nature of MCP mitigates the progression of STZ induced DN in rats by suppression of oxidative stress and amelioration of the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  14. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  15. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis in streptozotocin diabetic rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, R.A.; Bessman, S.P.; Mohan, C.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes prepared from control, streptozotocin diabetic rats were incubated at 30 degrees C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.5 mM concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids. Effect of insulin on the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C and 1,4- 14 C succinate (suc) carbons and their incorporation into hepatocyte protein, lipid and various metabolic intermediates was studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of suc carbons and their incorporation into protein and lipid was significantly lower in diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats failed to exhibit any significant insulin effect on the oxidation of either 2,3 or 1,4- 14 C suc carbons. Amphibolic channeling of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons into amino acids was significantly reduced in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, however, more of these carbons were diverted into the gluconeogenesis pathway. Diabetes caused a far greater decrease in the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons as compared to 1,4- 14 C suc. Based on an earlier report that insulin stimulates only the intramitochondrial Krebs cycle reactions, the authors conclude that the diminished level of anabolic activities in the diabetic rat hepatocytes is due to the subsequent reduction in amphibolic channeling of metabolic intermediates

  16. Effects of galangal extract on cognitive dysfunction and nerve pathological change in rats with diabetic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Rui Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of galangal extract on cognitive dysfunction and nerve pathological change in rats with diabetic encephalopathy. Methods: Sixty male SD rats were given high sugar and fat diet except the control group. Fifty days later, the animals were injected with STZ 30 mg/kg through intraperitoneal to establish type 2 diabetes model. Rats were divided into control group, model group, Metformin group, oxiracetam group, galangal extract high and low dose group. After 4-week administration, Morris water maze was utilized to investigate the effects of different galangal extract on learning and memory ability in rats. After behavioral testing, the blood sugar level was detected. Meanwhile, spectrophotometer was used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and maleic dialdehyde (MDA content of brain tissue. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes in the hippocampus. Results: Galangal extract can significantly reduce swimming time and swimming distance of diabetic encephalopathy rat model, lower fasting blood glucose while increase body weight. At the same time, SOD activity and MDA content of rat brain were reduced. The morphology of neurons in hippocampus was improved and neuronal nuclear condensation was reduced correspondingly. Conclusions: Galangal extract can significantly improve cognitive ability in diabetic rats, reduce hippocampal pathological changes and have some prevention or treatment effects on of diabetes encephalopathy

  17. Cardioprotective effect of vitamin D2 on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M

    2018-03-08

    To assess the effect of vitamin D 2 and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms on acute myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in diabetic rats. Rats were divided into control rats, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats received ISO (DM-ISO), and diabetic rats pretreated with vitamin D 2 and received ISO (DM-D 2 -ISO). Vitamin D 2 pretreatment significantly decreased fasting glucose and myocardial malondialdehyde, associated with increased insulin, myocardial glutathione and superoxide dismutase in DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly decreased, along with increased HDL and adiponectin. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, caspase-3, BAX, and p53 were significantly downregulated in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Histological studies showed diminished inflammatory cells infiltration in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Vitamin D 2 ameliorates hyperglycaemia, dys