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Sample records for allogeneic t-cell proliferation

  1. Eosinophils from hematopoietic stem cell recipients suppress allogeneic T cell proliferation.

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    Andersson, Jennie; Cromvik, Julia; Ingelsten, Madeleine; Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilia has been associated with less severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that eosinophils diminish allogeneic T cell activation in patients with chronic GVHD. The capacity of eosinophils derived from healthy subjects and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant recipients, with or without chronic GVHD, to reduce allogeneic T cell proliferation was evaluated using a mixed leukocyte reaction. Eosinophil-mediated inhibition of proliferation was observed for the eosinophils of both healthy subjects and patients who underwent HSC transplantation. Eosinophils from patients with and without chronic GVHD were equally suppressive. Healthy eosinophils required cell-to-cell contact for their suppressive capacity, which was directed against CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. Neither eosinophilic cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, or increased numbers of regulatory T cells could account for the suppressive effect of healthy eosinophils. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed significantly increased mRNA levels of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10 in the eosinophils of both chronic GVHD patients and patients without GVHD, as compared with those from healthy subjects. The upregulation of galectin-10 expression in eosinophils from patients suggests a stimulatory effect of HSC transplantation in itself on eosinophilic galectin-10 expression, regardless of chronic GVHD status. To conclude, eosinophils from HSC transplant recipients and healthy subjects have a T cell suppressive capacity. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Semi-allogeneic dendritic cells can induce antigen-specific T-cell activation, which is not enhanced by concurrent alloreactivity.

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    Wells, James W; Cowled, Chris J; Darling, David; Guinn, Barbara-Ann; Farzaneh, Farzin; Noble, Alistair; Galea-Lauri, Joanna

    2007-12-01

    Alloreactive T-cell responses are known to result in the production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines capable of activating and maturing dendritic cells (DC). However, it is unclear whether these allogeneic responses could also act as an adjuvant for concurrent antigen-specific responses. To examine effects of simultaneous alloreactive and antigen-specific T-cell responses induced by semi-allogeneic DC. Semi-allogeneic DC were generated from the F(1) progeny of inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6 and C3H, or C57BL/6 and DBA). We directly primed antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cells from OT-I and OT-II mice, respectively, in the absence of allogeneic responses, in vitro, and in the presence or absence of alloreactivity in vivo. In vitro, semi-allogeneic DC cross-presented ovalbumin (OVA) to naïve CD8(+) OT-I transgenic T-cells, primed naïve CD4(+) OT-II transgenic T-cells and could stimulate strong alloreactive T-cell proliferation in a primary mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In vivo, semi-allogeneic DC migrated efficiently to regional lymph nodes but did not survive there as long as autologous DC. In addition, they were not able to induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity to a target peptide, and only weakly stimulated adoptively transferred OT-II cells. The CD4(+) response was unchanged in allo-tolerized mice, indicating that alloreactive T-cell responses could not provide help for concurrently activated antigen-specific responses. In an EL4 tumour-treatment model, vaccination with semi-allogeneic DC/EL4 fusion hybrids, but not allogeneic DC/EL4 hybrids, significantly increased mouse survival. Expression of self-Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) by semi-allogeneic DC can cause the induction of antigen-specific immunity, however, concurrently activated allogeneic bystander responses do not provide helper or adjuvant effects.

  3. TLR5 signaling enhances the proliferation of human allogeneic CD40-activated B cell induced CD4hiCD25+ regulatory T cells.

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    Ping-Lung Chan

    Full Text Available Although diverse functions of different toll-like receptors (TLR on human natural regulatory T cells have been demonstrated recently, the role of TLR-related signals on human induced regulatory T cells remain elusive. Previously our group developed an ex vivo high-efficient system in generating human alloantigen-specific CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells from naïve CD4(+CD25(- T cells using allogeneic CD40-activated B cells as stimulators. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR5-related signals on the generation and function of these novel CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells. It was found that induced CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells expressed an up-regulated level of TLR5 compared to their precursors. The blockade of TLR5 using anti-TLR5 antibodies during the co-culture decreased CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells proliferation by induction of S phase arrest. The S phase arrest was associated with reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, TLR5 blockade did not decrease the CTLA-4, GITR and FOXP3 expressions, and the suppressive function of CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells. In conclusion, we discovered a novel function of TLR5-related signaling in enhancing the proliferation of CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells by promoting S phase progress but not involved in the suppressive function of human CD40-activated B cell-induced CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells, suggesting a novel role of TLR5-related signals in the generation of induced regulatory T cells.

  4. Allogeneic CD19-CAR-T cell infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in B cell malignancies.

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    Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-31

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered the cornerstone in treatment of hematological malignancies. However, relapse of the hematological disease after allo-HSCT remains a challenge and is associated with poor long-term survival. Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) can lead to disease remission in patients with relapsed/refractory hematological malignancies. However, the therapeutic window for infusion of CAR-T cells post allo-HSCT and its efficacy are debatable. In this review, we first discuss the use of CAR-T cells for relapsed cases after allo-HSCT. We then review the toxicities and the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease in relapsed patients who received CAR-T cells post allo-HSCT. Finally, we review clinical trial registrations and the therapeutic time window for infusion of CAR-T cells post allo-HSCT. The treatment of allogeneic CAR-T cells is beneficial for patients with relapsed B cell malignancies after allo-HSCT with low toxicities and complications. However, multicenter clinical trials with larger sample sizes should be performed to select the optimal therapeutic window and confirm its efficacy.

  5. Dissecting the T Cell Response: Proliferation Assays vs. Cytokine Signatures by ELISPOT

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    Magdalena Tary-Lehmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-g secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production did not reflect on the frequency of IFN-γ producing memory cells, a finding particularly accentuated in the CD8 T cell compartment. These data provide rationale for considering both frequency and effector function of pre-transplant T cell reactivity when analyzing immune predictors of graft rejection.

  6. Dissecting the T Cell Response: Proliferation Assays vs. Cytokine Signatures by ELISPOT

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    Anthony, Donald D.; Milkovich, Kimberly A.; Zhang, Wenji; Rodriguez, Benigno; Yonkers, Nicole L.; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production) did not reflect on the frequency of IFN-γ producing memory cells, a finding particularly accentuated in the CD8 T cell compartment. These data provide rationale for considering both frequency and effector function of pre-transplant T cell reactivity when analyzing immune predictors of graft rejection. PMID:24710419

  7. Long-term survival of transplanted allogeneic cells engineered to express a T cell chemorepellent.

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    Papeta, Natalia; Chen, Tao; Vianello, Fabrizio; Gererty, Lyle; Malik, Ashish; Mok, Ying-Ting; Tharp, William G; Bagley, Jessamyn; Zhao, Guiling; Stevceva, Liljana; Yoon, Victor; Sykes, Megan; Sachs, David; Iacomini, John; Poznansky, Mark C

    2007-01-27

    Alloantigen specific T cells have been shown to be required for allograft rejection. The chemokine, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) at high concentration, has been shown to act as a T-cell chemorepellent and abrogate T-cell infiltration into a site of antigen challenge in vivo via a mechanism termed fugetaxis or chemorepulsion. We postulated that this mechanism could be exploited therapeutically and that allogeneic cells engineered to express a chemorepellent protein would not be rejected. Allogeneic murine insulinoma beta-TC3 cells and primary islets from BALB/C mice were engineered to constitutively secrete differential levels of SDF-1 and transplanted into allogeneic diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Rejection was defined as the permanent return of hyperglycemia and was correlated with the level of T-cell infiltration. The migratory response of T-cells to SDF-1 was also analyzed by transwell migration assay and time-lapse videomicroscopy. The cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T cell (CTLs) against beta-TC3 cells expressing high levels of SDF-1 was measured in standard and modified chromium-release assays in order to determine the effect of CTL migration on killing efficacy. Control animals rejected allogeneic cells and remained diabetic. In contrast, high level SDF-1 production by transplanted cells resulted in increased survival of the allograft and a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and T-cell infiltration into the transplanted tissue. This is the first demonstration of a novel approach that exploits T-cell chemorepulsion to induce site specific immune isolation and thereby overcomes allograft rejection without the use of systemic immunosuppression.

  8. Novel T lymphocyte proliferation assessment using whole mouse cryo-imaging

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    Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Raza, Syed A.; Eid, Saada; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    New imaging technologies enable one to assess T-cell proliferation, an important feature of the immunological response. However, none of the traditional imaging modalities allow one to examine quantiatively T-cell function with microscopic resolution and single cell sensitivity over an entire mouse. To address this need, we established T-cells proliferation assays using 3D microscopic cryo-imaging. Assays include: (1) biodistribution of T-cells, (2) secondary lymphoid organ (SLO) volume measurement, (3) carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution per cell as cells divide. To demonstrate the application, a graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) model was used. 3D visualization show that T-cells specifically homed to the SLOs (spleen and lymph nodes) as well as GVHD target organs (such as GI-tract, liver, skin and thymus).The spleen was chosen as representative of the SLOs. For spleen size analysis, volumes of red and white pulp were measured. Spleen volumes of the allogeneic mice (with GVHD) were significantly larger than those of the syngeneic mice (without GVHD) at 72 to 120 hours post-transplant. For CFSE dilution approach, we employed color-coded volume rendering and probability density function (PDF) of single cell intensity to assess T-cell proliferation in the spleen. As compared to syngeneic T-cells, the allogeneic T-cells quickly aggregated in the spleen as indicated by increasing of CFSE signal over the first 48 hours. Then they rapidly proliferated as evidenced by reduced CFSE intensity (at 48-96 hours). Results suggest that assays can be used to study GVHD treatments using T-cell proliferation and biodistibution as assays. In summary, this is the first time that we are able to track and visualize T-cells in whole mouse with single cell sensitivity. We believe that our technique can be an alternative choice to traditional in vitro immunological proliferation assays by providing assessment of proliferation in an in vivo model.

  9. T cell reconstitution in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Kielsen, K; Jordan, K K; Uhlving, H H

    2015-01-01

    Infections and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) are major causes of treatment-related mortality and morbidity following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Both complications depend on reconstitution of the T-lymphocyte population based on donor T cells. Although...... it is well established that Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine essential for de novo T cell development in the thymus and homoeostatic peripheral expansion of T cells, associations between circulating levels of IL-7 and T cell reconstitution following HSCT have not been investigated previously. We...... in patients treated with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) compared with those not treated with ATG (P = 0.0079). IL-7 levels at day +7 were negatively associated with T cell counts at day +30 to +60 (at day +60: CD3(+) : β = -10.6 × 10(6) cells/l, P = 0.0030; CD8(+) : β = -8.4 × 10(6) cells/l, P = 0.061; CD4...

  10. Human mesenchymal stromal cells transiently increase cytokine production by activated T cells before suppressing T-cell proliferation: effect of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation.

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    Cuerquis, Jessica; Romieu-Mourez, Raphaëlle; François, Moïra; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Young, Yoon Kow; Zhao, Jing; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppress T-cell proliferation, especially after activation with inflammatory cytokines. We compared the dynamic action of unprimed and interferon (IFN)-γ plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-pretreated human bone marrow-derived MSCs on resting or activated T cells. MSCs were co-cultured with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at high MSC-to-PBMC ratios in the absence or presence of concomitant CD3/CD28-induced T-cell activation. The kinetic effects of MSCs on cytokine production and T-cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed. Unprimed MSCs increased the early production of IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs before suppressing T-cell proliferation. In non-activated PBMC co-cultures, low levels of IL-2 and IL-10 synthesis were observed with MSCs in addition to low levels of CD69 expression by T cells and no T-cell proliferation. MSCs also decreased apoptosis in resting and activated T cells and inhibited the transition of these cells into the sub-G0/G1 and the S phases. With inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, MSCs increased CD3/CD28-induced T-cell proliferation. After priming with IFN-γ plus TNF-α, MSCs were less potent at increasing cytokine production by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs and more effective at inhibiting T-cell proliferation but had preserved anti-apoptotic functions. Unprimed MSCs induce a transient increase in IFN-γ and IL-2 synthesis by activated T cells. Pre-treatment of MSCs with IFN-γ plus TNF-α may increase their effectiveness and safety in vivo. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

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    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients harboring T315I BCR-ABL mutated leukemias

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    Nicolini, Franck Emmanuel; Basak, Grzegorz W; Soverini, Simona

    2011-01-01

    T315I(+) Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias are inherently resistant to all licensed tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and therapeutic options remain limited. We report the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in 64 patients with documented BCR-ABL(T315I) mutations. Median follow......) as unfavorable factors. We conclude that allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents a valuable therapeutic tool for eligible patients with BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation, a tool that may or may not be replaced by third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors....

  13. A CD8 T Cell/Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Axis Is Required for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Suppression of Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Wang, Dandan; Feng, Xuebing; Lu, Lin; Konkel, Joanne E; Zhang, Huayong; Chen, Zhiyong; Li, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Liwei; Shi, Songtao; Chen, Wanjun; Sun, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit therapeutic effects in human autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how allogeneic MSCs mediate immunosuppression in lupus patients. Methods The effects of allogeneic umbilical cord–derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on inhibition of T cell proliferation were determined. MSC functional molecules were stimulated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy controls and SLE patients and examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified using microbeads to stimulate MSCs in order to determine cytokine expression by MSCs and to further determine which cell subset(s) or which molecule(s) is involved in inhibition of MSC–mediated T cell proliferation. The related signaling pathways were assessed. We determined levels of serum cytokines in lupus patients before and after UC-MSC transplantation. Results Allogeneic UC-MSCs suppressed T cell proliferation in lupus patients by secreting large amounts of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We further found that interferon-γ (IFNγ), which is produced predominantly by lupus CD8+ T cells, is the key factor that enhances IDO activity in allogeneic MSCs and that it is associated with IFNGR1/JAK-2/STAT signaling pathways. Intriguingly, bone marrow–derived MSCs from patients with active lupus demonstrated defective IDO production in response to IFNγ and allogeneic CD8+ T cell stimulation. After allogeneic UC-MSC transplantation, serum IDO activity increased in lupus patients. Conclusion We found a previously unrecognized CD8+ T cell/IFNγ/IDO axis that mediates the therapeutic effects of allogeneic MSCs in lupus patients. PMID:24756936

  14. Effect of allogenic thymic cells on radioleukaemogenesis in AKR-T1ALD mice

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    Legrand, E.; Sankar-Mistry, P.; Kressmann, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    When AKR mice are irradiated with a sub-lethal dose (4 times 175 R), thymic lymphosarcomas (L.S.) occur earlier than in controls. This accelerated leukaemogenesis is not inhibited by syngenic restoration with bone marrows cells (BM). Using the AKR/T1ALD substrain which bears 38 chromosomes with 1 metacentric markers, it has been shown that AKR radio-chimaeras restored by T1ALD BM developed two kinds of L.S.: early (radiation-induced) L.S. originating mainly from host cells surviving irradiation and late L.S. from donor cells. The experiments were to investigate the potential influence of normal allogenic thymic cells, with or without syngenic B.M., on the incidence, latency and origin of LS appearing in irradiated AKR recipients. Adding C3H allogenic thymic cells to syngenic B.M. increases the percentage of early L.S. whose latencies are unchanged. Besides, when C3H thymic cells are injected to irradiated controls without syngenic B.M. cells, L.S. are seen to occur significantly earlier than in just the irradiated animals alone. In radio-chimaeras restored by allogenic thymic cells and syngenic B.M., except in one case, all the L.S. were seen to originate from B.M. cells. The interpretation of these results depends on the possible role of allogenic thymic cells on host cells surviving the irradiation, or the exogeneous B.M. In the first case, allogenic thymocytes could induce a graft versus host reaction increasing the post-irradiation depletion of lymphoid system and hastening thymic endoregeneration which is supposed to be the first step towards leukaemogenesis. The second hypothesis, which seems the most likely, would be that C1H thymic cells could selectively act on host cells surviving irradiation and enhance the differenciation of haemopoietic precursors at the expense of the lymphoid cells [fr

  15. Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 1 infection early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with T-cell depletion.

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    Akahoshi, Yu; Kanda, Junya; Ohno, Ayumu; Komiya, Yusuke; Gomyo, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Jin; Harada, Naonori; Kameda, Kazuaki; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kako, Shinichi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-07-01

    We previously reported that oral low-dose acyclovir (200 mg/day) for the prevention of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is effective without the emergence of acyclovir-resistant HSV infections. However, HSV infections are of significant concern because the number of allogeneic HSCT with T-cell depletion, which is a risk factor of the emergence of drug-resistant HSV infections, has been increasing. We experienced a 25-year-old female who received allogenic HSCT from an unrelated donor with 1-antigen mismatch using anti-thymocyte globulin. Despite acyclovir prophylaxis (200 mg/day), she developed the right palatal ulcer that was positive for HSV-1 specific antigen by fluorescent antibody on day 20 and developed new hypoglossal and tongue ulcers on day 33. Replacement of acyclovir with foscarnet improved her ulcers. We isolated 2 acyclovir-resistant and foscarnet-sensitive strains from the right palatal and hypoglossal ulcers, which had the same frame shift mutation in the thymidine kinase genes. The rate of proliferation of the isolate from the hypoglossal ulcer was faster than that from the right palatal ulcer in the plaque reduction assay. HSV strains that acquired acyclovir-resistant mutations at the right palatal ulcer with larger plaque might spread to the hypoglossal ulcer as the secondary site of infection because of better growth property. Second-line antiviral agents should be considered when we suspect treatment failure of HSV infection, especially in HSCT with T-cell depletion. Further studies are required whether low-dose acyclovir prophylaxis leads to the emergence of virological resistance. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of cell density and HLA-DR incompatibility on T-cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 expression in human mixed lymphocyte reaction.

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    Song, E Y; Han, S; Yang, B; Morris, G P; Bui, J D

    2015-04-01

    The proliferation rates of human T cells in vitro are affected by some factors such as initial T-cell number, dose of stimulating cells, and duration of culture. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) has been used to identify regulatory T cells in humans and is thought to correlate with tolerance to allogeneic organ transplant. Thus, it is important to optimize conditions to expand FoxP3 cell proliferation to improve engraftment of allogeneic organ transplants. We studied proliferative responses and FoxP3 expression in divided T cells with the use of flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 in culture of different concentrations of responding cells (6 × 10(6), 4 × 10(6), 2 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6), and 0.5 × 10(6)cells/mL), different types of stimulating cells (lymphocytes and low density cells), and different numbers of HLA mismatches. The proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells among mononuclear cells were highest at initial cell concentration of 2 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with lymphocytes as stimulators at day-5 mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). They were highest at a concentration of 4 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with low density cells as stimulators. The recovery (%), proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells with 2 HLA-DR incompatibility were significantly higher than those of 1 HLA-DR incompatibility at day-5 MLR. Initial cell concentration and HLA-DR incompatibility can affect the generation of FoxP3+ T cells in human MLR. These factors could be considered for efficient generation of Tregs for clinical trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhoh deficiency reduces peripheral T-cell function and attenuates allogenic transplant rejection

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    Porubsky, Stefan; Wang, Shijun; Kiss, Eva

    2011-01-01

    better graft function. This effect was independent of the lower T-cell numbers in Rhoh-deficient recipients, because injection of equal numbers of Rhoh-deficient or control T cells into kidney transplanted mice with SCID led again to a significant 60% reduction of rejection. Mixed lymphocyte reaction...... deficiency in a clinically relevant situation, in which T-cell inhibition is desirable. In murine allogenic kidney transplantation, Rhoh deficiency caused a significant 75% reduction of acute and chronic transplant rejection accompanied by 75% lower alloantigen-specific antibody levels and significantly...

  18. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. II. Requirement for allogeneic T cells in the reconstituting bone marrow inoculum for subsequent resistance to breaking of tolerance

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    Sykes, M.; Sheard, M.A.; Sachs, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of normal recipient-type lymphocytes to break tolerance in long-term allogenic radiation chimeras has been investigated. Reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with a mixture of syngeneic and allogeneic T cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) has previously been shown to lead to mixed chimerism and permanent, specific tolerance to donor and host alloantigen (3-5). If allogeneic T cells are not depleted from the reconstituting inoculum, complete allogeneic chimerism results; however, no clinical evidence for GVHD is observed, presumably due to the protective effect provided by syngeneic TCD BM. This model has now been used to study the effects of allogenic T cells administered in reconstituting BM inocula on stability of long-term tolerance. We have attempted to break tolerance in long-term chimeras originally reconstituted with TCD or non-TCD BM by challenging them with inocula containing normal, nontolerant recipient strain lymphocytes. tolerance was broken with remarkable ease in recipients of mixed marrow inocula in which both original BM components were TCD. In contrast, tolerance in chimeras originally reconstituted with non-TCD allogeneic BM was not affected by such inocula. Susceptibility to loss of chimerism and tolerance was not related to initial levels of chimerism per se, but rather to T cell depletion of allogeneic BM, since chimeras reconstituted with TCD allogeneic BM alone (mean level of allogeneic chimerism 98%) were as susceptible as mixed chimeras to the tolerance-breaking effects of such inocula. The possible contribution of GVH reactivity to this resistance was investigated using an F1 into parent strain combination. In these animals, the use of non-TCD F1 BM inocula for reconstitution did not lead to resistance to the tolerance-breaking effects of recipient strain splenocytes

  19. CAR-T cells and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a low remission rate after chemotherapy, a high relapse rate and poor long-term survival even when allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is performed. Chimeric antigen receptors redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) can enhance disease remission with a favorable outcome for relapsed/refractory ALL, though some cases quickly relapsed after CAR-T cell treatment. Thus, treatment with CAR-T cells followed by allo-HSCT may be the best way to treat relapsed/refractory ALL. In this review, we first discuss the different types of CAR-T cells. We then discuss the treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL using only CAR-T cells. Finally, we discuss the use of CAR-T cells, followed by allo-HSCT, for the treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL.

  20. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Osteoarthritic Synovium Are a Distinct Population Compared to Their Bone-Marrow Counterparts regarding Surface Marker Distribution and Immunomodulation of Allogeneic CD4+ T-Cell Cultures

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    Sebastien Hagmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The participation of an inflammatory joint milieu has been described in osteoarthritis (OA pathogenesis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes. Based on previous studies in an allogeneic T-cell coculture model, we aimed at further determining the role of synovial MSCs in OA pathogenesis. Methods. Bone-marrow (BM and synovial membrane (SM MSCs from hip joints of late stage OA patients and CD4+ T-cells from healthy donors were analysed regarding surface marker expression before and after coculture. Proliferation upon CD3/CD28 stimulation and cytokine analyses were compared between MSCs. Results. SM-MSCs differed from BM-MSCs in several surface markers and their osteogenic differentiation potential. Cocultures of both MSCs with CD4+ T-cells resulted in recruitment of CD45RA+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells. Upon stimulation, only SM-MSCs suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation, while both SM-MSCs and BM-MSCs modified cytokine profiles through suppressing IL-2 and TNF-α as well as increasing IL-6 secretion. Conclusions. Synovial MSCs from OA joints are a unique fraction that can be distinguished from their bone-marrow derived counterparts. Their unique ability to suppress CD3/CD28 induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation makes them a potential target for future therapeutic approaches.

  1. HLA-E-Restricted Cross-Recognition of Allogeneic Endothelial Cells by CMV-Associated CD8 T Cells: A Potential Risk Factor following Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Mathilde; Tonnerre, Pierre; Nedellec, Steven; Oger, Romain; Morice, Alexis; Guilloux, Yannick; Houssaint, Elisabeth; Charreau, Béatrice; Gervois, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Although association between CMV infection and allograft rejection is well admitted, the precise mechanisms involved remain uncertain. Here, we report the characterization of an alloreactive HLA-E-restricted CD8 T cell population that was detected in the PBL of a kidney transplant patient after its CMV conversion. This monoclonal CD8 T cell population represents a sizable fraction in the blood (3% of PBL) and is characterized by an effector-memory phenotype and the expression of multiple NK receptors. Interestingly, these unconventional T cells display HLA-E-dependent reactivity against peptides derived from the leader sequences of both various HCMV-UL40 and allogeneic classical HLA-I molecules. Consequently, while HLA-E-restricted CD8 T cells have potential to contribute to the control of CMV infection in vivo, they may also directly mediate graft rejection through recognition of peptides derived from allogeneic HLA-I molecules on graft cells. Therefore, as HLA-E expression in nonlymphoid organs is mainly restricted to endothelial cells, we investigated the reactivity of this HLA-E-restricted T cell population towards allogeneic endothelial cells. We clearly demonstrated that CMV-associated HLA-E-restricted T cells efficiently recognized and killed allogeneic endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, our data indicate that this alloreactivity is tightly regulated by NK receptors, especially by inhibitory KIR2DL2 that strongly prevents TCR-induced activation through recognition of HLA-C molecules. Hence, a better evaluation of the role of CMV-associated HLA-E-restricted T cells in transplantation and of the impact of HLA-genotype, especially HLA-C, on their alloreactivity may determine whether they indeed represent a risk factor following organ transplantation. PMID:23226431

  2. Allogeneic lymphocyte-licensed DCs expand T cells with improved antitumor activity and resistance to oxidative stress and immunosuppressive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T-cell therapy of cancer is a treatment strategy where T cells are isolated, activated, in some cases engineered, and expanded ex vivo before being reinfused to the patient. The most commonly used T-cell expansion methods are either anti-CD3/CD28 antibody beads or the “rapid expansion protocol” (REP, which utilizes OKT-3, interleukin (IL-2, and irradiated allogeneic feeder cells. However, REP-expanded or bead-expanded T cells are sensitive to the harsh tumor microenvironment and often short-lived after reinfusion. Here, we demonstrate that when irradiated and preactivated allosensitized allogeneic lymphocytes (ASALs are used as helper cells to license OKT3-armed allogeneic mature dendritic cells (DCs, together they expand target T cells of high quality. The ASAL/DC combination yields an enriched Th1-polarizing cytokine environment (interferon (IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-2 and optimal costimulatory signals for T-cell stimulation. When genetically engineered antitumor T cells were expanded by this coculture system, they showed better survival and cytotoxic efficacy under oxidative stress and immunosuppressive environment, as well as superior proliferative response during tumor cell killing compared to the REP protocol. Our result suggests a robust ex vivo method to expand T cells with improved quality for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Langerhans cells from human oral epithelium are more effective at stimulating allogeneic T cells in vitro than Langerhans cells from skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasséus, B; Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlgren, U I

    2004-06-01

    This report is focused on the functional capacity of Langerhans cells (LC) in the epithelium of skin and oral mucosa, which both meet different antigenic challenges. The capacity of LC from human oral and skin epithelium to provide co-stimulatory signals to T cells in vitro was compared. LC in a crude suspension of oral epithelial cells had a significantly enhanced T cell co-stimulatory capacity compared to skin epithelial cells. This applied both to cultures with concanavalin A (con-A)-stimulated syngeneic T cells and to a mixed epithelial cell lymphocyte reaction involving allogeneic T cells. The co-stimulatory capacity of oral and skin epithelial cells was reduced by >70% if monoclonal antibodies against HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ were added to the cultures with allogeneic T cells, indicating the involvement of HLA class II expressing LC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 6% of the epithelial cells were CD1a + LC in sections from both oral and skin epithelium. Interleukin (IL)-8 production was higher in cultures of oral epithelial cells and con-A stimulated T cells than in corresponding cultures with skin epithelial cells as accessory cells. The results suggest that LC in human oral epithelium are more efficient at stimulating T cells than those of skin.

  4. Azacitidine augments expansion of regulatory T cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Oliver C; Dennis, Mike; Jilani, Nadira Y; Loke, Justin; Siddique, Shamyla; Ryan, Gordon; Nunnick, Jane; Khanum, Rahela; Raghavan, Manoj; Cook, Mark; Snowden, John A; Griffiths, Mike; Russell, Nigel; Yin, John; Crawley, Charles; Cook, Gordon; Vyas, Paresh; Moss, Paul; Malladi, Ram; Craddock, Charles F

    2012-04-05

    Strategies that augment a GVL effect without increasing the risk of GVHD are required to improve the outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Azacitidine (AZA) up-regulates the expression of tumor Ags on leukemic blasts in vitro and expands the numbers of immunomodulatory T regulatory cells (Tregs) in animal models. Reasoning that AZA might selectively augment a GVL effect, we studied the immunologic sequelae of AZA administration after allogeneic SCT. Twenty-seven patients who had undergone a reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia were treated with monthly courses of AZA, and CD8(+) T-cell responses to candidate tumor Ags and circulating Tregs were measured. AZA after transplantation was well tolerated, and its administration was associated with a low incidence of GVHD. Administration of AZA increased the number of Tregs within the first 3 months after transplantation compared with a control population (P = .0127). AZA administration also induced a cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell response to several tumor Ags, including melanoma-associated Ag 1, B melanoma antigen 1, and Wilm tumor Ag 1. These data support the further examination of AZA after transplantation as a mechanism of augmenting a GVL effect without a concomitant increase in GVHD.

  5. Cognate CD4 T-cell licensing of dendritic cells heralds anti-CMV CD8 T-cell immunity after human allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinsenberg, T W H; Spel, Lotte; Jansen, M; Koning, D; de Haar, C; Plantinga, M; Scholman, R; van Loenen, M M; Nierkens, S; Boon, L; van Baarle, D; Heemskerk, M H M; Boelens, J J; Boes, M

    2014-01-01

    Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is hazardous to patients undergoing allogeneic cord-blood transplantation (CBT), lowering survival rates by approximately 25%. While antiviral treatment ameliorates viremia, complete viral control requires CD8(+) T-cell-driven immunity. Mouse studies

  6. Infusion of donor-derived CD19-redirected virus-specific T cells for B-cell malignancies relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplant: a phase 1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Conrad Russell Y; Micklethwaite, Kenneth P; Savoldo, Barbara; Ramos, Carlos A; Lam, Sharon; Ku, Stephanie; Diouf, Oumar; Liu, Enli; Barrett, A John; Ito, Sawa; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Krance, Robert A; Kamble, Rammurti T; Carrum, George; Hosing, Chitra M; Gee, Adrian P; Mei, Zhuyong; Grilley, Bambi J; Heslop, Helen E; Rooney, Cliona M; Brenner, Malcolm K; Bollard, Catherine M; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2013-10-24

    Autologous T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CD19.CAR) are active against B-cell malignancies, but it is unknown whether allogeneic CD19.CAR T cells are safe or effective. After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), infused donor-derived virus-specific T cells (VSTs) expand in vivo, persist long term, and display antiviral activity without inducing graft-vs-host disease; therefore, we determined whether donor VSTs, engineered to express CD19.CAR, retained the characteristics of nonmanipulated allogeneic VSTs while gaining antitumor activity. We treated 8 patients with allogeneic (donor-derived) CD19.CAR-VSTs 3 months to 13 years after HSCT. There were no infusion-related toxicities. VSTs persisted for a median of 8 weeks in blood and up to 9 weeks at disease sites. Objective antitumor activity was evident in 2 of 6 patients with relapsed disease during the period of CD19.CAR-VST persistence, whereas 2 patients who received cells while in remission remain disease free. In 2 of 3 patients with viral reactivation, donor CD19.CAR-VSTs expanded concomitantly with VSTs. Hence CD19.CAR-VSTs display antitumor activity and, because their number may be increased in the presence of viral stimuli, earlier treatment post-HSCT (when lymphodepletion is greater and the incidence of viral infection is higher) or planned vaccination with viral antigens may enhance disease control.

  7. Blockade of CD26-mediated T cell costimulation with soluble caveolin-1-Ig fusion protein induces anergy in CD4{sup +}T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Kei [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Division of Clinical Immunology, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Uchiyama, Masahiko [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Computational Intelligence and System Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Hatano, Ryo; Takasawa, Wataru; Endo, Yuko [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Dang, Nam H. [Department of Hematologic Malignancies, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Morimoto, Chikao, E-mail: morimoto@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Division of Clinical Immunology, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-08-21

    CD26 binds to caveolin-1 in antigen-presenting cells (APC), and that ligation of CD26 by caveolin-1 induces T cell proliferation in a TCR/CD3-dependent manner. We report herein the effects of CD26-caveolin-1 costimulatory blockade by fusion protein caveolin-1-Ig (Cav-Ig). Soluble Cav-Ig inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to recall antigen, or allogeneic APC. Our data hence suggest that blocking of CD26-associated signaling by soluble Cav-Ig may be an effective approach as immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. Uveitis and Myositis as Immune Complications in Chemorefractory NK/T-Cell Nasal-Type Lymphoma Successfully Treated with Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Gómez-Crespo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NK/T-cell lymphomas are a group of clonal proliferations of NK- or, rarely, T-cell types and have peculiar clinicopathologic features. Most common site of involvement is the upper aerodigestive tract (nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and palate. Association of autoimmune paraneoplastic disorders with NK/T-cell lymphomas is not well studied. Our patient was diagnosed with NK/T-cell lymphoma stage IV with skin involvement and treated frontline with CHOEP regimen. While he was under treatment, two immune complications presented: anterior uveitis of autoimmune origin refractory to steroids and myositis in lower limbs muscles. Autologous transplantation was rejected due to confirmed early relapse after first-line treatment, and the patient received second-line treatment according to the SMILE scheme, reaching complete response after four cycles. The patient underwent allogeneic transplantation and at the time of manuscript preparation is alive despite multiple complications. The disease should be suspected in patients with rhinitis or recurrent sinusitis, and early biopsy is recommended for all patients to avoid a delay in diagnosis. Our patient also presented symptoms of disease progression after first-line treatment, representing a paraneoplastic process, a very rare phenomenon in T-type lymphomas. This case is novel for the appearance of an inflammatory myositis, a histologically verified paraneoplastic phenomenon that responded to treatment for lymphoma.

  9. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. I. Evidence for a donor cell population which increases allogeneic chimerism but which lacks the potential to produce GVHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.; Sheard, M.; Sachs, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The opposing problems of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure of alloengraftment present major obstacles to the application of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) across complete MHC barriers. The addition of syngeneic T-cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) to untreated fully allogeneic marrow inocula in lethally irradiated mice has been previously shown to provide protection from GVHD. We have used this model to study the effects of allogeneic T cells on levels of chimerism in recipients of mixed marrow inocula. The results indicate that T cells in allogeneic BM inocula eliminate both coadministered recipient-strain and radioresistant host hematopoietic elements to produce complete allogeneic chimerism without clinical GVHD. To determine the role of GVH reactivity in this phenomenon, we performed similar studies in an F1 into parent combination, in which the genetic potential for GVHD is lacking. The presence of T cells in F1 marrow inocula led to predominant repopulation with F1 lymphocytes in such chimeras, even when coadministered with TCD-recipient-strain BM. These results imply that the ability of allogeneic BM cells removed by T cell depletion to increase levels of allochimerism may be mediated by a population which is distinct from that which produces GVHD. These results may have implications for clinical BM transplantation

  10. Effect of irradiation on human T-cell proliferation: low dose irradiation stimulates mitogen-induced proliferation and function of the suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell subset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualde, N.; Goodwin, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Unfractionated human T cells exposed to 10-50 rad of X irradiation incorporated less [ 3 H]thymidine than nonirradiated T cells when subsequently cultured with PHA or Con A. The cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset, isolated as either OKT8(+) or OKT4(-) cells, demonstrated significantly enhanced [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in PHA- or Con A-stimulated cultures after exposure to 10-50 rad, compared to unirradiated cells, while the proliferation of the OKT4(+) helper/inducer subset was inhibited by low dose irradiation. It has been previously reported that approximately 30% of the cytotoxic/suppressor subset also stains with OKM1. When the cytotoxic/suppressor subset was further subdivided into OKT4(-), OKM1(+), and OKT4(-), OKM1(-) cells, proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(+) population was inhibited by exposure to 25 rad while proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(-) population was stimulated. The increase in proliferation of the cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset after low dose irradiation is paralleled by an increase in suppressor activity of these cells. T cells exposed to 25 rad and then cultured with Con A for 48 hr caused greater inhibition of IgG production when added to fresh autologous lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen than did unirradiated cells. Thus, low dose irradiation enhances both the proliferation and function of the human suppressor T-cell subset

  11. Impact of conditioning with TBI in adult patients with T-cell ALL who receive a myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahu, X; Labopin, M; Giebel, S

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a therapeutic option for adult patients with T-cell ALL (T-ALL). Meanwhile, few allo-SCT data specific to adult T-ALL have been described thus far. Specifically, the optimal myeloablative conditioning regimen is unknown...... patients with T-ALL entitled to receive a myeloablative allo-SCT may benefit from TBI-based regimens.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 30 November 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.278....

  12. A noncognate interaction with anti-receptor antibody-activated helper T cells induces small resting murine B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    on resting B cells (even in the presence of intact F23.1 antibody), but could induce antibody secretion by anti-Ig-preactivated B cells. Both F23.1+ clones (E9.D4 and 4.35F2) and one F23.1- clone (D2.2) could synergize with supernatants from activated E9.D4 T cells to induce B cell activation. F(ab')2......Culture of small resting allogeneic B cells (of an irrelevant haplotype) with two clones of T helper (Th) cells that were activated by the F23.1 anti-T cell receptor antibody led to the activation of B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody. Th cell supernatants by themselves had no effect...... fragments of F23.1 induced E9.D4 to activate B cells as efficiently as intact F23.1 and B cell populations that had been incubated with F23.1 were not activated when cultured with E9.D4, although T cells recognized cell-presented F23.1 and were weakly activated. Reduction of the density of F23.1 adsorbed...

  13. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: huali88@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: quan.du@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  14. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei; Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He; Zhai, Suodi; Li, Hua; Ye, Min; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  15. T-cell chimerism is valuable in predicting early mortality in steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease after myeloablative allogeneic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minculescu, Lia; Madsen, Hans O.; Sengeløv, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of early T-cell chimerism status on the incidence and clinical course of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in allogeneic transplant recipients after myeloablative conditioning. Of 62 patients, 38 (61%) had complete T-cell donor chimerism...

  16. Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products

  17. Regulatory activity of azabisphosphonate-capped dendrimers on human CD4+ T cell proliferation enhances ex-vivo expansion of NK cells from PBMCs for immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caminade Anne-Marie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoptive cell therapy with allogenic NK cells constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of certain malignancies. Such strategies are currently limited by the requirement of an efficient protocol for NK cell expansion. We have developed a method using synthetic nanosized phosphonate-capped dendrimers allowing such expansion. We are showing here that this is due to a specific inhibitory activity towards CD4+ T cell which could lead to further medical applications of this dendrimer. Methods Mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood were used to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of nanosized phosphonate-capped dendrimers on interleukin-2 driven CD4+T cell expansion. Proliferation status was investigated using flow cytometry analysis of CFSE dilution and PI incorporation experiments. Magnetic bead cell sorting was used to address activity towards individual or mixed cell sub-populations. We performed equilibrium binding assay to assess the interaction of fluorescent dendrimers with pure CD4+ T cells. Results Phosphonate-capped dendrimers are inhibiting the activation, and therefore the proliferation; of CD4+ T cells in IL-2 stimulated PBMCs, without affecting their viability. This allows a rapid enrichment of NK cells and further expansion. We found that dendrimer acts directly on T cells, as their regulatory property is maintained when stimulating purified CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3/CD28 microbeads. Performing equilibrium binding assays using a fluorescent analogue, we show that the phosphonate capped-dendrimers are specifically interacting with purified CD4+ T cells. Ultimately, we found that our protocol prevents the IL-2 related expansion of regulatory T cells that would be deleterious for the activity of infused NK cells. Conclusion High yield expansion of NK cells from human PBMCs by phosphonate-capped dendrimers and IL-2 occurs through the specific inhibition of the CD4+ lymphocyte compartment. Given the

  18. Human mesenchymal stem cells suppress donor CD4(+) T cell proliferation and reduce pathology in a humanized mouse model of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, L M; Healy, M E; English, K; Mahon, B P

    2013-05-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a life-threatening complication following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), occurring in up to 30-50% of patients who receive human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling transplants. Current therapies for steroid refractory aGVHD are limited, with the prognosis of patients suboptimal. Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC), a heterogeneous cell population present in many tissues, display potent immunomodulatory abilities. Autologous and allogeneic ex-vivo expanded human MSC have been utilized to treat aGVHD with promising results, but the mechanisms of therapeutic action remain unclear. Here a robust humanized mouse model of aGVHD based on delivery of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to non-obese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) interleukin (IL)-2rγ(null) (NSG) mice was developed that allowed the exploration of the role of MSC in cell therapy. MSC therapy resulted in the reduction of liver and gut pathology and significantly increased survival. Protection was dependent upon the timing of MSC therapy, with conventional MSC proving effective only after delayed administration. In contrast, interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated MSC were effective when delivered with PBMC. The beneficial effect of MSC therapy in this model was not due to the inhibition of donor PBMC chimerism, as CD45(+) and T cells engrafted successfully in this model. MSC therapy did not induce donor T cell anergy, FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells or cause PBMC apoptosis in this model; however, it was associated with the direct inhibition of donor CD4(+) T cell proliferation and reduction of human tumour necrosis factor-α in serum. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  19. T cells for viral infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollard, Catherine M; Heslop, Helen E

    2016-06-30

    Despite recent advances in the field of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), viral infections are still a major complication during the period of immune suppression that follows the procedure. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived virus-specific cytotoxic T cells (VSTs) is a strategy to rapidly restore virus-specific immunity to prevent or treat viral diseases after HSCT. Early proof of principle studies demonstrated that the administration of donor-derived T cells specific for cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) could effectively restore virus-specific immunity and control viral infections. Subsequent studies using different expansion or direct selection techniques have shown that donor-derived VSTs confer protection in vivo after adoptive transfer in 70% to 90% of recipients. Because a major cause of failure is lack of immunity to the infecting virus in a naïve donor, more recent studies have infused closely matched third-party VSTs and reported response rates of 60% to 70%. Current efforts have focused on broadening the applicability of this approach by: (1) extending the number of viral antigens being targeted, (2) simplifying manufacture, (3) exploring strategies for recipients of virus-naïve donor grafts, and (4) developing and optimizing "off the shelf" approaches. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Natural and adoptive T-cell immunity against herpes family viruses after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Herr, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Reactivated infections with herpes family-related cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus are serious and sometimes life-threatening complications for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The pathogenesis of these infections critically involves the slow and inefficient recovery of antiviral T-cell immunity after transplantation. Although efficient drugs to decrease viral load during this vulnerable period have been developed, long-term control of herpes viruses and protection from associated diseases require the sufficient reconstitution of virus-specific memory T cells. To heal the deficiency by immunotherapeutic means, numerous research groups have developed antiviral vaccines and strategies based on the adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells. This article summarizes the substantial progress made in this field during the past two decades and gives future perspectives about challenges that need to be addressed before antigen-specific immunotherapy against herpes family viruses can be implemented in general clinical practice.

  1. Early NK Cell Reconstitution Predicts Overall Survival in T-Cell Replete Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minculescu, Lia; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke; Friis, Lone Smidstrups

    2016-01-01

    Early immune reconstitution plays a critical role in clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first lymphocytes to recover after transplantation and are considered powerful effector cells in HSCT. We aimed to evaluate...... the clinical impact of early NK cell recovery in T-cell replete transplant recipients. Immune reconstitution was studied in 298 adult patients undergoing HSCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from 2005 to 2013. In multivariate analysis NK...... cell numbers day 30 (NK30) >150cells/µL were independently associated with superior overall survival (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95, p=0.01). Cumulative incidence analyses showed that patients with NK30 >150cells/µL had significantly less transplant related mortality (TRM), p=0...

  2. Vav1 GEF activity is required for T cell mediated allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubert, Dirk; Li, Jianping; Saveliev, Alexander; Calzascia, Thomas; Sutter, Esther; Metzler, Barbara; Kaiser, Daniel; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Weckbecker, Gisbert

    2012-06-01

    The GDP exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 is a central signal transducer downstream of the T cell receptor and has been identified as a key factor for T cell activation in the context of allograft rejection. Vav1 has been shown to transduce signals both dependent and independent of its GEF function. The most promising approach to disrupt Vav1 activity by pharmacological inhibition would be to target its GEF function. However, the contribution of Vav1 GEF activity for allogeneic T cell activation has not been clarified yet. To address this question, we used knock-in mice bearing a mutated Vav1 with disrupted GEF activity but intact GEF-independent functions. T cells from these mice showed strongly reduced proliferation and activation in response to allogeneic stimulation. Furthermore, lack of Vav1 GEF activity strongly abrogated the in vivo expansion of T cells in a systemic graft-versus-host model. In a cardiac transplantation model, mice with disrupted Vav1 GEF activity show prolonged allograft survival. These findings demonstrate a strong requirement for Vav1 GEF activity for allogeneic T cell activation and graft rejection suggesting that disruption of Vav1 GEF activity alone is sufficient to induce significant immunosuppression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trehalose improves cell proliferation and dehydration tolerance of human HaCaT cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose is a disaccharide molecule that serves as a natural osmotic regulator in halophilic microorganisms and plants but not in mammals. We observed that human HaCaT cells supplied with trehalose improved cell proliferation and extended viability under dehydration. In HaCaT cells, in response to increasing concentrations of exogenous trehalose, the levels of heat shock protein (HSP 70 increased and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 1 decreased. Proteome analysis of trehalose-treated HaCaT cells revealed remarkable increases in the levels of proteins involved in cell signaling and the cell cycle, including p21 activated kinase I, Sec I family domain protein and elongation factor G. Moreover, the proteins for cell stress resistance, tryptophan hydroxylase, serine/cysteine proteinase inhibitors and vitamin D receptors were also increased. In addition, the proteins responsible for the maintenance of the cytoskeleton and cellular structures including procollagen-lysine dioxygenase, vinculin and ezrin were increased. Proteomic data revealed that trehalose affected HaCaT cells by inducing the proteins involved in cell proliferation. These results suggest that trehalose improves the proliferation and dehydration tolerance of HaCaT cells by inducing proteins involved in cell growth and dehydration protection.

  4. Malignant T cells exhibit CD45 resistant Stat 3 activation and proliferation in cutaneous T cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, T; Helvad, Rikke; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase, which is well-known for regulating antigen receptor signalling in T and B cells via its effect on Src kinases. It has recently been shown that CD45 can also dephosphorylate Janus kinases (Jaks) and thereby regulate Signal transducer and activator of transcr......CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase, which is well-known for regulating antigen receptor signalling in T and B cells via its effect on Src kinases. It has recently been shown that CD45 can also dephosphorylate Janus kinases (Jaks) and thereby regulate Signal transducer and activator...... of transcription (Stat) activation and cytokine-induced proliferation in lymphocytes. Consequently, CD45 dysregulation could be implicated in aberrant Jak/Stat activation and proliferation in lymphoproliferative diseases. Despite high expression of the CD45 ligand, Galectin-1, in skin lesions from cutaneous T......-cell lymphoma (CTCL), the malignant T cells exhibit constitutive activation of the Jak3/Stat3 signalling pathway and uncontrolled proliferation. We show that CD45 expression is down-regulated on malignant T cells when compared to non-malignant T cells established from CTCL skin lesions. Moreover, CD45 cross...

  5. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Primary Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudillo, Laura; Cerretti, Raffaella; Picardi, Alessandra; Mariotti, Benedetta; De Angelis, Gottardo; Cantonetti, Maria; Postorino, Massimiliano; Ceresoli, Eleonora; De Santis, Giovanna; Nasso, Daniela; Pisani, Francesco; Scala, Enrico; Di Piazza, Fabio; Lanti, Alessandro

    2018-06-01

    In our retrospective study, 16 patients affected by advanced cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Two patients (12.5%) were in complete remission (CR), nine (56.3%) in partial remission (PR), and five (31.2%) with active disease. The patients were transplanted from an HLA-identical (n = 7) from a mismatched (n = 1) or haploidentical (n = 1) sibling, from matched unrelated donor (n = 5), or from a single cord blood unit (n = 2). Conditioning regimen was standard myeloablative in 6 patients and at reduced intensity in 10. Seven patients died from non relapse mortality (NRM) and four patients relapsed or progressed, three of them achieved a second CR after donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or chemotherapy plus DLI. To date, with a median follow-up of 76 months (range 6-130), nine patients are alive, eight in CR, and one with active disease. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 1 and 10 years are 61% (95% CI 40-91%) and 54% (95% CI 33-86%), 40% (95% CI 22-74%), and 34% (95% CI 16-68%), respectively. The time from diagnosis to transplant seems to influence negatively both OS (log-rank p < 0.04) and DFS (log-rank p < 0.05). Our results confirm on a long follow-up that CTCL appears particularly susceptible to the graft versus lymphoma (GVL) effect, so that allogeneic HSCT represents a possibility of cure for advanced CTCL. The timing of HSCT in the clinical course of disease remains an open issue.

  6. The role of CD8+ T cells during allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bueno

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation can be considered as replacement therapy for patients with end-stage organ failure. The percent of one-year allograft survival has increased due, among other factors, to a better understanding of the rejection process and new immunosuppressive drugs. Immunosuppressive therapy used in transplantation prevents activation and proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes, although not fully preventing chronic rejection. Recognition by recipient T cells of alloantigens expressed by donor tissues initiates immune destruction of allogeneic transplants. However, there is controversy concerning the relative contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to allograft rejection. Some animal models indicate that there is an absolute requirement for CD4+ T cells in allogeneic rejection, whereas in others CD4-depleted mice reject certain types of allografts. Moreover, there is evidence that CD8+ T cells are more resistant to immunotherapy and tolerance induction protocols. An intense focal infiltration of mainly CD8+CTLA4+ T lymphocytes during kidney rejection has been described in patients. This suggests that CD8+ T cells could escape from immunosuppression and participate in the rejection process. Our group is primarily interested in the immune mechanisms involved in allograft rejection. Thus, we believe that a better understanding of the role of CD8+ T cells in allograft rejection could indicate new targets for immunotherapy in transplantation. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to focus on the role of the CD8+ T cell population in the rejection of allogeneic tissue.

  7. Low immunogenicity of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Miyoung; Jeong, Sang Young; Ha, Jueun; Kim, Miyeon; Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Soon-Jae; Chang, Jong Wook; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Jeon, Hong Bae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. • Humanized NSG mice were established using human UCB CD34+ cells. • Repeated intravenous hUCB-MSC injection into mice did not lead to immune responses and adverse events. • Allogeneic hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an allogeneic setting during therapy has been hampered by lack of suitable models due to technical and ethical limitations. Here, we show that allogeneic human umbilical cord blood derived-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. To confirm these properties in vivo, a humanized mouse model was established by injecting isolated hUCB-derived CD34+ cells intravenously into immunocompromised NOD/SCID IL2γnull (NSG) mice. After repeated intravenous injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) or MRC5 cells into these mice, immunological alterations including T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and human IgG levels, were observed. In contrast, hUCB-MSC injection did not elicit these responses. While lymphocyte infiltration in the lung and small intestine and reduced survival rates were observed after hPBMC or MRC5 transplantation, no adverse events were observed following hUCB-MSC introduction. In conclusion, our data suggest that allogeneic hUCB-MSCs have low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and are therefore “immunologically safe” for use in allogeneic clinical applications

  8. Low immunogenicity of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Miyoung; Jeong, Sang Young; Ha, Jueun; Kim, Miyeon; Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Soon-Jae [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Wook [Research Institute for Future Medicine Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 137-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Sung [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hong Bae, E-mail: jhb@medi-post.co.kr [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. • Humanized NSG mice were established using human UCB CD34+ cells. • Repeated intravenous hUCB-MSC injection into mice did not lead to immune responses and adverse events. • Allogeneic hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an allogeneic setting during therapy has been hampered by lack of suitable models due to technical and ethical limitations. Here, we show that allogeneic human umbilical cord blood derived-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. To confirm these properties in vivo, a humanized mouse model was established by injecting isolated hUCB-derived CD34+ cells intravenously into immunocompromised NOD/SCID IL2γnull (NSG) mice. After repeated intravenous injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) or MRC5 cells into these mice, immunological alterations including T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and human IgG levels, were observed. In contrast, hUCB-MSC injection did not elicit these responses. While lymphocyte infiltration in the lung and small intestine and reduced survival rates were observed after hPBMC or MRC5 transplantation, no adverse events were observed following hUCB-MSC introduction. In conclusion, our data suggest that allogeneic hUCB-MSCs have low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and are therefore “immunologically safe” for use in allogeneic clinical applications.

  9. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu

    2005-01-01

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion

  10. Effect of selective T cell depletion of host and/or donor bone marrow on lymphopoietic repopulation, tolerance, and graft-vs-host disease in mixed allogeneic chimeras (B10 + B10.D2----B10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ildstad, S.T.; Wren, S.M.; Bluestone, J.A.; Barbieri, S.A.; Stephany, D.; Sachs, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with a mixture of T cell-depleted syngeneic plus T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow (B10 + B10.D2----B10) leads to the induction of mixed lymphopoietic chimerism, excellent survivals, specific in vivo transplantation tolerance to subsequent donor strain skin grafts, and specific in vitro unresponsiveness to allogeneic donor lymphoid elements as assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) proliferative and cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) cytotoxicity assays. When B10 recipient mice received mixed marrow inocula in which the syngeneic component had not been T cell depleted, whether or not the allogeneic donor marrow was treated, they repopulated exclusively with host-type cells, promptly rejected donor-type skin allografts, and were reactive in vitro to the allogeneic donor by CML and MLR assays. In contrast, T cell depletion of the syngeneic component of the mixed marrow inocula resulted in specific acceptance of allogeneic donor strain skin grafts. Such animals were specifically unreactive to allogeneic donor lymphoid elements in vitro by CML and MLR, but were reactive to third party. When both the syngeneic and allogeneic marrow were T cell depleted, variable percentages of host- and donor-type lymphoid elements were detected in the mixed reconstituted host. When only the syngeneic bone marrow was T cell depleted, animals repopulated exclusively with donor-type cells. Although these animals had detectable in vitro anti-host (B10) reactivity by CML and MLR and reconstituted as fully allogeneic chimeras, they exhibited excellent survival and had no in vivo evidence for graft-vs-host disease. Experiments in which untreated donor spleen cells were added to the inocula in this last group suggest that the presence of T cell-depleted syngeneic bone marrow cells diminishes graft-vs-host disease and the mortality from it

  11. Impact of Autologous and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reimer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas (PTCLs are rare malignancies characterized by poor prognosis. So far, no standard therapy has been established, due to the lack of randomised studies. High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-autoSCT have shown good feasibility with low toxicity in retrospective studies. In relapsing and refractory PTCL several comparison analyses suggest similar efficacy for PTCL when compared with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. In the upfront setting, prospective data show promising results with a long-lasting overall survival in a relevant subset of patients. Achieving a complete remission at transplantation seems to be the most important prognostic factor. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT has been investigated only as salvage treatment. Especially when using reduced intensity conditioning regimen, eligible patients seem to benefit from this approach. To define the role for upfront stem cell transplantation a randomised trial by the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group comparing HDT-autoSCT and alloSCT will be initiated this year.

  12. [Regulatory T cells inhibit proliferation of mouse lymphoma cell line EL4 in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Kong, Yan; Guo, Jun; Ying, Zhi-Tao; Yuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Yun-Tao; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Li, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Jun

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on the T cell lymphoma EL4 cells and its mechanism in vitro. C57BL/6 mouse Treg cells were isolated by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). The purity of Treg cells and their expression of Foxp3 were identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and PT-PCR respectively. The suppression of Treg cells on EL4 cells was detected by 3H-TdR method. At the same time, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion of cytokine TGF-β1 and IL-10. The results showed that CD4+CD25+ T cells could be successfully isolated by MACS with the purity reaching 94.52% and the expression of Foxp3 reaching 84.72%. After sorting, the expression of Foxp3 mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR. 3H-TdR assay confirmed that regulatory T cells could suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells with or without antigen presenting cells (APC) or dendritic cells (DC), APC or DC might effectively enhance the suppression. In addition, DC alone also suppressed the proliferation. TGF-β1 and IL-10 could be detected in the supernatant by ELISA. It is concluded that the Treg cells can obviously suppress the proliferation of T cell lymphoma cells in vitro, APC or DC can enhance this suppressive effect, while the DC alone also can suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells, the TGF-β1 and IL-10 cytokine pathway may be one of the mechanisms of suppression.

  13. Development of tumor-reactive T cells after nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tetsuya; Hudecek, Michael; Kostic, Ana; Bleakley, Marie; Warren, Edus H; Maloney, David; Storb, Rainer; Riddell, Stanley R

    2009-07-15

    Allogeneic nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplant (NM-HSCT) can result in durable remission of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is thought that the efficacy of NM-HSCT is mediated by recognition of tumor cells by T cells in the donor stem cell graft. We evaluated the development of CTLs specific for CLL after NM-HSCT to determine if their presence correlated with antitumor efficacy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 12 transplant recipients at intervals after NM-HSCT were stimulated in vitro with CLL cells. Polyclonal T-cell lines and CD8(+) T-cell clones were derived from these cultures and evaluated for lysis of donor and recipient target cells including CLL. The presence and specificity of responses was correlated with clinical outcomes. Eight of the 12 patients achieved remission or a major antitumor response and all 8 developed CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells specific for antigens expressed by CLL. A clonal analysis of the CD8(+) T-cell response identified T cells specific for multiple minor histocompatibility (H) antigens expressed on CLL in six of the responding patients. A significant fraction of the CD8(+) T-cell response in some patients was also directed against nonshared tumor-specific antigens. By contrast, CLL-reactive T cells were not detected in the four patients who had persistent CLL after NM-HSCT, despite the development of graft-versus-host disease. The development of a diverse T-cell response specific for minor H and tumor-associated antigens expressed by CLL predicts an effective graft-versus-leukemia response after NM-HSCT.

  14. A novel method to generate T-cell receptor-deficient chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takahiro; Wong, Desmond; Png, Yi Tian; Campana, Dario

    2018-03-13

    Practical methods are needed to increase the applicability and efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies. Using donor-derived CAR-T cells is attractive, but expression of endogenous T-cell receptors (TCRs) carries the risk for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). To remove surface TCRαβ, we combined an antibody-derived single-chain variable fragment specific for CD3ε with 21 different amino acid sequences predicted to retain it intracellularly. After transduction in T cells, several of these protein expression blockers (PEBLs) colocalized intracellularly with CD3ε, blocking surface CD3 and TCRαβ expression. In 25 experiments, median TCRαβ expression in T lymphocytes was reduced from 95.7% to 25.0%; CD3/TCRαβ cell depletion yielded virtually pure TCRαβ-negative T cells. Anti-CD3ε PEBLs abrogated TCRαβ-mediated signaling, without affecting immunophenotype or proliferation. In anti-CD3ε PEBL-T cells, expression of an anti-CD19-41BB-CD3ζ CAR induced cytokine secretion, long-term proliferation, and CD19 + leukemia cell killing, at rates meeting or exceeding those of CAR-T cells with normal CD3/TCRαβ expression. In immunodeficient mice, anti-CD3ε PEBL-T cells had markedly reduced GVHD potential; when transduced with anti-CD19 CAR, these T cells killed engrafted leukemic cells. PEBL blockade of surface CD3/TCRαβ expression is an effective tool to prepare allogeneic CAR-T cells. Combined PEBL and CAR expression can be achieved in a single-step procedure, is easily adaptable to current cell manufacturing protocols, and can be used to target other T-cell molecules to further enhance CAR-T-cell therapies. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  16. Psoriatic T cells reduce epidermal turnover time and affect cell proliferation contributed from differential gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqin; Li, Xinhua; Hou, Ruixia; Liu, Ruifeng; Zhao, Xincheng; Dong, Feng; Wang, Chunfang; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Kaiming

    2015-09-01

    Psoriasis is mediated primarily by T cells, which reduce epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in T cells from normal, five pairs of monozygotic twins concordant or discordant for psoriasis, to determine whether these DEG may account for the influence to epidermal turnover time and keratinocyte proliferation. The impact of T cells on keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal turnover time were investigated separately by immunohistochemistry and cultured with (3) H-TdR. mRNA expression patterns were investigated by RNA sequencing and verified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After co-culture with psoriatic T cells, the expression of Ki-67, c-Myc and p53 increased, while expression of Bcl-2 and epidermal turnover time decreased. There were 14 DEG which were found to participate in the regulation of cell proliferation or differentiation. Psoriatic T cells exhibited the ability to decrease epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation because of the differential expression of PPIL1, HSPH1, SENP3, NUP54, FABP5, PLEKHG3, SLC9A9 and CHCHD4. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05

  18. Suboptimal T-cell receptor signaling compromises protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, and proliferation of mouse CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thomas C J; Knight, John; Sbarrato, Thomas; Dudek, Kate; Willis, Anne E; Zamoyska, Rose

    2017-07-25

    Global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of T cells have been rich sources of unbiased data for understanding T-cell activation. Lack of full concordance of these datasets has illustrated that important facets of T-cell activation are controlled at the level of translation. We undertook translatome analysis of CD8 T-cell activation, combining polysome profiling and microarray analysis. We revealed that altering T-cell receptor stimulation influenced recruitment of mRNAs to heavy polysomes and translation of subsets of genes. A major pathway that was compromised, when TCR signaling was suboptimal, was linked to ribosome biogenesis, a rate-limiting factor in both cell growth and proliferation. Defective TCR signaling affected transcription and processing of ribosomal RNA precursors, as well as the translation of specific ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Mechanistically, IL-2 production was compromised in weakly stimulated T cells, affecting the abundance of Myc protein, a known regulator of ribosome biogenesis. Consequently, weakly activated T cells showed impaired production of ribosomes and a failure to maintain proliferative capacity after stimulation. We demonstrate that primary T cells respond to various environmental cues by regulating ribosome biogenesis and mRNA translation at multiple levels to sustain proliferation and differentiation.

  19. T cells from fully H-2 allogeneic (A replaced by B) radiation bone marrow chimeras are functionally competent and host restricted but are alloreactive against hybrid Ia determinants expressed on (A x B)F1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Hathcock, K.S.; Hodes, R.J.; Singer, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this communication it is demonstrated that T cells from fully allogeneic A replaced by B radiation bone marrow chimeras are alloreactive against the hybrid Ia molecules expressed on the surface of heterozygous A X B cells. These results suggested that previous failures to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses from fully allogeneic chimeras by sensitizing the chimeric T cells to antigen in an (A X B)F1-priming environment might have been confounded by an ongoing alloreaction against determinants created by hybrid Ia molecules expressed on F1 cells. Consequently, the ability to generate CTL responses from fully allogeneic chimeras was re-examined by sensitizing the chimeric T cells to antigen presented by homozygous rather that F1 stimulator cells. It was found that T cells of donor bone marrow origin that mediate cytotoxic responses to trinitrophenyl-modified self determinants do differentiate into functional competence in an H-2-incompatible host environment and are restricted to the host H-2 haplotype

  20. Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Allogeneic Tumor Cell Lysate in Mesothelioma: From Mouse to Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Joachim G J V; de Goeje, Pauline L; Cornelissen, Robin; Kaijen-Lambers, Margaretha E H; Bezemer, Koen; van der Leest, Cor H; Mahaweni, Niken M; Kunert, André; Eskens, Ferry A L M; Waasdorp, Cynthia; Braakman, Eric; van der Holt, Bronno; Vulto, Arnold G; Hendriks, Rudi W; Hegmans, Joost P J J; Hoogsteden, Henk C

    2018-02-15

    Purpose: Mesothelioma has been regarded as a nonimmunogenic tumor, which is also shown by the low response rates to treatments targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Previously, we demonstrated that autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy increased T-cell response toward malignant mesothelioma. However, the use of autologous tumor material hampers implementation in large clinical trials, which might be overcome by using allogeneic tumor cell lines as tumor antigen source. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether allogeneic lysate-pulsed DC immunotherapy is effective in mice and safe in humans. Experimental Design: First, in two murine mesothelioma models, mice were treated with autologous DCs pulsed with either autologous or allogeneic tumor lysate or injected with PBS (negative control). Survival and tumor-directed T-cell responses of these mice were monitored. Results were taken forward in a first-in-human clinical trial, in which 9 patients were treated with 10, 25, or 50 million DCs per vaccination. DC vaccination consisted of autologous monocyte-derived DCs pulsed with tumor lysate from five mesothelioma cell lines. Results: In mice, allogeneic lysate-pulsed DC immunotherapy induced tumor-specific T cells and led to an increased survival, to a similar extent as DC immunotherapy with autologous tumor lysate. In the first-in-human clinical trial, no dose-limiting toxicities were established and radiographic responses were observed. Median PFS was 8.8 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.1-20.3] and median OS not reached (median follow-up = 22.8 months). Conclusions: DC immunotherapy with allogeneic tumor lysate is effective in mice and safe and feasible in humans. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 766-76. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Proliferation of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Wharton's Jelly in Mixed and Membrane-Separated Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavtsev, A M; Poltavtseva, R A; Yushina, M N; Pavlovich, S V; Svirshchevskaya, E V

    2017-08-01

    We studied the effect of mesenchymal stromal cells on proliferation of CFSE-stained T cells in mixed and membrane-separated (Transwell) cultures and in 3D culture of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly. The interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells with mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from an allogeneic donor was followed by suppression of T-cell proliferation in a wide range of cell proportions. Culturing in the Transwell system showed the absence of suppression assessed by the fraction of proliferating cells and by the cell cycle analysis. In 3D cultures, contact interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells and lymphocytes was demonstrated that led to accumulation of G2/M phase lymphocytes and G0/G1 phase mesenchymal stromal cells. The suppressive effect of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly is mediated by two mechanisms. The effects are realized within 6 days, which suggests that the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells persist until their complete elimination from the body.

  2. Influence of age on the proliferation and peripheralization of thymic T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Utsuyama, M.; Katsura, Y.; Sado, T.

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow cells obtained from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1) were injected directly into the thymus of C57BL/6 mice (H-2b,Thy 1.2) of various ages. Thymocyte precursors in the injected donor-bone marrow cells could proliferate in the thymic microenvironment in the following manner: first, preferentially proliferating into the subcapsular cortex; and second, spreading to the whole layer of the cortex, a portion of them gradually moving into the medulla. The proliferation of donor-type thymocytes was most pronounced when intrathymic injection of bone marrow cells (ITB) was performed in newborn mice and especially prominent in week-old mice; it took approximately ten weeks for donor-type thymocytes to finish the whole course of proliferation, differentiation, and emigration to the periphery. When ITB was performed in mice 4 weeks of age and older, the proliferation of donor-type thymocytes was retarded at onset, less pronounced in magnitude, and disappeared earlier. Emigration of donor-type T cells from the thymus to the peripheral lymphoid tissues occurred most rapidly when ITB was performed in newborn mice, and these T cells continued to reside thereafter in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. However, when ITB was performed in mice 4 weeks of age and older, the number of emigrated T cells in the spleen decreased (about a tenth of that in newborn mice) and, moreover, these T cells resided only transiently in the spleen. It was suggested that T cells emigrating from the thymus of mice from newborn to 2 weeks of age are long-lived, whereas those from the thymus in mice 4 weeks of age and older are short-lived. However, when 4-week-old young adult mice were treated by irradiation or hydrocortisone, the thymic capacity was enhanced in terms of proliferation and peripheralization of thymocytes, and emigrated T cells became long-lived

  3. Reduction and repopulation of recipient T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama, J.W.; van den Bergh, R.L.; Naipal, A.; D'Amaro, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Jansen, J.; de Gast, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In eight recipients of allogeneic bone marrow grafts who had sex-mismatched donors, the reduction and subsequent repopulation of T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes of recipient origin were studied. The origin of the donor-recipient T4+ and T8+ T cells was studied using quinacrine staining of Y chromatin combined with T-cell typing for T4 and T8. Following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), T cells reached their nadir at a median of five (range 1-8) days after BMT. T8+ T cells decreased at a faster rate from the peripheral blood than T4+ T cells. The first T cells that appeared in the circulation at day 12 were predominantly T4+, and a large number of them were of recipient origin. Thereafter, they gradually decreased, and the numbers of T cells of donor origin increased. In the patients who had no or only minor complications, T4+ and T8+ T cells of donor origin repopulated the blood at similar rates. This pattern, however, was modified by severe graft-versus-host disease or by cytomegalovirus infection

  4. miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes cell proliferation and invasion in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hong; Miao, Mei-hua; Ji, Xue-qiang; Xue, Jun; Shao, Xue-jun, E-mail: xuejunshao@hotmail.com

    2015-04-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in leukaemia, particularly T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), has remained elusive. Here, we identified miR-664 and its predicted target gene PLP2 were differentially expressed in T-ALL using bioinformatics methods. In T-ALL cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-664, while miR-664 inhibitor could significantly inhibited the proliferation. Moreover, migration and invasion assay showed that overexpression of miR-664 could significantly promoted the migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, whereas miR-664 inhibitor could reduce cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-664 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PLP2, and western blotting showed that miR-664 suppressed the expression of PLP2 at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cell lines. Thus, miR-664 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T-ALL intervention. - Highlights: • miR-664 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 targets 3′ UTR of PLP2 in T-ALL cells. • miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 in T-ALL cells.

  5. Human T cell colony formation in microculture: analysis of growth requirements and functional activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, E W; Lee, J W; Dosch, H M; Price, G B

    1981-03-01

    A microculture method in methylcellulose has been developed for the study of human T cell colony formation. The technique is simple, reliable, does not require preincubation with lectin and requires small numbers of cells. Colony formation was dependent on the presence of phytohemagglutin-conditioned medium, a T colony precursor cell (TCPC), and a "helper" or accessory T cell. Plating efficiency was increased 10-fold in the presence of irradiated feeder cells. Progenitors of the T colony cells were identified in peripheral blood, tonsil, and spleen but not in thymus or thoracic duct. They were isolated in the E-rosetting, theophylline-resistant, Fc-IgG-negative cell populations. In peripheral blood the frequency of TCPC and accessory cells, the T colony forming unit, was estimated to be 8 X 10(-3). Colony cells proliferated in response to lectins and allogeneic cells. Forty to 80% of the cells were Ia-positive and stimulated both autologous and allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses. They were incapable of mediating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. In contrast, they were effective in assays of spontaneous cytotoxicity but only against certain target cells. This method for the analysis of T colony formation should prove valuable in the functional analysis of T cell subsets in immunodeficiency states or the transplant recipient.

  6. Donor lung derived myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentially regulate T cell proliferation and cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Heather L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct allorecognition, i.e., donor lung-derived dendritic cells (DCs stimulating recipient-derived T lymphocytes, is believed to be the key mechanism of lung allograft rejection. Myeloid (cDCs and plasmacytoid (pDCs are believed to have differential effects on T cell activation. However, the roles of each DC type on T cell activation and rejection pathology post lung transplantation are unknown. Methods Using transgenic mice and antibody depletion techniques, either or both cell types were depleted in lungs of donor BALB/c mice (H-2d prior to transplanting into C57BL/6 mice (H-2b, followed by an assessment of rejection pathology, and pDC or cDC-induced proliferation and cytokine production in C57BL/6-derived mediastinal lymph node T cells (CD3+. Results Depleting either DC type had modest effect on rejection pathology and T cell proliferation. In contrast, T cells from mice that received grafts depleted of both DCs did not proliferate and this was associated with significantly reduced acute rejection scores compared to all other groups. cDCs were potent inducers of IFNγ, whereas both cDCs and pDCs induced IL-10. Both cell types had variable effects on IL-17A production. Conclusion Collectively, the data show that direct allorecognition by donor lung pDCs and cDCs have differential effects on T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Depletion of both donor lung cDC and pDC could prevent the severity of acute rejection episodes.

  7. The implication of follicular lymphoma patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation from donors carrying t(14;18)-positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D K; Keever-Taylor, C A; Bredeson, C; Schur, B; Vesole, D H; Logan, B; Chang, C-C

    2005-06-01

    We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in peripheral blood (PB) and/or bone marrow (BM) samples collected pre- and post transplant from 23 recipient-donor pairs receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for follicular lymphoma (FL). Of 23 donors, 11 had a PB and/or BM sample positive for t(14;18) (BCL2/IGH fusion) at low levels (donors with (n=11) and those without (n=12) detectable t(14:18) cells were similar in age, sex, and disease status pretransplant. No differences in the incidence of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), delayed engraftment, relapse rate, disease-free survival and overall survival were identified between the groups. Two recipients without detectable t(14;18) cells pre-transplant showed detectable t(14;18) cells at 2 and 11 years after receiving grafts from donors with t(14:18) cells. Neither patient developed FL 1.5 and 2 years after the emergence of t(14;18) cells. Although the sample size is relatively small, our findings suggest that individuals carrying t(14;18) cells may not be excluded as donors given the lack of an association of t(14;18) detected in donors with adverse clinical outcome. It may be necessary to screen for the donor's t(14;18) status before using t(14;18) for monitoring minimal residual disease by RQ-PCR to exclude the possibility of confounding donor's t(14;18) clone.

  8. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells inhibit proliferation and IL2R expression of activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaestel, Charlotte G; Jørgensen, Annette; Nielsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    -Thymidine incorporation assay, respectively. T cells and RPE cells were cultured directly together or in a transwell system for determination of the effect of cell contact. The importance of cell surface molecules was examined by application of a panel of blocking antibodies (CD2, CD18, CD40, CD40L, CD54, CD58......) in addition to use of TCR negative T cell lines. The expression of IL2R-alpha -beta and -gamma chains of activated T cells was analysed by flow cytometry after incubation of T cells alone or with RPE cells. Human RPE cells were found to inhibit the proliferation of activated T cells by a cell contact......-beta and -gamma chain expression within 24 hr after removal from the coculture. It is concluded that the cultured human adult and foetal RPE cells inhibit the proliferation of activated T cells by a process that does not involve apoptosis. It depends on cell contact but the involved surface molecules were...

  9. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: a study from the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masson, Adèle; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Bouaziz, Jean-David; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Aubin, François; Garciaz, Sylvain; d’Incan, Michel; Dereure, Olivier; Dalle, Stéphane; Dompmartin, Anne; Suarez, Felipe; Battistella, Maxime; Vignon-Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Rivet, Jacqueline; Adamski, Henri; Brice, Pauline; François, Sylvie; Lissandre, Séverine; Turlure, Pascal; Wierzbicka-Hainaut, Ewa; Brissot, Eolia; Dulery, Rémy; Servais, Sophie; Ravinet, Aurélie; Tabrizi, Reza; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Joly, Pascal; Socié, Gérard; Bagot, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of advanced stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas remains challenging. In particular, large-cell transformation of mycosis fungoides is associated with a median overall survival of two years for all stages taken together. Little is known regarding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in this context. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 37 cases of advanced stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation, including 20 (54%) transformed mycosis fungoides. Twenty-four patients (65%) had stage IV disease (for mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome) or disseminated nodal or visceral involvement (for non-epidermotropic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas). After a median follow up of 29 months, 19 patients experienced a relapse, leading to a 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse of 56% (95%CI: 0.38–0.74). Estimated 2-year overall survival was 57% (95%CI: 0.41–0.77) and progression-free survival 31% (95%CI: 0.19–0.53). Six of 19 patients with a post-transplant relapse achieved a subsequent complete remission after salvage therapy, with a median duration of 41 months. A weak residual tumor burden before transplantation was associated with increased progression-free survival (HR=0.3, 95%CI: 0.1–0.8; P=0.01). The use of antithymocyte globulin significantly reduced progression-free survival (HR=2.9, 95%CI: 1.3–6.2; P=0.01) but also transplant-related mortality (HR=10−7, 95%CI: 4.10−8–2.10−7; P<0.001) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, the use of antithymocyte globulin was the only factor significantly associated with decreased progression-free survival (P=0.04). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be considered in advanced stage primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, including transformed mycosis fungoides. PMID:24213148

  10. Transfer of allogeneic CD4+ T cells rescues CD8+ T cells in anti-PD-L1–resistant tumors leading to tumor eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arina, Ainhoa; Karrison, Theodore; Galka, Eva; Schreiber, Karin; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Schreiber, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells can stabilize the size of solid tumors over long periods of time by exclusively recognizing antigen cross-presented on tumor stroma. However, these tumors eventually escape T cell–mediated growth control. The aim of this study was to eradicate such persistent cancers. In our model, the SIYRYYGL antigen is expressed by cancer cells that lack the MHC-I molecule Kb needed for direct presentation, but the antigen is picked up and cross-presented by tumor stroma. A single injection of antigen-specific 2C CD8+ T cells caused long-term inhibition of tumor growth, but without further intervention, tumors started to progress after approximately 3 months. Escape was associated with reduced numbers of circulating 2C cells. Tumor-infiltrating 2C cells produced significantly less TNFα and expressed more of the “exhaustion” markers PD-1 and Tim-3 than T cells from lymphoid organs. High-dose local ionizing radiation, depletion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, infusions of additional 2C cells, and antibodies blocking PD-L1 did not prevent tumor escape. In contrast, adoptive transfer of allogeneic CD4+ T cells restored the numbers of circulating Ag-specific CD8+ T cells and their intratumoral function, resulting in tumor eradication. These CD4+ T cells had no antitumor effects in the absence of CD8+ T cells and recognized the alloantigen cross-presented on tumor stroma. CD4+ T cells might also be effective in cancer patients when PD1/PD-L1 blockade does not rescue intratumoral CD8+ T-cell function and tumors persist. PMID:28077434

  11. Antigen presentation by resting B cells. Radiosensitivity of the antigen-presentation function and two distinct pathways of T cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this report we have examined the ability of small resting B cells to act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) to antigen-specific MHC-restricted T cells as assessed by either T cell proliferation or T cell-dependent B cell stimulation. We found that 10 of 14 in vitro antigen-specific MHC-restricted T cell clones and lines and three of four T cell hybridomas could be induced to either proliferate or secrete IL-2 in the presence of lightly irradiated (1,000 rads) purified B cells and the appropriate foreign antigen. All T cell lines and hybridomas were stimulated to proliferate or make IL-2 by macrophage- and dendritic cell-enriched populations and all T cells tested except one hybridoma caused B cell activation when stimulated with B cells as APC. Furthermore, lightly irradiated, highly purified syngeneic B cells were as potent a source of APC for inducing B cell activation as were low density dendritic and macrophage-enriched cells. Lymph node T cells freshly taken from antigen-primed animals were also found to proliferate when cultured with purified B cells and the appropriate antigen. This APC function was easily measured when the cells were irradiated with 1,000 rads, but was greatly diminished or absent when they were irradiated with 3,300 rads. In addition, this radiosensitivity allowed us to easily distinguish B cell antigen presentation from presentation by the dendritic cell and macrophage, as the latter was resistant to 3,300 rads. Finally, one T cell clone that failed to proliferate when B cells were used as APC was able to recruit allogeneic B cells to proliferate in the presence of syngeneic B cells and the appropriate antigen. This result suggests that there are at least two distinct pathways of activation in T cells, one that leads to T cell proliferation and one that leads to the secretion of B cell recruitment factor(s)

  12. Expansion of donor-reactive host T cells in primary graft failure after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT following reduced-intensity conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, M; Hashimoto, D; Nagafuji, K; Eto, T; Ohno, Y; Aoyama, K; Iwasaki, H; Miyamoto, T; Hill, G R; Akashi, K; Teshima, T

    2014-01-01

    Graft rejection remains a major obstacle in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC-SCT), particularly after cord blood transplantation (CBT). In a murine MHC-mismatched model of RIC-SCT, primary graft rejection was associated with activation and expansion of donor-reactive host T cells in peripheral blood and BM early after SCT. Donor-derived dendritic cells are at least partly involved in host T-cell activation. We then evaluated if such an expansion of host T cells could be associated with graft rejection after RIC-CBT. Expansion of residual host lymphocytes was observed in 4/7 patients with graft rejection at 3 weeks after CBT, but in none of the 17 patients who achieved engraftment. These results suggest the crucial role of residual host T cells after RIC-SCT in graft rejection and expansion of host T cells could be a marker of graft rejection. Development of more efficient T cell-suppressive conditioning regimens may be necessary in the context of RIC-SCT.

  13. PD-1hiTIM-3+ T cells associate with and predict leukemia relapse in AML patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Y; Zhang, J; Claxton, D F; Ehmann, W C; Rybka, W B; Zhu, L; Zeng, H; Schell, T D; Zheng, H

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis of leukemia relapse post allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is poor and effective new treatments are urgently needed. T cells are pivotal in eradicating leukemia through a graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect and leukemia relapse is considered a failure of GVL. T-cell exhaustion is a state of T-cell dysfunction mediated by inhibitory molecules including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3). To evaluate whether T-cell exhaustion and inhibitory pathways are involved in leukemia relapse post alloSCT, we performed phenotypic and functional studies on T cells from peripheral blood of acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving alloSCT. Here we report that PD-1 hi TIM-3 + cells are strongly associated with leukemia relapse post transplantation. Consistent with exhaustion, PD-1 hi TIM-3 + T cells are functionally deficient manifested by reduced production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). In addition, these cells demonstrate a phenotype consistent with exhausted antigen-experienced T cells by losing T N and T EMRA subsets. Importantly, increase of PD-1 hi TIM-3 + cells occurs before clinical diagnosis of leukemia relapse, suggesting their predictive value. Results of our study provide an early diagnostic approach and a therapeutic target for leukemia relapse post transplantation

  14. Glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of IL-2-dependent T cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresno, M.; Redondo, J.M.; Lopez-Rivas, A.

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit mitogen or antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by decreasing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). They have studied the effect of dexamethasone (Dx) on the proliferation of IL-2-dependent T cell clones. They have found that preincubation of these clones with Dx inhibits ( 3 H) thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (ID 50 % 5 x 10 -10 M). The inhibition of DNA synthesis by Dx was dependent on the concentration of IL-2. High concentration of IL-2 reversed completely this inhibition. The action of Dx seems to be mediated through the induction of a protein since the simultaneous presence of cycloheximide and Dx prevented the inhibitory effect of the latter. Moreover, dialyzed conditioned medium of Dx treated cells inhibited DNA synthesis by T cell clones. The biochemical characterization of this protein is in progress

  15. Defective immunoregulatory T-cell function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Ozer, H.; Henderson, E.S.; Dadey, B.; Nussbaum-Blumenson, A.; Barcos, M.

    1981-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of B-cell origin results in the malignant proliferation of small immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes. There is currently a controversy in the literature regarding both the ability of this leukemic population to differentiate into mature plasma cells, as well as the ability of apparently normal T cells from these patients to regulate allogeneic B-cell differentiation. In the present study we have examined the lymphocytes of CLL patients in various clinical stages of their disease and with different surface phenotypes of their leukemic B-cell population. Our results show that leukemic CLL B cells from all 20 patients (including one patient with a monoclonal IgM paraprotein and another with a monoclonal IgG paraprotein) are incapable of further differentiation even in the absence of suppressor T cells and the presence of helper T lymphocytes. This lack of capacity to differentiate is unaffected by clinical stage, by therapy, or by the phenotype of the malignant population. Since the leukemic B population did not suppress normal allogeneic B-cell differentiation, the maturation deficit is evidently intrinsic to the leukemic clone rather than a result of activity of non-T suppressor cells. T helper function was also variably depressed in the blood of some patients with CLL, and this depression did not correlate with clinical stage, with therapy, or with the degree of lymphocytosis. Dysfunction of radiosensitive T suppressor cells was found to be the most consistent regulatory deficit of CLL T cells. Each of 11 patients whose leukemic cell population was of the μdelta, μα, or μ phenotype had both helper and suppressor cell defects

  16. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8{sup +} T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Min Sook [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Min-Yeong [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Graduate School, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Daeho [Department of Microbiology, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Allen E. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kye Yong [Department of Pathology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8{sup +} T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with the WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells and CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells, but increased granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in TIS21KO mice.

  17. Proliferation-linked apoptosis of adoptively transferred T cells after IL-15 administration in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Berger

    Full Text Available The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific effector T cells is being used to treat human infections and malignancy. T cell persistence is a prerequisite for therapeutic efficacy, but reliably establishing a high-level and durable T cell response by transferring cultured CD8(+ T cells remains challenging. Thus, strategies that promote a transferred high-level T cell response may improve the efficacy of T cell therapy. Lymphodepletion enhances persistence of transferred T cells in mice in part by reducing competition for IL-15, a common γ-chain cytokine that promotes T cell memory, but lymphodepleting regimens have toxicity. IL-15 can be safely administered and has minimal effects on CD4(+ regulatory T cells at low doses, making it an attractive adjunct in adoptive T cell therapy. Here, we show in lymphoreplete macaca nemestrina, that proliferation of adoptively transferred central memory-derived CD8(+ effector T (T(CM/E cells is enhanced in vivo by administering IL-15. T(CM/E cells migrated to memory niches, persisted, and acquired both central memory and effector memory phenotypes regardless of the cytokine treatment. Unexpectedly, despite maintaining T cell proliferation, IL-15 did not augment the magnitude of the transferred T cell response in blood, bone marrow, or lymph nodes. T cells induced to proliferate by IL-15 displayed increased apoptosis demonstrating that enhanced cycling was balanced by cell death. These results suggest that homeostatic mechanisms that regulate T cell numbers may interfere with strategies to augment a high-level T cell response by adoptive transfer of CD8(+ T(CM/E cells in lymphoreplete hosts.

  18. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell and antigen-specific proliferating T cell clones can be induced to cytolytic activity by monoclonal antibodies against T3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.; Yssel, H.; Leeuwenberg, J.; de Vries, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    T3 is a human differentiation antigen expressed exclusively on mature T cells. In this study it is shown that anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies, in addition to their capacity to induce T cells to proliferate, are able to induce antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones to mediate antigen

  19. Present and future of allogeneic natural killer cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okjae eLim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are innate lymphocytes that are capable of eliminating tumor cells and are therefore used for cancer therapy. Although many early investigators used autologous NK cells, including lymphokine-activated killer cells, the clinical efficacies were not satisfactory. Meanwhile, human leukocyte antigen (HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation revealed the anti-tumor effect of allogeneic NK cells, and HLA-haploidentical, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR ligand-mismatched allogeneic NK cells are currently used for many protocols requiring NK cells. Moreover, allogeneic NK cells from non-HLA-related healthy donors have been recently used in cancer therapy. The use of allogeneic NK cells from non-HLA-related healthy donors allows the selection of donor NK cells with higher flexibility and to prepare expanded, cryopreserved NK cells for instant administration without delay for ex vivo expansion. In cancer therapy with allogeneic NK cells, optimal matching of donors and recipients is important to maximize the efficacy of the therapy. In this review, we summarize the present state of allogeneic NK cell therapy and its future directions.

  20. Delayed allogeneic skin graft rejection in CD26-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangli; Zhang, Kai; Daniel, Peter; Wisbrun, Natali; Fuchs, Hendrik; Fan, Hua

    2018-03-23

    Organ transplantation is an effective therapeutic tool for treating many terminal diseases. However, one of the biggest challenges of transplantation is determining how to achieve the long-term survival of the allogeneic or xenogeneic transplant by, for example, preventing transplant rejection. In the current study, CD26 gene-knockout mice were used to investigate the potential role of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPPIV) in allogeneic skin graft rejection by tail-skin transplantation. Compared with wild-type (CD26 +/+ ) counterparts, CD26 -/- mice showed reduced necrosis of grafts and delayed graft rejection after skin transplantation. Concentrations of serum IgG, including its subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a, were significantly reduced in CD26 -/- mice during graft rejection. Moreover, after allogeneic skin transplantation, the secretion levels of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-13 were significantly reduced, whereas the level of the cytokine IL-10 was increased in the serum of CD26 -/- mice compared with that in the serum of CD26 +/+ mice. Additionally, the concentration of IL-17 in serum and the percentage of cells secreting IL-17 in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (MPBLs) were both significantly lower, while the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was significantly higher in MPBLs of CD26 -/- mice than in those of CD26 +/+ mice. Furthermore, a lower percentage of CD8 + T cells in MPBLs and fewer infiltrated macrophages and T cells in graft tissues of CD26 -/- mice were detected during graft rejection. These results indicate that CD26 is involved in allogeneic skin graft rejection and provides another hint that CD26 deficiency leads to less rejection due to lower activation and proliferation of host immune cells.

  1. The depletion of nuclear glutathione impairs cell proliferation in 3t3 fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Markovic

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate.We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a period of 5 days. Cells were treated with two well known depleting agents, diethyl maleate (DEM and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, and the cellular and nuclear glutathione levels were assessed by analytical and confocal microscopic techniques, respectively. Both agents decreased total cellular glutathione although depletion by BSO was more sustained. However, the nuclear glutathione pool resisted depletion by BSO but not with DEM. Interestingly, cell proliferation was impaired by DEM, but not by BSO. Treating the cells simultaneously with DEM and with glutathione ethyl ester to restore intracellular GSH levels completely prevented the effects of DEM on cell proliferation.Our results demonstrate the importance of nuclear glutathione in the control of cell proliferation in 3T3 fibroblasts and suggest that a reduced nuclear environment is necessary for cells to progress in the cell cycle.

  2. De novo alloreactive memory CD8+ T cells develop following allogeneic challenge when CNI immunosuppression is delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Matyas, M; Gareau, A J; Hirsch, G M; Lee, T D G

    2015-01-01

    Allospecific memory T cells are a recognized threat to the maintenance of solid-organ transplants. Limited information exists regarding the development of alloreactive memory T cells when post-transplant immunosuppression is present. The clinical practice of delaying calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) initiation post-transplant may permit the development of a de novo allospecific memory population. We investigated the development of de novo allospecific memory CD8+ T cells following the introduction of CNI immunosuppression in a murine model using allogeneic cell priming. Recipient mice alloprimed with splenocytes from fully mismatched donors received cyclosporine (CyA), initiated at 0, 2, 6, or 10days post-prime. Splenocytes from recipients were analyzed by flow cytometry or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for evidence of memory cell formation. Memory and effector CD8+ T cell development was prevented when CyA was initiated at 0day or 2days post-prime (p0.05). Delaying CyA up to 6days or later post-prime permits the development of functional de novo allospecific memory CD8+ T cells. The development of this potentially detrimental T cell population in patients could be prevented by starting CNI immunosuppression early post-transplant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of stem cell from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on T lymphocyte proliferation.

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    Alipour, Razieh; Adib, Minoo; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Sadeghi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), a specific type of adult tissue stem cell; have the immunosuppressive effects that make them valuable targets for regenerative medicine and treatment of many human illnesses. Hence, MSC have been the subject of numerous studies. The classical source of MSC is adult bone marrow (BM). Due to many shortcomings of harvesting MSC from BM, finding the alternative sources for MSC is an urgent. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are relative new MSC populations that fulfill these criteria but their potential immunosuppressive effect has not been studied enough yet. Thus, in this work the effect of SHED on the proliferation of in vitro activated T lymphocytes were explored. In this study, both mitogen and alloantigen activated T cells were cultured in the presence of different numbers of SHED. In some co-cultures, activated T cells were in direct contact to MSCs and in other co-cultures; they were separated from SHED by a permeable membrane. In all co-cultures, the proliferation of T cells was measured by ELISA Bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay. In general, our results showed that SHED significantly suppress the proliferation of activated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the suppression was slightly stronger when MSCs were in physical contact to activated T cells. This study showed that SHED likewise other MSC populations can suppress the activation of T lymphocytes, which can be used instead of BM derived MSCs in many investigational and clinical applications.

  4. A novel cancer vaccine strategy based on HLA-A*0201 matched allogeneic plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Aspord

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of effective cancer vaccines still remains a challenge. Despite the crucial role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs in anti-tumor responses, their therapeutic potential has not yet been worked out. We explored the relevance of HLA-A*0201 matched allogeneic pDCs as vectors for immunotherapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stimulation of PBMC from HLA-A*0201(+ donors by HLA-A*0201 matched allogeneic pDCs pulsed with tumor-derived peptides triggered high levels of antigen-specific and functional cytotoxic T cell responses (up to 98% tetramer(+ CD8 T cells. The pDC vaccine demonstrated strong anti-tumor therapeutic in vivo efficacy as shown by the inhibition of tumor growth in a humanized mouse model. It also elicited highly functional tumor-specific T cells ex-vivo from PBMC and TIL of stage I-IV melanoma patients. Responses against MelA, GP100, tyrosinase and MAGE-3 antigens reached tetramer levels up to 62%, 24%, 85% and 4.3% respectively. pDC vaccine-primed T cells specifically killed patients' own autologous melanoma tumor cells. This semi-allogeneic pDC vaccine was more effective than conventional myeloid DC-based vaccines. Furthermore, the pDC vaccine design endows it with a strong potential for clinical application in cancer treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight HLA-A*0201 matched allogeneic pDCs as potent inducers of tumor immunity and provide a promising immunotherapeutic strategy to fight cancer.

  5. Major Histocompatibilty Complex-Restricted Adaptive Immune Responses to CT26 Colon Cancer Cell Line in Mixed Allogeneic Chimera.

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    Lee, K W; Choi, B; Kim, Y M; Cho, C W; Park, H; Moon, J I; Choi, G-S; Park, J B; Kim, S J

    2017-06-01

    Although the induction of mixed allogeneic chimera shows promising clinical tolerance results in organ transplantation, its clinical relevance as an anti-cancer therapy is yet unknown. We introduced a mixed allogenic chimera setting with the use of a murine colon cancer cell line, CT26, by performing double bone marrow transplantation. We analyzed donor- and recipient-restricted anti-cancer T-cell responses, and phenotypes of subpopulations of T cells. The protocol involves challenging 1 × 10 5 cells of CT26 cells intra-hepatically on day 50 after bone marrow transplantation, and, by use of CT26 lysates and an H-2L d -restricted AH1 pentamer, flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the generation of cancer-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at various time points. We found that immunocompetence against tumors depends heavily on cancer-specific CD8 + T-cell responses in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner; the evidence was further supported by the increase of interferon-γ-secreting CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that during the effector immune response to CT26 cancer challenge, there was a presence of central memory cells (CD62L hi CCR7 + ) as well as effector memory cells (CD62L lo CCR7 - ). Moreover, mixed allogeneic chimeras (BALB/c to C56BL/6 or vice versa) showed similar or heightened immune responses to CT26 cells compared with that of wild-type mice. Our results suggest that the responses of primary immunocompetency and of pre-existing memory T cells against allogeneic cancer are sustained and preserved long-term in a mixed allogeneic chimeric environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Donor Vδ1+ γδ T cells expand after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and show reactivity against CMV-infected cells but not against progressing B-CLL.

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    Prinz, Immo; Thamm, Kristina; Port, Matthias; Weissinger, Eva M; Stadler, Michael; Gabaev, Ildar; Jacobs, Roland; Ganser, Arnold; Koenecke, Christian

    2013-05-11

    γδ T lymphocytes play an important role in immune reactions towards infections and malignancies. In particular, Vγ9-Vδ1+ T lymphocytes are thought to play protective antiviral roles in human CMV infection. Recently, Vδ1+ T lymphocytes were proposed to also have anti- B-CLL reactivity. Here we report a case of 48-year-old man who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation for progressive B-CLL. Within one year after transplantation, lymphoma relapsed despite a dramatic increase of Vδ1+ T cells in the patient's blood. In vitro killing assays revealed activity of patient's γδ cells against CMV target cells, but not against the relapsing lymphoma-cells. This argues for a contribution of Vδ1+ cells in the immune reaction against CMV reactivation, but does not support a strong correlation of expanded Vδ1+ T cells and favorable disease outcome in B-CLL patients.

  7. miR-466a Targeting of TGF-β2 Contributes to FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cell Differentiation in a Murine Model of Allogeneic Transplantation

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    William Becker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The promise of inducing immunological tolerance through regulatory T cell (Treg control of effector T cell function is crucial for developing future therapeutic strategies to treat allograft rejection as well as inflammatory autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we used murine allograft rejection as a model to identify microRNA (miRNA regulation of Treg differentiation from naïve CD4 cells. We performed miRNA expression array in CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node (dLN of mice which received syngeneic or allogeneic grafts to determine the molecular mechanisms that hinder the expansion of Tregs. We identified an increase in miRNA cluster 297-669 (C2MC after allogeneic transplantation, in CD4+ T cells, such that 10 of the 27 upregulated miRNAs were all from this cluster, with one of its members, mmu-miR-466a-3p (miR-466a-3p, targeting transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2, as identified through reporter luciferase assay. Transfection of miR-466a-3p in CD4+ T cells led to a decreased inducible FoxP3+ Treg generation while inhibiting miR-466a-3p expression through locked nucleic acid resulting in increased Tregs and a reduction in effector T cells. Furthermore, in vivo inhibition of miR-466a-3p in an allogeneic skin-graft model attenuated T cell response against the graft through an increase in TGF-β2. TGF-β2 was as effective as TGF-β1 at both inducing Tregs and through adoptive transfer, mitigating host effector T cell response against the allograft. Together, the current study demonstrates for the first time a new role for miRNA-466a-3p and TGF-β2 in the regulation of Treg differentiation and thus offers novel avenues to control inflammatory disorders.

  8. Homeostatic proliferation fails to efficiently reactivate HIV-1 latently infected central memory CD4+ T cells.

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    Alberto Bosque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic proliferation ensures the longevity of central memory T-cells by inducing cell proliferation in the absence of cellular differentiation or activation. This process is governed mainly by IL-7. Central memory T-cells can also be stimulated via engagement of the T-cell receptor, leading to cell proliferation but also activation and differentiation. Using an in vitro model of HIV-1 latency, we have examined in detail the effects of homeostatic proliferation on latently infected central memory T cells. We have also used antigenic stimulation via anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies and established a comparison with a homeostatic proliferation stimulus, to evaluate potential differences in how either treatment affects the dynamics of latent virus populations. First, we show that homeostatic proliferation, as induced by a combination of IL-2 plus IL-7, leads to partial reactivation of latent HIV-1 but is unable to reduce the size of the reservoir in vitro. Second, latently infected cells are able to homeostatically proliferate in the absence of viral reactivation or cell differentiation. These results indicate that IL-2 plus IL-7 may induce a detrimental effect by favoring the maintenance of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. On the other hand, antigenic stimulation efficiently reactivated latent HIV-1 in cultured central memory cells and led to depletion of the latently infected cells via virus-induced cell death.

  9. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  10. The oncogenic fusion protein RUNX1-CBFA2T1 supports proliferation and inhibits senescence in t(8;21)-positive leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Natalia; Heidenreich, Olaf; Drescher, Bettina; Riehle, Heidemarie; Cullmann, Claire; Vornlocher, Hans-Peter; Ganser, Arnold; Heil, Gerhard; Nordheim, Alfred; Krauter, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    The fusion protein RUNX1-CBFA2T1 associated with t(8;21)-positive acute myeloid leukaemia is a potent inhibitor of haematopoetic differentiation. The role of RUNX1-CBFA2T1 in leukaemic cell proliferation is less clear. We examined the consequences of siRNA-mediated RUNX1-CBFA2T1 depletion regarding proliferation and clonogenicity of t(8;21)-positive cell lines. The t(8;21)-positive cell line Kasumi-1 was electroporated with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 or control siRNAs followed by analysis of proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and senescence. Electroporation of Kasumi-1 cells with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 siRNAs, but not with control siRNAs, resulted in RUNX1-CBFA2T1 suppression which lasted for at least 5 days. A single electroporation with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 siRNA severely diminished the clonogenicity of Kasumi-1 cells. Prolonged RUNX1-CBFA2T1 depletion inhibited proliferation in suspension culture and G1-S transition during the cell cycle, diminished the number of apoptotic cells, but induced cellular senescence. The addition of haematopoetic growth factors could not rescue RUNX1-CBFA2T1-depleted cells from senescence, and could only partially restore their clonogenicity. RUNX1-CBFA2T1 supports the proliferation and expansion of t(8;21)-positive leukaemic cells by preventing cellular senescence. These findings suggest a central role of RUNX1-CBFA2T1 in the maintenance of the leukaemia. Therefore, RUNX1-CBFA2T1 is a promising and leukaemia-specific target for molecularly defined therapeutic approaches

  11. Development of a coordinated allo T cell and auto B cell response against autosomal PTK2B after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Anita N; van der Griendt, Judith C; van der Meijden, Edith D; Honders, M Willy; Ayoglu, Burcu; Schwenk, Jochen M; Nilsson, Peter; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Griffioen, Marieke

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that allo-reactive T cells play a crucial role in graft-versus-leukemia and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Allo-reactive CD4(+) T cells can mediate direct cytolysis, but may also stimulate production of IgG antibodies as helper cells. Immune complexes may subsequently be processed and presented by professional antigen presenting cells and stimulate induction of specific CD8(+) T cells. As such, proteins targeted in coordinated T- and B-cell responses may represent a class of immunodominant antigens in clinical responses after alloSCT. We previously identified LB-PTK2B-1T as HLA class II restricted polymorphic antigen in a patient treated with donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia after HLA-matched alloSCT. Since PTK2B has also been described as antibody target, we here investigated whether a coordinated T- and B-cell response against PTK2B was induced. Patient serum before and after alloSCT and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was screened for antibodies, and we indeed observed development of a humoral immune response against PTK2B. Antibodies against PTK2B were only found after DLI and, in contrast to the CD4(+) T cells, recognized a monomorphic region of the protein. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a coordinated allo-reactive CD4(+) T-cell and auto-reactive antibody response against an autosomal antigen.

  12. PDZ domain-binding motif of Tax sustains T-cell proliferation in HTLV-1-infected humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesi, Maria; Jalinot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive malignant proliferation of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. The viral Tax oncoprotein is critically involved in both HTLV-1-replication and T-cell proliferation, a prerequisite to the development of ATLL. In this study, we investigated the in vivo contribution of the Tax PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) to the lymphoproliferative process. To that aim, we examined T-cell proliferation in humanized mice (hu-mice) carrying a human hemato-lymphoid system infected with either a wild type (WT) or a Tax PBM-deleted (ΔPBM) provirus. We observed that the frequency of CD4+ activated T-cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen was significantly higher in WT than in ΔPBM hu-mice. Likewise, human T-cells collected from WT hu-mice and cultivated in vitro in presence of interleukin-2 were proliferating at a higher level than those from ΔPBM animals. We next examined the association of Tax with the Scribble PDZ protein, a prominent regulator of T-cell polarity, in human T-cells analyzed either after ex vivo isolation or after in vitro culture. We confirmed the interaction of Tax with Scribble only in T-cells from the WT hu-mice. This association correlated with the presence of both proteins in aggregates at the leading edge of the cells and with the formation of long actin filopods. Finally, data from a comparative genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggested that the PBM-PDZ association is implicated in the expression of genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal organization. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Tax PBM is an auxiliary motif that contributes to the sustained growth of HTLV-1 infected T-cells in vivo and in vitro and is essential to T-cell immortalization. PMID:29566098

  13. PDZ domain-binding motif of Tax sustains T-cell proliferation in HTLV-1-infected humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Eléonore; Blin, Juliana; Ricci, Emiliano P; Artesi, Maria; Hahaut, Vincent; Van den Broeke, Anne; Corbin, Antoine; Gazzolo, Louis; Ratner, Lee; Jalinot, Pierre; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2018-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive malignant proliferation of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. The viral Tax oncoprotein is critically involved in both HTLV-1-replication and T-cell proliferation, a prerequisite to the development of ATLL. In this study, we investigated the in vivo contribution of the Tax PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) to the lymphoproliferative process. To that aim, we examined T-cell proliferation in humanized mice (hu-mice) carrying a human hemato-lymphoid system infected with either a wild type (WT) or a Tax PBM-deleted (ΔPBM) provirus. We observed that the frequency of CD4+ activated T-cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen was significantly higher in WT than in ΔPBM hu-mice. Likewise, human T-cells collected from WT hu-mice and cultivated in vitro in presence of interleukin-2 were proliferating at a higher level than those from ΔPBM animals. We next examined the association of Tax with the Scribble PDZ protein, a prominent regulator of T-cell polarity, in human T-cells analyzed either after ex vivo isolation or after in vitro culture. We confirmed the interaction of Tax with Scribble only in T-cells from the WT hu-mice. This association correlated with the presence of both proteins in aggregates at the leading edge of the cells and with the formation of long actin filopods. Finally, data from a comparative genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggested that the PBM-PDZ association is implicated in the expression of genes regulating proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal organization. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Tax PBM is an auxiliary motif that contributes to the sustained growth of HTLV-1 infected T-cells in vivo and in vitro and is essential to T-cell immortalization.

  14. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  15. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 suppresses human T-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Fina, Daniele; Caruso, Roberta; Stolfi, Carmine; Caprioli, Flavio; Fantini, Massimo Claudio; Caspani, Giorgio; Grossi, Enzo; Di Iorio, Laura; Paone, Francesco Maria; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that probiotics are beneficial in T-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. The molecular mechanism by which probiotics work remains elusive, but accumulating evidence indicates that probiotics can modulate immune cell responses. Since T cells express receptors for bacterial products or components, we examined whether different strains of lactobacilli directly regulate the functions of human T cells. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from blood and intestinal lamina propria (LP) of normal individuals and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mononuclear cells were also isolated from Peyer's patches. Cells were activated with anti-CD3/CD2/CD28 in the presence or absence of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19, or L. casei subsp. casei DG. Cell proliferation and death, Foxp3, intracellular pH, and cytokine production were evaluated by flow cytometry. We showed that L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 but neither L. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19 nor L. casei subsp. casei DG inhibited blood CD4(+) T-cell growth. This effect was associated with no change in cell survival, expression of Foxp3, or production of gamma interferon, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-10. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060-mediated blockade of CD4(+) T-cell proliferation required a viable bacterium and was associated with decreased MCT-1 expression and low intracellular pH. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 also inhibited the growth of Peyer's patch mononuclear cells, normal lymphocytes, and IBD CD4(+) LP lymphocytes without affecting cytokine production. The data show that L. paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 blocks T-cell growth, thus suggesting a mechanism by which these probiotics could interfere with T-cell-driven immune responses.

  16. Antiviral T cell competence and restriction specificity of mixed allogeneic (P1 + P2----P1) irradiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueedi, E.S.; Sykes, M.; Ildstad, S.T.; Chester, C.H.; Althage, A.; Hengartner, H.; Sachs, D.H.; Zinkernagel, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed irradiation bone marrow chimeras were prepared by reconstituting lethally irradiated C57BL/10 (B10) or B10.D2 mice with T cell-depleted bone marrow cells of B10 plus B10.D2 origin. These chimeras were healthy and survived well under conventional housing conditions and after experimental laboratory infections. Of a total of 17 chimeras tested, 2 died spontaneously or from the injected virus. Twelve of fifteen chimeras mounted a measurable cytotoxic T cell response to virus. Despite approximately equal percentages of B10 and B10.D2 lymphocytes in chimeras, cytotoxic T cell responses to vaccinia virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus were mediated variably by either syngeneic or allogeneic donor lymphocytes; thus the H-2 type of effector T cells frequently did not correspond to the 50:50 distribution of spleen or peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cytotoxic responses were restricted exclusively to recipient H-2 type. All mixed chimeras examined were able to mount a good IgG response to vesicular stomatitis virus. These results confirm previous data suggesting that such mixed chimeras are healthy and immunocompetent and demonstrate strict recipient-determined restriction specificity of effector T cells; they also suggest that if T help is necessary for induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells, it does not require host-restricted interactions between helper T cells and precursor cytotoxic T cells

  17. Conditional IL-2 gene deletion: consequences for T cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2 in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analogue, tamoxifen (TAM as adults. Splenocytes from four different mouse strains, C57Bl/6 wild type (WT, conventional IL-2 (-/-, TAM-treated Cre recombinase negative (Cre-/IL2fl/fl, and Cre+/IL-2fl/fl (Cre+, were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and monitored for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocyte blastogenesis, aerobic glycolysis, BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA, and CFSE dye dilution to monitor cell division. IL-2 production was monitored by quantitative ELISA and multiple additional cytokines were monitored by protein-bead arrays. Splenocytes from conventional IL-2 (-/- and TAM-treated Cre+ mice resulted in undetectable IL-2 production, so that both strains were IL-2 deficient. As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice did so. By comparison, only cells from IL-2 sufficient WT and Cre- switched to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a drop in media pH. Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice was compromised. Splenocytes from IL-2 deficient conventional IL-2 (-/- mice produced low or undetectable other γc-chain cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-21, whereas production of these γc-chain cytokines from IL-2-deficient conditional IL-2 (-/- Cre+ mice were comparable with WT and Cre- mice. These results indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell blastogenesis cannot be attributable to IL-2 alone, but a switch to aerobic glycolysis is attributable to IL-2, and proliferation

  18. miR-198 Represses the Proliferation of HaCaT Cells by Targeting Cyclin D2

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    Jian Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: MiR-198 has been considered as an inhibitor of cell proliferation, invasion, migration and a promoter of apoptosis in most cancer cells, while its effect on non-cancer cells is poorly understood. Methods: The effect of miR-198 transfection on HaCaT cell proliferation was firstly detected using Cell Count Kit-8 and the cell cycle progression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Using bioinformatics analyses and luciferase assay, a new target of miR-198 was searched and identified. Then, the effect of the new target gene of miR-198 on cell proliferation and cell cycle was also detected. Results: Here we showed that miR-198 directly bound to the 3′-UTR of CCND2 mRNA, which was a key regulator in cell cycle progression. Overexpressed miR-198 repressed CCND2 expression at mRNA and protein levels and subsequently led to cell proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Transfection ofSiCCND2 in HaCaT cells showed similar inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have identified that miR-198 inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation by directly targeting CCND2.

  19. Proliferation and Differentiation of Autologic and Allogenic Stem Cells in Supralethally X-Irradiated Dogs

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    Chertkov, I. L. [Department of Radiobiology, Central Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1967-07-15

    Full text: Allogenic bone marrow after transplantation into dogs irradiated with 1000 R X-rays differentiates in the normal way only for 3-4 days, afterwards transforming into lymphoid cells. This transformation is due to the antigen stimulus of the host on the grafted stem cells. The lymphoid cells, obtained from the host's blood on the 7-8th day after grafting, showed specific, immune activity under the Immune Lymphocyte Transfer test. Within a short duration of the immune response immunoblasts and immunocytes Undergo degenerative changes: destroyed mitochondria, formation of autophagic vacuoles and, finally, lysis of the cells. These changes are suggested to be the result of overloading of immune cells with antigen. Preliminary sensitization of the donor with prospective host's haemopoietic tissue does not hasten the immune transformation of haemopoiesis. Injections of bacterial pyrogen, cortisone or 6-mercaptopurine into recipients, as well as incubation of bone marrow at 37 Degree-Sign C for 2 hours, do not prevent the immune transformation. Preliminary thymectomy of the prospective recipients prevents in some of the cases immune transformation of the bone-marrow graft. The delay of allogenic bone-marrow transplantation for 5-6 days prevents in some dogs (X-irradiated with 1000 R, but not with 1200 R) the immune transformation. Transplantation of autologic bone marrow or shielding of the legs during irradiation is accompanied with good restoration of normal haemopoiesis without lymphoid transformation. (author)

  20. In vitro regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis after human marrow transplantation. II. Deficient T and non-T lymphocyte function within 3-4 months of allogeneic, syngeneic, or autologous marrow grafting for hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, R.P.; Lum, L.G.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Immunoglobulin secretion was studied in 37 patients between 19 and 106 days after allogeneic HLA-identical (30 patients), allogeneic one HLA-haplotype-identical (three patients), syngeneic (three patients), or autologous (one patient) marrow grafting. E rosette-positive (T) and E rosette-negative (non-T) peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with pokeweed mitogen for 6 days. Polyvalent immunoglobulin secretion was determined by counting plaque forming cells in a reverse hemolytic plaque assay. The number of antibody secreting cells in cocultures of autologous T and non-T lymphocytes was low in 40 of 44 tests conducted on samples from the 37 patients. Mononuclear or non-T cells from 38 of 40 tests failed to produce antibody when cultured with normal helper T cells. T cells from 23 of 37 tests failed to help normal non-T cells secrete antibody. T lymphocytes from 23 of 41 tests suppressed antibody production greater than 80% by normal T and non-T cells. The suppressor cells were radiosensitive in 17 of the 25 tests. The abnormal function of lymphocyte subpopulations in patients during the first 3 mo after syngeneic, allogeneic or autologous marrow grafting was similar regardless of the type of graft or the presence of acute graft versus host disease

  1. Development of a modified prognostic index for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma aged 70 years or younger: possible risk-adapted management strategies including allogeneic transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Utsunomiya, Atae; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Owatari, Satsuki; Miyagi, Takashi; Taguchi, Jun; Choi, Ilseung; Otsuka, Eiichi; Nakachi, Sawako; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Saiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation after chemotherapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, there is no consensus about indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because there is no established risk stratification system for transplant eligible patients. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in order to construct a new, large database that includes 1,792 patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and received intensive first-line chemotherapy. We randomly divided patients into two groups (training and validation sets). Acute type, poor performance status, high soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels (> 5,000 U/mL), high adjusted calcium levels (≥ 12 mg/dL), and high C-reactive protein levels (≥ 2.5 mg/dL) were independent adverse prognostic factors used in the training set. We used these five variables to divide patients into three risk groups. In the validation set, median overall survival for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups was 626 days, 322 days, and 197 days, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk groups, transplanted recipients had significantly better overall survival than non-transplanted patients. We developed a promising new risk stratification system to identify patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who may benefit from upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the benefit of this treatment strategy. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. T helper-independent activation of human CD8+ cells: the role of CD28 costimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gool, S W; Zhang, Y; Kasran, A; de Boer, M; Ceuppens, J L

    1996-07-01

    The concept that activation of MHC class I-restricted CD8+ cells entirely depends on help from MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells has recently been supplemented with an alternative model in which CD8+ cells can directly be activated by MHC class I-expressing professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), which are able to deliver an accessory signal. The authors analysed the role of CD28-mediated costimulation for T helper cell-independent activation of purified human CD8+ T cells in two different in vitro models. Freshly isolated CD8+ cells could be activated (proliferation, IL-2 production and cytotoxic activity) by anti-CD3-presenting Fc gamma R+ mouse cells transfected with the human CD28 ligand, CD80, as the only accessory signal. On the other hand, activation of CD8+ cells by allogeneic MHC class I on EBV-transformed B cells, which express two different CD28 ligands, CD80 and CD86, also proceeded very efficiently (proliferation, cytotoxic activity and CD25 expression), but was either not, or only partially, blocked by anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 MoAb or CTLA-4Ig. This indicates that other costimulatory signals are also effective, and that CD28 triggering is not absolutely required for initial T-cell activation. CsA and CD80/CD86-blocking agents were synergistic in completely inhibiting activation of CD8+ cells in the MLR with allogeneic B-cell lines. This combination also induced non-responsiveness of CD8+ cells upon restimulation in the absence of blocking agents. Therefore, although professional APC can apparently provide multiple costimulatory signals for direct activation of CD8+ T cells, the signal derived from CD80/CD86 is unique in providing CsA-resistance.

  3. Immune responses to an encapsulated allogeneic islet β-cell line in diabetic NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Sasha P.; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Cui, Hong; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Weber, Collin J.; Safley, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal is to develop effective islet grafts for treating type 1 diabetes. Since human islets are scarce, we evaluated the efficacy of a microencapsulated insulin-secreting conditionally transformed allogeneic β-cell line (βTC-tet) in non-obese diabetic mice treated with tetracycline to inhibit cell growth. Relatively low serum levels of tetracycline controlled proliferation of βTC-tet cells without inhibiting effective control of hyperglycemia in recipients. There was no significant host cellular reaction to the allografts or host cell adherence to microcapsules, and host cytokine levels were similar to those of sham-operated controls. We conclude that encapsulated allogeneic β-cell lines may be clinically relevant, because they effectively restore euglycemia and do not elicit a strong cellular immune response following transplantation. To our knowledge, this is First extensive characterization of the kinetics of host cellular and cytokine responses to an encapsulated islet cell line in an animal model of type 1 diabetes

  4. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  5. A PET Imaging Strategy to Visualize Activated T Cells in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Elicited by Allogenic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, John A; Kim, Byung-Su; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Namavari, Mohammad; Alam, Israt S; D'Souza, Aloma; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Ilovich, Ohad; Lin, Chih-Feng; Reeves, Robert; Shuhendler, Adam; Hoehne, Aileen; Chan, Carmel T; Baker, Jeanette; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Hawkins, Randall; Franc, Benjamin L; Jivan, Salma; Slater, James B; Verdin, Emily F; Gao, Kenneth T; Benjamin, Jonathan; Negrin, Robert; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2017-06-01

    A major barrier to successful use of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), a devastating condition that arises when donor T cells attack host tissues. With current technologies, aGVHD diagnosis is typically made after end-organ injury and often requires invasive tests and tissue biopsies. This affects patient prognosis as treatments are dramatically less effective at late disease stages. Here, we show that a novel PET radiotracer, 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-9-β-D-arabinofuranosylguanine ([18F]F-AraG), targeted toward two salvage kinase pathways preferentially accumulates in activated primary T cells. [18F]F-AraG PET imaging of a murine aGVHD model enabled visualization of secondary lymphoid organs harboring activated donor T cells prior to clinical symptoms. Tracer biodistribution in healthy humans showed favorable kinetics. This new PET strategy has great potential for early aGVHD diagnosis, enabling timely treatments and improved patient outcomes. [18F]F-AraG may be useful for imaging activated T cells in various biomedical applications. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2893-902. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Reduction of myeloid suppressor cell derived nitric oxide provides a mechanistic basis of lead enhancement of alloreactive CD4+ T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrer, David G.; Hueber, Sara; Laiosa, Michael D.; Eckles, Kevin G.; McCabe, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The persistent environmental toxicant and immunomodulator, lead (Pb), has been proposed to directly target CD4 + T cells. However, our studies suggest that CD4 + T cells are an important functional, yet indirect target. In order to identify the direct target of Pb in the immune system and the potential mechanism of Pb-induced immunotoxicity, myeloid suppressor cells (MSCs) were evaluated for their ability to modulate CD4 + T cell proliferation after Pb exposure. Myeloid suppressor cells regulate the adaptive immune response, in part, by inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. It is thought that the mechanism of MSC-dependent regulation involves the release of the bioactive gas, nitric oxide (NO), blocking cell signaling cascades downstream of the IL-2 receptor and thus preventing T cells from entering cell-cycle. In mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), increasing numbers of MSCs suppressed T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and this suppression is strikingly abrogated with 5 μM lead (Pb) treatment. The Pb-sensitive MSC population is CD11b + , GR1 + and CD11c - and thus phenotypically consistent with MSCs described in other literature. Inhibition of NO-synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for the production of NO, enhanced alloreactive T cell proliferation in MLC. Moreover, Pb attenuated NO production in MLC, and exogenous replacement of NO restored suppression in the presence of Pb. Significantly, MSC from iNOS-/- mice were unable to suppress T cell proliferation. An MSC-derived cell line (MSC-1) also suppressed T cell proliferation in MLC, and Pb disrupted this suppression by attenuating NO production. Additionally, Pb disrupted NO production in MSC-1 cells in response to treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and LPS or in response to concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. However, neither the abundance of protein nor levels of mRNA for the inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS) were altered with Pb treatment. Taken together these data suggest that Pb

  7. Regulatory Eosinophils Suppress T Cells Partly through Galectin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Jennie; Andersson, Kerstin; Wennerås, Christine

    2017-06-15

    Eosinophils have the capacity to regulate the function of T cell subsets. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of a regulatory subset of eosinophils. Human eosinophils were incubated with T cells that were stimulated with allogeneic leukocytes or CD3/CD28 cross-linking. After 2 d of coculture, 11% of the eosinophils gained CD16 expression. A CD16 hi subset of eosinophils, encompassing 1-5% of all eosinophils, was also identified in the blood of healthy subjects. FACS sorting showed that these CD16 hi eosinophils were significantly stronger suppressors of T cell proliferation than were conventional CD16 neg eosinophils. Human eosinophils contain stores of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10. We found that Ab-mediated neutralization of galectin-10 partially abrogated the suppressive function of the eosinophils. Moreover, recombinant galectin-10 by itself was able to suppress T cell proliferation. Finally, we detected galectin-10-containing immune synapses between eosinophils and lymphocytes. To conclude, we describe a subset of suppressive eosinophils expressing CD16 that may escape detection because CD16-based negative selection is the standard procedure for the isolation of human eosinophils. Moreover, we show that galectin-10 functions as a T cell-suppressive molecule in eosinophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Establishment of a murine graft-versus-myeloma model using allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilène Binsfeld

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignant plasma cell disorder with poor long-term survival and high recurrence rates. Despite evidence of graft-versus-myeloma (GvM effects, the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT remains controversial in MM. In the current study, we investigated the anti-myeloma effects of allo-SCT from B10.D2 mice into MHC-matched myeloma-bearing Balb/cJ mice, with concomitant development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD.Balb/cJ mice were injected intravenously with luciferase-transfected MOPC315.BM cells, and received an allogeneic (B10.D2 donor or autologous (Balb/cJ donor transplant 30 days later. We observed a GvM effect in 94% of the allogeneic transplanted mice, as the luciferase signal completely disappeared after transplantation, whereas all the autologous transplanted mice showed myeloma progression. Lower serum paraprotein levels and lower myeloma infiltration in bone marrow and spleen in the allogeneic setting confirmed the observed GvM effect. In addition, the treated mice also displayed chronic GvHD symptoms. In vivo and in vitro data suggested the involvement of effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells associated with the GvM response. The essential role of CD8 T cells was demonstrated in vivo where CD8 T-cell depletion of the graft resulted in reduced GvM effects. Finally, TCR Vβ spectratyping analysis identified Vβ families within CD4 and CD8 T cells, which were associated with both GvM effects and GvHD, whereas other Vβ families within CD4 T cells were associated exclusively with either GvM or GvHD responses.We successfully established an immunocompetent murine model of graft-versus-myeloma. This is the first murine GvM model using immunocompetent mice that develop MM which closely resembles human MM disease and that are treated after disease establishment with an allo-SCT. Importantly, using TCR Vβ spectratyping, we also demonstrated the presence of GvM unique responses

  9. Immature dendritic cells generated from cryopreserved human monocytes show impaired ability to respond to LPS and to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Silveira

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a key role in the immune system, in the sensing of foreign antigens and triggering of an adaptive immune response. Cryopreservation of human monocytes was investigated to understand its effect on differentiation into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (imdDCs, the response to inflammatory stimuli and the ability to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. Cryopreserved (crp-monocytes were able to differentiate into imdDCs, albeit to a lesser extent than freshly (frh-obtained monocytes. Furthermore, crp-imdDCs had lower rates of maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in response to LPS than frh-imdDCs. Lower expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (at 24 and 48 h and higher susceptibility to apoptosis in crp-imdDCs than in fresh cells would account for the impaired maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion observed. A mixed leukocyte reaction showed that lymphocyte proliferation was lower with crp-imdDCs than with frh-imdDCs. These findings suggested that the source of monocytes used to generate human imdDCs could influence the accuracy of results observed in studies of the immune response to pathogens, lymphocyte activation, vaccination and antigen sensing. It is not always possible to work with freshly isolated monocytes but the possible effects of freezing/thawing on the biology and responsiveness of imdDCs should be taken into account.

  10. Selective T-cell Ablation with Bismuth-213 Labeled Anti-TCR Alpha Beta as Nonmyeloablative Conditionaing for Allogeneic Canine Marrow Transplantion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethge, W. A.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storb, R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Santos, E. B.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Sandmaier, B. M.

    2003-06-15

    Two major immunological barriers, the host versus graft (HVG) and the graft versus host (GVH) reaction, must be overcome for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. T-cells are involved in these barriers in the major histocompatibility complex-identical settings. We hypothesized that selective ablation of T-cells using radioimmunotherapy, together with postgrafting immunosuppression, would ensure stable allogeneic engraftment. We developed a canine model of nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation in which host immune reactions are impaired by a single dose of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and where both GVH and residual HVG reactions are controlled by postgrafting immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporine (CSP). We substituted the alpha-emitter bismuth-213 linked to a monoclonal antibody against TCR(alpha,beta)using the metal-binding chelate CHX-A”-DTPA, for 2 Gy TBI. Biodistribution studies using a gamma-emitting indium-111-labeled anti-TCR mAb showed uptake primarily in blood, marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and liver. In a dosimetry study, 4 dogs were treated with 0.13-0.46 mg/kg TCR mAb labeled with 3.7-5.6 mCi/kg (137-207 MBq/kg) Bi-213. The treatment was administered in 6 injections on days -3 and -2 followed by transplantion of dog leukocyte antigen-identical marrow on day 0 and postgrafting immunosuppression with MMF and CSP. Therapy was well tolerated except for elevations of transaminases, which were transient in all but one dog. No other organ toxicities or signs of graft-versus-host-disease were noted. The dogs had prompt allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and achieved stable mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimerism with donor contributions ranging from 5-55 % with >30 weeks follow up.

  11. Selective T-cell Ablation with Bismuth-213 Labeled Anti-TCR Alpha Beta as Nonmyeloablative Conditioning for Allogeneic Canine Marrow Transplantion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, W. A.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storb, R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Santos, E. B.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Sandmaier, B. M.

    2003-01-01

    Two major immunological barriers, the host versus graft (HVG) and the graft versus host (GVH) reaction, must be overcome for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. T-cells are involved in these barriers in the major histocompatibility complex-identical settings. We hypothesized that selective ablation of T-cells using radioimmunotherapy, together with postgrafting immunosuppression, would ensure stable allogeneic engraftment. We developed a canine model of nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation in which host immune reactions are impaired by a single dose of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and where both GVH and residual HVG reactions are controlled by postgrafting immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporine (CSP). We substituted the alpha-emitter bismuth-213 linked to a monoclonal antibody against TCR(alpha,beta)using the metal-binding chelate CHX-A-DTPA, for 2 Gy TBI. Biodistribution studies using a gamma-emitting indium-111-labeled anti-TCR mAb showed uptake primarily in blood, marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and liver. In a dosimetry study, 4 dogs were treated with 0.13-0.46 mg/kg TCR mAb labeled with 3.7-5.6 mCi/kg (137-207 MBq/kg) Bi-213. The treatment was administered in 6 injections on days -3 and -2 followed by transplantion of dog leukocyte antigen-identical marrow on day 0 and postgrafting immunosuppression with MMF and CSP. Therapy was well tolerated except for elevations of transaminases, which were transient in all but one dog. No other organ toxicities or signs of graft-versus-host-disease were noted. The dogs had prompt allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and achieved stable mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimerism with donor contributions ranging from 5-55 % with >30 weeks follow up

  12. The brain microvascular endothelium supports T cell proliferation and has potential for alloantigen presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Wheway

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells (EC form the inner lining of blood vessels and are positioned between circulating lymphocytes and tissues. Hypotheses have formed that EC may act as antigen presenting cells based on the intimate interactions with T cells, which are seen in diseases like multiple sclerosis, cerebral malaria (CM and viral neuropathologies. Here, we investigated how human brain microvascular EC (HBEC interact with and support the proliferation of T cells. We found HBEC to express MHC II, CD40 and ICOSL, key molecules for antigen presentation and co-stimulation and to take up fluorescently labeled antigens via macropinocytosis. In co-cultures, we showed that HBEC support and promote the proliferation of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, which both are key in CM pathogenesis, particularly following T cell receptor activation and co-stimulation. Our findings provide novel evidence that HBEC can trigger T cell activation, thereby providing a novel mechanism for neuroimmunological complications of infectious diseases.

  13. Long term follow up of patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and transfusion of HSV-Tk transduced T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Weissinger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is one of the curative treatments for hematologic malignancies, but is hampered by severe complications, such as acute or chronic graft-versus-host-disease (aGvHD; cGvHD and infections. CD34-selcetion of stem cells reduces the risk of aGvHD, but also leads to increased infectious complications and relapse. Thus, we studied the efficacy, safety and feasibility of transfer of gene modified donor T-cells shortly after allo-HSCT in two clinical trials between 2002 and 2007 and here we compare the results to unmodified donor leukocyte transfusion (DLI. The aim of these trials was to provide patients with the protection of T-cells after T-cell-depleted allo-HSCT in the matched or mismatched donor setting with an option to delete transduced T-cells, if severe aGvHD occurred within the trial period. Donor-T-cells were transduced with the replication-deficient retrovirus SFCMM-3, expressing HSV-Tk and the truncated LNGFR for selection of transduced cells. Transduced cells were transfused either after day +60 (matched donors or on day +42 (haploidentical donors.Nine patients were included in the first trial (MHH; 2002 until 2007 2 were included in TK007 (2005-2009 and 6 serve as a control group for outcome after haploidentical transplantation without HSV-TK-transduced DLI. Three patients developed acute GvHD, two had grade I of the skin, one had aGvHD on day +131 (post-HSCT; +89 post-HSV-Tk DLI grade II, which was successfully controlled by ganciclovir (GCV. Donor chimerism was stabilized after transfusion of the transduced cells in all patients treated. Functionality of HSV-Tk gene expressing T-cells was shown by loss of bcr-abl gene expression as well as by control of cytomegalovirus-reactivation. To date, 6patients have relapsed and died, 2 after a second HSCT without T-cell depletion or administration of unmodified T-cells. Eleven patients (7 post-HSV-Tk DLI are alive and well to date.

  14. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca2+ channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana; Sandoval, Alejandro; Monroy, Alma; Felix, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. → Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. → Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca 2+ levels in PC-3 cells. → Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca 2+ channels in PC-3 cells. → PC-3 cells express T-channels of the Ca V 3.1 and Ca V 3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca 2+ levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca 2+ channel expression.

  15. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Spielmann; Catherine M. Bollard; Hawley Kunz; Patrick J. Hanley; Richard J. Simpson

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exer...

  16. Potential contribution of a novel Tax epitope-specific CD4+ T cells to graft-versus-Tax effect in adult T cell leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Yotaro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Takamori, Ayako; Sasada, Amane; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Choi, Ilseung; Utsunomiya, Atae; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Eto, Tetsuya; Koh, Ki-Ryang; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Suehiro, Youko; Kato, Koji; Takemoto, Shigeki; Okamura, Jun; Uike, Naokuni; Kannagi, Mari

    2013-04-15

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an effective treatment for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We previously reported that Tax-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) contributed to graft-versus-ATL effects in ATL patients after allo-HSCT. However, the role of HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells in the effects remains unclear. In this study, we showed that Tax-specific CD4(+) as well as CD8(+) T cell responses were induced in some ATL patients following allo-HSCT. To further analyze HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, we identified a novel HLA-DRB1*0101-restricted epitope, Tax155-167, recognized by HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) Th1-like cells, a major population of HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell line, which was established from an ATL patient at 180 d after allo-HSCT from an unrelated seronegative donor by in vitro stimulation with HTLV-1-infected cells from the same patient. Costimulation of PBMCs with both the identified epitope (Tax155-167) and known CTL epitope peptides markedly enhanced the expansion of Tax-specific CD8(+) T cells in PBMCs compared with stimulation with CTL epitope peptide alone in all three HLA-DRB1*0101(+) patients post-allo-HSCT tested. In addition, direct detection using newly generated HLA-DRB1*0101/Tax155-167 tetramers revealed that Tax155-167-specific CD4(+) T cells were present in all HTLV-1-infected individuals tested, regardless of HSCT. These results suggest that Tax155-167 may be the dominant epitope recognized by HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells in HLA-DRB1*0101(+)-infected individuals and that Tax-specific CD4(+) T cells may augment the graft-versus-Tax effects via efficient induction of Tax-specific CD8(+) T cell responses.

  17. T-cell activation. VI. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibodies in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Röpke, C; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1993-01-01

    Murine T splenocytes stimulated in primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) were incubated with soluble anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies induced inhibition in the cytotoxicity of the responding population and this inhibition...... was not dependent on the domain on class I molecules recognized by the antibodies. Cross-reactivity of the antibodies between the responder and stimulating cell population caused a marked reduction in the inhibitory effect compared to systems where no such cross-reactivity was present. Saturating levels...... of the antibodies caused a reduction in generation of T-cell cytotoxicity, whereas low concentrations stimulated the same response. These results demonstrate that the MHC class I molecules of T cells are of significant importance in antigen-induced signal transduction....

  18. Identification of chimeric antigen receptors that mediate constitutive or inducible proliferation of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Basil, Maria Ciocca; Carpenito, Carmine; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Scholler, John; Kawalekar, Omkar U; Guedan, Sonia; McGettigan, Shannon E; Posey, Avery D; Ang, Sonny; Cooper, Laurence J N; Platt, Jesse M; Johnson, F Brad; Paulos, Chrystal M; Zhao, Yangbing; Kalos, Michael; Milone, Michael C; June, Carl H

    2015-04-01

    This study compared second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) encoding signaling domains composed of CD28, ICOS, and 4-1BB (TNFRSF9). Here, we report that certain CARs endow T cells with the ability to undergo long-term autonomous proliferation. Transduction of primary human T cells with lentiviral vectors encoding some of the CARs resulted in sustained proliferation for up to 3 months following a single stimulation through the T-cell receptor (TCR). Sustained numeric expansion was independent of cognate antigen and did not require the addition of exogenous cytokines or feeder cells after a single stimulation of the TCR and CD28. Results from gene array and functional assays linked sustained cytokine secretion and expression of T-bet (TBX21), EOMES, and GATA-3 to the effect. Sustained expression of the endogenous IL2 locus has not been reported in primary T cells. Sustained proliferation was dependent on CAR structure and high expression, the latter of which was necessary but not sufficient. The mechanism involves constitutive signaling through NF-κB, AKT, ERK, and NFAT. The propagated CAR T cells retained a diverse TCR repertoire, and cellular transformation was not observed. The CARs with a constitutive growth phenotype displayed inferior antitumor effects and engraftment in vivo. Therefore, the design of CARs that have a nonconstitutive growth phenotype may be a strategy to improve efficacy and engraftment of CAR T cells. The identification of CARs that confer constitutive or nonconstitutive growth patterns may explain observations that CAR T cells have differential survival patterns in clinical trials. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Kidney dysfunction after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersting, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a widely accepted approach for malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic diseases. Unfortunately complications can occur because of the treatment, leading to treatment-related mortality. We studied kidney dysfunction after allogeneic SCT in 2 cohorts of

  20. The Fourth Nagoya International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Symposium: new horizons in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation--2001 revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sao, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshihisa

    2002-02-01

    In this symposium, we saw new horizons in allogeneic transplantation. Are these truly revolutionary? We do not yet know the answer. However, there is no question about the importance of allogeneic T cells. T cells are much more powerful than any pharmacological drug man has ever generated. The question is, how do we take the most advantage of their potential. Every participant was encouraged to search for good answers to this question until the next meeting.

  1. Memory phenotype CD4 T cells undergoing rapid, nonburst-like, cytokine-driven proliferation can be distinguished from antigen-experienced memory cells.

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    Souheil-Antoine Younes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory phenotype (CD44(bright, CD25(negative CD4 spleen and lymph node T cells (MP cells proliferate rapidly in normal or germ-free donors, with BrdU uptake rates of 6% to 10% per day and Ki-67 positivity of 18% to 35%. The rapid proliferation of MP cells stands in contrast to the much slower proliferation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-specific memory cells that divide at rates ranging from <1% to 2% per day over the period from 15 to 60 days after LCMV infection. Anti-MHC class II antibodies fail to inhibit the in situ proliferation of MP cells, implying a non-T-cell receptor (TCR-driven proliferation. Such proliferation is partially inhibited by anti-IL-7Rα antibody. The sequence diversity of TCRβ CDR3 gene segments is comparable among the proliferating and quiescent MP cells from conventional and germ-free mice, implying that the majority of proliferating MP cells have not recently derived from a small cohort of cells that expand through multiple continuous rounds of cell division. We propose that MP cells constitute a diverse cell population, containing a subpopulation of slowly dividing authentic antigen-primed memory cells and a majority population of rapidly proliferating cells that did not arise from naïve cells through conventional antigen-driven clonal expansion.

  2. Antigen-specific and non-specific CD4+ T cell recruitment and proliferation during influenza infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Timothy J.; Castrucci, Maria R.; Padrick, Ryan C.; Bradley, Linda M.; Topham, David J.

    2005-01-01

    To track epitope-specific CD4 + T cells at a single-cell level during influenza infection, the MHC class II-restricted OVA 323-339 epitope was engineered into the neuraminidase stalk of influenza/A/WSN, creating a surrogate viral antigen. The recombinant virus, influenza A/WSN/OVA II , replicated well, was cleared normally, and stimulated both wild-type and DO11.10 or OT-II TCR transgenic OVA-specific CD4 + T cells. OVA-specific CD4 T cells proliferated during infection only when the OVA epitope was present. However, previously primed (but not naive) transgenic CD4 + T cells were recruited to the infected lung both in the presence and absence of the OVA 323-339 epitope. These data show that, when primed, CD4 + T cells may traffic to the lung in the absence of antigen, but do not proliferate. These results also document a useful tool for the study of CD4 T cells in influenza infection

  3. ACTIVATION OF T. GONDII INFECTION AFTER ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION OF HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS: DEPENDENCE ON TIME OF TRANSPLANTATION AND SEROLOGICAL STATUS OF THE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Chukhlovin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on aspects of T. gondii reactivation/reinfection in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT. We have observed 297 patients who received conditioning therapy and allogeneic grafts due to different oncohematological or lymphoproliferative diseases (1 to 60 years old, at a mediane of 19 years. Conditioning regimens were either myeloablative (35%, or non-myeloablative (65%. DNA diagnostics of T. gondii was performed on a regular basis at 0 to 6 months post-HSCT. IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii were determined in 78 patients before HSCT, as well as in their donors. T. gondii DNA post-transplant proved to be positive in 13% of blood specimens, 9% of cerebrospinal liquor samples, 11% of bronchoalveolar cell lavages, and in 5% of urine sediments. In adolescent patients (10 to 14 years old, an increased prevalence of T. gondii was found in patients who received myeloablative treatment (p = 0.01. When assessing posttransplant dynamics of T. gondii, we have revealed distinct increase in the pathogen excretion within 1st month after HSCT (p = 0.03. Finally, initial presence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii in the patients was associated with lower incidence of the pathogen reactivation post-transplant.

  4. GMP-compliant, large-scale expanded allogeneic natural killer cells have potent cytolytic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

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    Okjae Lim

    Full Text Available Ex vivo-expanded, allogeneic natural killer (NK cells can be used for the treatment of various types of cancer. In allogeneic NK cell therapy, NK cells from healthy donors must be expanded in order to obtain a sufficient number of highly purified, activated NK cells. In the present study, we established a simplified and efficient method for the large-scale expansion and activation of NK cells from healthy donors under good manufacturing practice (GMP conditions. After a single step of magnetic depletion of CD3(+ T cells, the depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were stimulated and expanded with irradiated autologous PBMCs in the presence of OKT3 and IL-2 for 14 days, resulting in a highly pure population of CD3(-CD16(+CD56(+ NK cells which is desired for allogeneic purpose. Compared with freshly isolated NK cells, these expanded NK cells showed robust cytokine production and potent cytolytic activity against various cancer cell lines. Of note, expanded NK cells selectively killed cancer cells without demonstrating cytotoxicity against allogeneic non-tumor cells in coculture assays. The anti-tumor activity of expanded human NK cells was examined in SCID mice injected with human lymphoma cells. In this model, expanded NK cells efficiently controlled lymphoma progression. In conclusion, allogeneic NK cells were efficiently expanded in a GMP-compliant facility and demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico); Sandoval, Alejandro [School of Medicine FES Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Tlalnepantla (Mexico); Monroy, Alma; Felix, Ricardo [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico City (Mexico); Monjaraz, Eduardo, E-mail: emguzman@siu.buap.mx [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. {yields} Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. {yields} Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels in PC-3 cells. {yields} Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca{sup 2+} channels in PC-3 cells. {yields} PC-3 cells express T-channels of the Ca{sub V}3.1 and Ca{sub V}3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression.

  6. CD98 Heavy Chain Is a Potent Positive Regulator of CD4+ T Cell Proliferation and Interferon-γ Production In Vivo.

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    Takeshi Kurihara

    Full Text Available Upon their recognition of antigens presented by the MHC, T cell proliferation is vital for clonal expansion and the acquisition of effector functions, which are essential for mounting adaptive immune responses. The CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc, Slc3a2 plays a crucial role in the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, although it is unclear if CD98hc directly regulates the T cell effector functions that are not linked with T cell proliferation in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that CD98hc is required for both CD4+ T cell proliferation and Th1 functional differentiation. T cell-specific deletion of CD98hc did not affect T cell development in the thymus. CD98hc-deficient CD4+ T cells proliferated in vivo more slowly as compared with control T cells. C57BL/6 mice lacking CD98hc in their CD4+ T cells could not control Leishmania major infections due to lowered IFN-γ production, even with massive CD4+ T cell proliferation. CD98hc-deficient CD4+ T cells exhibited lower IFN-γ production compared with wild-type T cells, even when comparing IFN-γ expression in cells that underwent the same number of cell divisions. Therefore, these data indicate that CD98hc is required for CD4+ T cell expansion and functional Th1 differentiation in vivo, and suggest that CD98hc might be a good target for treating Th1-mediated immune disorders.

  7. Recipient micro-environment does not dictate the Igh-V restriction specificity of T cell suppressor inducer factor (TsiF) from allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M.; Ogasawara, M.; Iwabuchi, K.; Osgasawara, K.; Ishihara, T.; Good, R.A.; Morikawa, K.; Onoe, K.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have ascertained previously from a study of fully allogeneic irradiation chimeras in mice that the H-2 restriction of the suppressor factor (Ly-2 T suppressor factor) is determined by the post-thymic environment protected by the donor cells, rather than by the thymic environment of the recipient. In the present study, the author analyzed differentiation influences that determine the Igh restriction specificities of the suppressor inducer T cell factor(s) (TsiF) that are produced by Ly-1+ splenic T cells in fully allogeneic bone marrow chimeras in mice. AKR mice that had been lethally irradiated and reconstituted with B10 marrow cells, [B10----AKR] chimeras, produced Ly-1 TsiF after hyper-immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) which suppressed antigen--specifically the primary antibody responses to SRBC that were generated in cells of the same Igh-Vb haplotype of donor strain and not those generated in cells of the recipient Igh-Va type. Similar results were obtained when Ly-1 TsiF from [B6----BALB/c] and [BALB/c----B6] chimeras were analyzed. Furthermore, the Ly-1 TsiF from [BALB/c----B6] chimeras suppressed the primary antibody responses of both BALB/c [H-2d, Igh-Va, Igh-Ca] and BAB-14 (H-2d, Igh-Va, Igh-Cb), but not those of CAL-20 (H-2d, Igh-Vd, Igh-Cd). These results demonstrate clearly that the Ly-1 TsiF from allogeneic bone marrow chimeras are donor Igh-V-restricted and are not influenced by the recipient micro-environment, presumably that were provided by the thymuses of the recipient mice

  8. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Guillaume; Bollard, Catherine M; Kunz, Hawley; Hanley, Patrick J; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-05-16

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 and IE1) and EBV (LMP2A and BMLF1) peptides and expanded over 8 days. The number (fold difference from PRE) of T-cells specific for CMV pp65 (2.6), EBV LMP2A (2.5), and EBV BMLF1 (4.4) was greater among the VSTs expanded POST. VSTs expanded PRE and POST had similar phenotype characteristics and were equally capable of MHC-restricted killing of autologous target cells. We conclude that a single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors without altering their phenotype or function and may serve as a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the production of multi-VSTs for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy.

  9. Notch1 is required for hypoxia-induced proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

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    Zou Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notch1 is a potent regulator known to play an oncogenic role in many malignancies including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. Tumor hypoxia and increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α activity can act as major stimuli for tumor aggressiveness and progression. Although hypoxia-mediated activation of the Notch1 pathway plays an important role in tumor cell survival and invasiveness, the interaction between HIF-1α and Notch1 has not yet been identified in T-ALL. This study was designed to investigate whether hypoxia activates Notch1 signalling through HIF-1α stabilization and to determine the contribution of hypoxia and HIF-1α to proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance in T-ALL. Methods T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat, Sup-T1 transfected with HIF-1α or Notch1 small interference RNA (siRNA were incubated in normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Their potential for proliferation and invasion was measured by WST-8 and transwell assays. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis and assess cell cycle regulation. Expression and regulation of components of the HIF-1α and Notch1 pathways and of genes related to proliferation, invasion and apoptosis were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blot. Results Hypoxia potentiated Notch1 signalling via stabilization and activation of the transcription factor HIF-1α. Hypoxia/HIF-1α-activated Notch1 signalling altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and accelerated cell proliferation. Hypoxia-induced Notch1 activation increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 and MMP9, which increased invasiveness. Of greater clinical significance, knockdown of Notch1 prevented the protective effect of hypoxia/HIF-1α against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. This sensitization correlated with losing the effect of hypoxia/HIF-1α on Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression. Conclusions Notch1 signalling is required for hypoxia/HIF-1α-induced proliferation

  10. Universal cytotoxic activity of a HTLV-1 Tax-specific T cell clone from an HLA-A*24:02⁺ patient with adult T-cell leukemia against a variety of HTLV-I-infected T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukie; Yamazaki, Rie; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Nakasone, Hideki; Akahoshi, Yu; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Kimura, Shun-ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Junya; Tanihara, Aki; Nishida, Junji; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive mature T cell malignancy that is causally associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The HTLV-1 regulatory protein Tax aggressively accelerates the proliferation of host cells and is also an important target antigen for CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). We previously reported that several predominant HLA-A*24:02-restricted HTLV-1 Tax301-309-specific CTL clones commonly expressed a particular amino acid sequence motif (P-D-R) in complementarity-determining region 3 of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β chain among unrelated ATL patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Furthermore, a PDR-motif(+) CTL clone persistently existed in a long-term survivor as a central CTL clone with strong CTL activities after HSCT. Although a larger analysis of the relationship between PDR-motif(+) CTLs and the clinical course is required, the expression of PDR-motif(+) TCR on CD8(+) T cells may play a critical role in the management of anti-HTLV-1 activities for HLA-A24:02(+) ATL patients. Therefore, in this study, we prepared an HTLV-1 Tax301-309 peptide-specific CTL clone (HT-9) expressing PDR-motif(+) TCR isolated from a long-term survivor after HSCT, and evaluated its CTL activity against a variety of HTLV-1-infected T-cells from HLA-A*24:02(+) ATL patients. Before the assay of CTL function, we confirmed that HT-9 expressed less-differentiated effector-memory phenotypes (CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)CD27(+)CD28(+/-)CD57(+/-)) and T-cell exhaustion marker PD-1(+). In assays of CTL function, HT-9 recognized HTLV-1 Tax in an HLA-restricted fashion and demonstrated strong CTL activities against a variety of HTLV-1-infected T-cells from HLA-A*24:02(+) ATL patients regardless of whether the sources were autologous or allogeneic, but not normal cells. These data indicate that PDR-motif(+) TCR could be an important TCR candidate for TCR-gene immunotherapy for HLA-A24:02(+) ATL patients, provided

  11. Microenvironmental cues enhance mesenchymal stem cell-mediated immunomodulation and regulatory T-cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadle, Rohini L; Abdou, Salma A; Villarreal-Ponce, Alvaro P; Soares, Marc A; Sultan, Darren L; David, Joshua A; Massie, Jonathan; Rifkin, William J; Rabbani, Piul; Ceradini, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to both have powerful immunosuppressive properties and promote allograft tolerance. Determining the environmental oxygen tension and inflammatory conditions under which MSCs are optimally primed for this immunosuppressive function is essential to their utilization in promoting graft tolerance. Of particular interest is the mechanisms governing the interaction between MSCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is relatively unknown. We performed our experiments utilizing rat bone marrow derived MSCs. We observed that priming MSCs in hypoxia promotes maintenance of stem-like characteristics, with greater expression of typical MSC cell-surface markers, increased proliferation, and maintenance of differentiation potential. Addition of autologous MSCs to CD4+/allogeneic endothelial cell (EC) co-culture increases regulatory T cell (Treg) proliferation, which is further enhanced when MSCs are primed in hypoxia. Furthermore, MSC-mediated Treg expansion does not require direct cell-cell contact. The expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a mediator of MSC immunomodulation, increases when MSCs are primed in hypoxia, and inhibition of IDO significantly decreases the expansion of Tregs. Priming with inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα increases also expression of markers associated with MSC immunomodulatory function, but decreases MSC proliferation. The expression of IDO also increases when MSCs are primed with inflammatory cytokines. However, there is no increase in Treg expansion when MSCs are primed with IFNγ, suggesting an alternate mechanism for inflammatory-stimulated MSC immunomodulation. Overall, these results suggest that MSCs primed in hypoxia or inflammatory conditions are optimally primed for immunosuppressive function. These results provide a clearer picture of how to enhance MSC immunomodulation for clinical use.

  12. EBV-associated post-transplantation B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder following allogenic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: tumor regression after reduction of immunosuppression - a case report

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    Niedobitek Gerald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated B-cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a severe complication following stem cell transplantation. This is believed to occur as a result of iatrogenic immunosuppression leading to a relaxation of T-cell control of EBV infection and thus allowing viral reactivation and proliferation of EBV-infected B-lymphocytes. In support of this notion, reduction of immunosuppressive therapy may lead to regression of PTLD. We present a case of an 18-year-old male developing a monomorphic B-cell PTLD 2 months after receiving an allogenic stem cell transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Reduction of immunosuppressive therapy led to regression of lymphadenopathy. Nevertheless, the patient died 3 months afterwards due to extensive graft-vs.-host-disease and sepsis. As a diagnostic lymph node biopsy was performed only after reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, we are able to study the histopathological changes characterizing PTLD regression. We observed extensive apoptosis of blast cells, accompanied by an abundant infiltrate comprising predominantly CD8-positive, Granzyme B-positive T-cells. This observation supports the idea that regression of PTLD is mediated by cytotoxic T-cells and is in keeping with the observation that T-cell depletion, represents a major risk factor for the development of PTLD.

  13. Modeling T-cell proliferation: an investigation of the consequences of the Hayflick limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyugin, S; Mittler, J; Antia, R

    1997-05-07

    Somatic cells, including immune cells such as T-cells have a limited capacity for proliferation and can only replicate for a finite number of generations (known as the Hayflick limit) before dying. In this paper we use mathematical models to investigate the consequences of introducing a Hayflick limit on the dynamics of T-cells stimulated with specific antigen. We show that while the Hayflick limit does not alter the dynamics of T-cell response to antigen over the short term, it may have a profound effect on the long-term immune response. In particular we show that over the long term the Hayflick limit may be important in determining whether an immune response can be maintained to a persistent antigen (or parasite). The eventual outcome is determined by the magnitude of the Hayflick limit, the extent to which antigen reduces the input of T-cells from the thymus, and the rate of antigen-induced proliferation of T-cells. Counter to what might be expected we show that the persistence of an immune response (immune memory) requires the density of persistent antigen to be less than a defined threshold value. If the amount of persistent antigen (or parasite) is greater than this threshold value then immune memory will be relatively short lived. The consequences of this threshold for persistent mycobacterial and HIV infections and for the generation of vaccines are discussed.

  14. ATG-Fresenius inhibits blood circulating cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, I; Seitz-Merwald, I; Kiessling, A H; Kur, F; Beiras-Fernandez, A

    2014-11-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-Fresenius (Neovii-Biotech, Graefelfing, Germany), a highly purified rabbit polyclonal antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin resulting from immunization of rabbits with the Jurkat T-lymphoblast cell line, is currently used for the prevention of acute rejection in patients receiving solid organ transplants. Our aim was to investigate the in vitro activity of ATG-Fresenius regarding the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), an important mechanism of rejection after solid organ transplantation. PBMCs were isolated from 6 healthy donors. Proliferation was assayed using [(3)H] thymidine incorporation. For analysis of mitogen-stimulated proliferation, the PBMCs were incubated at 37°C with various concentrations of ATG-Fresenius in the absence/presence of 40 μg/mL phytohemagglutinin. For analysis of the mixed lymphocyte reaction, PBMCs were incubated at 37°C with various concentrations of ATG-Fresenius for 3 days. On day 3, PBMCs (stimulator cells) from allogeneic donors were incubated with 25 μg/mL mitomycin C. The responder cells (preincubated with ATG-Fresenius) were then cultured at 37°C with the stimulator cells for 6 days. Groups were compared using ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. Preincubation of PBMCs with ATG results in concentration-dependent inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated proliferation. The effect was more pronounced after 2 and 3 days of treatment with ATG compared with 1 day. There was a concentration-dependent decrease in the mixed lymphocyte reaction-induced proliferation (up to 80%) at ATG-Fresenius concentrations as low as 0.05 to 0.5 μg/mL. No further effect on proliferation at ATG-Fresenius concentrations of 0.5 to 50 μg/mL was seen, and higher concentrations (>100 μg/mL) totally inhibited proliferation. Our in vitro results provide more evidence of the beneficial effect of ATGs in the early phase of solid organ transplantation, by reducing effector cell

  15. Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ regulatory T cells are correlated to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-su; Wang, Xu-hua; Zhao, Xiang-yu; Chang, Ying-jun; Xu, Lan-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Huang, Xiao-jun

    2014-07-01

    Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells were found to be involved in disease progression in tumor-bearing mouse models and cancer patients recently. We attempted to define whether this subset of T cells were related to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells among the CD4+ T cell population from the bone marrow of relapsed patients, patients with positive minimal residual disease (MRD+) and healthy donors was examined by flow cytometry. The CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells were also stained with the intracellular markers to determine the cytokine (TGF-β, IL-2 and IL-10) secretion. The results showed that the frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69 + T cells was markedly increased in patients in the relapsed group and the MRD + group compared to the healthy donor group. The percentage of this subset of T cells was significantly decreased after effective intervention treatment. We also analyzed the reconstitution of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells at various time points after allo-HSCT, and the results showed that this subset of T cells reconstituted rapidly and reached a relatively higher level at +60 d in patients compared to controls. The incidence of either MRD+ or relapse in patients with a high frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells (>7%) was significantly higher than that of patients with a low frequency of CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells at +60 d, +90 d and +270 d after transplant. However, our preliminary data indicated that CD4+CD25-CD69+ T cells may not exert immunoregulatory function via cytokine secretion. This study provides the first clinical evidence of a correlation between non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ Tregs and leukemia relapse after allo-HSCT and suggests that exploration of new methods of adoptive immunotherapy may be beneficial. Further research related to regulatory mechanism behind this phenomenon would be necessary.

  16. Dendritic cells transduced with Rsf-1/HBXAP gene generate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes against ovarian cancer in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Beihua; Sheng, Xiugui; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Recently, some studies have indicated that Rsf-1/HBXAP plays a role in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation that may contribute to tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer. The present study demonstrates that using dendritic cells (DCs) from human cord blood CD34 + cells transduced with Rsf-1/HBXAP DNA plasmids by nucleofection generate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against ovarian cancer in vitro. After transfection, DCs were analyzed for Rsf-1/HBXAP mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. Then the DC phenotypes, T-cell stimulatory capacity, endocytic activity and migration capacity were explored by flow cytometry analysis, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, endocytosis and transwell chemotaxis assay, respectively. After transfection, Rsf-1/HBXAP expression was detected at mRNA and protein levels. Allogeneic T-cell proliferation induced by transfected DCs was obviously higher than non-transfected DCs, but the endocytosis capacity and migratory ability were not different. Rsf-1/HBXAP gene-transduced DCs could induce antigen-specific CTL and generate a very potent cytotoxicity to OVCAR3 cells. These data suggest that Rsf-1/HBXAP gene-transduced DCs may be a potential adjuvant immunotherapy for ovarian cancer in clinical applications.

  17. Intrathymic lymphopoiesis: stromal cell-associated proliferation of T cells is independent of lymphocyte genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyewski, B A; Travis, M; Kaplan, H S

    1984-09-01

    We analyzed the genetic restriction of direct cell-cell interactions between thymocytes and a) cortical epithelial cells, b) macrophages, and c) medullary dendritic cells in the mouse thymus. Thymectomized (C3H X C57BL/Ka)F1 hybrid mice were doubly grafted with P1 and P2 neonatal thymus grafts, were lethally irradiated, and were reconstituted with a mixture of P1 and P2 bone marrow cells which differed in the Thy-1 locus. The contributions of both parental inocula to the composition of the free and stromal cell-associated T cell compartments were analyzed separately in thymic grafts of each parental strain. The lymphoid composition in both compartments essentially reflected the peripheral T cell-chimerism in the host. The development of lymphostromal complexes was not restricted by the genotype of the partner cells. Statistical analysis of the distributions of P1 and P2 T cells among free thymocytes and within individual lymphostromal complexes, however, suggests that the T cells of an individual complex are the progeny of oligoclonal proliferation. Thus, both epithelial cells and bone marrow-derived stromal cells seem to be involved in different stages of intrathymic lymphopoiesis.

  18. Rituximab administration within 6 months of T cell-depleted allogeneic SCT is associated with prolonged life-threatening cytopenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Zachariah; Stephens, Nicole; Grim, Andrew; Barrett, A John

    2010-11-01

    The monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab (RTX) is increasingly used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) to treat lymphoproliferative disorders and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). RTX administration can be complicated by delayed and prolonged neutropenia, but the mechanism is unclear. We report the occurrence of profound cytopenias following RTX given in the conditioning regimen or early after T cell-deplete SCT to treat B cell lymphoproliferative disorders or chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Between 2006 and 2009, 102 patients (median age: 43 years, range: 13-68 years), received a myeloablative matched-sibling T cell-deplete SCT for lymphoid or myeloid hematologic disorders. Neutropenia occurring within 4 weeks of treatment developed in 16 of 17 patients given RTX within the first 190 days after SCT. Fourteen patients developed severe neutropenia (count SCT compared to patients with cGVHD not treated with early RTX (P SCT experienced only moderate neutropenia 3 to 5 months after treatment lasting 10 to 20 days while maintaining absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1.0 × 10⁹/L. Although RTX rapidly controlled cGVHD, we conclude that its administration early after T cell-deplete SCT is associated with prolonged profound and life-threatening cytopenias, and should be avoided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing leukemic dendritic cells impair a leukemia-specific immune response by inducing potent T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Antonio; Trabanelli, Sara; Onofri, Chiara; Aluigi, Michela; Salvestrini, Valentina; Ocadlikova, Darina; Evangelisti, Cecilia; Rutella, Sergio; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Baccarani, Michele; Lemoli, Roberto M

    2010-12-01

    The immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine, is expressed in a significant subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, resulting in the inhibition of T-cell proliferation and the induction of regulatory T cells. Acute myeloid leukemia cells can be differentiated into dendritic cells, which have increased immunogenicity and have been proposed as vaccines against leukemia. Leukemic dendritic cells were generated from acute myeloid leukemia cells and used as stimulators in functional assays, including the induction of regulatory T cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in leukemic dendritic cells was evaluated at molecular, protein and enzymatic levels. We demonstrate that, after differentiation into dendritic cells, both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-negative and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive acute myeloid leukemia samples show induction and up-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene and protein, respectively. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive acute myeloid leukemia dendritic cells catabolize tryptophan into kynurenine metabolite and inhibit T-cell proliferation through an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-dependent mechanism. Moreover, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive leukemic dendritic cells increase the number of allogeneic and autologous CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells and this effect is completely abrogated by the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-inhibitor, 1-methyl tryptophan. Purified CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells obtained from co-culture with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-positive leukemic dendritic cells act as regulatory T cells as they inhibit naive T-cell proliferation and impair the complete maturation of normal dendritic cells. Importantly, leukemic dendritic cell-induced regulatory T cells are capable of in vitro suppression of a leukemia-specific T cell-mediated immune response, directed against the leukemia-associated antigen, Wilms' tumor protein. These data identify

  20. Durable responses to ibrutinib in patients with relapsed CLL after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, C S; Teipel, R; Heidenreich, F; Rücker-Braun, E; Schmiedgen, M; Reinhardt, J; Oelschlägel, U; von Bonin, M; Middeke, J M; Muetherig, A; Trautmann-Grill, K; Platzbecker, U; Bornhäuser, M; Schetelig, J

    2016-06-01

    Ibrutinib, a recently approved inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), has shown great efficacy in patients with high-risk CLL. Nevertheless, there are few data regarding its use in patients who relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We report clinical data from five CLL patients treated with ibrutinib for relapse after first or even second allogeneic transplantation. Additionally, we performed analyses on cytokine levels and direct measuring of CD4 Th1 and CD4 Th2 cells to evaluate possible clinically relevant immunomodulatory effects of ibrutinib. All patients achieved partial responses including one minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative remission. Within 1 year of follow-up, no relapse was observed. One patient died of severe pneumonia while on ibrutinib treatment. Beside this, no unexpected adverse events were observed. Flow cytometry and analyses of T cell-mediated cytokine levels (IL10 and TNFα) did not reveal substantial changes in T-cell distribution in favor of a CD4 Th1 T-cell shift in our patients. No acute exacerbation of GvHD was reported. In conclusion, these results support further evaluation of ibrutinib in CLL patients relapsing after alloSCT.

  1. Romidepsin Used as Monotherapy in Sequence with Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant in a Patient with Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

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    Nicholas Finn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the field, a clear treatment algorithm for most peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL subtypes remains to be defined. Generating reliable randomized data for this type of pathology remains a challenge because of the relative rarity of the disease and the heterogeneity of subtypes. Newer agents, such as the class-I selective histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin, have demonstrated efficacy and manageable toxicity in the relapsed and refractory setting. Whether novel agents should be used in conjunction with more conventional cytotoxic therapies or in sequence with a transplant strategy is unknown at this time. Here we report the successful use of romidepsin monotherapy as a bridge to allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a patient who had previously relapsed after several lines of conventional cytotoxic therapy for PTCL. Romidepsin provided the patient with sufficient disease control to proceed to transplantation while remaining in complete remission.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells May Ameliorate Nephrotic Syndrome Post-Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation-Case Report

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    Xin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionBecause of their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been considered as potential therapeutic agents for treating immune-related or autoimmune diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Nephrotic syndrome (NS after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is an uncommon complication with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. It may be an immune disorder involving immune complex deposition, B cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs, and Th1 cytokines and be a manifestation of chronic GVHD. Corticosteroids and calcium antagonists, alone or in combination, are the most common therapeutic agents in this setting. Rituximab is commonly administered as salvage treatment. However, treatment failure and progressive renal function deterioration has been reported to occur in approximately 20% of patients in a particular cohort.Case presentationWe present a patient who developed NS 10 months after allo-HSCT. After treatment failure with cyclosporine A, prednisone, and rituximab, she achieved a complete response with MSC treatment. The clinical improvement of this patient was accompanied by a decreased B cell population together with an increased frequency of regulatory B cells (Bregs and Tregs after MSC treatment.ConclusionMSCs could modulate NS after allo-HSCT by suppressing B cell proliferation, inducing Tregs and Bregs, and inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes and NK cells. Among all these, Bregs might play an important role in ameliorating the NS of this patient.

  3. [Autologous regulatory T cells can suppress the proliferation of lymphoma cell line in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhi-Tao; Guo, Jun; Ren, Jun; Kong, Yan; Yuan, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Xi-Juan; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Yun-Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on the T cell lymphoma EL4 cell line and to explore its mechanism. C57BL/6 Mouse Treg cells were isolated by MACS (magnetic cell sorting). The purity and the expression of Foxp3 were detected by flow cytometry. The suppressive effect of sorted Treg cells on EL4 cells was detected by MTT assay. The secretion of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells could be successfully isolated by MACS with the purity reaching 91.6% and the expression level of Foxp3 was 78.9%. The ratio of viable cells was more than 95%. Regulatory T cells could suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells effectively in the presence of antigen presenting cells (APCs). And the suppressive effect was most significant at 1:1 ratio. In addition, the suppression still existed without APCs. TGF-beta1 and IL-10 could not be detected by ELISA. It is concluded that the Treg cells can suppress T lymphoma cell in vitro. The suppressive effect of Treg cells works in dose-dependent manner, but not in cytokine-dependent manner. The mechanism of this suppression may take effect through cell-cell contact.

  4. Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Yang, Xudong; Raza Asim, M B; Sun, Qingzhu; Han, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Cao, Yongxiao; Lu, Shemin

    2009-02-01

    The black seeds, from the Ranunculaceae family, have been traditionally used by various cultures as a natural remedy for several ailments. In this study, we examined the effect of black seed oil as an immunomodulator in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. Rats sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin to induce an allergic inflammatory response were compared to ovalbumin-sensitized, intranasally ovalbumin-exposed rats pretreated with intraperitoneally administered black seed oil and to control rats. The levels of IgE, IgG1 and ova-specific T-cell proliferation in spleen were measured by ELISA. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The intraperitoneal administration of black seed oil inhibited the Th2 type immune response in rats by preventing inflammatory cell infiltration and pathological lesions in the lungs. It significantly decreased the nitric oxide production in BALF, total serum IgE, IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG1 along with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression. Black seed oil treatment resulted in decreased T-cell response evident by lesser delayed type hypersensitivity and lower T-cell proliferation in spleen. In conclusion, black seed oil exhibited a significant reduction in all the markers of allergic inflammation mainly by inhibiting the delayed type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. The data suggests that inhibition of T-cell response may be responsible for immunomodulatory effect of black seed oil in the rat model of allergic airway inflammation.

  5. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in allogeneic radiation bone marrow chimeras. The chimeric host strictly dictates the self-repertoire of Ia-restricted T cells but not H-2K/D-restricted T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S.M.; Kruisbeek, A.M.; Singer, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present report has used fully H-2 allogeneic radiation bone marrow chimeras to assess the role of host restriction elements in determining the self-specificity of Ia- and H-2K/D-restricted T cells that participate in the generation of trinitrophenyl (TNP)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). It was demonstrated that there exists a stringent requirement for the recognition of host thymic-type Ia determinants, but there exists only a preference for host thymic-type H-2K/D determinants. Indeed, once the stringent requirement for recognition of host Ia determinants was fulfilled, anti-TNP CTL were generated in response to TNP-modified stimulators that expressed either donor-type or host-type H-2K/D determinants. The CTL that were generated in response to TNP-modified donor-type stimulators were shown to be specific for TNP and restricted to the non-thymic H-2K/D determinants of the chimeric donor. Thus, these results demonstrate in a single immune response that the thymic hypothesis accurately predicts the self-specificity expressed by Ia-restricted T cells, but does not fully account for the self-specificity expressed by H-2K/D-restricted T cells. These results are consistent with the concept that H-2K/D-restricted T cells, but not Ia-restricted T cells, can differentiate into functional competence either intrathymically or extra-thymically. The results demonstrate that the generation of anti-TNP CTL responses involve two parallel sets of major histocompatibility complex-restricted cell interactions, an Ia-restricted TH-accessory cell interaction required for TH cell activation, and an H-2K/D-restricted pCTL-stimulator cell interaction required for pCTL stimulation. The interaction between activated TH cells and stimulated pCTL is mediated, at least in part, by nonspecific soluble helper factors

  6. Clinical Benefit of Allogeneic Melanoma Cell Lysate-Pulsed Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine in MAGE-Positive Colorectal Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toh, Han Chong; Wang, Who-Whong; Chia, Whay Kuang

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical benefit of an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MCL)-pulsed autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in advanced colorectal cancer patients expressing at least one of six MAGE-A antigens overexpressed by the cell line source of the lysate. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DCs...... were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), pulsed with the allogeneic MCL, and matured using cytokines that achieved high CD83- and CCR7-expressing DCs. Each patient received up to 10 intradermal vaccinations (3-5 x 10(6) cells per dose) at biweekly intervals. RESULTS: Twenty......-free for >27 and >37 months, respectively. This result is particularly meaningful as all patients had progressive disease before treatment. Overall, DC vaccination was associated with a serial decline in regulatory T cells. Using an antibody array, we characterized plasma protein profiles in responding...

  7. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajić Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis, applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. Case Outline. With the exception of neurological psychiatric problems, a boy aged 9.5 years was in good general health before transplantation with allogeneic fetal stem cells. The main aim of allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation was treatment of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. After 13 months of treatment, he was admitted to hospital in a very serious, life-threatening condition due to sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The humoral immunity in the boy was adequate, unlike cellular immunity. The immune imbalance in terms of predominance of T-suppressor lymphocytes contributes to delayed and late development of sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The boy still shows the same severity of psychomotor retardation, dyslalia, epilepsy, strabismus and amblyopia. Conclusion. Implementation of fetal stem cell therapy for unconfirmed indications abuses the therapeutic approach, harms patients, misleads parents, and brings financial harm to the healthcare system of any country, including Serbia.

  8. Single-cell characterization of in vitro migration and interaction dynamics of T cells expanded with IL-2 and IL-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Maria Tauriainen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available T cells are pivotal in the immune defense against cancers and infectious agents. To mount an effector response against cancer cells, T cells need to migrate to the cancer-site, engage in contacts with cancer cells and perform their effector functions. Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy as treatment of complications such as relapse or opportunistic infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. This requires a sufficient amount of cells that are able to expand and respond to tumor or viral antigens. The cytokines interleukin (IL-2 and IL-7 drive T cell differentiation, proliferation and survival and are commonly used to expand T cells ex vivo. Here, we have used microchip-based live-cell imaging to follow the migration of individual T cells, their interactions with allogeneic monocytes, cell division and apoptosis for extended periods of time; something that cannot be achieved by commonly used methods. Our data indicate that cells grown in IL-7 + IL-2 had similar migration and contact dynamics as cells grown in IL-2 alone. However, the addition of IL-7 decreased cell death creating a more viable cell population, which should be beneficial when preparing cells for immunotherapy.

  9. Induction of transplantation tolerance to fully mismatched cardiac allografts by T cell mediated delivery of alloantigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chaorui; Yuan, Xueli; Jindra, Peter T.; Bagley, Jessamyn; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Iacomini, John

    2010-01-01

    Induction of transplantation tolerance has the potential to allow for allograft acceptance without the need for life-long immunosuppression. Here we describe a novel approach that uses delivery of alloantigen by mature T cells to induce tolerance to fully allogeneic cardiac grafts. Adoptive transfer of mature alloantigen-expressing T cells into myeloablatively conditioned mice results in long-term acceptance of fully allogeneic heart transplants without evidence of chronic rejection. Since myeloablative conditioning is clinically undesirable we further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of mature alloantigen-expressing T cells alone into mice receiving non-myeloablative conditioning resulted in long-term acceptance of fully allogeneic heart allografts with minimal evidence of chronic rejection. Mechanistically, tolerance induction involved both deletion of donor-reactive host T cells and the development of regulatory T cells. Thus, delivery of alloantigen by mature T cells induces tolerance to fully allogeneic organ allografts in non-myeloablatively conditioned recipients, representing a novel approach for tolerance induction in transplantation. PMID:20452826

  10. Suppression of Human T Cell Proliferation Mediated by the Cathepsin B Inhibitor, z-FA-FMK Is Due to Oxidative Stress.

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    Tanuja Rajah

    Full Text Available The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethyl ketone (z-FA-FMK readily inhibits anti-CD3-induced human T cell proliferation, whereas the analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (z-FA-DMK had no effect. In contrast, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK was toxic. The inhibition of T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK requires not only the FMK moiety, but also the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal, suggesting some degree of specificity in z-FA-FMK-induced inhibition of primary T cell proliferation. We showed that z-FA-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-FA-FMK was also attenuated in the presence of exogenous GSH. Similar to cell proliferation, GSH, NAC and L-cysteine but not D-cysteine, completely restored the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3 to their respective subunits in z-FA-FMK-treated activated T cells. Our collective results demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  11. The Effects of Tacrolimus on T-Cell Proliferation Are Short-Lived: A Pilot Analysis of Immune Function Testing

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    Benjamin L. Laskin, MD, MS

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. T-cell proliferation is currently not suitable to measure immunosuppression because sample processing diminishes observable effects. Future immune function testing should focus on fresh samples with minimal washing steps. Our results also emphasize the importance of adherence to immunosuppressive treatment, because T-cell proliferation recovered substantially after even brief discontinuation of tacrolimus.

  12. Clinical Allogeneic and Autologous Islet Cell Transplantation: Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Matsumoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is categorized as a β-cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients who lack the ability to secrete insulin. Allogeneic islet cell transplantation is for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and autologous islet cell transplantation is for the prevention of surgical diabetes after a total pancreatectomy. The issues of allogeneic islet cell transplantation include poor efficacy of islet isolation, the need for multiple donor pancreata, difficulty maintaining insulin independence and undesirable side effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Those issues have been solved step by step and allogeneic islet cell transplantation is almost ready to be the standard therapy. The donor shortage will be the next issue and marginal and/or living donor islet cell transplantation might alleviate the issue. Xeno-islet cell transplantation, β-cell regeneration from human stem cells and gene induction of the naïve pancreas represent the next generation of β-cell replacement therapy. Autologous islet cell transplantation after total pancreatectomy for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with severe abdominal pain is the standard therapy, even though only limited centers are able to perform this treatment. Remote center autologous islet cell transplantation is an attractive option for hospitals performing total pancreatectomies without the proper islet isolation facilities.

  13. Suppressor cell hyperactivity relative to allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation as a manifestation of defective T-T-cell interactions in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenina, M.A.; Potapova, A.A.; Biryukov, A.V.; Skripnik, A.Yu.; Cheredeev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the state of immunoregulatory process in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at the T-T-cell interaction level and seek to test the possibility of the pharmacological modulation of this process. The proliferative activity of mononuclear lymphocytes, extracted from the blood of ten lupus patients, was assessed by measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into cultures stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin, and theophylline. The comparative effects of each of these agents on the immunoregulatory and proliferative activity of the lymphocytes are reported

  14. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV ) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  15. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  16. Stimulation of allogeneic lymphocytes by skin epidermal cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of skin epidermal cells to induce allogeneic lymphocytes into proliferation was examined in mixed skin cell-lymphocyte culture reaction (MSLR). The stimulatng capacity of skin cells was reduced significantly by trypsin digestion, although the damage was repaired by incubation at 37 C for 3 hr. The optimal concentration of mitomycin C for treatment of stimulating cells in the MSLR differed from that in mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR). Irradiation rendered them three to four times more stimulatory than did mitomycin C. Removal of adherent cells from responding cells by passage through a nylon-wool column gave a substantial elevation of the MSLR. The lymphocytes cocultured with skin cells in the primary MSLR incorporated 3 H-thymidine, with the peak at the 6th day of culture. If the lymphocytes primed in the MSLR were restimulated with skin cells from the same stimulating strain, the primed lymphocytes responded promptly and in great magnitude

  17. OX40 and IL-7 play synergistic roles in the homeostatic proliferation of effector memory CD4⁺ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Satoshi; Ine, Shouji; Kawabe, Takeshi; Okuyama, Yuko; Suzuki, Nobu; Soroosh, Pejman; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Sun, Shu-lan; So, Takanori; Sasaki, Takeshi; Harigae, Hideo; Sugamura, Kazuo; Kudo, Hironori; Wada, Motoshi; Nio, Masaki; Ishii, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    T-cell homeostasis preserves the numbers, the diversity and functional competence of different T-cell subsets that are required for adaptive immunity. Naïve CD4(+) T (TN ) cells are maintained in the periphery via the common γ-chain family cytokine IL-7 and weak antigenic signals. However, it is not clear how memory CD4(+) T-cell subsets are maintained in the periphery and which factors are responsible for the maintenance. To examine the homeostatic mechanisms, CFSE-labeled CD4(+) CD44(high) CD62L(low) effector memory T (TEM ) cells were transferred into sublethally-irradiated syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, and the systemic cell proliferative responses, which can be divided distinctively into fast and slow proliferations, were assessed by CFSE dye dilution. We found that the fast homeostatic proliferation of TEM cells was strictly regulated by both antigen and OX40 costimulatory signals and that the slow proliferation was dependent on IL-7. The simultaneous blockade of both OX40 and IL-7 signaling completely inhibited the both fast and slow proliferation. The antigen- and OX40-dependent fast proliferation preferentially expanded IL-17-producing helper T cells (Th17 cells). Thus, OX40 and IL-7 play synergistic, but distinct roles in the homeostatic proliferation of CD4(+) TEM cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Id1 expression promotes peripheral CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation and survival upon TCR activation without co-stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chen; Jin, Rong [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China); Wang, Hong-Cheng [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Tang, Hui; Liu, Yuan-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Xiu-Yuan; Ge, Qing [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China); Sun, Xiao-Hong, E-mail: sunx@omrf.org [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Zhang, Yu, E-mail: zhangyu007@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Id1 expression enables naïve T cell proliferation without anti-CD28 co-stimulation. •Id1 expression facilitates T cells survival when stimulated with anti-CD3. •Elevation of IL-2 production by Id1 contributes increased proliferation and survival. •Id1 potentiates NF-κB activation by anti-CD3 stimulation. -- Abstract: Although the role of E proteins in the thymocyte development is well documented, much less is known about their function in peripheral T cells. Here we demonstrated that CD4 promoter-driven transgenic expression of Id1, a naturally occurring dominant-negative inhibitor of E proteins, can substitute for the co-stimulatory signal delivered by CD28 to facilitate the proliferation and survival of naïve CD4{sup +} cells upon anti-CD3 stimulation. We next discovered that IL-2 production and NF-κB activity after anti-CD3 stimulation were significantly elevated in Id1-expressing cells, which may be, at least in part, responsible for the augmentation of their proliferation and survival. Taken together, results from this study suggest an important role of E and Id proteins in peripheral T cell activation. The ability of Id proteins to by-pass co-stimulatory signals to enable T cell activation has significant implications in regulating T cell immunity.

  19. Inhibition of T cell proliferation by selective block of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B S; Odum, Niels; Jorgensen, N K

    1999-01-01

    cell activation and proliferation has been investigated by using various blockers of IK channels. The Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in human T cells is shown by the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to be highly sensitive to clotrimazole, charybdotoxin, and nitrendipine, but not to ketoconazole...

  20. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornalusse, Germán G; Hirata, Roli K; Funk, Sarah E; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W

    2017-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this 'missing-self' response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8 + T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression.

  1. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornalusse, Germán G.; Hirata, Roli K.; Funk, Sarah; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S.; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G.; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O.; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this ‘missing self’ response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8+ T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies, and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression. PMID:28504668

  2. Programmed cell death-10 enhances proliferation and protects malignant T cells from apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Britt; Kopp, Katharina; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn

    2010-01-01

    is associated with serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases and modulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway suggesting a role in the regulation of cellular growth. Here we provide evidence of a constitutive expression of PDCD10 in malignant T cells and cell lines from peripheral blood......, whereas an activator of Jak3 and NF-¿B, interleukin-2 (IL-2), enhances PDCD10 expression. Functional data show that PDCD10 depletion by small interfering RNA induces apoptosis and decreases proliferation of the sensitive cells. To our knowledge, these data provide the first functional link between PDCD10...

  3. Functioning of spontaneous and induced Con A regulators of T-cell proliferation. Modifying factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that active spontaneous non-specific regulators of T-cell proliferation are activated in peripheral blood ''in vivo'' by endogenous metabolites; non-specific regulator action can be induced ''in vitro'' by Con A, FGA. Non-specific regulators suppress and increase lymphocyte proliferation. Cyclic character of their functioning is revealed. 4 refs.; 1 tab

  4. Successful generation of primary virus-specific and anti-tumor T-cell responses from the naive donor T-cell repertoire is determined by the balance between antigen-specific precursor T cells and regulatory T cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedema, I.; Meent, M. van de; Pots, J.M.; Kester, M.G.; Beek, M.T. van der; Falkenburg, J.H.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in allogeneic stem cell transplantation is to find a balance between the harmful induction of graft-versus-host disease and the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia and pathogen-specific immune responses. Adoptive transfer of in-vitro generated donor T cells with

  5. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiajia [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Xi [Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjiebjmu@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  6. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy

  7. Immunological tolerance induced by galectin-1 in rat allogeneic renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaosi; Tu, Weiping; Xu, Chengyun

    2010-06-01

    The existed literatures indicated that galectin-1 has anti-inflammatory effects and plays a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases. Present study was to identify the roles of galectin-1 in acute animal renal allograft rejection. Rat acute rejection models were erected by allogeneic renal transplantation. Galectin-1 injection was performed in different concentrations in renal recipients post-transplantation. Recipient survivals, CD8+ T cell proliferation, production of IFN-gamma, levels of serum CD30, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) and immunohistochemistry were observed or tested 7days after renal transplantation. Galectin-1 injection can prolong the recipient animal survival, reduce the serum levels of IFN-gamma, soluble CD30, percentage of CD8+ T cell subset, CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and IFN-gamma ELISPOT frequency for allograft recipients. The therapeutic effects of galectin-1 injection on recipient rats were dose-dependent. Galectin-1 plays an important role in CD8+ T cell-mediated renal rejection by inducing immunological tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CD4+ FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Impaired Ability to Suppress Effector T Cell Proliferation in Patients with Turner Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ah Lee

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of CD4+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are altered in young TS patients with the 45,X karyotype compared to age-matched controls.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young TS patients (n = 24, 17.4-35.9 years and healthy controls (n = 16 were stained with various Treg markers to characterize their phenotypes. Based on the presence of thyroid autoimmunity, patients were categorized into TS (- (n = 7 and TS (+ (n = 17. Tregs sorted for CD4+ CD25bright were co-cultured with autologous CD4+ CD25- target cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and -CD28 antibodies to assess their suppressive function.Despite a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells in the TS (- and TS (+ patients (mean 30.8% and 31.7%, vs. 41.2%; P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively, both groups exhibited a higher frequency of FOXP3+ Tregs among CD4+ T cells compared with controls (means 1.99% and 2.05%, vs. 1.33%; P = 0.029 and P = 0.004, respectively. There were no differences in the expression of CTLA-4 and the frequency of Tregs expressing CXCR3+, and CCR4+ CCR6+ among the three groups. However, the ability of Tregs to suppress the in vitro proliferation of autologous CD4+ CD25- T cells was significantly impaired in the TS (- and TS (+ patients compared to controls (P = 0.003 and P = 0.041. Meanwhile, both the TS (- and TS (+ groups had lower frequencies of naïve cells (P = 0.001 for both but higher frequencies of effector memory cells (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002 than did the healthy control group.The Tregs of the TS patients could not efficiently suppress the proliferation of autologous effector T cells, despite their increased frequency in peripheral CD4+ T cells.

  9. Activated allogeneic NK cells preferentially kill poor prognosis B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sanchez-Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild type (wt IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA mismatched Natural Killer (NK cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.□

  10. The inhibition of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK is mediated through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajah, T.; Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu

    2014-07-15

    The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-L-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) has recently been shown to inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation in primary T cells. We showed in this study that z-VAD-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-mediated T cell proliferation induced by z-VAD-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. These results suggest that the depletion of intracellular GSH is the underlying cause of z-VAD-FMK-mediated inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation. The presence of exogenous GSH also attenuated the inhibition of anti-CD3-induced CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-VAD-FMK. However, none of the low molecular weight thiols were able to restore the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK in activated T cells where caspase-8 and caspase-3 remain activated and processed into their respective subunits in the presence of the caspase inhibitor. This suggests that the inhibition of T cell proliferation can be uncoupled from the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK. Taken together, the immunosuppressive effects in primary T cells mediated by z-VAD-FMK are due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  11. The inhibition of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK is mediated through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajah, T.; Chow, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-L-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) has recently been shown to inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation in primary T cells. We showed in this study that z-VAD-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-mediated T cell proliferation induced by z-VAD-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. These results suggest that the depletion of intracellular GSH is the underlying cause of z-VAD-FMK-mediated inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation. The presence of exogenous GSH also attenuated the inhibition of anti-CD3-induced CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-VAD-FMK. However, none of the low molecular weight thiols were able to restore the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK in activated T cells where caspase-8 and caspase-3 remain activated and processed into their respective subunits in the presence of the caspase inhibitor. This suggests that the inhibition of T cell proliferation can be uncoupled from the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK. Taken together, the immunosuppressive effects in primary T cells mediated by z-VAD-FMK are due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH

  12. Caspase-1 from Human Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Can Promote T Cell-Independent Tumor Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi; Fu, Juan; Korrer, Michael; Gorbounov, Mikhail; Murray, Peter J; Pardoll, Drew; Masica, David L; Kim, Young J

    2018-05-01

    Immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) are characterized by their phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. To better define their T cell-independent functions within the tumor, sorted monocytic CD14 + CD11b + HLA-DR low/- MDSCs (mMDSC) from squamous cell carcinoma patients showed upregulated caspase-1 activity, which was associated with increased IL1β and IL18 expression. In vitro studies demonstrated that mMDSCs promoted caspase-1-dependent proliferation of multiple squamous carcinoma cell lines in both human and murine systems. In vivo , growth rates of B16, MOC1, and Panc02 were significantly blunted in chimeric mice adoptively transferred with caspase-1 null bone marrow cells under T cell-depleted conditions. Adoptive transfer of wild-type Gr-1 + CD11b + MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice reversed this antitumor response, whereas caspase-1 inhibiting thalidomide-treated MDSCs phenocopied the antitumor response found in caspase-1 null mice. We further hypothesized that MDSC caspase-1 activity could promote tumor-intrinsic MyD88-dependent carcinogenesis. In mice with wild-type caspase-1, MyD88-silenced tumors displayed reduced growth rate, but in chimeric mice with caspase-1 null bone marrow cells, MyD88-silenced tumors did not display differential tumor growth rate. When we queried the TCGA database, we found that caspase-1 expression is correlated with overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma patients. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that caspase-1 in MDSCs is a direct T cell-independent mediator of tumor proliferation. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(5); 566-77. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Inhibitory effect of extracellular purine nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations on T cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, Monica [Department of Medicine III and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Schmetzer, Helga [Helmholtz Center Munich (Germany); German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich (Germany); Braeu, Marion; Buhmann, Raymund [Helmholtz Center Munich (Germany); German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich (Germany); Department of Medicine III and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The release of nucleic acids and derivatives after tissue-injury may affect cellular immune-response. We studied the impact of extracellular ribo-, desoxyribonucleotides and nucleosides on T-cell immunity. Peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD3{sup +}T-cells obtained from 6 healthy donors were stimulated via CD3/CD28 Dynabeads or dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of pyrimidine-, purine-nucleotides and -nucleosides (range 2–200 µM). Addition of deoxy-, guanosine-triphosphate (dGTP, GTP) and guanosine resulted concentration dependent in a complete, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in a partial inhibition of the induced T-cell-proliferation. Deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP), adenosine and the pyrimidine-ribo- and -deoxyribonucleotides displayed no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory effects of dGTP and GTP, but not of guanosine and ATP were culture-media-dependent and could be almost abrogated by use of the serum-free lymphocyte-culture-media X-Vivo15 instead of RPMI1640 with standard-supplementation. In contrast to RPMI1640, X-Vivo15 resulted in a significant down-regulation of the cell-surface-located ectonucleotidases CD39 (Ecto-Apyrase) and CD73 (Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase), critical for the extracellular nucleotides-hydrolysis to nucleosides, explaining the loss of inhibition mediated by dGTP and GTP, but not Guanosine. In line with previous findings ATP was found to exert immunosuppressive effects on T-cell-proliferation. Purine-nucleotides, dGTP and GTP displayed a higher inhibitory capacity, but seem to be strictly dependent on the microenvironmental conditions modulating the responsiveness of the respective T-lymphocytes. Further evaluation of experimental and respective clinical settings should anticipate these findings.

  14. Inhibitory effect of extracellular purine nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations on T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Monica; Schmetzer, Helga; Braeu, Marion; Buhmann, Raymund

    2016-01-01

    The release of nucleic acids and derivatives after tissue-injury may affect cellular immune-response. We studied the impact of extracellular ribo-, desoxyribonucleotides and nucleosides on T-cell immunity. Peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD3 + T-cells obtained from 6 healthy donors were stimulated via CD3/CD28 Dynabeads or dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of pyrimidine-, purine-nucleotides and -nucleosides (range 2–200 µM). Addition of deoxy-, guanosine-triphosphate (dGTP, GTP) and guanosine resulted concentration dependent in a complete, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in a partial inhibition of the induced T-cell-proliferation. Deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP), adenosine and the pyrimidine-ribo- and -deoxyribonucleotides displayed no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory effects of dGTP and GTP, but not of guanosine and ATP were culture-media-dependent and could be almost abrogated by use of the serum-free lymphocyte-culture-media X-Vivo15 instead of RPMI1640 with standard-supplementation. In contrast to RPMI1640, X-Vivo15 resulted in a significant down-regulation of the cell-surface-located ectonucleotidases CD39 (Ecto-Apyrase) and CD73 (Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase), critical for the extracellular nucleotides-hydrolysis to nucleosides, explaining the loss of inhibition mediated by dGTP and GTP, but not Guanosine. In line with previous findings ATP was found to exert immunosuppressive effects on T-cell-proliferation. Purine-nucleotides, dGTP and GTP displayed a higher inhibitory capacity, but seem to be strictly dependent on the microenvironmental conditions modulating the responsiveness of the respective T-lymphocytes. Further evaluation of experimental and respective clinical settings should anticipate these findings.

  15. Efficient natural defense mechanisms against Listeria monocytogenes in T and B cell-deficient allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras. Preactivated macrophages are the main effector cells in an early phase after bone marrow transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, J.; Groettrup, E.B.; Baccarini, M.; Lohmann-Mattes, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation chimeras in the early phase after bone marrow transplantation are a good model to study the efficiency of the body's nonspecific defense system represented by macrophages (M phi), polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and NK cells. These cell types are present in large numbers in spleen and liver at that time, whereas the specific immune system represented by T and B cells is functionally deficient. We previously reported enhanced activities in vitro of M phi (and PMN) from recipient animals in an early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer. We here demonstrate that these activities result in enhanced spontaneous resistance against Listeria monocytogenes in vivo: CFU of L. monocytogenes in spleen and liver 48 h after infection were about 1 or 2 to 4 log steps less than in untreated control mice of donor or host haplotype. This enhanced resistance decreased over the 4-mo period after marrow transfer. Preactivated M phi were identified as the most important effector cells. Isolated from spleen and peritoneal cavity, they performed enhanced killing of phagocytosed Listeria. Such preactivated M phi occurred in recipient animals after transfer of allogeneic but not of syngeneic bone marrow. The precise mechanism of M phi activation in the allogeneic radiation chimera in the complete absence of any detectable T cell function is not clear at present. However, these preactivated M phi display an important protective effect against L. monocytogenes: chimeras could eliminate Listeria without acquisition of positive delayed-type sensitivity when infected with 10(3) bacteria. An inoculum of 5 . 10(3) L. monocytogenes resulted either in prolonged survival compared with normal mice of the recipient haplotype or in definitive survival accompanied by a positive delayed-type sensitivity

  16. Long-term follow-up of patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: mixed T-cell chimerism is associated with high relapse risk and inferior survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip A; Stingo, Francesco; Keating, Michael J; Wierda, William G; O'Brien, Susan M; Estrov, Zeev; Ledesma, Celina; Rezvani, Katayoun; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Shah, Nina; Parmar, Simrit; Popat, Uday; Anderlini, Paolo; Yago, Nieto; Ciurea, Stefan O; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Hosing, Chitra M

    2017-05-01

    There is limited information regarding the immunological predictors of post-allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), such as mixed T-cell chimerism. We analysed 143 consecutive patients with relapsed/refractory CLL, transplanted between 2000 and 2012, to determine the prognostic relevance of mixed chimerism post-alloSCT and the ability of post-transplant immunomodulation to treat relapse. Mixed T-cell chimerism occurred in 50% of patients at 3 months and 43% at 6 months post-alloSCT; upon 3- and 6-month landmark analysis, this was associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) [Hazard ratio (HR) 1·93, P = 0·003 and HR 2·58, P CLL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells.

  18. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells

  19. Limit-dilution assay and clonal expansion of all T cells capable of proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.F.; Wilson, A.; Scollay, R.; Shortman, K. (Walter and Eliza Hall Inst. of Medical Research, Parkville (Australia))

    1982-08-13

    A limit-dilution microculture system is presented in which almost all mature T cells, cultured at a level of about 1 cell/well, grow and expand to clones averaging 60,000 cells over an 8-9 day period. Cloning efficiency is 70-100%, so the set of expanded clones is representative of the starting T-cell population. T cells of all Lyt phenotypes form clones of progeny cells. The system involves culture in flat-bottom microtitre trays, in the presence of concanavalin A as the initiating stimulus, together with appropriately irradiated spleen filler cells and a supplementary source of soluble T cell growth factors. The resultant clones may be screened for cytolytic function, as described in the accompanying paper. The system may be used to assay the level of T cells capable of expansion or precursor function (PTL-p) by using (/sup 3/H)TdR uptake as a readout for the presence or absence of proliferating clones. Analysis of the frequency of positive cultures shows a good fit to the expected Poisson distribution, with no evidence of complicating suppressor or helper effects.

  20. Limit-dilution assay and clonal expansion of all T cells capable of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-F.; Wilson, A.; Scollay, R.; Shortman, K.

    1982-01-01

    A limit-dilution microculture system is presented in which almost all mature T cells, cultured at a level of about 1 cell/well, grow and expand to clones averaging 60,000 cells over an 8-9 day period. Cloning efficiency is 70-100%, so the set of expanded clones is representative of the starting T-cell population. T cells of all Lyt phenotypes form clones of progeny cells. The system involves culture in flat-bottom microtitre trays, in the presence of concanavalin A as the initiating stimulus, together with appropriately irradiated spleen filler cells and a supplementary source of soluble T cell growth factors. The resultant clones may be screened for cytolytic function, as described in the accompanying paper. The system may be used to assay the level of T cells capable of expansion or precursor function (PTL-p) by using [ 3 H]TdR uptake as a readout for the presence or absence of proliferating clones. Analysis of the frequency of positive cultures shows a good fit to the expected Poisson distribution, with no evidence of complicating suppressor or helper effects. (Auth.)

  1. Ocular findings after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Al-Mohareb, Fahad; Ayas, Mouhab; Chaudhri, Naeem; Al-Sharif, Fahad; Al-Zahrani, Hazzaa; Mohammed, Said Y; Nassar, Amr; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2009-09-01

    To study the incidence, causes, and outcome of major ocular complications in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Retrospective, noncomparative, observational clinical study. The study included a total of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT in the period from 1997 to 2007 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Allogeneic HSCT. Patients with ocular complications were referred to the ophthalmology division for complete ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity, tonometry, Schirmer test, biomicroscopy, and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Laboratory investigations were performed whenever indicated. The incidence and causes of major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT were determined. Visual acuity at 1 year after allogeneic HSCT was recorded. Major ocular complications occurred in 80 (13%) of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. There were 36 male patients (45%) and 44 female patients (55%) with a mean age of 29 years and an age range of 9 to 65 years. Prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate in 69 patients, and cyclosporine, methotrexate and corticosteroids, or mycophenolate mofetil in 11 patients. The most frequently encountered ocular complications were chronic GVHD, dry eye syndrome without GVHD, corneal ulcers, cataract, glaucoma, cytomegalovirus retinitis, fungal endophthalmitis, and acquisition of allergic conjunctivitis from atopic donors. There was no correlation between the pattern of ocular complications and the transplanted stem cell source. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 year after transplantation was less than 20/200 in 13 patients (16%), less than 20/50 in 17 patients (21%), and better than 20/50 in 50 patients (63%). Ocular complications are common in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Early recognition and prompt treatment are important. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial

  2. Antibody responses in allogeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coico, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction of long-lived allogeneic radiation chimeras, free of graft-versus-host disease, has been achieved using serologic elimination of Thy 1 + cells from donor bone marrow. Humoral immune function was not restored in these animals as evidenced by lack of primary antibody responses to a T cell-dependent antigen, namely, sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) both in vivo and in vitro. No evidence for a suppressor cell-mediated mechanism was found. Using separated chimera spleen cell populations and specific helper cell soluble mediators, the functional capabilities of chimera B cells, T cells, and macrophages were assessed. These findings suggested that the failure of chimeras to produce antibody is not the result of impaired B cell, T cell, or macrophage function, but rather, that it is due to ineffective cellular interactions. Physiologic cellular interactions depend upon the sharing of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determinants between interacting cells. However, the self-recognition repertoire of developing T cells may be influenced by the environment which these cells differentiate such that they learn to recognize host MHC determinants as self. These findings support the interpretation that the immunologic hyporeactivity of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras reflects the role of the host environment in restricting the interactive capabilities of donor-derived cells

  3. IL-15 inhibits pre-B cell proliferation by selectively expanding Mac-1+B220+ NK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Shinsuke; Hida, Shigeaki; Taki, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the cells critical for inhibition of repopulation of allogenic bone marrow cells. However, it is not well known if NK cells affect autologous lymphopoiesis. Here, we observed that NK cells could inhibit pre-B cell proliferation in vitro driven by interleukin (IL)-7 in a manner dependent on IL-15. Interestingly, the great majority of expanding NK cells were Mac-1 + B220 + , a recently identified potent interferon (IFN)-γ producer. Indeed, IFN-γ was produced in those cultures, and pre-B cells lacking IFN-γ receptors, but not those lacking type I IFN receptors, were resistant to such an inhibition. Furthermore, even NK cells from mice lacking β2-microglobulin, which were known to be functionally dampened, inhibited pre-B cell proliferation as well. Thus, activated NK cells, which were expanded selectively by IL-15, could potentially regulate B lymphopoiesis through IFN-γ beyond the selection imposed upon self-recognition

  4. Different Competitive Capacities of Stat4 and Stat6 Deficient CD4+ T Cells during Lymphophenia-Driven Proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa Maria; Borghans, J.A.M.; Marquez, M.-E.

    2005-01-01

    The outcome of an immune response relies on the competitive capacities acquired through differentiation of CD4ﰀ T cells into Th1 or Th2 effector cells. Because Stat4 and Stat6 proteins are implicated in the Th1 vs Th2 generation and maintenance, respectively, we compare in this study the kinetics...... of Stat4ﰐ/ﰐ and Stat6ﰐ/ﰐ CD4ﰀ T cells during competitive bone marrow reconstitution and lymphopenia-driven proliferation. After bone marrow transplantation, both populations reconstitute the peripheral T cell pools equally well. After transfer into lymphopenic hosts, wild-type and Stat6ﰐ/ﰐ CD4ﰀ T cells...... show a proliferation advantage, which is early associated with the expression of an active phospho-Stat4 and the down-regulation of Stat6. Despite these differences, Stat4- and Stat6-deficient T cells reach similar steady state numbers. However, when both Stat4ﰐ/ﰐ and Stat6ﰐ/ﰐ CD4ﰀ T cells...

  5. Predominant or complete recipient T-cell chimerism following alemtuzumab-based allogeneic transplantation is reversed by donor lymphocytes and not associated with graft failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedbhai, Sajir G; Edwards, Noha; Morris, Emma C; Mackinnon, Stephen; Thomson, Kirsty J; Peggs, Karl S

    2012-02-01

    The clinical significance of mixed chimerism following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains controversial. Its relevance and incidence are probably influenced by the conditioning regimen and incorporation of T-cell depletion. The presence of recipient chimerism levels >40-50% following T-cell replete reduced intensity transplantation correlates with a high risk of graft rejection, regardless of donor-lymphocyte infusions, but it is unclear whether this finding translates to T-cell depleted transplants. We conducted a retrospective single-institution analysis of patients receiving alemtuzumab-based HSCT. 27/152 (18%) evaluable cases had predominantly recipient T-cell chimerism at 3 months or beyond. By contrast, coincident chimerism in the granulocyte lineage was predominantly of donor origin (median 100%) in all but one patient. Donor lymphocyte infusion effectively converted predominantly recipient T-cell chimerism to ful donor chimerism in all evaluable cases including three cases with no detectable donor T cells. The only graft failure occurred in the patient with predominantly recipient myeloid chimerism in whom rejection occurred rapidly before donor lymphocytes could be administered. We conclude that predominant or complete recipient T-cell chimerism following alemtuzumab-based regimens does not have the same clinical implications as that following T-cell replete transplants and can be effectively converted with donor lymphocytes without the need for lympho-depleting agents or re-conditioning. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Proliferation of latently infected CD4+ T cells carrying replication-competent HIV-1: Potential role in latent reservoir dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmane, Nina N.; Kwon, Kyungyoon J.; Bruner, Katherine M.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Rosenbloom, Daniel I.S.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ho, Ya-Chi

    2017-01-01

    A latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes precludes cure. Mechanisms underlying reservoir stability are unclear. Recent studies suggest an unexpected degree of infected cell proliferation in vivo. T cell activation drives proliferation but also reverses latency, resulting in productive infection that generally leads to cell death. In this study, we show that latently infected cells can proliferate in response to mitogens without producing virus, generating progeny cells that can release infectious virus. Thus, assays relying on one round of activation underestimate reservoir size. Sequencing of independent clonal isolates of replication-competent virus revealed that 57% had env sequences identical to other isolates from the same patient. Identity was confirmed by full-genome sequencing and was not attributable to limited viral diversity. Phylogenetic and statistical analysis suggested that identical sequences arose from in vivo proliferation of infected cells, rather than infection of multiple cells by a dominant viral species. The possibility that much of the reservoir arises by cell proliferation presents challenges to cure. PMID:28341641

  7. Proliferation of latently infected CD4+ T cells carrying replication-competent HIV-1: Potential role in latent reservoir dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmane, Nina N; Kwon, Kyungyoon J; Bruner, Katherine M; Capoferri, Adam A; Beg, Subul; Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Keele, Brandon F; Ho, Ya-Chi; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2017-04-03

    A latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4 + T lymphocytes precludes cure. Mechanisms underlying reservoir stability are unclear. Recent studies suggest an unexpected degree of infected cell proliferation in vivo. T cell activation drives proliferation but also reverses latency, resulting in productive infection that generally leads to cell death. In this study, we show that latently infected cells can proliferate in response to mitogens without producing virus, generating progeny cells that can release infectious virus. Thus, assays relying on one round of activation underestimate reservoir size. Sequencing of independent clonal isolates of replication-competent virus revealed that 57% had env sequences identical to other isolates from the same patient. Identity was confirmed by full-genome sequencing and was not attributable to limited viral diversity. Phylogenetic and statistical analysis suggested that identical sequences arose from in vivo proliferation of infected cells, rather than infection of multiple cells by a dominant viral species. The possibility that much of the reservoir arises by cell proliferation presents challenges to cure. © 2017 Hosmane et al.

  8. ATF3, an HTLV-1 bZip factor binding protein, promotes proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohshima Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL is an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ T-cells caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ gene, which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genome, is expressed as an antisense transcript in all ATL cases. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 as an HBZ-interacting protein. ATF3 has been reported to be expressed in ATL cells, but its biological significance is not known. Results Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that ATF3 interacts with HBZ. Expression of ATF3 was upregulated in ATL cell lines and fresh ATL cases. Reporter assay revealed that ATF3 could interfere with the HTLV-1 Tax's transactivation of the 5' proviral long terminal repeat (LTR, doing so by affecting the ATF/CRE site, as well as HBZ. Suppressing ATF3 expression inhibited proliferation and strongly reduced the viability of ATL cells. As mechanisms of growth-promoting activity of ATF3, comparative expression profiling of ATF3 knockdown cells identified candidate genes that are critical for the cell cycle and cell death, including cell division cycle 2 (CDC2 and cyclin E2. ATF3 also enhanced p53 transcriptional activity, but this activity was suppressed by HBZ. Conclusions Thus, ATF3 expression has positive and negative effects on the proliferation and survival of ATL cells. HBZ impedes its negative effects, leaving ATF3 to promote proliferation of ATL cells via mechanisms including upregulation of CDC2 and cyclin E2. Both HBZ and ATF3 suppress Tax expression, which enables infected cells to escape the host immune system.

  9. Sodium arsenite-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is related to inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression in mouse activated T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Patricia; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV, Seccion Toxicologia, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C. [Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Facultad de Medicina, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    A proposed mechanism for the As-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is the inhibition of IL-2 secretion. However, the effects of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression or on the ERK pathway in activated-T cells have not yet been described. We examined the effect of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression, cell activation and proliferation in PHA-stimulated murine lymphocytes. Arsenite (1 and 10 {mu}M) decreased IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation. Arsenite (10 {mu}M) strongly inhibited ERK-phosphorylation. However, the partial inhibition (50%) of IL-2 mRNA produced by 1 {mu}M, consistent with the effects on IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation, could not be explained by the inhibition of ERK-phosphorylation, which was not affected at this concentration. The inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression caused by 1 {mu}M could be associated to effects on pathways located downstream or parallel to ERK. Arsenite also decreased early activation (surface CD69{sup +} expression) in both CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +}, and decreased total CD8{sup +} count without significantly affecting CD4{sup +}, supporting that the cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T cells is an arsenic target. Thus, our results suggest that arsenite decreases IL-2 mRNA levels and T-cell activation and proliferation. However, further studies on the effects of arsenite on IL-2 gene transcription and IL-2 mRNA stability are needed. (orig.)

  10. Towards effective and safe immunotherapy after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: identification of hematopoietic-specific minor histocompatibility antigen UTA2-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogels, R.; Minnema, M. C.; van Elk, M.; Spaapen, R. M.; te Raa, G. D.; Giovannone, B.; Buijs, A.; van Baarle, D.; Kater, A. P.; Griffioen, M.; Spierings, E.; Lokhorst, H. M.; Mutis, T.

    2013-01-01

    Donor T cells directed at hematopoietic system-specific minor histoconnpatibility antigens (mHags) are considered important cellular tools to induce therapeutic graft-versus-tumor (GvT) effects with low risk of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. To enable the

  11. Tissue-Related Hypoxia Attenuates Proinflammatory Effects of Allogeneic PBMCs on Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina I. Bobyleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose tissue-stromal derived cells (ASCs are considered a perspective tool for regenerative medicine. Depending on the application mode ASC/allogeneic immune cell interaction can occur in the systemic circulation under plenty high concentrations of O2 and in target tissues at lower O2 levels. Here we examined the effects of allogeneic PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs on ASCs under ambient (20% oxygen and “physiological” hypoxia (5% O2. As revealed with microarray analysis ASCs under 20% O2 were more affected by activated PBMCs, which was manifested in differential expression of more than 300 genes, whereas under 5% O2 only 140 genes were changed. Altered gene pattern was only partly overlapped at different O2 conditions. Under O2 ASCs retained their proliferative and differentiative capacities, mesenchymal phenotype, and intracellular organelle’ state. ASCs were proinflammatory activated on transcription level that was confirmed by their ability to suppress activation and proliferation of mitogen-stimulated PBMCs. ASC/PBMCs interaction resulted in anti-inflammatory shift of paracrine mediators in conditioning medium with significant increase of immunosuppressive LIF level. Our data indicated that under both ambient and tissue-related O2 ASCs possessed immunosuppressive potential and maintained functional activity. Under “physiological” hypoxia ASCs were less susceptible to “priming” by allogeneic mitogen-activated PBMCs.

  12. Human CD134 (OX40) expressed on T cells plays a key role for human herpesvirus 6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamata, Satoshi; Nagasaka, Miwako; Kawabata, Akiko; Kishimoto, Kenji; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Morioka, Ichiro; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Iijima, Kazumoto; Yamada, Hideto; Kawamoto, Shinichiro; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mori, Yasuko

    2018-05-01

    CD134 (OX40), which is a cellular receptor for human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) and expresses on activated T cells, may play a key role for HHV-6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Therefore, we examined the CD134 expression on T cells and HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT, and analyzed the correlation between them. Twenty-three patients after allo-HSCT were enrolled. The percentages of CD134-positive cells within the CD4 + and CD8 + cell populations were measured by flow cytometry, and the viral copy number of HHV-6B was simultaneously quantified by real-time PCR. The correlation between CD134 and HHV-6B viral load was then statistically analyzed. HHV-6B reactivation occurred in 11 of 23 patients (47.8%). CD134 expression was seen on T cells and was coincident with the time of peak viral load. The percentage of CD134-positive cells decreased significantly when HHV-6B DNA disappeared (p = .005 in CD4 + T cells, p = .02 in CD8 + T cells). In the 4 patients who underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT), the viral load varied with the percentage of CD134-positive cells. In the comparison between the HHV-6B reactivation group and non-reactivation group, maximum percentages of CD134-positive cells among CD4 + T cells in reactivation group were significantly higher than those in non-reactivation group (p = .04). This is the first study to show that a correlation of CD134 expression on T cells with HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT, especially in UCBT. The results possibly indicate that CD134 on T cells plays a key role for HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fc receptors for mouse IgG1 on human monocytes: polymorphism and role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, W J; Hermes, F F; Willems, R W; Capel, P J; Koene, R A

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies, it was shown that there is polymorphism in the mitogenic effect of mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen of human T cells. This polymorphism implies that IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies are not mitogenic for T cells from 30% of healthy individuals. The present results demonstrate that this polymorphism is caused by polymorphism of an Fc receptor for mouse IgG1, present on human monocytes. The Fc receptor for murine IgG1 could be detected by a newly developed rosetting assay on monocytes from all individuals responsive to the mitogenic effect of IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This Fc receptor was not detectable on monocytes from those individuals exhibiting no mitogenic responses to IgG1 anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-linking of T3 antigens appears to be essential for antibody-induced mitosis of T cells, because mononuclear cells that did not proliferate in response to WT 31 (an IgG1 antibody against T3 antigen) showed a proliferative response to Sepharose beads coated with WT 31. The Fc receptor--if functionally present--may be involved in the cross-linking of T3 antigens through anti-T3 antibodies. Further evidence for the involvement of this Fc receptor in antibody-induced T cell proliferation was provided by inhibition studies. Immune complexes containing IgG1 antibodies were able to inhibit the proliferative response to IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This inhibition by immune complexes appears to be mediated through the monocyte Fc receptor for mouse IgG1. These findings are important for the interpretation of previously described inhibitory effects of anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies on T cell proliferation, and show that such inhibitory effects may be monocyte-mediated (via immune complexes) rather than caused by a direct involvement of the respective T cell antigens in T cell mitosis. The Fc receptor for mouse IgG1 plays a role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation. Its polymorphism may have important implications for the

  14. Nonmalignant T cells stimulate growth of T-cell lymphoma cells in the presence of bacterial toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Lovato, Paola; Eriksen, Karsten W

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). Here, we investigate SE-mediated interactions between nonmalignant T cells and malignant T-cell lines established from skin and blood of CTCL patients....... The malignant CTCL cells express MHC class II molecules that are high-affinity receptors for SE. Although treatment with SE has no direct effect on the growth of the malignant CTCL cells, the SE-treated CTCL cells induce vigorous proliferation of the SE-responsive nonmalignant T cells. In turn, the nonmalignant...... T cells enhance proliferation of the malignant cells in an SE- and MHC class II-dependent manner. Furthermore, SE and, in addition, alloantigen presentation by malignant CTCL cells to irradiated nonmalignant CD4(+) T-cell lines also enhance proliferation of the malignant cells. The growth...

  15. Galectin-7 promotes proliferation and Th1/2 cells polarization toward Th1 in activated CD4+ T cells by inhibiting The TGFβ/Smad3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenlong; Ji, Yudong; Tian, Dean; Zhang, Yong; Chang, Sheng; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Hongmin; Chen, Zhonghua Klaus

    2018-06-08

    Galectin-7 (Gal-7) has been associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is known that Gal-7 antagonises TGFβ-mediated effects in hepatocytes by interacting with Smad3. Previously, we have demonstrated that Gal-7 is related to CD4+ T cells responses; nevertheless, its effect and functional mechanism on CD4+ T cells responses remain unclear. The murine CD4+ T cells were respectively cultured with Gal-7, anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, or with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs & Gal-7. The effects of Gal-7 on proliferation and the phenotypic changes in CD4+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The cytokines from CD4+ T cells were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Subcellular localisation and expression of Smad3 were determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot, respectively. Gal-7 enhanced the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells in a dose- and β-galactoside-dependent manner. Additionally, Gal-7 treatment did not change the ratio of Th2 cells in activated CD4+ T cells, while it increased the ratio of Th1 cells. Gal-7 also induced activated CD4+ T cells to produce a higher level of IFN-γ and TNF-α and a lower level of IL-10. Moreover, Gal-7 treatment significantly accelerated nuclear export of Smad3 in activated CD4+ T cells. These results revealed a novel role of Gal-7 in promoting proliferation and Th1/2 cells polarization toward Th1 in activated CD4+ T cells by inhibiting the TGFβ/Smad3 pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility and Efficiency of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Culture with Allogeneic Platelet Lysate-Supplementation for Cell Therapy against Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is increasing interest in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs as regeneration therapy against cerebral stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of hBMSC cultures with allogeneic platelet lysates (PLs. Platelet concentrates (PC were harvested from healthy volunteers and made into single donor-derived PL (sPL. The PL mixtures (mPL were made from three different sPL. Some growth factors and platelet cell surface antigens were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The hBMSCs cultured with 10% PL were analyzed for their proliferative potential, surface markers, and karyotypes. The cells were incubated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO agents and injected into a pig brain. MRI and histological analysis were performed. Consequently, nine lots of sPL and three mPL were prepared. ELISA analysis showed that PL contained adequate growth factors and a particle of platelet surface antigens. Cell proliferation capacity of PLs was equivalent to or higher than that of fetal calf serum (FCS. No contradiction in cell surface markers and no chromosomal aberrations were found. The MRI detected the distribution of SPIO-labeled hBMSCs in the pig brain. In summary, the hBMSCs cultured with allogeneic PL are suitable for cell therapy against stroke.

  17. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  18. Anti-proliferative effects of T cells expressing a ligand-based chimeric antigen receptor against CD116 on CD34+ cells of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yozo Nakazawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML is a fatal, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm of early childhood. Patients with JMML have mutually exclusive genetic abnormalities in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptor (GMR, CD116 signaling pathway. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative treatment option for JMML; however, disease recurrence is a major cause of treatment failure. We investigated adoptive immunotherapy using GMR-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR for JMML. Methods We constructed a novel CAR capable of binding to GMR via its ligand, GM-CSF, and generated piggyBac transposon-based GMR CAR-modified T cells from three healthy donors and two patients with JMML. We further evaluated the anti-proliferative potential of GMR CAR T cells on leukemic CD34+ cells from six patients with JMML (two NRAS mutations, three PTPN11 mutations, and one monosomy 7, and normal CD34+ cells. Results GMR CAR T cells from healthy donors suppressed the cytokine-dependent growth of MO7e cells, but not the growth of K562 and Daudi cells. Co-culture of healthy GMR CAR T cells with CD34+ cells of five patients with JMML at effector to target ratios of 1:1 and 1:4 for 2 days significantly decreased total colony growth, regardless of genetic abnormality. Furthermore, GMR CAR T cells from a non-transplanted patient and a transplanted patient inhibited the proliferation of respective JMML CD34+ cells at onset to a degree comparable to healthy GMR CAR T cells. Seven-day co-culture of GMR CAR T cells resulted in a marked suppression of JMML CD34+ cell proliferation, particularly CD34+CD38− cell proliferation stimulated with stem cell factor and thrombopoietin on AGM-S3 cells. Meanwhile, GMR CAR T cells exerted no effects on normal CD34+ cell colony growth. Conclusions Ligand-based GMR CAR T cells may have anti-proliferative effects on stem and progenitor cells in JMML.

  19. Nonmyeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Seth M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Hashash, Jana; Tabbara, Imad A

    2009-12-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation provides many patients, with hematological and malignant diseases, hope of remission and in some cases cure. Because the toxicities of this approach are severe, its use has been limited to younger healthier patients. Nonmyeloablative and reduced intensity conditioning regimens depend more on donor cellular immune effects and less on the cytotoxic effects of the conditioning regimen to eradicate the underlying disease. This approach is based on the induction of host tolerance to donor cells followed by the administration of scheduled donor T-lymphocytes infusions. Accumulated clinical data have been encouraging, and prospective studies are underway to compare this approach to conventional myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation with regard to outcome, durability of responses, effects on the immune system, and the consequences of late complications such as chronic graft-versus-host disease.

  20. Allogeneic cellular immunotherapy for chronic B-cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Mels

    2007-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) as treatment modality has curative potential in patients suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), illustrating susceptibility of these leukemic cells for the

  1. Effect of polysaccharides of ganoderma lucidum (PGL) on cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblast exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiuqing; Wu Shiling; Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of γ-irradiation on cell cycle and proliferation of fibroblasts and the radioprotective effect of PGL in term of cellular level. Methods: The cells in the control group and PGL (50 mg/L. 100 mg/L. 150 mg/L) groups were irradiated with 15 Gy γ-rays. The cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry after irradiation within 12 h. Results: The percentage of G 0 -G 1 phase was 52.76% in the positive control group. Compared with the negative control group (90.9%), the proliferation of NIH3T3 was promoted significantly (P 0 -G 1 phases in the GPL (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L) groups were 66.17%, 71.73%, 76.10% respectively, the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells was inhibited by adding GPL. compared with the positive control group, in the 50 mg/L group P < 0.05, in the 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L groups P < 0.01. It was found that the apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells had little change after comparing non-irradiated group with the irradiated groups. Conclusion: Radiation with γ-rays at a dose of 15 Gy, can significantly stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, but no induced apoptosis can not be achieve within 12 h after irradiation. PGL can inhibit cell proliferation, so PGL has radioprotective activity on cell levels

  2. Inhibition of cell proliferation and migration by oxidative stress from ascorbate-driven juglone redox cycling in human bladder-derived T24 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kviecinski, M.R., E-mail: mrkviecinski@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Bioquimica Experimental, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Pedrosa, R.C., E-mail: rozangelapedrosa@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Bioquimica Experimental, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Felipe, K.B., E-mail: kakabettega@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Bioquimica Experimental, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Farias, M.S., E-mail: mirellesfarias@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Bioquimica Experimental, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Glorieux, C., E-mail: christophe.glorieux@uclouvain.be [Toxicology and Cancer Biology Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 73 Avenue E. Mounier, GTOX 7309, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Valenzuela, M., E-mail: mavalenzuela@med.uchile.cl [Toxicology and Cancer Biology Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 73 Avenue E. Mounier, GTOX 7309, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Sid, B., E-mail: brice.sid@uclouvain.be [Toxicology and Cancer Biology Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 73 Avenue E. Mounier, GTOX 7309, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); and others

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cytotoxicity of juglone is markedly increased by ascorbate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T24 cell death by oxidative stress is necrosis-like. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Redox cycling by juglone/ascorbate inhibits cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular migration is impaired by juglone/ascorbate. -- Abstract: The effects of juglone on T24 cells were assessed in the presence and absence of ascorbate. The EC{sub 50} value for juglone at 24 h decreased from 28.5 {mu}M to 6.3 {mu}M in the presence of ascorbate. In juglone-treated cells, ascorbate increased ROS formation (4-fold) and depleted GSH (65%). N-acetylcysteine or catalase restricted the juglone/ascorbate-mediated effects, highlighting the role of oxidative stress in juglone cytotoxicity. Juglone alone or associated with ascorbate did not cause caspase-3 activation or PARP cleavage, suggesting necrosis-like cell death. DNA damage and the mild ER stress caused by juglone were both enhanced by ascorbate. In cells treated with juglone (1-5 {mu}M), a concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation was observed. Ascorbate did not impair cell proliferation but its association with juglone led to a clonogenic death state. The motility of ascorbate-treated cells was not affected. Juglone slightly restricted motility, but cells lost their ability to migrate most noticeably when treated with juglone plus ascorbate. We postulate that juglone kills cells by a necrosis-like mechanism inhibiting cell proliferation and the motility of T24 cells. These effects are enhanced in the presence of ascorbate.

  3. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Haruna; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Onozawa, Erika; Tsuzura, Akiho; Miura, Osamu; Koyama, Takatoshi; Arai, Ayako

    2017-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a disease characterized by clonally proliferating and activated EBV-infected T or NK cells accompanied by chronic inflammation and T- or NK-cell neoplasms. However, the mechanism for developing CAEBV has not been clarified to date. Because the decreased number or inactivation of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) resulted in the development of EBV-positive B-cell neoplasms, we investigated the number of CTLs in CAEBV patients using the tetrameric complexes of HLA-restricted EBV-specific peptides. Among the seven patients examined, EBV-specific CTLs were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of four cases but were not detected in three cases. The ratio of EBV-specific CTLs in PBMCs tended to be higher in the patients with active disease than in those with inactive disease. In two patients in whom EBV-specific CTLs had not been detected, CTLs appeared after the eradication of EBV-infected T cells by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. These results suggested that the failure of CTLs had a role in developing CAEBV, although the induction number and function of EBV-specific CTLs might vary in each patient.

  4. Can resting B cells present antigen to T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Antigen stimulation of T lymphocytes can occur only in the presence of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An ever-increasing number of cell types have been found to act as APCs; these include macrophages, splenic and lymph node dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells of the skin. Although activated B lymphocytes and B cell lymphomas are known to serve as APCs, it has been generally believed that resting B cells cannot perform this function. However, in recent studies the authors have found that resting B cells can indeed present soluble antigen to T cell clones as well as to antigen-primed T cells. The previous difficulty in demonstrating this activity can be explained by the finding that, in contrast to macrophages and dendritic cells, the antigen-presenting ability of resting B cells is very radiosensitive. Macrophages are usually irradiated with 2000-3300 rads to prevent them from incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine in the T cell proliferation assay. Resting B cells, however, begin to lose presenting function at 1500 rads and have completely lost this activity at 3300 rads. It was also possible to distinguish two distinct T cell clonal phenotypes when resting B cells were used as APCs on the basis of two different assays (T cell proliferation, and B cell proliferation resulting from T cell activation). The majority of T cell clones tested were capable of both proliferating themselves and inducing the proliferation of B cells. Some T cells clones, however, could not proliferate in the presence of antigen and B cell APCs, although they were very good at inducing the proliferation of B cells

  5. Adipose-derived stem cells were impaired in restricting CD4+T cell proliferation and polarization in type 2 diabetic ApoE-/- mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Hao; Li, Ya; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yao-Yuan; Wang, Di; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zhou, Hui-Min; Song, Ming; Li, Yi-Hui; Tang, Meng-Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common and serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is accelerated via chronic systemic inflammation rather than hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue is the major source of systemic inflammation in abnormal metabolic state. Pro-inflammatory CD4 + T cells play pivotal role in promoting adipose inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for fat regeneration have potent ability of immunosuppression and restricting CD4 + T cells as well. Whether T2DM ADSCs are impaired in antagonizing CD4 + T cell proliferation and polarization remains unclear. We constructed type 2 diabetic ApoE -/- mouse models and tested infiltration and subgroups of CD4 + T cell in stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) in vivo. Normal/T2DM ADSCs and normal splenocytes with or without CD4 sorting were separated and co-cultured at different scales ex vivo. Immune phenotypes of pro- and anti-inflammation of ADSCs were also investigated. Flow cytometry (FCM) and ELISA were applied in the experiments above. CD4 + T cells performed a more pro-inflammatory phenotype in adipose tissue in T2DM ApoE -/- mice in vivo. Restriction to CD4 + T cell proliferation and polarization was manifested obviously weakened after co-cultured with T2DM ADSCs ex vivo. No obvious distinctions were found in morphology and growth type of both ADSCs. However, T2DM ADSCs acquired a pro-inflammatory immune phenotype, with secreting less PGE2 and expressing higher MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80). Normal ADSCs could also obtain the phenotypic change after cultured with T2DM SVF supernatant. CD4 + T cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory polarization exist in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic ApoE -/- mice. T2DM ADSCs had impaired function in restricting CD4 + T lymphocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory polarization due to immune phenotypic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.U. Engela (Anja); C.C. Baan (Carla); A. Peeters (Anna); W. Weimar (Willem); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunosuppressive capabilities, which have evoked interest in their application as cell therapy in transplant patients. So far it has been unclear whether allogeneic MSCs and host regulatory T-cells (Tregs) functionally influence each other. We

  7. Clinical and Immunological Effects in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung-Cancer after Vaccination with Dendritic Cells Exposed to an Allogeneic Tumor Cell Lysate*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Kvistborg, Pia; Zocca, Mai-Britt

    2013-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin and celeco......Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin...... and celecoxib were used as adjuvants to the vaccines. The objective of the study was to evaluate specific T cell response in vitro by IFN EliSpot. Secondary objec- tives were overall survival, response and quality of life (QoL). Results: Twenty-two patients initiated the vaccination program consisting of ten...

  8. Damage of Neuroblastoma Cell SH-SY5Y Mediated by MPP+ Inhibits Proliferation of T-Cell Leukemia Jurkat by Co-Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system has implications in pathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Research data demonstrated that the peripheral CD4+ T-cell population decreased in pathogenesis of PD. The effect of damaged dopaminergic neurons on peripheral T cells of PD is still unknown. In this study, we constructed a neuronal and glial cells co-culture model by using human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y and gliomas cells U87. After the co-culture cells were treated with neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ for 24 h, the conditioned media was harvested and used to cultivate T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells for another 24 h. We then analyzed the cell proliferation, cell cycle and necrosis effect of Jurkat cells. The results showed that co-culture medium of SH-SY5Y and U87 cells with MPP+ treatment inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells compared to control medium without MPP+, even though the same concentration of MPP+ had very little toxicity to the Jurkat cell. Furthermore, co-culture medium with low concentration of MPP+ (100 µM arrested Jurkat cells cycle in G2/M phase through increasing cell cycle division 2 (CDC2 and CyclinB1 expression level, whereas co-culture medium with high concentration of MPP+ (500 µM induced Jurkat cell necrosis through cellular swelling and membrane breakage. Our data implies that damaged dopamine neurons with glial cells can lead to the reduced number or inhibited proliferation activity of peripheral T cells.

  9. Biodistribution and Immunogenicity of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Intraarticular Chondrocyte Xenotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Marquina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Xenogeneic chondrocytes and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are considered a potential source of cells for articular cartilage repair. We here assessed the immune response triggered by xenogeneic chondrocytes when injected intraarticularly, as well as the immunoregulatory effect of allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSC after systemic administration. To this end, a discordant xenotransplantation model was established by injecting three million porcine articular chondrocytes (PAC into the femorotibial joint of Lewis rats and monitoring the immune response. First, the fate of MSC injected using various routes was monitored in an in vivo imaging system. The biodistribution revealed a dependency on the injection route with MSC injected intravenously (i.v. succumbing early after 24 h and MSC injected intraperitoneally (i.p. lasting locally for at least 5 days. Importantly, no migration of MSC to the joint was detected in rats previously injected with PAC. MSC were then administered either i.v. 1 week before PAC injection or i.p. 3 weeks after to assess their immunomodulatory function on humoral and adaptive immune parameters. Anti-PAC IgM and IgG responses were detected in all PAC-injected rats with a peak at week 2 postinjection and reactivity remaining above baseline levels by week 18. IgG2a and IgG2b were the predominant and long-lasting IgG subtypes. By contrast, no anti-MSC antibody response was detected in the cohort injected with MSC only, but infusion of MSC before PAC injection temporarily augmented the anti-PAC antibody response. Consistent with a cellular immune response to PAC in PAC-injected rats, cytokine/chemokine profiling in serum by antibody array revealed a distinct pattern relative to controls characterized by elevation of multiple markers at week 2, as well as increases in proliferation in draining lymph nodes. Notably, systemic administration of allogeneic MSC under the described conditions did not diminish the immune

  10. Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, C.P. [Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu [School of Science, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2012-11-15

    The caspase inhibitors, benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-l-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Ile-Glu (OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe)-FMK (z-IETD-FMK) at non-toxic doses were found to be immunosuppressive and inhibit human T cell proliferation induced by mitogens and IL-2 in vitro. Both caspase inhibitors were shown to block NF-κB in activated primary T cells, but have little inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ during T cell activation. However, the expression of IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) in activated T cells was inhibited by both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK, whereas the expression of the early activated T cell marker, CD69 was unaffected. During primary T cell activation via the antigen receptor, both caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated and processed to their respective subunits, but neither caspase inhibitors had any effect on the processing of these two caspases. In sharp contrast both caspase inhibitors readily blocked apoptosis and the activation of caspases during FasL-induced apoptosis in activated primary T cells and Jurkat T cells. Collectively, the results demonstrate that both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK are immunosuppressive in vitro and inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3. -- Highlights: ► Caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during T cell activation and proliferation. ► T cell proliferation was blocked by caspase inhibitors. ► Caspase activation during T cell proliferation was not block by caspase inhibitors.

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of the Activation and Proliferation Kinetics and Effector Functions of Human Lymphocytes, and Antigen Presentation Capacity of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Xenogeneic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sato, Kazuya; Hayakawa, Hiroko; Takayama, Norihito; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ito, Ryoji; Mashima, Kiyomi; Oh, Iekuni; Minakata, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Morita, Kaoru; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-17

    Xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models in highly immunodeficient mice are currently being used worldwide to investigate human immune responses against foreign antigens in vivo. However, the individual roles of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, and donor/host hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the induction and development of GVHD have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the immune responses of human T cells and the antigen presentation capacity of donor/host hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic APCs in xenogeneic GVHD models using nonobese diabetic/Shi-scid-IL2rg null mice. CD4 + T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD8 + T cells individually mediated potentially lethal GVHD. In addition to inflammatory cytokine production, CD4 + T cells also supported the activation and proliferation of CD8 + T cells. Using bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that host hematopoietic, but not nonhematopoietic, APCs play a critical role in the development of CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD. During early GVHD, we detected 2 distinct populations in memory CD4 + T cells. One population was highly activated and proliferated in major histocompatibility complex antigen (MHC) +/+ mice but not in MHC -/- mice, indicating alloreactive T cells. The other population showed a less activated and slowly proliferative status regardless of host MHC expression, and was associated with higher susceptibility to apoptosis, indicating nonalloreactive T cells in homeostasis-driven proliferation. These observations are clinically relevant to donor T cell response after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our findings provide a better understanding of the immunobiology of humanized mice and support the development of novel options for the prevention and treatment for GVHD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  13. Tolerance, immunocompetence, and secondary disease in fully allogeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayfield, L.S.; Brent, L.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which secondary disease and mortality in fully allogeneic chimeras (C57BL leads to CBA) is caused (if at all) by a delayed graft-versus-host reaction. Adult CBA males were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T-lymphocyte-depleted C57BL or CBA bone marrow cells (BMC), followed three weeks after irradiation by implantation under the kidney capsule of thymic lobes from C57BL or CBA fetal or adult donors. These mice were observed for the development of secondary disease for periods in excess of 250 days, and they were examined at 5 weeks or 4 months for T lymphocyte reactivity and tolerance to alloantigens, using the cell-mediated lympholysis assay (CML). The following results were obtained. First, removal of T lymphocytes with anti-Thy 1 antibody and complement from allogeneic bone marrow did not prevent wasting and eventual death, although it prolonged the lifespan of mice substantially. Second, T lymphocytes generated from bone marrow-derived precursor cells became tolerant of the histocompatibility antigens of the thymus donor strain but remained normally reactive to third-party antigens. Third, allogeneic radiation chimeras did not survive as well as animals reconstituted with syngeneic cells, even when they were demonstrably tolerant in CML. Fourth, C57BL BMC maturing in a CBA host equipped with a C57BL thymus graft did not become tolerant of host antigens, indicating that extra-thymic tolerance does not occur in fully allogeneic--as opposed to semiallogeneic--chimeras. It is argued that the function of B lymphocytes and/or accessory cells is impaired in fully allogeneic radiation chimeras, and that the mortality observed was directly related to the resulting immunodeficiency. The relevance of the results described in this paper to clinical bone marrow transplantation is discussed

  14. Multiple intravenous injections of allogeneic equine mesenchymal stem cells do not induce a systemic inflammatory response but do alter lymphocyte subsets in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Amir; Wood, Joshua A; Carrade Holt, Danielle D; Gillette, Jessica A; Bohannon-Worsley, Laurie K; Puchalski, Sarah M; Walker, Naomi J; Clark, Kaitlin C; Watson, Johanna L; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-15

    Intravenous (IV) injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is used to treat systemic human diseases and disorders but is not routinely used in equine therapy. In horses, MSCs are isolated primarily from adipose tissue (AT) or bone marrow (BM) and used for treatment of orthopedic injuries through one or more local injections. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and lymphocyte response to multiple allogeneic IV injections of either AT-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) or BM-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) to healthy horses. We injected three doses of 25 × 10(6) allogeneic MSCs from either AT or BM (a total of 75 × 10(6) MSCs per horse) into five and five, respectively, healthy horses. Horses were followed up for 35 days after the first MSC infusion. We evaluated host inflammatory and immune response, including total leukocyte numbers, serum cytokine concentration, and splenic lymphocyte subsets. Repeated injection of allogeneic AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs did not elicit any clinical adverse effects. Repeated BM-MSC injection resulted in increased blood CD8(+) T-cell numbers. Multiple BM-MSC injections also increased splenic regulatory T cell numbers compared with AT-MSC-injected horses but not controls. These data demonstrate that multiple IV injections of allogeneic MSCs are well tolerated by healthy horses. No clinical signs or clinico-pathologic measurements of organ toxicity or systemic inflammatory response were recorded. Increased numbers of circulating CD8(+) T cells after multiple IV injections of allogeneic BM-MSCs may indicate a mild allo-antigen-directed cytotoxic response. Safety and efficacy of allogeneic MSC IV infusions in sick horses remain to be determined.

  15. Donor exosomes rather than passenger leukocytes initiate alloreactive T cell responses after transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jose; Babiker-Mohamed, Mohamed H.; Crosby-Bertorini, Patrick; Paster, Joshua T.; LeGuern, Christian; Germana, Sharon; Abdi, Reza; Uehara, Mayuko; Kim, James I.; Markmann, James F.; Tocco, Georges; Benichou, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of allogeneic organs and tissues represents a lifesaving procedure for a variety of patients affected with end-stage diseases. Although current immunosuppressive therapy prevents early acute rejection, it is associated with nephrotoxicity and increased risks for infection and neoplasia. This stresses the need for selective immune-based therapies relying on manipulation of lymphocyte recognition of donor antigens. The passenger leukocyte theory states that allograft rejection is initiated by recipient T cells recognizing donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules displayed on graft leukocytes migrating to the host’s lymphoid organs. We revisited this concept in mice transplanted with allogeneic skin, heart, or islet grafts using imaging flow cytometry. We observed no donor cells in the lymph nodes and spleen of skin-grafted mice, but we found high numbers of recipient cells displaying allogeneic MHC molecules (cross-dressed) acquired from donor microvesicles (exosomes). After heart or islet transplantation, we observed few donor leukocytes (100 per million) but large numbers of recipient cells cross-dressed with donor MHC (>90,000 per million). Last, we showed that purified allogeneic exosomes induced proinflammatory alloimmune responses by T cells in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that recipient antigen-presenting cells cross-dressed with donor MHC rather than passenger leukocytes trigger T cell responses after allotransplantation. PMID:27942611

  16. Long-term control of recurrent or refractory viral infections after allogeneic HSCT with third-party virus-specific T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Barbara; Blyth, Emily; Clancy, Leighton E; Yong, Agnes; Fraser, Chris; Burgess, Jane; Simms, Renee; Brown, Rebecca; Kliman, David; Dubosq, Ming-Celine; Bishop, David; Sutrave, Gaurav; Ma, Chun Kei Kris; Shaw, Peter J; Micklethwaite, Kenneth P; Gottlieb, David J

    2017-11-14

    Donor-derived adoptive T-cell therapy is a safe and effective treatment of viral infection posttransplant, but it is limited by donor serostatus and availability and by its personalized nature. Off-the-shelf, third-party virus-specific T cells (VSTs) appear promising, but the long-term safety and durability of responses have yet to be established. We conducted a prospective study of 30 allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with persistent or recurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) (n = 28), Epstein-Barr virus (n = 1), or adenovirus (n = 1) after standard therapy. Patients were treated with infusions of partially HLA-matched, third-party, ex vivo-expanded VSTs (total = 50 infusions) at a median of 75 days post-HSCT (range, 37 to 349 days). Safety, viral dynamics, and immune recovery were monitored for 12 months. Infusions were safe and well tolerated. Acute graft versus host disease occurred in 2 patients, despite a median HLA match between VSTs and the recipient of 2 of 6 antigens. At 12 months, the cumulative incidence of overall response was 93%. Virological control was durable in the majority of patients; the reintroduction of antiviral therapy after the final infusion occurred in 5 patients. CMV-specific T-cell immunity rose significantly and coincided with a rise in CD8 + terminal effector cells. PD-1 expression was elevated on CD8 + lymphocytes before the administration of third-party T cells and remained elevated at the time of viral control. Third-party VSTs show prolonged benefit, with virological control achieved in association with the recovery of CD8 + effector T cells possibly facilitated by VST infusion. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02779439 and www.anzctr.org.au as #ACTRN12613000603718.

  17. In vitro generation of Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in patients receiving haplo-identical allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, P; Szmania, S; Galloway, A T; Johnson, K; Scott, A; Guttman, S; Bridges, K; Bruorton, M; Gatlin, J; Garcia, J V; Lamb, L; Chiang, K Y; Spencer, T; Henslee-Downey, J; van Rhee, F

    2001-01-01

    Use of a partially mismatched related donor (PMRD) is an option for patients who require allogeneic transplantation but do not have a matched sibling or unrelated donor. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced lymphoma is a major cause of mortality after PMRD transplantation. In this study, we present a clinical grade culture system for donor-derived EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) that do not recognize haplo-identical recipient cells. The EBV-specific CTLs were tested for cytolytic specificity and other functional properties, including ability to transgress into tissues, propensity for apoptosis, degree of clonality, stability of dominant T-cell clones, and Tc and Th phenotypes. The EBV-specific CTLs were routinely expanded to greater than 80 x 10(6) over a period of 5 weeks, which is sufficient for clinical application. A CD8+ phenotype predominated, and the CTLs were highly specific for donor lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) without killing of recipient targets or K562. Vbeta spectratyping showed an oligoclonal population that was stable on prolonged culture. The EBV-specific CTLs were activated (D-related human leukocyte antigen [HLA-DR+], L-selectin+/-) and of memory phenotype (CD45RO+). Expression of the integrin VLA-4 suggested that these CTLs could adhere to endothelium and migrate into tissues. The Bcl-2 message was upregulated, which may protect the CTLs from the apoptosis. The first demonstration of overexpression of bcl-2 in human memory CTLs. In addition, we show that lymphoblastoid cell lines used to generate CTLs are readily genetically modified with recombinant lentivirus, indicating that genetically engineered antigen presentation is feasible.

  18. Degree of Predicted Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Mismatch Correlates with Poorer Clinical Outcomes of Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Erup; Kornblit, B; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2010-01-01

    In fully HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCT), the main mechanism of the beneficial graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect and of the detrimental graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is believed to be caused by donor cytotoxic T cells directed against disparate recipient minor hi...

  19. Pathophysiological hypoxia affects the redox state and IL-2 signalling of human CD4+ T cells and concomitantly impairs survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Tran, Cam Loan; Schellmann, Saskia; Hahne, Martin; Strehl, Cindy; Hoff, Paula; Radbruch, Andreas; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Inflamed areas are characterized by infiltration of immune cells, local hypoxia and alterations of cellular redox states. We investigated the impact of hypoxia on survival, proliferation, cytokine secretion, intracellular energy and redox state of human CD4(+) T cells. We found that pathophysiological hypoxia (<2% O2 ) significantly decreased CD4(+) T-cell survival after mitogenic stimulation. This effect was not due to an increased caspase-3/7-mediated apoptosis or adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) consumption/depletion. However, the ability of stimulated T cells to proliferate was reduced under hypoxic conditions, despite increased expression of CD25. Pathophysiological hypoxia was also found to modify intracellular ROS (iROS) levels in stimulated T cells over time as compared with levels found in normoxia. Physiological hypoxia (5% O2 ) did not decrease CD4(+) T-cell survival and proliferation or modify iROS levels as compared with normoxia. We conclude that pathophysiological hypoxia affects T-cell proliferation and viability via disturbed IL-2R signalling downstream of STAT5a phosphorylation, but not as a result of impaired cellular energy homeostasis. We suggest iROS links early events in T-cell stimulation to the inhibition of the lymphoproliferative response under pathophysiological hypoxic conditions. The level of iROS may therefore act as a mediator of immune functions leading to down-regulation of long-term T-cell activity in inflamed tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. CD8+ T cells induce thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiguang; Fang, Yujiang; Sharav, Tumenjargal; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2011-02-15

    CD8(+) T cells can be important effector cells in autoimmune inflammation, generally because they can damage target cells by cytotoxicity. This study shows that activated CD8(+) T cells induce thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation and fibrosis in IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 SCID mice in the absence of CD4(+) T cells. Because CD8(+) T cells induce proliferation rather than cytotoxicity of target cells, these results describe a novel function for CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune disease. In contrast to the ability of purified CD8(+) T cells to induce thyrocyte proliferation, CD4(+) T cells or CD8 T cell-depleted splenocytes induced only mild thyroid lesions in SCID recipients. T cells in both spleens and thyroids highly produce TNF-α. TNF-α promotes proliferation of thyrocytes in vitro, and anti-TNF-α inhibits development of thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation in SCID recipients of IFN-γ(-/-) splenocytes. This suggests that targeting CD8(+) T cells and/or TNF-α may be effective for treating epithelial cell hyperplasia and fibrosis.

  1. Comparison of immunological properties of bone marrow stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stem cells before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Kornacker, Martin; Mehlhorn, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    , the influence of osteogenic differentiation in vitro on the immunological characteristics of BMSCs and ASCs is the subject of this article. Before and after osteogenic induction, the influence of BMSCs and ASCs on the proliferative behavior of resting and activated allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cells......Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various tissues and represent an attractive cell population for tissue-engineering purposes. MSCs from bone marrow (bone marrow stromal cells [BMSCs]) are negative for immunologically relevant surface markers and inhibit proliferation of allogenic...... T cells in vitro. Therefore, BMSCs are said to be available for allogenic cell therapy. Although the immunological characteristics of BMSCs have been the subject of various investigations, those of stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (ASCs) have not been adequately described. In addition...

  2. Long-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase pump during T-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karitskaya, Inna; Aksenov, Nikolay; Vassilieva, Irina; Zenin, Valerii; Marakhova, Irina

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the proliferation-related regulation of Na,K-ATPase pump. Our data demonstrate that in mitogen-stimulated human blood lymphocytes, enhanced ouabain-sensitive Rb(K) fluxes in the middle/late stage of G(0)/G(1)/S transit are associated with the increased number of Na,K-ATPase pumps expressed at the cell surface (as determined by the [(3)H]ouabain binding). Analysis of total RNA (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and protein (Western blotting) showed a threefold increase in the level of Na,K-ATPase alpha1-subunit and beta1-subunit mRNAs and significant increase in the Na,K-ATPase alpha1-subunit protein during the first day of mitogen-induced proliferation. The elevated K transport as well as the increased expression of Na,K-ATPase is closely associated with the IL-2-dependent stage of T-cell response. The pharmacological inhibition of IL-2-induced MEK/ERK or JAK/STAT cascades suppressed the IL-2-induced proliferation and reduced the functional and protein expressions of Na,K-ATPase. It is concluded that during the lymphocyte transition from resting stage to proliferation, (1) long-term activation of Na,K-ATPase pump is due to the enhanced expression of Na,K-ATPase protein and mRNA, and (2) the cytokine signaling via the IL-2 receptor is necessary for the cell cycle-associated upregulation of Na,K-ATPase.

  3. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells Suppress T Cell Activation in In Vivo Models of Homeostatic Proliferation in a Prostaglandin E2-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Corbett, Jennifer M.; Cunha, João Paulo M. C. M.; Reading, James L.; Tree, Timothy I. M.; Ting, Anthony E.; Stubblefield, Samantha R.; English, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Lymphodepletion strategies are used in the setting of transplantation (including bone marrow, hematopoietic cell, and solid organ) to create space or to prevent allograft rejection and graft versus host disease. Following lymphodepletion, there is an excess of IL-7 available, and T cells that escape depletion respond to this cytokine undergoing accelerated proliferation. Moreover, this environment promotes the skew of T cells to a Th1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Existing immunosuppressive regimens fail to control this homeostatic proliferative (HP) response, and thus the development of strategies to successfully control HP while sparing T cell reconstitution (providing a functioning immune system) represents a significant unmet need in patients requiring lymphodepletion. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC®) have the capacity to control T cell proliferation and Th1 cytokine production. Herein, this study shows that MAPC cells suppressed anti-thymocyte globulin-induced cytokine production but spared T cell reconstitution in a pre-clinical model of lymphodepletion. Importantly, MAPC cells administered intraperitoneally were efficacious in suppressing interferon-γ production and in promoting the expansion of regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes. MAPC cells administered intraperitoneally accumulated in the omentum but were not present in the spleen suggesting a role for soluble factors. MAPC cells suppressed lymphopenia-induced cytokine production in a prostaglandin E2-dependent manner. This study suggests that MAPC cell therapy may be useful as a novel strategy to target lymphopenia-induced pathogenic T cell responses in lymphodepleted patients. PMID:29740426

  4. Allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amniotic membrane contains a multipotential stem cell population and is expected to possess the machinery to regulate immunological reactions. We investigated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (AMSC transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia as a preclinical trial. Methods. Porcine AMSCs were isolated from amniotic membranes obtained by cesarean section just before delivery and were cultured to increase their numbers before transplantation. Chronic myocardial ischemia was induced by implantation of an ameroid constrictor around the left circumflex coronary artery. Four weeks after ischemia induction, nine swine were assigned to undergo either allogeneic AMSC transplantation or normal saline injection. Functional analysis was performed by echocardiography, and histological examinations were carried out by immunohistochemistry 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Results. Echocardiography demonstrated that left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved and left ventricular dilatation was well attenuated 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Histological assessment showed a significant reduction in percentage of fibrosis in the AMSC transplantation group. Injected allogeneic green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing AMSCs were identified in the immunocompetent host heart without the use of any immunosuppressants 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GFP colocalized with cardiac troponin T and cardiac troponin I. Conclusions. We have demonstrated that allogeneic AMSC transplantation produced histological and functional improvement in the impaired myocardium in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. The transplanted allogeneic AMSCs survived without the use of any immunosuppressants and gained cardiac phenotype through either their transdifferentiation or cell fusion.

  5. Antithymocyte Globulin Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Roider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antithymocyte globulin (ATG is used in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is generally accepted that ATG mediates its immunosuppressive effect primarily via depletion of T cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of ATG-Fresenius (now Grafalon® on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC. ATG induced a semi-mature phenotype in DC with significantly reduced expression of CD14, increased expression of HLA-DR, and intermediate expression of CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86. ATG-DC showed an increase in IL-10 secretion but no IL-12 production. In line with this tolerogenic phenotype, ATG caused a significant induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and a concomitant increase in levels of tryptophan metabolites in the supernatants of DC. Further, ATG-DC did not induce the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction but actively suppressed the T cell proliferation induced by mature DC. These data suggest that besides its well-known effect on T cells, ATG modulates the phenotype of DC in a tolerogenic way, which might constitute an essential part of its immunosuppressive action in vivo.

  6. Ex vivo generation of human alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells from CD4(posCD25(high T cells for immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorieke H Peters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cell (Treg based immunotherapy is a potential treatment for several immune disorders. By now, this approach proved successful in preclinical animal transplantation and auto-immunity models. In these models the success of Treg based immunotherapy crucially depends on the antigen-specificity of the infused Treg population. For the human setting, information is lacking on how to generate Treg with direct antigen-specificity ex vivo to be used for immunotherapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that in as little as two stimulation cycles with HLA mismatched allogeneic stimulator cells and T cell growth factors a very high degree of alloantigen-specificity was reached in magnetic bead isolated human CD4(posCD25(high Treg. Efficient increases in cell numbers were obtained. Primary allogeneic stimulation appeared a prerequisite in the generation of alloantigen-specific Treg, while secondary allogeneic or polyclonal stimulation with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies enriched alloantigen-specificity and cell yield to a similar extent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ex vivo expansion protocol that we describe will very likely increase the success of clinical Treg-based immunotherapy, and will help to induce tolerance to selected antigens, while minimizing general immune suppression. This approach is of particular interest for recipients of HLA mismatched transplants.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung; Won, Hee Yeon; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi- Gyeong; Kim, Kwang Soo; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division rates and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21 induction is

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung; Won, Hee Yeon; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi- Gyeong [College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Soo [Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Hwang, Eun Sook, E-mail: eshwang@ewha.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-27

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division rates and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21 induction is

  9. Anticancer immune reactivity and long-term survival after treatment of metastatic ovarian cancer with dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERNAL, SAMUEL D.; ONA, ENRIQUE T.; RIEGO-JAVIER, AILEEN; DE VILLA, ROMULO; CRISTAL-LUNA, GLORIA R.; LAGUATAN, JOSEPHINE B.; BATAC, EUNICE R.; CANLAS, OSCAR Q.

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells collected by leukapheresis of a patient with metastatic ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) were induced into dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and fused with liposomal constructs of autologous and allogeneic ovarian carcinoma antigens (DC-OVCA). The proliferation of autologous T cells induced by DCs was determined by [3H]-thymidine uptake. Maximal T-cell proliferation was observed in co-cultures of DCs fused with liposomal OVCA constructs compared with intact autologous OVCA cells. The combination of autologous and allogeneic liposomal OVCA constructs induced greater T-cell proliferation than either alone. The cytotoxicity of DC-activated T cells against various target cells were analyzed by a 51Cr-release assay. The combination of autologous and allogeneic liposomal OVCA constructs showed the highest stimulation of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against OVCA cells, but had minimal cytotoxicity against normal fibroblasts or leukemia cells. The liposomal preparations of DC-OVCA were injected monthly into a patient with metastatic ovarian carcinoma whose tumors progressed following multiple courses of chemotherapy. DCs analyzed from the patient post-immunization showed 2- to 3-fold greater OVCA cytotoxicity compared to pre-immunization DCs. Immunoblots using the patient's serum showed reactivity with a number of proteins from ovarian cancer extracts, but not in normal fibroblasts and breast cancer. Following the DC-OVCA treatment, the metastatic lesions progressively decreased in size to the point of being undetectable by serial CAT scans. Seven years following the initial diagnosis, the patient continues to be free of cancer. This report described the anticancer immune reactivity and anti-tumor response induced by DCs sensitized with liposomal constructs of OVCA antigens. Immune cell therapy may therefore be a useful adjunct to surgery and chemotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:22740858

  10. Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-activated dendritic cells promote HIV-1 trans-infection and suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wan; Qin, Yan; Bai, Lei; Lan, Ke; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is commonly occurred in AIDS patients. KSHV and HIV-1 act cooperatively in regulating infection with each other and in human carcinogenesis. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the pivotal cells in host immunity, may be modulated by both viruses, for immunoevasion and dissemination, therefore, the interaction between DCs and each virus has been a prior focus for pathogenesis elucidation. Here, we assessed the potential effect of KSHV on DC–HIV-1 interaction. We found that KSHV stimulation could promote maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4 + T cells, demonstrating the immunosuppression induced by KSHV. More importantly, KSHV-stimulated MDDCs could capture more HIV-1 and efficiently transferred these infectious viruses to Hut/CCR5 T cell line. Our results reveal the novel modulation of DC-mediated HIV-1 dissemination by KSHV, and highlight the importance of studying DC–HIV-1 interaction to elucidate HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► KSHV impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4 + T cells. ► KSHV stimulation matured MDDCs and enhanced HIV-1 endocytosis. ► KSHV stimulated MDDCs increased ICAM-1 expression and tighten contact with T cells. ► KSHV-stimulated MDDCs promoted HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4 + T cells

  11. Is there a role for B lymphocyte chimerism in the monitoring of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the sensitivity and significance of B-cell chimerism for the detection of early engraftment, transplant rejection, and disease relapse. Methods: The dynamic monitoring of lineage-specific cell subtypes (B, T, and NK cells was made in 20 B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT. In the early period after allo-HSCT, the latest establishment of B-cell complete chimerism (CC was observed in a majority of patients. Results: The percentage of donor cells of B-cell lineage was lower than the percent of T-cell lineage in most of the mixed chimerism (MC patients. During graft rejection, the frequency of patients with decreasing MC of B-, T- and NK-cell lineage were 5/5, 2/5, and 2/5. When disease relapsed, five patients showed a faster decrease of the donor percent of B-cells than of T- or NK-cells. Only one patient displayed a more rapid decrease in NK-cells than in T- or B-cells. Conclusion: Monitoring of B-cell chimerism after HSCT seems to be valuable for insuring complete engraftment, anticipating graft rejection, and relapse in B-ALL patients. Keywords: B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, B-cell, T-cell, Chimerism, Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT

  12. Progranulin Inhibits Human T Lymphocyte Proliferation by Inducing the Formation of Regulatory T Lymphocytes

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    Kyu Hwan Kwack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effect of progranulin (PGRN on human T cell proliferation and its underlying mechanism. We show that PGRN inhibits the PHA-induced multiplication of T lymphocytes. It increases the number of iTregs when T lymphocytes are activated by PHA but does not do so in the absence of PHA. PGRN-mediated inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation, as well as the induction of iTregs, was completely reversed by a TGF-β inhibitor or a Treg inhibitor. PGRN induced TGF-β secretion in the presence of PHA whereas it did not in the absence of PHA. Our findings indicate that PGRN suppresses T lymphocyte proliferation by enhancing the formation of iTregs from activated T lymphocytes in response to TGF-β.

  13. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  14. Role of latent membrane protein 1 in chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection-derived T/NK-cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takuto; Kawazu, Hidetaka; Murata, Takayuki; Iwata, Seiko; Arakawa, Saki; Sato, Yoshitaka; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) predominantly infects B cells and causes B-cell lymphomas, such as Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. However, it also infects other types of cells, including T and natural killer (NK) cells, and causes disorders, such as chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and T/NK-cell lymphoma. The CAEBV is a lymphoproliferative disease with poor prognosis, where EBV-positive T or NK cells grow rapidly, although the molecular mechanisms that cause the cell expansion still remain to be elucidated. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an oncogene that can transform some cell types, such as B cells and mouse fibroblasts, and thus may stimulate cell proliferation in CAEBV. Here, we examined the effect of LMP1 on EBV-negative cells using the cells conditionally expressing LMP1, and on CAEBV-derived EBV-positive cells by inhibiting the function of LMP1 using a dominant negative form of LMP1. We demonstrated that LMP1 was responsible for the increased cell proliferation in the cell lines derived from CAEBV, while LMP1 did not give any proliferative advantage to the EBV-negative cell line

  15. Experimental study on therapy of acute radiation sickness with transplantation of allogeneic peripheral blood hemopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Enpu; Bi Jianjin; Zhan Aiqin

    1995-01-01

    In the study, 10 beagles were used. All the dogs were irradiated with 6.5 Gy of γ-rays from a 60 Co source (dose rate, 95.6-107.9 R/min) and divided into three groups. All the three dogs in the control group died, having survived 7.5 days on the average after irradiation. In the second group, four dogs were transplanted with allogeneic peripheral blood hemopoietic stem cells (PBHSC) without removing T lymphocytes. The results of sex chromosome tests after irradiation and transplantation showed that the cells were of donor type. All the four dogs died of severe graft versus-host disease (GVHD) and survived 41.6 days on the average after irradiation. In the third group, three dogs received transplantation of allogeneic PBHSC without T lymphocytes. Two of them died, and the third developed mild GVHD and survived over 4 years

  16. MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, inhibits T cell propagation by modulation of cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, FcεRIβ and HTm4 have been found to function in B cells, mast cells and hematopoietic cells respectively. However, little is known about the function of MS4a4B in T cell regulation. We demonstrate here that MS4a4B negatively regulates mouse T cell proliferation. MS4a4B is highly expressed in primary T cells, natural killer cells (NK and some T cell lines. But its expression in all malignant T cells, including thymoma and T hybridoma tested, was silenced. Interestingly, its expression was regulated during T cell activation. Viral vector-driven overexpression of MS4a4B in primary T cells and EL4 thymoma cells reduced cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of MS4a4B accelerated T cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that MS4a4B regulated T cell proliferation by inhibiting entry of the cells into S-G2/M phase. MS4a4B-mediated inhibition of cell cycle was correlated with upregulation of Cdk inhibitory proteins and decreased levels of Cdk2 activity, subsequently leading to inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our data indicate that MS4a4B negatively regulates T cell proliferation. MS4a4B, therefore, may serve as a modulator in the negative-feedback regulatory loop of activated T cells.

  17. MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, inhibits T cell propagation by modulation of cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Yaping; Williams, Mark S; Carey, Gregory B; Yang, Jingxian; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2010-11-01

    MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, FcεRIβ and HTm4 have been found to function in B cells, mast cells and hematopoietic cells respectively. However, little is known about the function of MS4a4B in T cell regulation. We demonstrate here that MS4a4B negatively regulates mouse T cell proliferation. MS4a4B is highly expressed in primary T cells, natural killer cells (NK) and some T cell lines. But its expression in all malignant T cells, including thymoma and T hybridoma tested, was silenced. Interestingly, its expression was regulated during T cell activation. Viral vector-driven overexpression of MS4a4B in primary T cells and EL4 thymoma cells reduced cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of MS4a4B accelerated T cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that MS4a4B regulated T cell proliferation by inhibiting entry of the cells into S-G2/M phase. MS4a4B-mediated inhibition of cell cycle was correlated with upregulation of Cdk inhibitory proteins and decreased levels of Cdk2 activity, subsequently leading to inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our data indicate that MS4a4B negatively regulates T cell proliferation. MS4a4B, therefore, may serve as a modulator in the negative-feedback regulatory loop of activated T cells.

  18. In vivo proliferation of naïve and memory influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, K J; Riberdy, J M; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    1999-01-01

    days. The greatly expanded population of CD8(+)NPP(+) memory T cells in the lymphoid tissue of secondarily challenged mice declines progressively in mean prevalence over the ensuing 100 days, despite the fact that at least some of these lymphocytes continue to cycle. The recall of cell......The virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response has been analyzed through the development, effector, and recovery phases of primary and secondary influenza pneumonia. Apparently, most, if not all, memory T cells expressing clonotypic receptors that bind a tetrameric complex of influenza nucleoprotein (NP......)(366-374) peptide+H-2D(b) (NPP) are induced to divide during the course of this localized respiratory infection. The replicative phase of the recall response ends about the time that virus can no longer be recovered from the lung, whereas some primary CD8(+)NPP(+) T cells may proliferate for a few more...

  19. NKAP regulates iNKT cell proliferation and differentiation into ROR-��t expressing NKT17 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Puspa; Chen, Meibo W.; McWilliams, Douglas C.; Belmonte, Paul; Constans, Megan; Sant���Angelo, Derek B.; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2016-01-01

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique lineage with characteristics of both adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and recognize glycolipid presented by an MHC Class I-like CD1d molecule. During thymic development, iNKT cells also differentiate into NKT1, NKT2 and NKT17 functional subsets that preferentially produce cytokines IFN-��, IL-4 and IL-17, respectively, upon activation. Newly selected iNKT cells undergo a burst of proliferation, which is defective in mice with a specific del...

  20. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is protective against autoimmune-mediated demyelination by inhibiting effector T cell proliferation.

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    Feng Mei

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (Que, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug (APD, can prevent myelin from breakdown without immune attack. Multiple sclerosis (MS, an autoimmune reactive inflammation demyelinating disease, is triggered by activated myelin-specific T lymphocytes (T cells. In this study, we investigated the potential efficacy of Que as an immune-modulating therapeutic agent for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model for MS. Que treatment was initiated on the onset of MOG(35-55 peptide induced EAE mice and the efficacy of Que on modulating the immune response was determined by Flow Cytometry through analyzing CD4(+/CD8(+ populations and the proliferation of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- in peripheral immune organs. Our results show that Que dramatically attenuates the severity of EAE symptoms. Que treatment decreases the extent of CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell infiltration into the spinal cord and suppresses local glial activation, thereby diminishing the loss of mature oligodendrocytes and myelin breakdown in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Our results further demonstrate that Que treatment decreases the CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell populations in lymph nodes and spleens of EAE mice and inhibits either MOG(35-55 or anti-CD3 induced proliferation as well as IL-2 production of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- isolated from EAE mice spleen. Together, these findings suggest that Que displays an immune-modulating role during the course of EAE, and thus may be a promising candidate for treatment of MS.

  1. [Regulatory B cells activated by CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody inhibit CD4(+)T cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keng; Tao, Lei; Su, Jianbing; Zhang, Yueyang; Zou, Binhua; Wang, Yiyuan; Li, Xiaojuan

    2016-09-01

    Objective To observe the immunosuppressive function of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in vitro after activated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) and anti-CD40 mAb. Methods Mice splenic CD5(+)CD1d(high)B cells and CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells were sorted by flow cytometry. These B cells were first stimulated with CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb for 24 hours, and then co-cultured with purified CD4(+)T cells. The interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression in the activated Bregs and other B cell subset, as well as the proliferation and interferon γ (IFN-γ) expression in the CD4(+) T cells activated by anti-CD3 mAb plus anti-CD28 mAb were determined by flow cytometry. Results CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells activated by CpG-ODN plus anti-CD40 mAb blocked the up-regulated CD4(+)T proliferation and significantly reduced the IFN-γ level. At the same time, activated CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells showed no inhibitory effect on CD4(+)T cells. Further study revealed that IL-10 expression in the CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells were much higher than that in the CD5(-)CD1d(low)B cells after stimulated with CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb for 24 hours. Conclusion CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cells activated by CpG-ODN combined with anti-CD40 mAb have immune inhibitory effects on CD4(+)T cell activation in vitro , which possibly due to IL-10 secretion.

  2. Chalcones from Chinese liquorice inhibit proliferation of T cells and production of cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Kemp, Kåre; Hansen, Majbritt

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A (LicA), an oxygenated chalcone, has been shown to inhibit the growth of both parasites and bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effect of LicA and four synthetic analogues on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production. Four...... out of five chalcones tested inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes measured by thymidine incorporation and by flow cytometry. The production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and T cells was also inhibited by four of five chalcones. Furthermore, intracellular detection...... of cytokines revealed that the chalcones inhibited the production rather than the release of the cytokines. Taken together, these results indicate that LicA and some analogues may have immunomodulatory effects, and may thus be candidates not only as anti-microbial agents, but also for the treatment of other...

  3. Recipient dendritic cells, but not B cells, are required antigen-presenting cells for peripheral alloreactive CD8+ T-cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollov, J L; Lucas, C L; Haspot, F; Gaspar, J Kurtz C; Guzman, A; Sykes, M

    2010-03-01

    Induction of mixed allogeneic chimerism is a promising approach for achieving donor-specific tolerance, thereby obviating the need for life-long immunosuppression for solid organ allograft acceptance. In mice receiving a low dose (3Gy) of total body irradiation, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation combined with anti-CD154 tolerizes peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cells, allowing achievement of mixed chimerism with specific tolerance to donor. With this approach, peripheral CD8 T-cell tolerance requires recipient MHC class II, CD4 T cells, B cells and DCs. Recipient-type B cells from chimeras that were tolerant to donor still promoted CD8 T-cell tolerance, but their role could not be replaced by donor-type B cells. Using recipients whose B cells or DCs specifically lack MHC class I and/or class II or lack CD80 and CD86, we demonstrate that dendritic cells (DCs) must express CD80/86 and either MHC class I or class II to promote CD8 tolerance. In contrast, B cells, though required, did not need to express MHC class I or class II or CD80/86 to promote CD8 tolerance. Moreover, recipient IDO and IL-10 were not required. Thus, antigen presentation by recipient DCs and not by B cells is critical for peripheral alloreactive CD8 T cell tolerance.

  4. Activating receptor NKG2D targets RAE-1-expressing allogeneic neural precursor cells in a viral model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinger, Jason G; Plaisted, Warren C; Maciejewski, Sonia M; Lanier, Lewis L; Walsh, Craig M; Lane, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    Transplantation of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in rapid rejection that is mediated, in part, by T cells. However, the contribution of the innate immune response to allograft rejection in a model of viral-induced neurological disease has not been well defined. Herein, we demonstrate that the natural killer (NK) cell-expressing-activating receptor NKG2D participates in transplanted allogeneic NPC rejection in mice persistently infected with JHMV. Cultured NPCs derived from C57BL/6 (H-2(b) ) mice express the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early precursor transcript (RAE)-1 but expression was dramatically reduced upon differentiation into either glia or neurons. RAE-1(+) NPCs were susceptible to NK cell-mediated killing whereas RAE-1(-) cells were resistant to lysis. Transplantation of C57BL/6-derived NPCs into JHMV-infected BALB/c (H-2(d) ) mice resulted in infiltration of NKG2D(+) CD49b(+) NK cells and treatment with blocking antibody specific for NKG2D increased survival of allogeneic NPCs. Furthermore, transplantation of differentiated RAE-1(-) allogeneic NPCs into JHMV-infected BALB/c mice resulted in enhanced survival, highlighting a role for the NKG2D/RAE-1 signaling axis in allograft rejection. We also demonstrate that transplantation of allogeneic NPCs into JHMV-infected mice resulted in infection of the transplanted cells suggesting that these cells may be targets for infection. Viral infection of cultured cells increased RAE-1 expression, resulting in enhanced NK cell-mediated killing through NKG2D recognition. Collectively, these results show that in a viral-induced demyelination model, NK cells contribute to rejection of allogeneic NPCs through an NKG2D signaling pathway. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Long-lasting inhibitory effects of fetal liver mesenchymal stem cells on T-lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giuliani

    Full Text Available Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC are multipotent progenitor cells that have transient immunomodulatory properties on Natural Killer (NK cells, Dendritic Cells (DC, and T cells. This study compared the use of MSC isolated from bone marrow and fetal liver (FL-MSC to determine which displayed the most efficient immunosuppressive effects on T cell activation. Although both types of MSC exhibit similar phenotype profile, FL-MSC displays a much more extended in vitro life-span and immunomodulatory properties. When co-cultured with CD3/CD28-stimulated T cells, both BM-MSC and FL-MSC affected T cell proliferation by inhibiting their entry into the cell cycle, by inducing the down-regulation of phospho-retinoblastoma (pRb, cyclins A and D1, as well as up-regulating p27(kip1 expression. The T cell inhibition by MSC was not due to the soluble HLA-G5 isoform, but to the surface expression of HLA-G1, as shown by the need of cell-cell contact and by the use of neutralizing anti-HLA-G antibodies. To note, in a HLA-G-mediated fashion, MSC facilitated the expansion of a CD4(low/CD8(low T subset that had decreased secretion of IFN-γ, and an induced secretion of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Because of their longer lasting in vitro immunosuppressive properties, mainly mediated by HLA-G, and their more efficient induction of IL-10 production and T cell apoptosis, fetal liver MSC could be considered a new tool for MSC therapy to prevent allograft rejection.

  6. Immune Reconstitution after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonek, Justyna; Kralj Juric, Mateja; Ghimire, Sakhila; Varanasi, Pavankumar Reddy; Holler, Ernst; Greinix, Hildegard; Weissinger, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The timely reconstitution and regain of function of a donor-derived immune system is of utmost importance for the recovery and long-term survival of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, new developments such as umbilical cord blood or haploidentical grafts were associated with prolonged immunodeficiency due to delayed immune reconstitution, raising the need for better understanding and enhancing the process of immune reconstitution and finding strategies to further optimize these transplant procedures. Immune reconstitution post-HSCT occurs in several phases, innate immunity being the first to regain function. The slow T cell reconstitution is regarded as primarily responsible for deleterious infections with latent viruses or fungi, occurrence of graft-versus-host disease, and relapse. Here we aim to summarize the major steps of the adaptive immune reconstitution and will discuss the importance of immune balance in patients after HSCT. PMID:27909435

  7. Human regulatory T cells control xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease induced by autologous T cells in RAG2-/-gammac-/- immunodeficient mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutis, T; Rijn, R.S. van; Simonetti, E.R.; Aarts-Riemens, T.; Emmelot, M.E.; Bloois, L. van; Martens, A.; Verdonck, L.F.; Ebeling, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Effective prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major challenge to improve the safety of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for leukemia treatment. In murine transplantation models, administration of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) can prevent GvHD.

  8. Protection of lethally irradiated mice with allogeneic fetal liver cells: influence of irradiation dose on immunologic reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulunay, O.; Good, R.A.; Yunis, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    After lethal irradiation long-lived, immunologically vigorous C3Hf mice were produced by treatment with syngeneic fetal liver cells or syngeneic newborn or adult spleen cells. Treatment of lethally irradiated mice with syngeneic or allogeneic newborn thymus cells or allogeneic newborn or adult spleen cells regularly led to fatal secondary disease or graft-versus-host reactions. Treatment of the lethally irradiated mice with fetal liver cells regularly yielded long-lived, immunologically vigorous chimeras. The introduction of the fetal liver cells into the irradiated mice appeared to be followed by development of immunological tolerance of the donor cells. The findings suggest that T-cells at an early stage of differentiation are more susceptible to tolerance induction than are T-lymphocytes at later stages of differentiation. These investigations turned up a perplexing paradox which suggests that high doses of irradiation may injure the thymic stroma, rendering it less capable of supporting certain T-cell populations in the peripheral lymphoid tissue. Alternatively, the higher and not the lower dose of irradiation may have eliminated a host cell not readily derived from fetal liver precursors which represents an important helper cell in certain cell-mediated immune functions, e.g., graft-versus-host reactions, but which is not important in others, e.g., allograft rejections. The higher dose of lethal irradiation did not permit development or maintenance of a population of spleen cells that could initiate graft-versus-host reactions but did permit the development of a population of donor cells capable of achieving vigorous allograft rejection

  9. T cell activation and proliferation following acute exercise in human subjects is altered by storage conditions and mitogen selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Benedict, Stephen H; Bhatta, Anuja; Dunbar, Amanda J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Recent work investigating exercise induced changes in immunocompetence suggests that some of the ambiguity in the literature is resultant from different cell isolation protocols and mitogen selection. To understand this effect, we compared post-exercise measures of T cell activation and proliferation using two different stimulation methods (costimulation through CD28 or stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin [PHA]). Further, we investigated whether exercise induced changes are maintained when T cell isolation from whole blood is delayed overnight in either a room temperature or chilled (4°C) environment. As expected, an increased proliferation response was observed post-exercise in T cells isolated from whole blood of previously trained individuals immediately after blood collection. Also, cells stimulated with PHA after resting overnight in whole blood were not adversely impacted by the storage conditions. In contrast, allowing cells to rest overnight in whole blood prior to stimulation through CD28, lessened the proliferation observed by cells following exercise rendering both the room temperature and chilled samples closer to the results seen in the control condition. Changes in early markers of activation (CD25), followed a similar pattern, with activation in PHA stimulated cells remaining fairly robust after overnight storage; whereas cell activation following stimulation through CD3+CD28 was disproportionately decreased by the influence of overnight storage. These findings indicate that decisions regarding cell stimulation methods need to be paired with the timeline for T cell isolation from whole blood. These considerations will be especially important for field based studies of immunocompetence where there is a delay in getting whole blood samples to a lab for processing as well as clinical applications where a failure to isolate T cells in a timely manner may result in loss of the response of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Release of soluble CD30 after allogeneic stimulation is mediated by memory T cells and regulated by IFN-γ and IL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Sonia Y; García, Luis F; Opelz, Gerhard; Alvarez, Cristiam M; Süsal, Caner

    2013-07-27

    Membrane CD30 is an important costimulatory molecule for activated T lymphocytes, and serum level of soluble CD30 (sCD30) is considered a marker for predicting outcome in kidney transplantation. We investigated the kinetics of CD30 expression on CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations and the source of sCD30 during alloimmune responses in vitro. The effect of neutralizing antibodies against interferon (IFN)-γ and other cytokines on sCD30 release and the involvement of metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17/TACE that are responsible for sCD30 shedding were also assessed. Memory phenotypes and CD30 expression on allostimulated CD3 lymphocytes were evaluated in dialysis patients and matched controls. Allogeneic stimulation resulted in conversion of naive responder cells to central memory CD4 cells (PCD30 expression. Release of sCD30 was attributed mainly to central memory cells, and neutralization of IFN-γ (PsCD30 during allostimulation but did not alter the levels of ADAM10 and ADAM17/TACE. CD30 expression was modulated in dialysis patients in a similar way as in healthy controls. Allostimulation results in the up-regulation of the T-cell activation marker CD30 on CD4 as well as CD8 memory T cells and increased release of sCD30 from these cells in an IFN-γ- and IL-2-dependent manner. These results may explain clinical findings on the suitability of sCD30 and IFN-γ- and IL-2-producing T cells for immune monitoring of kidney transplant recipients before and after transplantation.

  11. Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-activated dendritic cells promote HIV-1 trans-infection and suppress CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Qin, Yan; Bai, Lei [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Lan, Ke [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jian-Hua, E-mail: Jh_wang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2013-06-05

    Infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is commonly occurred in AIDS patients. KSHV and HIV-1 act cooperatively in regulating infection with each other and in human carcinogenesis. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the pivotal cells in host immunity, may be modulated by both viruses, for immunoevasion and dissemination, therefore, the interaction between DCs and each virus has been a prior focus for pathogenesis elucidation. Here, we assessed the potential effect of KSHV on DC–HIV-1 interaction. We found that KSHV stimulation could promote maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4{sup +} T cells, demonstrating the immunosuppression induced by KSHV. More importantly, KSHV-stimulated MDDCs could capture more HIV-1 and efficiently transferred these infectious viruses to Hut/CCR5 T cell line. Our results reveal the novel modulation of DC-mediated HIV-1 dissemination by KSHV, and highlight the importance of studying DC–HIV-1 interaction to elucidate HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► KSHV impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4{sup +} T cells. ► KSHV stimulation matured MDDCs and enhanced HIV-1 endocytosis. ► KSHV stimulated MDDCs increased ICAM-1 expression and tighten contact with T cells. ► KSHV-stimulated MDDCs promoted HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4{sup +} T cells.

  12. Status of T- and B-cell cooperation in radiation chimeras: evidence for a suppressor effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengozian, N.; Urso, P.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute tolerance may not be in operation in the allogeneic bone marrow chimera, but rather a dynamic state involving interaction not only between the donor and host but also among the donor-lymphoid cells themselves may exist. Whether this observation made in one allogeneic chimera, CD2F 1 → C3BF 1 , will be true for other chimeras (different strain combinations, species) remains to be shown. Thus, the tempo, mode, and requirement for the generation of suppressor T cells are factors that may vary for any specific allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Finally, the manner and degree to which the tolerance-inducing mechanism may affect T- and B-cell functions of the chimera with respect to third-party antigens are yet to be determined

  13. Tenogenically induced allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVandenberghe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Suspensory ligament injuries are a common injury in sport horses, especially in competing dressage horses. Because of the poor healing of chronic recalcitrant tendon injuries, this represents a major problem in the rehabilitation of sport horses and often compromises the return to the initial performance level. Stem cells are considered as a novel treatment for different pathologies in horses and humans. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are well known for their use in the treatment of tendinopathies, however, recent studies report a safe use of allogeneic MSCs for different orthopaedic applications in horses. Moreover, it has been reported that predifferentiation of MSCs prior to injection might result in improved clinical outcomes. For all these reasons, the present case report describes the use of allogeneic tenogenically induced peripheral blood-derived MSCs for the treatment of a proximal suspensory ligament injury. During conservative management for 4 months, the horse demonstrated no improvement of a right front lameness with a Grade 2/5 on the AAEP scale and a clear hypo-echoic area detectable in 30% of the cross sectional area. From 4 weeks after treatment, the lameness reduced to an AAEP Grade 1/5 and a clear filling of the lesion could be noticed on ultrasound. At 12 weeks (T4 after the first injection, a second intralesional injection with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs and PRP was given and at 4 weeks after the second injection (T5, the horse trotted sound under all circumstances with a close to total fiber alignment. The horse went back to previous performance level at 32 weeks after the first regenerative therapy and is currently still doing so (i.e. 20 weeks later or 1 year after the first stem cell treatment.In conclusion, the present case report demonstrated a positive evolution of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis after treatment with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs.

  14. Effect of injection molded micro-structured polystyrene surfaces on proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lucchetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, osteoinductive micro-pillared polystyrene surfaces were mass-produced for bone replacement applications, by means of the micro injection molding process. Firstly, the molding process parameters were optimized with a two-level, three-factor central composite face-centered plan to increase the quality of polystyrene micro pillars replication and to maximize the pillars height uniformity over the molded part. Secondly, osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion and proliferation on the replicated substrates were assessed as a function of micro topography parameters, such as pillars diameter, aspect ratio and spacing. Cell morphology and proliferation were evaluated through MTS test after 1, 3 and 7 days from seeding. The experimental results showed that cells adhesion and proliferation is more positively promoted on micro-pillared surfaces compared to flat surfaces, but no correlations were observed between cell proliferation and pillar diameter and spacing.

  15. Proliferation and apoptosis of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with low numbers of syngeneic CD4+ T cells, develop a chronic and lethal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) within 4-6 months. We have used in vivo 5-bromo2-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling to assess the proliferation of lamina propria-derived CD4+ T cells in diseased scid mice....... The hourly rate of renewal of colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells in diseased mice was 7% compared with 1.5% in normal BALB/c control mice. Transplantation of scid mice with in vitro activated CD4+ T cells accelerated the disease onset and development in a cell dose-dependent fashion when compared with non......-activated CD4+ T cells. In pulse-chase experiments it was shown that BrdU-labeled cells disappeared rapidly from the lamina propria of diseased mice. DNA analysis revealed that this was due to the presence of nearly four times as many apoptotic CD4+ T cells in diseased than in control mice. Further analyses...

  16. Culture promotes transfer of thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation by reducing regulatory T cell numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes, Timothy D; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2013-01-01

    IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice develop a spontaneous autoimmune thyroid disease, thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation (TEC H/P) when given NaI in their water for 7+ mo. TEC H/P can be transferred to IFN-γ(-/-) SCID mice by splenocytes from mice with severe (4-5+) disease, and transfer of TEC H/P is improved when splenocytes are cultured prior to transfer. Older (9+ mo) IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 mice have elevated numbers of FoxP3(+) T reg cells, up to 2-fold greater than younger (2 mo) mice. During culture, the number of T reg decreases and this allows the improved transfer of TEC H/P. Co-culture with IL-2 prior to transfer prevents the decrease of T reg and improves their in vitro suppressive ability resulting in reduced TEC H/P in recipient mice. Therefore, culturing splenocytes improves transfer of TEC H/P by reducing the number of T reg and IL-2 inhibits transfer by preserving T reg number and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytokines affecting CD4+T regulatory cells in transplant tolerance. III. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes survival of alloantigen-specific CD4+ T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bruce M; Plain, Karren M; Tran, Giang T; Verma, Nirupama D; Robinson, Catherine M; Nomura, Masaru; Boyd, Rochelle; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J

    2017-08-01

    CD4 + T cells mediate antigen-specific allograft tolerance, but die in culture without activated lymphocyte derived cytokines. Supplementation of the media with cytokine rich supernatant, from ConA activated spleen cells, preserves the capacity of tolerant cells to transfer tolerance and suppress rejection. rIL-2 or rIL-4 alone are insufficient to maintain these cells, however. We observed that activation of naïve CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg with alloantigen and the Th2 cytokine rIL-4 induces them to express interleukin-5 specific receptor alpha (IL-5Rα) suggesting that IL-5, a Th2 cytokine that is produced later in the immune response may promote tolerance mediating Treg. This study examined if recombinant IL-5(rIL-5) promoted survival of tolerant CD4 + , especially CD4 + CD25 + T cells. CD4 + T cells, from DA rats tolerant to fully allogeneic PVG heart allografts surviving over 100days without on-going immunosuppression, were cultured with PVG alloantigen and rIL-5. The ability of these cells to adoptively transfer tolerance to specific-donor allograft and suppress normal CD4 + T cell mediated rejection in adoptive DA hosts was examined. Tolerant CD4 + CD25 + T cells' response to rIL-5 and expression of IL-5Rα was also assessed. rIL-5 was sufficient to promote transplant tolerance mediating CD4 + T cells' survival in culture with specific-donor alloantigen. Tolerant CD4 + T cells cultured with rIL-5 retained the capacity to transfer alloantigen-specific tolerance and inhibited naïve CD4 + T cells' capacity to effect specific-donor graft rejection. rIL-5 promoted tolerant CD4 + CD25 + T cells' proliferation in vitro when stimulated with specific-donor but not third-party stimulator cells. Tolerant CD4 + CD25 + T cells expressed IL-5Rα. This study demonstrated that IL-5 promoted the survival of alloantigen-specific CD4 + CD25 + T cells that mediate transplant tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20......% of the PBMC cultures whereas proliferation was induced in 79% of the same cultures offered similar treated TT (except for the PAGE separation). When T-cell blotting was performed with TT separated in a SDS-agarose matrix, proliferation was induced in 80% of donors responding to soluble TT. The results show...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  19. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Induces Cancer and Embryonic Merkel Cell Proliferation in a Transgenic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuda, Masahiro; Guastafierro, Anna; Geng, Xuehui; Shuda, Yoko; Ostrowski, Stephen M; Lukianov, Stefan; Jenkins, Frank J; Honda, Kord; Maricich, Stephen M; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes the majority of human Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) and encodes a small T (sT) antigen that transforms immortalized rodent fibroblasts in vitro. To develop a mouse model for MCV sT-induced carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with a flox-stop-flox MCV sT sequence homologously recombined at the ROSA locus (ROSAsT), allowing Cre-mediated, conditional MCV sT expression. Standard tamoxifen (TMX) administration to adult UbcCreERT2; ROSAsT mice, in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, resulted in MCV sT expression in multiple organs that was uniformly lethal within 5 days. Conversely, most adult UbcCreERT2; ROSAsT mice survived low-dose tamoxifen administration but developed ear lobe dermal hyperkeratosis and hypergranulosis. Simultaneous MCV sT expression and conditional homozygous p53 deletion generated multi-focal, poorly-differentiated, highly anaplastic tumors in the spleens and livers of mice after 60 days of TMX treatment. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from these mice induced to express MCV sT exhibited anchorage-independent cell growth. To examine Merkel cell pathology, MCV sT expression was also induced during mid-embryogenesis in Merkel cells of Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT mice, which lead to significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in touch domes at late embryonic ages that normalized postnatally. Tamoxifen administration to adult Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT and Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT; p53flox/flox mice had no effects on Merkel cell numbers and did not induce tumor formation. Taken together, these results show that MCV sT stimulates progenitor Merkel cell proliferation in embryonic mice and is a bona fide viral oncoprotein that induces full cancer cell transformation in the p53-null setting.

  20. Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0234 TITLE: Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion PRINCIPAL...14/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...tolerance induction of all types of allografts. In this study, we investigate whether co-infusion of amnion- derived multipotent progenitor (AMP) cells

  1. FOXO3 regulates CD8 T cell memory by T cell-intrinsic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Sullivan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available CD8 T cell responses have three phases: expansion, contraction, and memory. Dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptotic rates control CD8 T cell numbers at each phase, which in turn dictate the magnitude of CD8 T cell memory. Identification of signaling pathways that control CD8 T cell memory is incomplete. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway controls cell growth in many cell types by modulating the activity of FOXO transcription factors. But the role of FOXOs in regulating CD8 T cell memory remains unknown. We show that phosphorylation of Akt, FOXO and mTOR in CD8 T cells occurs in a dynamic fashion in vivo during an acute viral infection. To elucidate the potentially dynamic role for FOXO3 in regulating homeostasis of activated CD8 T cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, we infected global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV. We found that FOXO3 deficiency induced a marked increase in the expansion of effector CD8 T cells, preferentially in the spleen, by T cell-intrinsic mechanisms. Mechanistically, the enhanced accumulation of proliferating CD8 T cells in FOXO3-deficient mice was not attributed to an augmented rate of cell division, but instead was linked to a reduction in cellular apoptosis. These data suggested that FOXO3 might inhibit accumulation of growth factor-deprived proliferating CD8 T cells by reducing their viability. By virtue of greater accumulation of memory precursor effector cells during expansion, the numbers of memory CD8 T cells were strikingly increased in the spleens of both global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice. The augmented CD8 T cell memory was durable, and FOXO3 deficiency did not perturb any of the qualitative attributes of memory T cells. In summary, we have identified FOXO3 as a critical regulator of CD8 T cell memory, and therapeutic modulation of FOXO3 might enhance vaccine-induced protective immunity against intracellular pathogens.

  2. Protein energy malnutrition impairs homeostatic proliferation of memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Smita S; Chatraw, Janel Hart; Tan, Wendy G; Wherry, E John; Becker, Todd C; Ahmed, Rafi; Kapasi, Zoher F

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical but poorly understood determinant of immunity. There is abundant epidemiological evidence linking protein malnutrition to impaired vaccine efficacy and increased susceptibility to infections; yet, the role of dietary protein in immune memory homeostasis remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that protein-energy malnutrition induced in mice by low-protein (LP) feeding has a detrimental impact on CD8 memory. Relative to adequate protein (AP)-fed controls, LP feeding in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-immune mice resulted in a 2-fold decrease in LCMV-specific CD8 memory T cells. Adoptive transfer of memory cells, labeled with a division tracking dye, from AP mice into naive LP or AP mice demonstrated that protein-energy malnutrition caused profound defects in homeostatic proliferation. Remarkably, this defect occurred despite the lymphopenic environment in LP hosts. Whereas Ag-specific memory cells in LP and AP hosts were phenotypically similar, memory cells in LP hosts were markedly less responsive to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced acute proliferative signals. Furthermore, upon recall, memory cells in LP hosts displayed reduced proliferation and protection from challenge with LCMV-clone 13, resulting in impaired viral clearance in the liver. The findings show a metabolic requirement of dietary protein in sustaining functional CD8 memory and suggest that interventions to optimize dietary protein intake may improve vaccine efficacy in malnourished individuals.

  3. STAT3 Regulates Proliferation and Survival of CD8+ T Cells: Enhances Effector Responses to HSV-1 Infection, and Inhibits IL-10+ Regulatory CD8+ T Cells in Autoimmune Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Rong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available STAT3 regulates CD4+ T cell survival and differentiation. However, its effects on CD8+ T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that in comparison to WT CD8+ T cells, STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibit a preactivated memory-like phenotype, produce more IL-2, proliferate faster, and are more sensitive to activation-induced cell death (AICD. The enhanced proliferation and sensitivity to AICD correlated with downregulation of class-O forkhead transcription factors (FoxO1, FoxO3A, , , Bcl-2, OX-40, and upregulation of FasL, Bax, and Bad. We examined whether STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells can mount effective response during herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 infection and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU. Compared to WT mice, HSV-1-infected STAT3-deficient mice (STAT3KO produced less IFN- and virus-specific KLRG-1+ CD8+ T cells. STAT3KO mice are also resistant to EAU and produced less IL-17-producing Tc17 cells. Resistance of STAT3KO to EAU correlated with marked expansion of IL-10-producing regulatory CD8+ T cells (CD8-Treg implicated in recovery from autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, increases of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation observed during inflammation may inhibit expansion of CD8-Tregs, thereby impeding recovery from uveitis. These results suggest that STAT3 is a potential therapeutic target for upregulating CD8+ T cell-mediated responses to viruses and suggest the successful therapeutic targeting of STAT3 as treatment for uveitis, derived, in part, from promoting CD8-Treg expansion.

  4. The effect of iron-deficiency anemia on cytolytic activity of mice spleen and peritoneal cells against allogenic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvibidila, S.R.; Baliga, B.S.; Suskind, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The capacity of spleen and peritoneal cells from iron deficient mice, ad libitum fed control mice, and pair-fed mice to kill allogenic tumor cells (mastocytoma tumor P815) has been investigated. In the first study, mice were sensitized in vivo with 10(7) viable tumor cells 51 and 56 days after weaning. The capacity of splenic cells and peritoneal cells from sensitized and nonsensitized mice to kill tumor cells was evaluated 5 days after the second dose of tumor cells. At ratios of 2.5:1 to 100:1 of attacker to target cells, the percentage 51 Cr release after 4 h of incubation was significantly less in iron-deficient mice than control and/or pair-fed mice (p less than 0.05). Protein-energy undernutrition in pair-fed mice had no significant effect. In the second study, spleen cells and enriched T cell fractions were incubated in vitro for 5 days with uv irradiated Balb/C spleen cells in a 2:1 ratio. The cytotoxic capacity against the same allogenic tumor cells was again evaluated. The percentage chromium release at different attacker to target cells was less than 30% in the iron-deficient group compared to either control or pair-fed supporting the results of in vivo sensitized cells. The possible mode of impairment of the cytotoxic capacity is discussed

  5. Tissue Damage Caused by Myeloablative, but Not Non-Myeloablative, Conditioning before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Results in Dermal Macrophage Recruitment without Active T-Cell Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Balen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. T-cell-depleted alloSCT with postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI may reduce GVHD, because tissue injury can be restored at the time of DLI. In this study, we investigated the presence of tissue injury and inflammation in skin during the period of hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution after alloSCT.MethodsSkin biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for HLA class II, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, CD54, CD68, CD86, CD206, CD3, and CD8. HLA class II-expressing cells were characterized as activated T-cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs, or tissue repairing macrophages. In sex-mismatched patient and donor couples, origin of cells was determined by multiplex analysis combining XY-FISH and fluorescent immunohistochemistry.ResultsNo inflammatory environment due to pretransplant conditioning was detected at the time of alloSCT, irrespective of the conditioning regimen. An increase in HLA class II-positive macrophages and CD3 T-cells was observed 12–24 weeks after myeloablative alloSCT, but these macrophages did not show signs of interaction with the co-localized T-cells. In contrast, during GVHD, an increase in HLA class II-expressing cells coinciding with T-cell interaction was observed, resulting in an overt inflammatory reaction with the presence of activated APC, activated donor T-cells, and localized upregulation of HLA class II expression on epidermal cells. In the absence of GVHD, patient derived macrophages were gradually replaced by donor-derived macrophages although patient-derived macrophages were detectable even 24 weeks after alloSCT.ConclusionConditioning regimens cause tissue damage in the skin, but this does not result in a local increase of activated APC. In contrast to the inflamed situation in GVHD, when interaction takes place between

  6. The thioredoxin-1 system is essential for fueling DNA synthesis during T-cell metabolic reprogramming and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Jonathan; Heer, Sebastian; Matsushita, Mai; Pohlmeier, Lea; Tortola, Luigi; Fuhrer, Tobias; Conrad, Marcus; Zamboni, Nicola; Kisielow, Jan; Kopf, Manfred

    2018-05-10

    The thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) system is an important contributor to cellular redox balance and is a sensor of energy and glucose metabolism. Here we show critical c-Myc-dependent activation of the Trx1 system during thymocyte and peripheral T-cell proliferation, but repression during T-cell quiescence. Deletion of thioredoxin reductase-1 (Txnrd1) prevents expansion the CD4 - CD8 - thymocyte population, whereas Txnrd1 deletion in CD4 + CD8 + thymocytes does not affect further maturation and peripheral homeostasis of αβT cells. However, Txnrd1 is critical for expansion of the activated T-cell population during viral and parasite infection. Metabolomics show that TrxR1 is essential for the last step of nucleotide biosynthesis by donating reducing equivalents to ribonucleotide reductase. Impaired availability of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides induces the DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest of Txnrd1-deficient T cells. These results uncover a pivotal function of the Trx1 system in metabolic reprogramming of thymic and peripheral T cells and provide a rationale for targeting Txnrd1 in T-cell leukemia.

  7. Prevention of Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoproliferative disease by molecular monitoring and preemptive rituximab in high-risk patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.J. van Esser (Joost); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); B. van der Holt (Bronno); E. Meijer (Ellen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); L.F. Verdonck (Leo); B. Löwenberg (Bob); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRecipients of a partially T-cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) developing reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with quantified viral DNA levels exceeding 1000 genome equivalents/milliliter (geq/mL) are at high risk for EBV-lymphoproliferative disease

  8. Inhibitory effects of a selective Jak2 inhibitor on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asari Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuko Asari, Kazunori Kageyama, Yuki Nakada, Mizuki Tasso, Shinobu Takayasu, Kanako Niioka, Noriko Ishigame, Makoto Daimon Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Purpose: The primary cause of Cushing’s disease is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas. EGFR signaling induces POMC mRNA-transcript levels and ACTH secretion from corticotroph tumors. The Jak–STAT pathway is located downstream of EGFR signaling; therefore, a Jak2 inhibitor could be an effective therapy for EGFR-related tumors. In this study, we determined the effect of a potent and selective Jak2 inhibitor, SD1029, on ACTH production and proliferation in mouse AtT20 corticotroph tumor cells.Materials and methods: AtT20 pituitary corticotroph tumor cells were cultured after transfection with PTTG1- or GADD45β-specific siRNA. Expression levels of mouse POMC, PTTG1, and GADD45β mRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. ACTH levels were measured using ACTH ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to examine protein expression of phosphorylated STAT3/STAT3. Viable cells and DNA fragmentation were measured using a cell-proliferation assay and cell-death detection ELISA, respectively. Cellular DNA content was analyzed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting.Results: SD1029 decreased POMC and PTTG1 mRNA and ACTH levels, while increasing GADD45β levels. The drug also decreased AtT20-cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but did not alter cell-cycle progression. SD1029 also inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. PTTG1 knockdown inhibited POMC mRNA levels and cell proliferation. However, combined treatment with PTTG1 knockdown and SD1029 had no additive effect on POMC mRNA levels or cell proliferation. GADD45β knockdown inhibited the SD1029-induced decrease in POMC mRNA levels and also partially inhibited the decrease in cell proliferation.Conclusion: Both

  9. Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Ameliorate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Regulating Self-Reactive T Cell Responses and Dendritic Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have emerged as a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS. Administration of MSCs to MS patients has proven safe with signs of immunomodulation but their therapeutic efficacy remains low. The aim of the current study has been to further characterize the immunomodulatory mechanisms of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs in vitro and in vivo using the EAE model of chronic brain inflammation in mice. We found that murine ASCs (mASCs suppress T cell proliferation in vitro via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 1/2 activities. mASCs also prevented the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced maturation of dendritic cells (DCs in vitro. The addition of the COX-1/2 inhibitor indomethacin, but not the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME, reversed the block in DC maturation implicating prostaglandin (PG E2 in this process. In vivo, early administration of murine and human ASCs (hASCs ameliorated myelin oligodendrocyte protein- (MOG35-55- induced EAE in C57Bl/6 mice. Mechanistic studies showed that mASCs suppressed the function of autoantigen-specific T cells and also decreased the frequency of activated (CD11c+CD40high and CD11c+TNF-α+ DCs in draining lymph nodes (DLNs. In summary, these data suggest that mASCs reduce EAE severity, in part, through the impairment of DC and T cell function.

  10. In Vitro Pre-Clinical Validation of Suicide Gene Modified Anti-CD33 Redirected Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    Full Text Available Approximately fifty percent of patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be cured with current therapeutic strategies which include, standard dose chemotherapy for patients at standard risk of relapse as assessed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis, or high-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for high-risk patients. Despite allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant about 25% of patients still succumb to disease relapse, therefore, novel strategies are needed to improve the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.We developed an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting the CD33 myeloid antigen, expressed in ~ 85-90% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, using chimeric antigen receptor redirected T-cells. Considering that administration of CAR T-cells has been associated with cytokine release syndrome and other potential off-tumor effects in patients, safety measures were here investigated and reported. We genetically modified human activated T-cells from healthy donors or patients with acute myeloid leukemia with retroviral supernatant encoding the inducible Caspase9 suicide gene, a ΔCD19 selectable marker, and a humanized third generation chimeric antigen receptor recognizing human CD33. ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells had a 75±3.8% (average ± standard error of the mean chimeric antigen receptor expression, were able to specifically lyse CD33+ targets in vitro, including freshly isolated leukemic blasts from patients, produce significant amount of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, express the CD107a degranulation marker, and proliferate upon antigen specific stimulation. Challenging ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells with programmed-death-ligand-1 enriched leukemia blasts resulted in significant killing like observed for the programmed-death-ligand-1 negative leukemic blasts fraction. Since the administration of 10 nanomolar of a non

  11. The role of gamma delta T cells in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minculescu, L; Sengeløv, H

    2015-01-01

    transplantation modalities increasingly focuses on selective cell depletion and graft engineering with the aim of retaining beneficial immune donor cells for the graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL) effect. In this context, the adoptive and especially innate effector functions of γδ T cells together with clinical studies...... recognition independent from the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allows for the theoretical possibility of mediating GVL without an allogeneic response in terms of GVHD. Early studies on the impact of γδ T cells in HSCT have reported conflicting results. Recent studies, however, do suggest an overall...

  12. Allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs): an innovative approach to treating advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Daniel E; Chang, David H; Hamilton, Michele A; Nakamura, Mamoo; Henry, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Over 37 million people worldwide are living with Heart Failure (HF). Advancements in medical therapy have improved mortality primarily by slowing the progression of left ventricular dysfunction and debilitating symptoms. Ultimately, heart transplantation, durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS), or palliative care are the only options for patients with end-stage HF. Regenerative therapies offer an innovative approach, focused on reversing myocardial dysfunction and restoring healthy myocardial tissue. Initial clinical trials using autologous (self-donated) bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) demonstrated excellent safety, but only modest efficacy. Challenges with autologous stem cells include reduced quality and efficacy with increased patient age. The use of allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) offers an "off the shelf" therapy, with consistent potency and less variability than autologous cells. Preclinical and initial clinical trials with allogeneic MPCs have been encouraging, providing the support for a large ongoing Phase III trial-DREAM-HF. We provide a comprehensive review of preclinical and clinical data supporting MPCs as a therapeutic option for HF patients. The current data suggest allogeneic MPCs are a promising therapy for HF patients. The results of DREAM-HF will determine whether allogeneic MPCs can decrease major adverse clinical events (MACE) in advanced HF patients.

  13. Effects of vitamin K3 and K5 on proliferation, cytokine production, and regulatory T cell-frequency in human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Hiroshige; Ishizawa, Hitomi; Nakamura, Yurie; Tadokoro, Hiroko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Sugiyama, Kentaro; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2014-03-18

    The effects of vitamin K (VK) derivatives VK3 and VK5 on human immune cells have not been extensively investigated. We examined the effects of VK3 and VK5 on proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell-frequency in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activated by T cell mitogen in vitro. Anti-proliferative effects of VK3 and VK5 on T-cell mitogen activated PBMCs were assessed by WST assay procedures. Apoptotic cells were determined as Annexin V positive/propidium iodide (PI) negative cells. Cytokine concentrations in the supernatant of the culture medium were measured with bead-array procedures followed by analysis with flow cytometry. The CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells in mitogen-activated PBMCs were stained with fluorescence-labeled specific antibodies followed by flow cytometry. VK3 and VK5 suppressed the mitogen-activated proliferation of PBMCs significantly at 10-100μM (p<0.05). The data also suggest that VK3 and VK5 promote apoptosis in the mitogen-activated T cells. VK3 and VK5 significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL)-4, -6, and -10 from the activated PBMCs at 10-100μM (p<0.05). In contrast, VK3 and VK5 significantly increased Treg cell-frequency in the activated PBMCs at concentrations more than 10μM (p<0.001). Our data suggest that VK3 and VK5 attenuate T cell mediated immunity by inhibiting the proliferative response and inducing apoptosis in activated T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential effect of gamma-irradiated and heat-treated lymphocytes on T cell activation, and interleukin-2 and interleukin-3 release in the human mixed lymphocyte reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loertscher, R.; Abbud-Filho, M.; Leichtman, A.B.; Ythier, A.A.; Williams, J.M.; Carpenter, C.B.; Strom, T.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat-inactivated (45 degrees C/1 hr) lymphocytes selectively activate suppressor T cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), while no significant proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation can be detected. It is not well understood why hyperthermic treatment abolishes the stimulatory capacity of lymphocytes since HLA-DR molecules remain detectable immediately following heat exposure. In order to further characterize the requirements for Ts activation we studied the effects of hyperthermic treatment on cellular protein and DNA synthesis and cell surface protein expression in proliferating T and B cells; interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, and IL-3 release following allogeneic stimulation with heat treated cells (HMLR); and IL-2 receptor expression as an indicator of T cell activation in the HMLR. Hyperthermic treatment reduced cellular protein synthesis as estimated by 14 C-leucine uptake to about 15%, and DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine incorporation) to about 5% of untreated control cells. In contrast to y-irradiated cells, viability of heated cells rapidly declined within the first 24 hr. Hyperthermic treatment doubled binding of mouse immunoglobulin paralleled by an increased expression of IL-2 and transferrin receptors, while expression of HLA-DR and 4F2 proteins appeared unchanged. Stimulation with heated cells triggered the release of IL-1- and an IL-3-like bioactivity but did not induce IL-2 synthesis and/or release, thus explaining the lack of proliferation in the HMLR. Addition of exogenous IL-2 but not IL-1 restored HMLR proliferation. A comparison of allostimulation with y-irradiated and heat-treated cells revealed that significantly fewer T cells were induced to express IL-2 receptors at day 3 (14% vs. 8%, P less than 0.001) and at day 6 (42% vs. 21%, P less than 0.05) with heat-inactivated stimulators

  15. Contribution of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells to anti-viral T cell response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sandalova

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses infect most humans. Their infections can be associated with pathological conditions and significant changes in T cell repertoire but evidences of symbiotic effects of herpesvirus latency have never been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV and EBV-specific CD8 T cells contribute to the heterologous anti-viral immune response. Volume of activated/proliferating virus-specific and total CD8 T cells was evaluated in 50 patients with acute viral infections: 20 with HBV, 12 with Dengue, 12 with Influenza, 3 with Adenovirus infection and 3 with fevers of unknown etiology. Virus-specific (EBV, HCMV, Influenza pentamer+ and total CD8 T cells were analyzed for activation (CD38/HLA-DR, proliferation (Ki-67/Bcl-2(low and cytokine production. We observed that all acute viral infections trigger an expansion of activated/proliferating CD8 T cells, which differs in size depending on the infection but is invariably inflated by CD8 T cells specific for persistent herpesviruses (HCMV/EBV. CD8 T cells specific for other non-related non persistent viral infection (i.e. Influenza were not activated. IL-15, which is produced during acute viral infections, is the likely contributing mechanism driving the selective activation of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells. In addition we were able to show that herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells displayed an increased ability to produce the anti-viral cytokine interferon-gamma during the acute phase of heterologous viral infection. Taken together, these data demonstrated that activated herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells inflate the activated/proliferating CD8 T cells population present during acute viral infections in human and can contribute to the heterologous anti-viral T cell response.

  16. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  17. Interaction between adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Engela, Anja; Baan, Carla; Peeters, Anna; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunosuppressive capabilities, which have evoked interest in their application as cell therapy in transplant patients. So far it has been unclear whether allogeneic MSCs and host regulatory T-cells (Tregs) functionally influence each other. We investigated the interaction between both cell types using perirenal adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs) from kidney donors and Tregs from blood bank donors or kidney recipients 6 months after transplant...

  18. Co-Culturing of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Autological and Allogenic Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, N M; Davydova, Yu O; Gal'tseva, I V; Petinati, N A; Bakshinskaitė, M V; Drize, N I; Kuz'mina, L A; Parovichnikova, E N; Savchenko, V G

    2018-03-01

    We studied the effect of autologous and allogeneic lymphocytes on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in co-culture. It is shown that changes in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and in lymphocytes did not depend on the source of lymphocytes. Contact with lymphocytes triggers expression of HLA-DR molecules on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and these cells lose their immune privilege. In multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, the relative level of expression of factors involved in immunomodulation (IDO1, PTGES, and IL-6) and expression of adhesion molecule ICAM1 increased, while expression of genes involved in the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells remained unchanged. Priming of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells with IFN did not affect these changes. In turn, lymphocytes underwent activation, expression of HLA-DR increased, subpopulation composition of lymphocytes changed towards the increase in the content of naïve T cells. These findings are important for cell therapy.

  19. Comparison of autogeneic and allogeneic natural killer cells immunotherapy on the clinical outcome of recurrent breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shuzhen Liang,1,2 Kecheng Xu,1,2 Lizhi Niu,1,2 Xiaohua Wang,1 Yingqing Liang,1 Mingjie Zhang,3 Jibing Chen,1,2 Mao Lin1,2 1Department of Central Laboratory, Fuda Cancer Hospital, Jinan University School of Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2Fuda Cancer Institute, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 3Hank Bioengineering Co., Ltd, Shenzhen, China Abstract: In the present study, we aimed to compare the clinical outcome of autogeneic and allogeneic natural killer (NK cells immunotherapy for the treatment of recurrent breast cancer. Between July 2016 and February 2017, 36 patients who met the enrollment criteria were randomly assigned to two groups: autogeneic NK cells immunotherapy group (group I, n=18 and allogeneic NK cells immunotherapy group (group II, n=18. The clinical efficacy, quality of life, immune function, circulating tumor cell (CTC level, and other related indicators were evaluated. We found that allogeneic NK cells immunotherapy has better clinical efficacy than autogeneic therapy. Moreover, allogeneic NK cells therapy improves the quality of life, reduces the number of CTCs, reduces carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 expression, and significantly enhances immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial to compare the clinical outcome of autogeneic and allogeneic NK cells immunotherapy for recurrent breast cancer. Keywords: clinical outcome, autogeneic, allogeneic, natural killer cells, recurrent breast cancer

  20. Riboflavin Depletion Promotes Tumorigenesis in HEK293T and NIH3T3 Cells by Sustaining Cell Proliferation and Regulating Cell Cycle-Related Gene Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lin; He, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Ye; Xu, Xiu-E; Liao, Lian-Di; Xie, Yang-Min; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2018-05-07

    Riboflavin is an essential component of the human diet and its derivative cofactors play an established role in oxidative metabolism. Riboflavin deficiency has been linked with various human diseases. The objective of this study was to identify whether riboflavin depletion promotes tumorigenesis. HEK293T and NIH3T3 cells were cultured in riboflavin-deficient or riboflavin-sufficient medium and passaged every 48 h. Cells were collected every 5 generations and plate colony formation assays were performed to observe cell proliferation. Subcutaneous tumorigenicity assays in NU/NU mice were used to observe tumorigenicity of riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. Mechanistically, gene expression profiling and gene ontology analysis were used to identify abnormally expressed genes induced by riboflavin depletion. Western blot analyses, cell cycle analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to validate the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Plate colony formation of NIH3T3 and HEK293T cell lines was enhanced >2-fold when cultured in riboflavin-deficient medium for 10-20 generations. Moreover, we observed enhanced subcutaneous tumorigenicity in NU/NU mice following injection of riboflavin-depleted compared with normal HEK293T cells (55.6% compared with 0.0% tumor formation, respectively). Gene expression profiling and gene ontology analysis revealed that riboflavin depletion induced the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Validation experiments also found that riboflavin depletion decreased p21 and p27 protein levels by ∼20%, and increased cell cycle-related and expression-elevated protein in tumor (CREPT) protein expression >2-fold, resulting in cyclin D1 and CDK4 levels being increased ∼1.5-fold, and cell cycle acceleration. We also observed that riboflavin depletion decreased intracellular riboflavin levels by 20% and upregulated expression of riboflavin transporter genes, particularly SLC52A3, and that the changes in CREPT and SLC52A3 correlated with

  1. NF-κB is involved in the LPS-mediated proliferation and apoptosis of MAC-T epithelial cells as part of the subacute ruminal acidosis response in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Jie; Li, He-Ping; Zhu, He-Shui; Sui, Shi-Ping; Chen, Pei-Ge; Deng, Yue; Sui, Tong-Ming; Wang, Yue-Ying

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of NF-κB on cell proliferation and apoptosis, we investigate the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors in the bovine mammary epithelial cell line, MAC-T. MAC-T cells were cultured in vitro and MTT and LDH assays used to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on proliferation and cytotoxicity respectively. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the effect of LPS and NF-κB inhibition [pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) treatment] on the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors. LPS significantly inhibited MAC-T cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, LPS promoted apoptosis while the NF-кB inhibitor PDTC attenuated this effect. After LPS treatment, the NF-кB signaling pathway was activated, and the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors increased. When PDTC blocked NF-кB signaling, the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors were decreased in MAC-T cells. LPS activates the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MAC-T cells. NF-кB inhibition attenuates MAC-T cell apoptosis and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. NF-кB inhibitor alleviating MAC-T cell apoptosis is presumably modulated by NF-кB.

  2. Association between thymic function and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcome: results of a pediatric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglio, Francesco; Cena, Silvia; Berger, Massimo; Quarello, Paola; Boccasavia, Viola; Ferrando, Federica; Pittana, Laura; Bruno, Benedetto; Fagioli, Franca

    2015-06-01

    Robust T cell function recovery has been shown to be crucial in determining allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcome, and there is growing evidence that the thymus plays a central role in regulating this process. We performed a long-term analysis of the role of thymic activity recovery in a population of pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT by signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) quantification. In this study, characterized by a long-term follow-up (median, 72 months), we found patients with higher levels of sjTRECs before transplantation had a statistically significant reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower values (relative risk, .31; 95% confidence interval, .30 to .32; P = .02), showing this different outcome was mainly related to a reduction of relapse incidence (14% versus 43%, P = .02). Unlike previous reports, we observed no correlation between sjTREC levels and lymphocyte recovery. Moreover, we confirmed that only graft-versus-host disease influenced thymic activity after transplantation. In conclusion, our results suggest an association between pretransplantation thymic activity and the long-term outcome of pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, mainly through a reduction of relapse opportunities. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modification of T cell responses by stem cell mobilization requires direct signaling of the T cell by G-CSF and IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Kelli P.A.; Le Texier, Laetitia; Zhang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The majority of allogeneic stem cell transplants are currently undertaken using G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. G-CSF has diverse biological effects on a broad range of cells and IL-10 is a key regulator of many of these effects. Using mixed radiation chimeras in which...... the hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic compartments were wild-type, IL-10(-/-), G-CSFR(-/-), or combinations thereof we demonstrated that the attenuation of alloreactive T cell responses after G-CSF mobilization required direct signaling of the T cell by both G-CSF and IL-10. IL-10 was generated principally by radio......-resistant tissue, and was not required to be produced by T cells. G-CSF mobilization significantly modulated the transcription profile of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, promoted their expansion in the donor and recipient and their depletion significantly increased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In contrast...

  4. Single-centre experience of allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (Allo-HSCT) is used to treat a broad but well-defined range of paediatric conditions, most frequently in paediatric oncology for treatment intensification or salvage therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Allo-HSCT is also indicated in.

  5. Feasibility of combination allogeneic stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Thomas E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cellular therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI is overviewed focusing on bone marrow mononuclear cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. A case is made for the possibility of combining cell types, as well as for allogeneic use. We report the case of 29 year old male who suffered a crush fracture of the L1 vertebral body, lacking lower sensorimotor function, being a score A on the ASIA scale. Stem cell therapy comprised of intrathecal administration of allogeneic umbilical cord blood ex-vivo expanded CD34 and umbilical cord matrix MSC was performed 5 months, 8 months, and 14 months after injury. Cell administration was well tolerated with no adverse effects observed. Neuropathic pain subsided from intermittent 10/10 to once a week 3/10 VAS. Recovery of muscle, bowel and sexual function was noted, along with a decrease in ASIA score to "D". This case supports further investigation into allogeneic-based stem cell therapies for SCI.

  6. Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. modulates antioxidant activity and human T-cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarbi Meriem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. also known as Jujube, is a deciduous shrub which belongs to Rhamnaceae family. This plant is used in Algerian traditional medicine for its anti-diabetic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of different vitamins (vitamin A, C and E and fatty acids in root, stem, leaves, fruit pulp and seed of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. and assessed the effects of their aqueous extracts on antioxidant status and human T-cell proliferation. Methods Aqueous filtrates from different parts, i.e, root, leaf, stem, fruit pulp and seed, of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. were prepared. Vitamin C levels were determined by precipitating with 10% trichloroacetic acid and vitamin A and E were assessed by HPLC. Lipid composition of these extracts was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated by using anti-radical resistance kit [Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL@; Kirial International SA, Couternon, France]. T-cell blastogenesis was assessed by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine. IL-2 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Results Our results show that fruit pulp contained higher vitamin A and C contents than other parts of the plant. Furthermore, the fruit pulp was the richest source of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, a precursor of n-6 fatty acids. Fruit seeds possessed higher vitamin C levels than leaves, roots and stem. The leaves were the richest source of vitamin E and linolenic acid (18:3n-3, a precursor of n-3 fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts, measured by KRL@ test, was as follows: pulp Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. exerted immunosuppressive effects. Conclusion Seed extracts exerted the most potent immunosuppressive effects on T cell proliferation and IL-2 mRNA expression. The results of the present study are discussed in the light of their use to modulate the immune-mediated diseases.

  7. Antigen-specific murine T cell clones produce soluble interleukin 2 receptor on stimulation with specific antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.K.; York-Jolley, J.; Malek, T.R.; Berzofsky, J.A.; Nelson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, monoclonal antibodies were used to the murine IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) termed 3C7 and 7D4, which bind to different epitopes on the murine IL 2R, to develop an ELISA to measure soluble murine IL 2R. Surprisingly, stimulated murine spleen cells not only expressed cell-associated IL 2R, but also produced a considerable level of cellfree IL 2R in the culture supernatant fluid. To assess the fine specificity of this response, myoglobin-immune murine T cell clones were stimulated with appropriate or inappropriate antigen and syngeneic or allogeneic presenting cells. Proliferation, measured by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation, and levels of soluble IL 2R were determined at day 4. The production of soluble IL2R displayed the same epitope fine specificity, genetic restriction, and antigen dose-response as the proliferative response. Indeed, in some cases there was sharper discrimination of epitope specificity and genetic restriction with the soluble IL 2R levels. There was also reproducible clone-to-clone variation in the amount of soluble receptor produced in response to antigen among 12 T cell clones and lines tested. In time course experiments, proliferation was greatest at day 3, whereas soluble IL 2R levels continued to rise in subsequent days. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of release of secretion of soluble IL 2R by murine T cells, and the first demonstration of the fine specificity and genetic restriction of the induction of soluble IL 2R by specific antigen

  8. Effects of PKM2 Gene Silencing on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Colorectal Cancer LS-147T and SW620 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This paper aims to explore the effects of pyruvate kinase (PK M2 gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer (CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells. Methods: CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells highly expressing PKM2 were randomly selected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and then assigned into the blank (no transfection, PKM2-shRNA (transfection with shRNA and empty plasmid (transfection with empty plasmid groups. Immunofluorescence was applied to detect PKM2 protein expression. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were conducted to assess mRNA and protein expression of PKM2, p53 and p21. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cell cycle and apoptosis rate, and a senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining kit was used to assess cell senescence. Results: PKM2 exhibited high mRNA expression among CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells with remarkable protein expression noted in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PKM2-shRNA group exhibited reduced PKM2 mRNA and protein expression, whereas p53 and p21 expression was increased compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. Cell proliferation in PKM2-shRNA cells decreased significantly compared with the blank group and empty plasmid groups. The PKM2-shRNA group exhibited more cells in the G1 phase and fewer cells in the G2/M phase compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. In addition, the PKM2-shRNA group exhibited significantly increased apoptosis rates and β-galactosidase activity compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that PKM2 gene silencing suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in LS-147T and SW620 cells.

  9. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allogeneic HCT) for treatment of pediatric Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J; Cao, Qing; Trotz, Barb; Weigel, Brenda; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Angela; Verneris, Michael R

    2009-12-15

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) with best available donor for children with Philadelphia positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has previously been considered standard practice. Since the introduction of imatinib into the treatment of this disease, the role of allogeneic HCT is more uncertain. We investigated the impact of remission status, graft source, and imatinib use on transplant outcomes for 37 children with Ph+ ALL who received an allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota between 1990 and 2006. The median age at HCT was 7.47 (range; 1.4-16.4) years. Thirteen patients received imatinib therapy pre- and/or post-HCT (imatinib group) and 24 patients, received either no imatinib (n = 23) or only post-HCT relapse (n = 1) (non-imatinib group). There was no difference in disease-free survival (DFS) or relapse between the imatinib and non-imatinib groups at 3 years (62%/15% vs. 53%/26%; P = 0.99; 0.81, respectively). There was no significant difference in transplant outcomes between matched related donor or unrelated donor (umbilical cord blood or matched unrelated marrow) recipients whereas patients receiving allogeneic HCT in first remission (CR1) had superior DFS and less relapse compared to patients transplanted in >or=CR2 (71%/16% vs. 29%/36%; P = 0.01; P = 0.05). Based on this retrospective analysis at a single institution, the use of imatinib either pre- and/or post-transplant does not appear to significantly impact outcomes for children with Ph+ ALL and allogeneic HCT with the best available donor should be encouraged in CR1.

  10. 1Protein Energy Malnutrition Impairs Homeostatic Proliferation of Memory CD8 T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Smita S.; Chatraw, Janel Hart; Tan, Wendy G.; Wherry, E. John; Becker, Todd C.; Ahmed, Rafi; Kapasi, Zoher F.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical but poorly understood determinant of immunity. There is abundant epidemiological evidence linking protein malnutrition to impaired vaccine efficacy and increased susceptibility to infections; yet, the role of dietary protein in immune memory homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here we show that protein energy malnutrition (PEM) induced in mice by low-protein (LP) feeding has a detrimental impact on CD8 memory. Relative to adequate-protein (AP) fed controls, LP feeding in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) immune mice resulted in a 2-fold decrease in LCMV-specific CD8 memory T cells. Adoptive transfer of memory cells, labeled with a division tracking dye, from AP mice into naive LP or AP mice demonstrated that PEM caused profound defects in homeostatic proliferation. Remarkably, this defect occurred despite the lymphopenic environment in LP hosts. While antigen-specific memory cells in LP and AP hosts were phenotypically similar, memory cells in LP hosts were markedly less-responsive to poly(I:C)-induced acute proliferative signals. Furthermore, upon recall, memory cells in LP hosts displayed reduced proliferation and protection from challenge with LCMV-clone 13 resulting in impaired viral clearance in the liver. The findings show a metabolic requirement of dietary protein in sustaining functional CD8 memory and suggest that interventions to optimize dietary protein intake may improve vaccine efficacy in malnourished individuals. PMID:22116826

  11. Monitoring T-Cell Responses in Translational Studies: Optimization of Dye-Based Proliferation Assay for Evaluation of Antigen-Specific Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Ten Brinke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy with regulatory T cells or tolerance-inducing antigen (Ag-presenting cells is innovative and promising therapeutic approach to control undesired and harmful activation of the immune system, as observed in autoimmune diseases, solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. One of the critical issues to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for success or failure of these therapies and define the specificity of the therapy is the evaluation of the Ag-specific T-cell responses. Several efforts have been made to develop suitable and reproducible assays. Here, we focus on dye-based proliferation assays. We highlight with practical examples the fundamental issues to take into consideration for implementation of an effective and sensitive dye-based proliferation assay to monitor Ag-specific responses in patients. The most critical points were used to design a road map to set up and analyze the optimal assay to assess Ag-specific T-cell responses in patients undergoing different treatments. This is the first step to optimize monitoring of tolerance induction, allowing comparison of outcomes of different clinical studies. The road map can also be applied to other therapeutic interventions, not limited to tolerance induction therapies, in which Ag-specific T-cell responses are relevant such as vaccination approaches and cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines: the promise and limitations in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies.

  13. CD4+CD25highCD127low Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood Are Not an Independent Factor for Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta B. Perz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT largely relies on the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL effect. Uncontrolled graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is a feared complication of HSCT. Regulatory T cells (Treg are a subset of CD4+ T-helper cells believed to maintain tolerance after HSCT. It remains unclear whether low peripheral blood Treg have an impact on the risk for acute (aGVHD and chronic GVHD (cGVHD. Methods. In this paper we enumerated the CD4+CD25highCD127low Treg in the peripheral blood of 84 patients after at least 150 days from HSCT and in 20 healthy age-matched controls. Results. Although similar mean lymphocyte counts were found in patients and controls, CD3+CD4+ T-cell counts were significantly lower in patients. Patients also had significantly lower Treg percentages among lymphocytes as compared to controls. Patients with cGVHD had even higher percentages of Treg if compared to patients without cGVHD. In multivariate analysis, Treg percentages were not an independent factor for cGVHD. Conclusions. This paper did not show a relation between deficient peripheral blood Treg and cGVHD, therefore cGVHD does not seem to occur as a result of peripheral Treg paucity.

  14. The growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonist JV-1-36 inhibits proliferation and survival of human ectopic endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) and the T HESC cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Marta; Grande, Cristina; Scarlatti, Francesca; Deltetto, Francesco; Delpiano, Elena; Camanni, Marco; Ghigo, Ezio; Granata, Riccarda

    2010-08-01

    To determine the effect of the GHRH antagonist JV-1-36 on proliferation and survival of primary ectopic human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) and the T HESC cell line. Prospective laboratory study. University hospital. 22 women with endometriosis (aged 34.8+/-5.7 years) undergoing therapeutic laparoscopy. Eutopic (n=10) and ectopic (n=22) endometrial tissues were collected from women who underwent therapeutic laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis (stage III/IV). Expression of GHRH, GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) and GHRH-R splice variant (SV) 1 mRNA was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The ESC proliferation was assessed by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation, cell survival by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Trypan blue assay. The T HESC survival was evaluated by MTT, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels by ELISA, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation by Western blot, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 mRNA by real-time PCR. The ESCs and T HESCs, but not normal endometrial tissues, expressed GHRH-R mRNA; SV1 mRNA was determined in normal endometrial tissues, ESCs, and T HESCs; GHRH mRNAwas found in T HESCs; JV-1-36 inhibited ESC proliferation and ESC and T HESC survival. In T HESCs, JV-1-36 reduced cAMP production and ERK1/2 phosphorylation but had no effect on IGF-2 mRNA expression. The GHRH antagonist JV-1-36 inhibits endometriotic cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that GHRH antagonist may represent promising tools for treatment of endometriosis. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of primary human T cell proliferation by Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) is independent of VacA effects on IL-2 secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrud, Mark S.; Torres, Victor J.; Unutmaz, Derya; Cover, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the secreted Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) inhibits the activation of T cells. VacA blocks IL-2 secretion in transformed T cell lines by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). In this study, we investigated the effects of VacA on primary human CD4+ T cells. VacA inhibited the proliferation of primary human T cells activated through the T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28. VacA-treated Jurkat T cells secreted markedly ...

  16. Split tolerance in nude mice transplanted with 2'-deoxyguanosine-treated allogeneic thymus lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, G.; Moriyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawase, Y.; Habu, S.

    1989-01-01

    To elucidate the acquisition of self tolerance in the thymus, full-allogeneic thymic chimeras were constructed. Athymic C3H and BALB/c nude mice were reconstituted with the thymic lobes of BALB/c and B10.BR fetuses, respectively, that were organ cultured for 5 days in the presence of 2'-deoxyguanosine. T cells in these chimeras were tolerized to the host MHC in both MLR and CTL assays. In contrast, T cells in the chimeras exhibited split tolerance for the thymic MHC haplotype. CTL specific for class I MHC of the thymic haplotype were generated not only from the peripheral T cells of the chimeras but also from thymocytes re-populated in the engrafted thymic lobes. However, T cells in these chimeras responded poorly to the class II MHC of the thymic haplotype in a standard MLR assay. In a syngeneic MLR culture upon stimulation with enriched APC of the thymic haplotype, only 22 to 48% of the responses were mediated by CD4+ cells, and proliferations of CD4- cells were prominent. There were no haplotype-specific suppressor cells detected which would cause the unresponsiveness to the thymic class II MHC. These results indicated that the thymic lobes treated with 2'-deoxyguanosine were defective in the ability to induce the transplantation tolerance for the class I MHC expressed on the thymus, although the same thymic lobes were able to induce the transplantation tolerance for the thymic class II MHC

  17. Metformin inhibits proliferation and cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis via AMPK pathway in CD19-chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Q

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Qian Mu,1,2,* Miao Jiang,1,* Yuzhu Zhang,1 Fei Wu,1 Hui Li,1 Wen Zhang,1 Fang Wang,1 Jiang Liu,1 Liang Li,1 Dongshan Wang,3 Wenjuan Wang,1 Shiwu Li,1 Haibo Song,4 Dongqi Tang1 1Gene and Immunotherapy Center, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Health Management Center, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 4Central Research Laboratory, Zibo Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Zibo, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: CD19-chimericantigen receptor (CAR modified T cells (CD19-CAR T cells have been well documented to possess potent anti-tumor properties against CD19-expressingleukemia cells. As a traditional medicine, metformin has been widely used to treat type II diabetes mellitus and more recently has become a candidate for the treatment of cancer. However, no report has revealed the direct effect of metformin on CD19-CAR T cell biological function and its underling mechanisms. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to explore the effect of metformin on CD19-CAR T cell biological function and the mechanisms involved. Methods: CD19-CAR T cells proliferation, apoptosis and cytotoxicity were mainly tested by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and ELISA. The detection of mechanism primarily used western blot. Bioluminescence imaging is the main application technology of animal studies. Results: In the current study, it was found that metformin inhibited CD19-CAR T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, our study revealed that metformin activated AMPK and suppressed mTOR and HIF1α expression. By using an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, we demonstrated the crucial roles of AMPK in CD19

  18. Functional studies on lymphocytes from two siblings with congential hypogammaglobulinaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauris, P.; Wendelboe Hansen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Two brothers with hypogammaglobulinaemia classified as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) were investigated for distribution of pheripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) subpopulations, DNA synthesis and plaque-forming cell (PFC) capability of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated autologous and allogenic cocultures. Both patients had a decreased absolute number of T cells and normal or elevated levels of surface immunoglobulin (SmIg) bearing cells. Isolated B cells cocultured with autologous or allogeneic 4000 r irradiated T cells responded subnormally to PWM monitored by the 3 H-thymidine incorporation in microcultures whereas B cells cocultured with allogeneic untreated normal T cells proliferated normally. PBL from parallel macrocultures of unfractionated or T/B separated patients' cells were not able to produce plaques using a reversed haemolytic protein A assay. Addition of glucocorticoid to unfractionated PBL did not reverse the unresponsiveness. In allogeneic cocultures patients' untreated or 2000 r irradiated T cells induced a normal PFC response. Normal untreated T cells induced a reduced number of IgM- and IgG-PFC from patients' B cells but this response was almost eliminated using irradiated normal T cells. These results demonstrate a primary B cell defect in the patients and indicate an impaired cooperation between patients' B and T cells. Activation of patients' B cells to Ig secretion requires the presence of proliferating T cells. (author)

  19. PDZ binding motif of HTLV-1 Tax promotes virus-mediated T-cell proliferation in vitro and persistence in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Yamamoto, Brenda; Haoudi, Abdelali; Semmes, O John; Green, Patrick L

    2006-03-01

    HTLV-1 cellular transformation and disease induction is dependent on expression of the viral Tax oncoprotein. PDZ is a modular protein interaction domain used in organizing signaling complexes in eukaryotic cells through recognition of a specific binding motif in partner proteins. Tax-1, but not Tax-2, contains a PDZ-binding domain motif (PBM) that promotes the interaction with several cellular PDZ proteins. Herein, we investigate the contribution of the Tax-1 PBM in HTLV-induced proliferation and immortalization of primary T cells in vitro and viral survival in an infectious rabbit animal model. We generated several HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax viral mutants, including HTLV-1deltaPBM, HTLV-2+C22(+PBM), and HTLV-2+ C18(deltaPBM). All Tax mutants maintained the ability to significantly activate the CREB/ATF or NFkappaB signaling pathways. Microtiter proliferation assays revealed that the Tax-1 PBM significantly increases both HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-induced primary T-cell proliferation. In addition, Tax-1 PBM was responsible for the micronuclei induction activity of Tax-1 relative to that of Tax-2. Viral infection and persistence were severely attenuated in rabbits inoculated with HTLV-1deltaPBM. Our results provide the first direct evidence suggesting that PBM-mediated associations between Tax-1 and cellular proteins play a key role in HTLV-induced cell proliferation and genetic instability in vitro and facilitate viral persistence in vivo.

  20. Peripheral T-lymphocytes express WNT7A and its restoration in leukemia-derived lymphoblasts inhibits cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Hernández, Alejandra B; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Barros-Núñez, Patricio; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; García-Castro, Beatriz; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica A; Rosales-Aviña, Judith A; Barrera-Chairez, Esperanza; Ortíz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Hernández-Flores, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    WNT7a, a member of the Wnt ligand family implicated in several developmental processes, has also been reported to be dysregulated in some types of tumors; however, its function and implication in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Moreover, the expression of this gene and the role that it plays in the biology of blood cells remains unclear. In addition to determining the expression of the WNT7A gene in blood cells, in leukemia-derived cell lines, and in samples of patients with leukemia, the aim of this study was to seek the effect of this gene in proliferation. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sorted CD3 and CD19 cells, four leukemia-derived cell lines, and blood samples from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 19 clinically healthy subjects. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed to determine relative WNT7A expression. Restoration of WNT7a was done employing a lentiviral system and by using a recombinant human protein. Cell proliferation was measured by addition of WST-1 to cell cultures. WNT7a is mainly produced by CD3 T-lymphocytes, its expression decreases upon activation, and it is severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines, as well as in the blood samples of patients with ALL when compared with healthy controls (p ≤0.001). By restoring WNT7A expression in leukemia-derived cells, we were able to demonstrate that WNT7a inhibits cell growth. A similar effect was observed when a recombinant human WNT7a protein was used. Interestingly, restoration of WNT7A expression in Jurkat cells did not activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report evidencing quantitatively decreased WNT7A levels in leukemia-derived cells and that WNT7A restoration in T-lymphocytes inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, our results also support the possible function of WNT7A as a tumor suppressor gene as well as a therapeutic

  1. BAFF induces spleen CD4+ T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing; Liu, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Han, Junli; Wang, Haining; Shen, Gang; Tao, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4 + T cells. ► Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. ► Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4 + T cell‘s role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member “B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family” (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4 + spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4 + T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4 + spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4 + T cell proliferation.

  2. Differential diagnosis of skin lesions after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canninga-van Dijk, MR; Sanders, CJ; Verdonck, LF; Fijnheer, R; van den Tweel, JG

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (i.e. bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation) is a common procedure in the treatment of various haematological disorders such as aplastic anaemia, (pre)leukaemias, some malignant lymphomas, multiple myeloma and immunodeficiency

  3. Heterogenous populations of cytotoxic cells in the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice immunized with allogeneic EL4 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zighelboim, J.; Bonavida, B.; Fahey, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    Adherent cells, presumably macrophages, obtained from the peritoneal cavity shortly after rejection of the allogeneic leukemia EL4, produced effective cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) in vitro. These cytotoxic cells were sensitive to anti-macrophage serum and resistant to anti-thymocyte serum and 10,000 roentgen irradiation. In contrast, a second population of specifically cytotoxic cells were nonadherent, sensitive to x-rays and anti-thymocyte serum, but not to anti-macrophage serum. The two cell populations had a cooperative cytotoxic effect in vitro against allogeneic tumor cells

  4. Chondrocytic Potential of Allogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplanted without Immunosuppression to Regenerate Physeal Defect in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gál

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow are multipotent cells capable of forming cartilage, bone, and other connective tissues. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells could functionally heal a defect in the distal femoral physis in rabbits without the use of immunosuppressive therapy. A iatrogenic defect was created in the lateral femoral condyle of thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits, 7 weeks old, weighing 2.25 ± 0.24 kg. Each defect, 3.5 mm in width and 12 mm in length, in the right distal femoral physis was treated with allogenic mesenchymal stem cells in new composite hyaluronate/collagen type I/fibrin scaffold. The healing response was evaluated radiographically, by MRI (three weeks and four months after implantation and also histologically, by Pearl’s reaction and with immunofluorescence (four months after implantation. The results were compared with the data for the control defects (without stem cell implantation in left distal femoral physes. On average, right femurs with a damaged distal physis and transplanted MSCs grew more in length (0.55 ± 0.21 cm compared with left femurs with a physeal defect without stem cell transplantation (0.46 ± 0.23 cm. Valgus deformity of right femurs with a physeal defect and transplanted MSCs was mild (0.2 ± 0.1 °. On the contrary, left femurs with a physeal defect without transplanted MSCs showed a significant valgus deformity (2.7 ± 1.6 °. For defects treated with allogenic mesenchymal stem cell implants, no adverse immune response and implant rejection were detected in this model. Histologically, no lymphocytic infiltration occurred. At four months after transplantation, hyaline cartilage had formed throughout the defects treated with allogenic MSCs. Labelled mesenchymal stem cells/differentiated chondrocytes were detected in the physeal defects based on magnetic resonance imaging and immunofluorescence. The results of this study

  5. Development of PET Imaging to Visualize Activated Macrophages Accumulated in the Transplanted iPSc-Derived Cardiac Myocytes of Allogeneic Origin for Detecting the Immune Rejection of Allogeneic Cell Transplants in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Kashiyama

    Full Text Available Allogeneic transplantation (Tx of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is a promising tissue regeneration therapy. However, this inevitably induces macrophage-mediated immune response against the graft, limiting its therapeutic efficacy. Monitoring the magnitude of the immune response using imaging tools would be useful for prolonging graft survival and increasing the therapy longevity. Minimally invasive quantitative detection of activated macrophages by medical imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET imaging targets translocator protein (TSPO, which is highly expressed on mitochondrial membrane, especially in activated macrophage. N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(2-fluoroethoxy phenyl]-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-acetamide (DPA-714 is known as a TSPO ligand used in clinical settings. We herein hypothesized that immune rejection of the transplanted iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs of allogeneic origin may be quantitated using 18F-DPA-714-PET imaging study. iPSC-CM cell-sheets of C57BL/6 mice origin were transplanted on the surface of the left ventricle (LV of C57BL/6 mice as a syngeneic cell-transplant model (syngeneic Tx group, or Balb/c mice as an allogeneic model (allogeneic Tx group. 18F-DPA-714-PET was used to determine the uptake ratio, calculated as the maximum standardized uptake value in the anterior and septal wall of the LV. The uptake ratio was significantly higher in the allogeneic Tx group than in the syngeneic group or the sham group at days 7 and day 10 after the cell transplantation. In addition, the immunochemistry showed significant presence of CD68 and CD3-positive cells at day 7 and 10 in the transplanted graft of the allogeneic Tx group. The expression of TSPO, CD68, IL-1 beta, and MCP-1 was significantly higher in the allogeneic Tx group than in the syngeneic Tx and the sham groups at day 7. The 18F-DPA-714-PET imaging study enabled quantitative visualization of the macrophages-mediated immune

  6. Anti-thymocyte globulin could improve the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with highly aggressive T-cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J; Cai, Y; Jiang, J L; Wan, L P; Yan, S K; Wang, C

    2015-01-01

    The early experiment result in our hospital showed that anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid tumor cells in the T-cell tumors. We used the ATG as the part of the conditioning regimen and to evaluate the long-term anti-leukemia effect, the safety and complication in the patients with highly aggressive T-cell lymphomas. Twenty-three patients were enrolled into this study. At the time of transplant, six patients reached first or subsequent complete response, three patients had a partial remission and 14 patients had relapsed or primary refractory disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of ATG, total body irradiation, toposide and cyclophosphamide. The complete remission rate after transplant was 95.7%. At a median follow-up time of 25 months, 16 (69.6%) patients are alive and free from diseases, including nine patients in refractory and progressive disease. Seven patients died after transplant, five from relapse and two from treatment-related complications. The incidence of grades II–IV acute graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) was 39.1%. The maximum cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 30%. The most frequent and severe conditioning-related toxicities observed in 8 out of 23 patients were grades III/IV infections during cytopenia. Thus, ATG-based conditioning is a feasible and effective alternative for patients with highly aggressive T-cell tumors

  7. The IL-33-ST2-MyD88 axis promotes regulatory T cell proliferation in the murine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Qi, Qianqian; Dong, Liyang; Wei, Chuan; Pu, Yanan; Li, Yalin; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Liu, Feng; Chen, Xiaojun; Su, Chuan

    2018-05-05

    Hepatic Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for maintaining local immune homeostasis in the liver. However, the environmental cues required for hepatic Treg cell homeostasis are unclear. In this study, we showed that the IL-33 receptor ST2 was preferentially expressed on Treg cells in the mouse liver, but it was more lowly expressed in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and blood. More importantly, we found that IL-33 promoted the proliferation of hepatic Treg cells through myeloid differentiation factor MyD88 signaling concomitant with increased CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression. These results suggested that IL-33 is a potential tissue-specific factor controlling Treg cell homeostasis via increased Treg proliferation in the liver. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Putative oncogene Brachyury (T) is essential to specify cell fate but dispensable for notochord progenitor proliferation and EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjian; Kwan, Kin Ming; Mackem, Susan

    2016-04-05

    The transcription factor Brachyury (T) gene is expressed throughout primary mesoderm (primitive streak and notochord) during early embryonic development and has been strongly implicated in the genesis of chordoma, a sarcoma of notochord cell origin. Additionally, T expression has been found in and proposed to play a role in promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various other types of human tumors. However, the role of T in normal mammalian notochord development and function is still not well-understood. We have generated an inducible knockdown model to efficiently and selectively deplete T from notochord in mouse embryos. In combination with genetic lineage tracing, we show that T function is essential for maintaining notochord cell fate and function. Progenitors adopt predominantly a neural fate in the absence of T, consistent with an origin from a common chordoneural progenitor. However, T function is dispensable for progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and EMT, which has implications for the therapeutic targeting of T in chordoma and other cancers.

  9. Automated Cell Enrichment of Cytomegalovirus-specific T cells for Clinical Applications using the Cytokine-capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken; Figliola, Mathew; Moyes, Judy S; Huls, M Helen; Tewari, Priti; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-10-05

    The adoptive transfer of pathogen-specific T cells can be used to prevent and treat opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Viral-specific T cells from allogeneic donors, including third party donors, can be propagated ex vivo in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), employing repeated rounds of antigen-driven stimulation to selectively propagate desired T cells. The identification and isolation of antigen-specific T cells can also be undertaken based upon the cytokine capture system of T cells that have been activated to secrete gamma-interferon (IFN-γ). However, widespread human application of the cytokine capture system (CCS) to help restore immunity has been limited as the production process is time-consuming and requires a skilled operator. The development of a second-generation cell enrichment device such as CliniMACS Prodigy now enables investigators to generate viral-specific T cells using an automated, less labor-intensive system. This device separates magnetically labeled cells from unlabeled cells using magnetic activated cell sorting technology to generate clinical-grade products, is engineered as a closed system and can be accessed and operated on the benchtop. We demonstrate the operation of this new automated cell enrichment device to manufacture CMV pp65-specific T cells obtained from a steady-state apheresis product obtained from a CMV seropositive donor. These isolated T cells can then be directly infused into a patient under institutional and federal regulatory supervision. All the bio-processing steps including removal of red blood cells, stimulation of T cells, separation of antigen-specific T cells, purification, and washing are fully automated. Devices such as this raise the possibility that T cells for human application can be manufactured outside of dedicated good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and instead be produced

  10. A sub-population of circulating porcine gammadelta T cells can act as professional antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H-H; Denyer, M S; Wileman, T E

    2002-09-10

    A sub-population of circulating porcine gammadelta T cells express cell surface antigens associated with antigen presenting cells (APCs), and are able to take up soluble antigen very effectively. Functional antigen presentation by gammadelta T cells to memory helper T cells was studied by inbred pig lymphocytes immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). After removing all conventional APCs from the peripheral blood of immunised pigs, the remaining lymphocytes still proliferated when stimulated with OVA. When gammadelta T cells were further depleted, OVA specific proliferation was abolished, but reconstitution with gammadelta T cells restored proliferation. The proliferation was blocked by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against MHC class II or CD4, and by pre-treatment of gammadelta T cells with chloroquine. These results indicate that a sub-population of circulating porcine gammadelta T cells act as APCs and present antigen via MHC class II.

  11. Plerixafor (a CXCR4 antagonist following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation enhances hematopoietic recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. B. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of CXCR4 with its ligand (stromal-derived factor-1 maintains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in a quiescent state. We hypothesized that blocking CXCR4/SDF-1 interaction after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT promotes hematopoiesis by inducing HSC proliferation. Methods We conducted a phase I/II trial of plerixafor on hematopoietic cell recovery following myeloablative allogeneic HSCT. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving myeloablative conditioning were enrolled. Plerixafor 240 μg/kg was administered subcutaneously every other day beginning day +2 until day +21 or until neutrophil recovery. The primary efficacy endpoints of the study were time to absolute neutrophil count >500/μl and platelet count >20,000/μl. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment of the study cohort was compared to that of a cohort of 95 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipients treated during the same period of time and who received similar conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Results Thirty patients received plerixafor following peripheral blood stem cell (n = 28 (PBSC or bone marrow (n = 2 transplantation. Adverse events attributable to plerixafor were mild and indistinguishable from effects of conditioning. The kinetics of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, as demonstrated by cumulative incidence, from the 28 study subjects receiving PBSC showed faster neutrophil (p = 0.04 and platelet recovery >20 K (p = 0.04 compared to the controls. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that plerixafor can be given safely following myeloablative HSCT. It provides proof of principle that blocking CXCR4 after HSCT enhances hematopoietic recovery. Larger, confirmatory studies in other settings are warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280955

  12. Expression of antigens coded in murine leukemia viruses on thymocytes of allogeneic donor origin in AKR mice following syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustrow, T.P.; Good, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Removal of T-lymphocytes from marrow inoculum with monoclonal antibody plus complement permitted establishment of long-lived allogeneic chimeras between C57BL/6 and AKR/J mice. Development of leukemia was prevented for 15 mo. Protection from leukemia occurred with both young (4 wk) and older (4 mo) recipients. AKR mice reconstituted with syngeneic marrow or control AKR mice all developed leukemia-lymphoma before 1 yr of age. During spontaneous lymphomagenesis in AKR mice, amplified expression of gag or env gene-coded virus antigens on the surface of thymocytes preceded leukemia development and evidence for amplification of other virus genes. These changes generally appeared before 6 mo. Similar viral gene expression and viral gene amplification occurred in the thymus and spleen cells of leukemia-resistant chimeric mice. Using monoclonal antibodies to Mr 70,000 glycoprotein epitopes characteristic of ecotropic, xenotropic, or dualtropic viruses, antigens marking each virus form were found on thymocytes of allogeneic 4-wk and 4-mo chimeras as well as on the cells of AKR mice and of AKR mice reconstituted with syngeneic marrow. Flow cytometric analysis showed amplification of the virus genes in mice protected from leukemia-lymphoma by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from leukemia-resistant mice. Allogeneic chimeras and syngeneically transplanted mice both showed evidence of accelerated viremia and of recombinant virus formation. The findings suggest that an event essential to leukemogenesis which occurs within the AKR lymphoid cells or their environment is lacking in the allogeneic chimeras. The nature of this influence of a resistance gene or genes introduced into AKR mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation deserves further study

  13. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reversed the suppressive deficiency of T regulatory cells from peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis in a co-culture – a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongna; Sun, Jinhua; Wang, Feng; Li, Yan; Bi, Jianzhong; Qu, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The immunoregulatory function of T regulatory cells (Tregs) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have shown that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) exert regulatory effect on the functions of immune cells. Thus, we investigated whether UC-MSCs could improve the impaired function of Tregs from MS patients. Co-cultures of UC-MSCs with PBMCs of MS patients were performed for 3 days. Flow cytometry was used to determine the frequency of Tregs. A cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the suppressive capacity of Tregs. ELISA was conducted for cytokine analysis in the co-cultures. Our results showed that UC-MSCs significantly increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127low/− Tregs in resting CD4+ T cells (pUC-MSC-primed Tregs of MS patients significantly inhibited the proliferation of PHA-stimulated autologous and allogeneic CD4+CD25− T effector cells (Teffs) from MS patients and healthy individuals compared to non-UC-MSC-primed (naïve) Tregs from the same MS patients (pUC-MSC-primed Tregs from MS patients and naïve Tregs from healthy subjects. The impaired suppressive function of Tregs from MS can be completely reversed in a co-culture by UC-MSC modulation. This report is the first to demonstrate that functional defects of Tregs in MS can be repaired in vitro using a simple UC-MSC priming approach. PMID:27705922

  14. Lack of autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for autoreactive T-cell dysfunction not correlated with phenotype, karyotype, or clinical status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Bloom, M.L.; Dadey, B.; Bennett, G.; Minowada, J.; Sandberg, A.A.; Ozer, H.

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, there was a complete lack of autologous MLR between responding T cells or T subsets and unirradiated or irradiated leukemic B cells or monocytes in all 20 patients with CLL, regardless of disease status, stage, phenotype, or karyotype of the disease. The stimulating capacity of unirradiated CLL B cells and CLL monocytes or irradiated CLL B cells was significantly depressed as compared to that of respective normal B cells and monocytes in allogeneic MLR. The responding capacity of CLL T cells was also variably lower than that of normal T cells against unirradiated or irradiated normal allogeneic B cells and monocytes. The depressed allogeneic MLR between CLL B cells or CLL monocytes and normal T cells described in the present study could be explained on the basis of a defect in the stimulating antigens of leukemic B cells or monocytes. The decreased allogeneic MLR of CLL T cells might simply be explained by a defect in the responsiveness of T lymphocytes from patients with CLL. However, these speculations do not adequately explain the complete lack of autologous MLR in these patients. When irradiated CLL B cells or irradiated CLL T cells were cocultured with normal T cells and irradiated normal B cells, it was found that there was no suppressor cell activity of CLL B cells or CLL T cells on normal autologous MLR. Our data suggest that the absence or dysfunction of autoreactive T cells within the Tnon-gamma subset account for the lack of autologous MLR in patients with CLL. The possible significance of the autologous MLR, its relationship to in vivo immunoregulatory mechanisms, and the possible role of breakdown of autoimmunoregulation in the oncogenic process of certain lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases in man are discussed

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells reveals an early host response in important biological pathways: Protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navare, Arti T.; Sova, Pavel; Purdy, David E.; Weiss, Jeffrey M. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Korth, Marcus J.; Chang, Stewart T.; Proll, Sean C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Jahan, Tahmina A. [Proteomics Resource, UW Medicine at South Lake Union, Seattle, WA (United States); Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Palermo, Robert E. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Katze, Michael G., E-mail: honey@uw.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value{<=}0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.

  16. The importance of the nuclear glutathione in the Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis offers an insight in the importance of nuclear GSH in cell proliferation. The research was performed in three different cellular models of diverse proliferating activity: immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts 3T3, mammary adenocarcinoma cell line MCF7 and primary embryonic neuralonal culture. The results presented here provide evidence that suggest that the relationship between GSH level and telomerase activity, previously described by our group for 3T3 fibroblasts is a ...

  17. Antiviral T-cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Leen, Ann M; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2014-01-01

    Serious viral infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. They occur in the majority of allograft recipients and are fatal in 17–20%. These severe infections may be prolonged or recurrent and add substantially to the cost, both human and financial, of the procedure. Many features of allogeneic stem cell transplantation contribute to this high rate of viral disease. The cytotoxic and immunosuppressive drugs administered pre-transplant to...

  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is a frequent event after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and quantitatively predicts EBV-lymphoproliferative disease following T-cell--depleted SCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, J W; van der Holt, B; Meijer, E; Niesters, H G; Trenschel, R; Thijsen, S F; van Loon, A M; Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A; Schaefer, U W; Osterhaus, A D; Gratama, J W; Löwenberg, B; Verdonck, L F; Cornelissen, J J

    2001-01-01

    Reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may evoke a protective cellular immune response or may be complicated by the development of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). So far, very little is known about the incidence, recurrence, and

  19. Zinc supplementation induces CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ antigen-specific regulatory T cells and suppresses IFN-γ production by upregulation of Foxp3 and KLF-10 and downregulation of IRF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-08-01

    The essential trace element zinc plays a fundamental role in immune function and regulation since its deficiency is associated with autoimmunity, allergies, and transplant rejection. Thus, we investigated the influence of zinc supplementation on the Th1-driven alloreaction in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), on generation of antigen-specific T cells, and analyzed underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were monitored by [ 3 H]-thymidine proliferation assay and ELISA, respectively. Analysis of surface and intracellular T cell marker was performed by flow cytometry. Western blotting and mRNA analysis were used for Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1 expression. Zinc supplementation on antigen-specific T cells in physiological doses (50 µM) provokes a significant amelioration of cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production after reactivation compared to untreated controls. Zinc administration on MLC results in an increased induction and stabilization of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + and CD4 + CD25 + CTLA-4 + T cells (p zinc-induced upregulation of Foxp3 and KLF-10 and downregulation of IRF-1. However, in resting lymphocytes zinc increases IRF-1. In summary, zinc is capable of ameliorating the allogeneic immune reaction by enhancement of antigen-specific iTreg cells due to modulation of essential molecular targets: Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1. Thus, zinc can be seen as an auspicious tool for inducing tolerance in adverse immune reactions.

  20. Systemic Administration of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Does Not Halt Osteoporotic Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Huang

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have innate ability to self-renew and immunosuppressive functions, and differentiate into various cell types. They have become a promising cell source for treating many diseases, particular for bone regeneration. Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disorder with elevated systemic inflammation which in turn triggers enhanced bone loss. We hypothesize that systemic infusion of MSCs may suppress the elevated inflammation in the osteoporotic subjects and slow down bone loss. The current project was to address the following two questions: (1 Will a single dose systemic administration of allogenic MSCs have any effect on osteoporotic bone loss? (2 Will multiple administration of allogenic MSCs from single or multiple donors have similar effect on osteoporotic bone loss? 18 ovariectomized (OVX rats were assigned into 3 groups: the PBS control group, MSCs group 1 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs at Day 10, 46, 91 from the same donor following OVX and MSCs group 2 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs from three different donors at Day 10, 46, 91. Examinations included Micro-CT, serum analysis, mechanical testing, immunofluorescence staining and bone histomorphometry analysis. Results showed that BV/TV at Day 90, 135, BMD of TV and trabecular number at Day 135 in the PBS group were significantly higher than those in the MSCs group 2, whereas trabecular spacing at Day 90, 135 was significantly smaller than that in MSCs group 2. Mechanical testing data didn't show significant difference among the three groups. In addition, the ELISA assay showed that level of Rantes in serum in MSCs group 2 was significantly higher than that of the PBS group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. Bone histomorphometry analysis showed that Oc.S/BS and Oc.N/BS in the PBS group were significant lower than those in MSCs group 2; Ob.S/BS and Ob.N/BS did not show significant difference among the three groups. The current study

  1. Endocrinopathies after Allogeneic and Autologous Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Orio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early and late endocrine disorders are among the most common complications in survivors after hematopoietic allogeneic- (allo- and autologous- (auto- stem cell transplant (HSCT. This review summarizes main endocrine disorders reported in literature and observed in our center as consequence of auto- and allo-HSCT and outlines current options for their management. Gonadal impairment has been found early in approximately two-thirds of auto- and allo-HSCT patients: 90–99% of women and 60–90% of men. Dysfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin growth factor-I axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis were documented as later complicances, occurring in about 10, 30, and 40–50% of transplanted patients, respectively. Moreover, overt or subclinical thyroid complications (including persistent low-T3 syndrome, chronic thyroiditis, subclinical hypo- or hyperthyroidism, and thyroid carcinoma, gonadal failure, and adrenal insufficiency may persist many years after HSCT. Our analysis further provides evidence that main recognized risk factors for endocrine complications after HSCT are the underlying disease, previous pretransplant therapies, the age at HSCT, gender, total body irradiation, posttransplant derangement of immune system, and in the allogeneic setting, the presence of graft-versus-host disease requiring prolonged steroid treatment. Early identification of endocrine complications can greatly improve the quality of life of long-term survivors after HSCT.

  2. Abnormal proliferation of CD4- CD8+ gammadelta+ T cells with chromosome 6 anomaly: role of Fas ligand expression in spontaneous regression of the cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, N; Kitano, K; Ito, T; Nakazawa, T; Shimodaira, S; Ishida, F; Kiyosawa, K

    1999-04-01

    We report a case of granular lymphocyte proliferative disorder accompanied with hemolytic anemia and neutropenia. Phenotypes of the cells were T cell receptor gammadelta+ CD3+ CD4- CD8+ CD16+ CD56- CD57-. Southern blot analysis of T cell receptor beta and gamma chains demonstrated rearranged bands in both. Chromosomal analysis after IL-2 stimulation showed deletion of chromosome 6. Sorted gammadelta+ T cells showed an increase in Fas ligand expression compared with the levels in sorted alphabeta+ T cells. The expression of Fas ligand on these gammadelta+ T cells increased after IL-2 stimulation. The patient's anemia improved along with a decrease in granular lymphocyte count and disappearance of the abnormal karyotype without treatment. The expression of Fas ligand may be involved in spontaneous regression of granular lymphocyte proliferation with hemolytic anemia.

  3. CD4(+)and CD8(+)T-cell reactions against leukemia-associated- or minor-histocompatibility-antigens in AML-patients after allogeneic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Brigitte; Milosevic, Slavoljub; Doessinger, Georg; Reuther, Susanne; Liepert, Anja; Braeu, Marion; Schick, Julia; Vogt, Valentin; Schuster, Friedhelm; Kroell, Tanja; Busch, Dirk H; Borkhardt, Arndt; Kolb, Hans-Jochem; Tischer, Johanna; Buhmann, Raymund; Schmetzer, Helga

    2014-04-01

    T-cells play an important role in the remission-maintenance in AML-patients (pts) after SCT, however the role of LAA- (WT1, PR1, PRAME) or minor-histocompatibility (mHag, HA1) antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+)T-cells is not defined. A LAA/HA1-peptide/protein stimulation, cloning and monitoring strategy for specific CD8(+)/CD4(+)T-cells in AML-pts after SCT is given. Our results show that (1) LAA-peptide-specific CD8+T-cells are detectable in every AML-pt after SCT. CD8(+)T-cells, recognizing two different antigens detectable in 5 of 7 cases correlate with long-lasting remissions. Clonal TCR-Vβ-restriction exemplarily proven by spectratyping in PRAME-specific CD8(+)T-cells; high PRAME-peptide-reactivity was CD4(+)-associated, as shown by IFN-γ-release. (2) Two types of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were tested for presentation of LAA/HA1-proteins to CD4(+)T-cells: miniEBV-transduced lymphoblastoid cells (B-cell-source) and CD4-depleted MNC (source for B-cell/monocyte/DC). We provide a refined cloning-system for proliferating, CD40L(+)CD4(+)T-cells after LAA/HA1-stimulation. CD4(+)T-cells produced cytokines (GM-CSF, IFN-γ) upon exposure to LAA/HA1-stimulation until after at least 7 restimulations and demonstrated cytotoxic activity against naive blasts, but not fibroblasts. Antileukemic activity of unstimulated, stimulated or cloned CD4(+)T-cells correlated with defined T-cell-subtypes and the clinical course of the disease. In conclusion we provide immunological tools to enrich and monitor LAA/HA1-CD4(+)- and CD8(+)T-cells in AML-pts after SCT and generate data with relevant prognostic value. We were able to demonstrate the presence of LAA-peptide-specific CD8(+)T-cell clones in AML-pts after SCT. In addition, we were also able to enrich specific antileukemic reactive CD4(+)T-cells without GvH-reactivity upon repeated LAA/HA1-protein stimulation and limiting dilution cloning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. T-helper cell-mediated proliferation and cytokine responses against recombinant Merkel cell polyomavirus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    Full Text Available The newly discovered Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV resides in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC. Causal role of MCPyV for this rare and aggressive skin cancer is suggested by monoclonal integration and truncation of large T (LT viral antigen in MCC cells. The mutated MCPyV has recently been found in highly purified leukemic cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, suggesting a pathogenic role also in CLL. About 50-80% of adults display MCPyV-specific antibodies. The humoral immunity does not protect against the development of MCC, as neutralizing MCPyV antibodies occur in higher levels among MCC patients than healthy controls. Impaired T-cell immunity has been linked with aggressive MCC behavior. Therefore, cellular immunity appears to be important in MCPyV infection surveillance. In order to elucidate the role of MCPyV-specific Th-cell immunity, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy adults were stimulated with MCPyV VP1 virus-like particles (VLPs, using human bocavirus (HBoV VLPs and Candida albicans antigen as positive controls. Proliferation, IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10 responses were examined in 15 MCPyV-seropositive and 15 seronegative volunteers. With the MCPyV antigen, significantly stronger Th-cell responses were found in MCPyV-seropositive than MCPyV-seronegative subjects, whereas with the control antigens, the responses were statistically similar. The most readily detectable cytokine was IFN-γ. The MCPyV antigen tended to induce stronger IFN-γ responses than HBoV VLP antigen. Taken together, MCPyV-specific Th-cells elicit vigorous IFN-γ responses. IFN-γ being a cytokine with major antiviral and tumor suppressing functions, Th-cells are suggested to be important mediators of MCPyV-specific immune surveillance.

  5. Sexual function 1-year after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noerskov, K. H.; Schjødt, I.; Syrjala, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with short and long-term toxicities that can result in alterations in sexual functioning. The aims of this prospective evaluation were to determine: (1) associations between HSCT and increased sexual dysfunction...

  6. BAFF induces spleen CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Baojun [Laboratory of Lung, Inflammation and Cancers, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Han, Junli; Wang, Haining [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Shen, Gang [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Tao, Jiang, E-mail: taojiang2012@yahoo.cn [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4{sup +} T cell's role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member 'B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4{sup +} T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation.

  7. Current issues in allogeneic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles A; Lawrence, Michael C; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2017-10-01

    Transplantation of allogenic pancreatic islets is a minimally invasive treatment option to control severe hypoglycemia and dependence on exogenous insulin among type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. This overview summarizes the current issues and progress in islet transplantation outcomes and research. Several clinical trials from North America and other countries have documented the safety and efficacy of clinical islet transplantation for T1D patients with impaired hypoglycemia awareness. A recently completed phase 3 clinical trial allows centres in the United States to apply for a Food and Drug Administration Biologics License for the procedure. Introduction of anti-inflammatory drugs along with T-cell depleting induction therapy has significantly improved long-term function of transplanted islets. Research into islet biomarkers, immunosuppression, extrahepatic transplant sites and potential alternative beta cell sources is driving further progress. Allogeneic islet transplantation has vastly improved over the past two decades. Success in restoration of glycemic control and hypoglycemic awareness after islet transplantation has been further highlighted by clinical trials. However, lack of effective strategies to maintain long-term islet function and insufficient sources of donor tissue still impose limitations to the widespread use of islet transplantation. In the United States, wide adoption of this technology still awaits regulatory approval and, importantly, a financial mechanism to support the use of this technology.

  8. Immunoregulatory T cells in man. Histamine-induced suppressor T cells are derived from a Leu 2+ (T8+) subpopulation distinct from that which gives rise to cytotoxic T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, P.; Silverman, E.D.; Khan, M.M.; Melmon, K.L.; Engleman, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    One mechanism of histamine-mediated inhibition of the immune response in man is to activate T suppressor cells that bear the Leu 2 (OKT8) marker. The current study was undertaken to characterize the histamine-induced suppressor cell using a monoclonal antibody (9.3) shown previously to distinguish cytotoxic T cells from antigen-specific suppressor T cells. Leu 2+ cells isolated from peripheral blood were further separated with antibody 9.3 into Leu 2+, 9.3+, and Leu 2+, 9.3- subsets and each subset was incubated with different concentrations of histamine before determining their ability to suppress immune responses in vitro. The results indicate that the Leu 2+, 9.3- subpopulation includes all histamine-induced suppressor cells, that 10(-4) M histamine is the optimal concentration for suppressor cell induction, and that exposure of Leu 2+, 9.3- cells to histamine for 30 s is sufficient to initiate the induction process. After treatment with histamine these cells inhibit both phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation and pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation. The suppression of phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation was resistant to x-irradiation with 1,200 rad, either before or after histamine exposure, suggesting that Leu 2+, 9.3- cells need not proliferate to become suppressor cells or exert suppression. Moreover, suppression by these cells was not due to altered kinetics of the response. Finally, a histamine type 2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine) but not a type 1 receptor antagonist (mepyramine) blocked the induction of suppressor cells. On the basis of these results and our previous studies of antigen specific suppressor cells, we conclude that Leu 2+ suppressor cells in man are derived from a precursor pool that is phenotypically distinct from cells that can differentiate into cytotoxic T cells

  9. Homeostatic 'bystander' proliferation of human peripheral blood B cells in response to polyclonal T-cell stimulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz, Aleksandra; Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Pietruczuk, Krzysztof; Frąckowiak, Joanna; Fulop, Tamas; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of maintenance of adequate numbers of B lymphocytes and of protective levels of immunoglobulins in the absence of antigenic (re)stimulation remain not fully understood. Meanwhile, our results presented here show that both peripheral blood naive and memory B cells can be activated strongly and non-specifically (in a mitogen-like fashion) in 5-day in vitro cultures of anti-CD3- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy people. This polyclonal, bystander activation of the B cells includes multiple divisions of most of them (assessed here by the flow cytometric technique of dividing cell tracking) and significant antibody [immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG] secretion. Observed proliferation of the CD19(+) B cells depends on contact with stimulated T helper (Th) cells (via CD40-CD40L interaction) and on the response of B cells to secreted interleukins IL-5, IL-10 and IL-4, and is correlated with the levels of these Th-derived molecules, while it does not involve the ligation of the BCR/CD19 complex. We suggest that the effect might reflect the situation occurring in vivo as the homeostatic proliferation of otherwise non-stimulated, peripheral B lymphocytes, providing an always ready pool for efficient antibody production to any new (or cognate) antigen challenge. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Antigen-driven T-cell turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, Christophe; Ferguson, Neil M.; de Wolf, Frank; Ghani, Azra C.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to characterize the distribution of cell turnover rates within a population of T lymphocytes. Previous models of T-cell dynamics have assumed a constant uniform turnover rate; here we consider turnover in a cell pool subject to clonal proliferation in response to

  11. In vitro X-ray irradiation of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes enhances suppressor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of in vitro X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied with regard to their suppressor activity related to the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor system. To generate suppressor T lymphocytes, purified human T lymphocytes were incubated for 3 days in the first culture, with or without Con A. These lymphocytes were irradiated with various doses of X-ray before, mid or after the culture. After doing a second culture for 6 days, the suppressive influence of these cells on T lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with allogeneic mononuclear cells, and B lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with pokeweed mitogen was measured. Irradiation of cultures to which Con A had not been added induced much the same level of suppressor activity as seen in the cultures with Con A. The suppressor activity gradually increased with time from the irradiation to the suppressor cell assay. Suppressor T lymphocytes were resistant to X-ray irradiation and independent of DNA synthesis. However, irradiation-induced enhancement was minimal in cultures incubated with con A, regardless of the irradiation time. (author)

  12. T-cell proliferative responses following sepsis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Ousama; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kohn, Annamarie; Muraskas, Jonathan K; Namak, Shahla Y; Alattar, Mohammad H; Sayeed, Mohammed M

    2003-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a suppression of T-cell function in burn and sepsis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte and purified T-cell proliferative response and IL-2 production in septic neonatal rats. We also examined if alterations in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production in neonatal sepsis is due to elevation in PGE2. PGE2 is known to play a significant role in T-cell suppression during sepsis in adults. Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by implanting 0.1 cm3 of fecal pellet impregnated with Escherichia coli (50 CFU) and Bacteroides fragilis (10(3) CFU). Animals receiving fecal pellets without the bacteria were designated as sterile. A group of septic and sterile rats were treated with PGE2 synthesis inhibitors, NS398 and resveratrol. These treatments of animals allowed us to evaluate the role of PGE2 in T-cell suppression during neonatal sepsis. Splenocytes as well as purified T cells were prepared and then proliferative response and IL-2 productive capacities were measured. A significant suppression of splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production was noticed in both sterile and septic animals compared to the T cells from unoperated control rats. In contrast, the proliferation and IL-2 production by nylon wool purified T cells in sterile rats was not significantly different from control rats, whereas, a significant suppression in Con A-mediated T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production noticed in septic rat T cells compared to the sterile and control rat T cells. Such decrease in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production was accompanied with 20-25% deaths in neonates implanted with septic pellets. No mortality was noted in sterile-implanted neonates. Treatment of animals with COX-1 inhibitor had no effect on T-cell proliferation response in both septic and sterile groups, whereas COX-2 inhibitor abrogated the decrease in T-cell proliferative response in the septic group. The treatment

  13. Pathogen-expanded CD11b+ invariant NKT cells feedback inhibit T cell proliferation via membrane-bound TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanmei; Jiang, Zhengping; Chen, Zhubo; Gu, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiang; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-04-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are effector cells, but also regulator of immune response, which either promote or suppress immune response through production of different cytokines. However, the subsets of NKT cells with definite phenotype and regulatory function need to be further identified. Furthermore, the mechanisms for NKT cells to regulate immune response remain to be fully elucidated. Here we identified CD11b(+) invariant NKT (CD11b(+) iNKT) cells as a new subset of regulatory NKT cells in mouse models with infection. αGalCer:CD1d complex(+)TCRβ(+)NK1.1(+) NKT cells could be categorized to CD11b(+) and CD11b(-) subsets. NKT cells are enriched in liver. During Listeria monocytogenes infection, hepatic CD11b(+) iNKT cells were significantly induced and expanded, with peak expansion on day 8. CD11b(+) iNKT cells were also expanded significantly in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. As compared to CD11b(-) iNKT cells, CD11b(+) iNKT cells expressed higher levels of CD27, FasL, B7H1, CD69, and particularly higher level of membrane-bound TGF-β1 (mTGF-β1), but produced less IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1. Hepatic CD11b(+) iNKT cells suppressed antigen-nonspecific and OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation through mTGF-β1 both in vitro and in vivo, meanwhile, they did not interfere with activation of CD4 T cells and cytotoxicity of the activated CD8 T cells. Thus, we have identified a new subset of pathogen-expanded CD11b(+) invariant NKT cells which can feedback inhibit T cell response through cell-to-cell contact via cell surface (membrane-bound) TGF-β1, especially at the late stage of immune response against infection. CD11b(+) regulatory iNKT cells may contribute to protect host from pathological injure by preventing immune overactivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In situ delivery of allogeneic natural killer cell (NK) combined with Cetuximab in liver metastases of gastrointestinal carcinoma: A phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adotevi, O; Godet, Y; Galaine, J; Lakkis, Z; Idirene, I; Certoux, J M; Jary, M; Loyon, R; Laheurte, C; Kim, S; Dormoy, A; Pouthier, F; Barisien, C; Fein, F; Tiberghien, P; Pivot, X; Valmary-Degano, S; Ferrand, C; Morel, P; Delabrousse, E; Borg, C

    2018-01-01

    Despite successful introduction of NK-based cellular therapy in the treatment of myeloid leukemia, the potential use of NK alloreactivity in solid malignancies is still elusive. We performed a phase I clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of in situ delivery of allogeneic NK cells combined with cetuximab in liver metastasis of gastrointestinal origin. The conditioning chemotherapy was administrated before the allogeneic NK cells injection via hepatic artery. Three escalating doses were tested (3.10 6 , 8.10 6 and 12.10 6 NK cells/kg) following by a high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). Cetuximab was administered intravenously every week for 7 weeks. Nine patients with liver metastases of colorectal or pancreatic cancers were included, three per dose level. Hepatic artery injection was successfully performed in all patients with no report of dose-limiting toxicity. Two patients had febrile aplasia requiring a short-term antibiotherapy. Grade 3/4 anemia and thrombopenia were also observed related to the chemotherapy. Objective clinical responses were documented in 3 patients and among them 2 occurred in patients injected with cell products harboring two KIR ligand mismatches and one in a patient with one KIR ligand mismatch. Immune monitoring revealed that most patients presented an increase but transient of IL-15 and IL-7 cytokines levels one week after chemotherapy. Furthermore, a high expansion of FoxP3 + regulatory T cells and PD-1 + T cells was observed in all patients, related to IL-2 administration. Our results demonstrated that combining allogeneic NK cells transfer via intra-hepatic artery, cetuximab and a high-dose IL-2 is feasible, well tolerated and may result in clinical responses.

  15. Ethanol exacerbates T cell dysfunction after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, M A; Messingham, K A; Namak, S; Colantoni, A; Fontanilla, C V; Duffner, L A; Sayeed, M M; Kovacs, E J

    2000-07-01

    To understand the mechanism of suppressed immunity following alcohol consumption and thermal injury, we analyzed T cell functions in a mouse model of acute alcohol exposure and burn injury. Mice with blood alcohol levels at approximately 100 mg/dl were given a 15% scald or sham injury. Mice were sacrificed 48 h after injury. Our data demonstrated a 20-25% decrease in Con A-mediated splenic T cell proliferation (p<0.01) and 45-50% decrease in interleukin-2 (IL-2) production (p<0.01) following burn injury compared to the T cells from sham animals. A further decrease in the proliferation (25-30%) and IL-2 production (40-45%) was detected in T cells derived from burned animals receiving alcohol as compared to burn alone. No significant change in the proliferation and IL-2 production was observed in splenic T cells derived from sham-injured mice regardless of alcohol exposure. Additionally, there was no demonstrable difference in splenocyte apoptosis in any treatment group. These results suggest that alcohol consumption prior to burn injury causes a greater decrease in T cell proliferation and IL-2 production compared to either burn or alcohol injury alone that may further attenuate the cell-mediated immunity and thus enhance susceptibility to infection.

  16. Silencing of Kv4.1 potassium channels inhibits cell proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Choi, Changsun; Hong, Seong-Geun; Yarishkin, Oleg V.; Bae, Young Min; Kim, Jae Gon; O'Grady, Scott M.; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channel activity has been shown to facilitate cell proliferation in cancer cells. In the present study, the role of Kv4.1 channels in immortal and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells was investigated. Kv4.1 protein expression was positively correlated with tumorigenicity. Moreover, transfection with siRNAs targeting Kv4.1 mRNA suppressed proliferation of tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Experiments using mRNA isolated from human breast cancer tissues revealed that the level of Kv4.1 mRNA expression varied depending on the stage of the tumor. Kv4.1 protein expression increased during stages T2 and T3 compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrated that Kv4.1 plays a role in proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, elevated Kv4.1 expression may be useful as a diagnostic marker for staging mammary tumors and selective blockers of Kv4.1 may serve to suppress tumor cell proliferation.

  17. Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi Mika

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Results Adiponectin receptor type 1 (AdipoR1 mRNA was detected in the cells by RT-PCR. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase was phosphorylated by both adiponectin and a pharmacological AMP kinase activator, 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR, in the cells. AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection potently knocked down the receptor mRNA, and the effect of this knockdown persisted for as long as 10 days after the transfection. The transfected cells showed decreased expressions of type I collagen and osteocalcin mRNA, as determined by real-time PCR, and reduced ALP activity and mineralization, as determined by von Kossa and Alizarin red stainings. In contrast, AMP kinase activation by AICAR (0.01–0.5 mM in wild-type MC3T3-E1 cells augmented their proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. BrdU assay showed that the addition of adiponectin (0.01–1.0 μg/ml also promoted their proliferation. Osterix, but not Runx-2, appeared to be involved in these processes because AdipoR1 siRNA transfection and AICAR treatments suppressed and enhanced osterix mRNA expression, respectively. Conclusion Taken together, this study suggests that adiponectin stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts via the AdipoR1 and AMP kinase signaling pathways in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions.

  18. Cytokine production but lack of proliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy patients in response to T. cruzi ribosomal P proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A Longhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P proteins, P2β and P0, induce high levels of antibodies in patients with chronic Chagas' disease Cardiomyopathy (CCC. It is well known that these antibodies alter the beating rate of cardiomyocytes and provoke apoptosis by their interaction with β1-adrenergic and M2-muscarinic cardiac receptors. Based on these findings, we decided to study the cellular immune response to these proteins in CCC patients compared to non-infected individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated proliferation, presence of surface activation markers and cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated with P2β, the C-terminal portion of P0 (CP0 proteins and T. cruzi lysate from CCC patients predominantly infected with TcVI lineage. PBMC from CCC patients cultured with P2β or CP0 proteins, failed to proliferate and express CD25 and HLA-DR on T cell populations. However, multiplex cytokine assays showed that these antigens triggered higher secretion of IL-10, TNF-α and GM-CSF by PBMC as well as both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subsets of CCC subjects. Upon T. cruzi lysate stimulation, PBMC from CCC patients not only proliferated but also became activated within the context of Th1 response. Interestingly, T. cruzi lysate was also able to induce the secretion of GM-CSF by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that although the lack of PBMC proliferation in CCC patients in response to ribosomal P proteins, the detection of IL-10, TNF-α and GM-CSF suggests that specific T cells could have both immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory potential, which might modulate the immune response in Chagas' disease. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate for the first time that GM-CSF was produced by PBMC of CCC patients in response not only to recombinant ribosomal P proteins but also to parasite lysate, suggesting the value of this cytokine to evaluate T cells responses in T

  19. 2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-3-ol, a Benzimidazole Derivative, Inhibits T Cell Proliferation Involving H+/K+-ATPase Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a benzimidazole derivative named BMT-1 is revealed as a potential immunomodulatory agent. BMT-1 inhibits the activity of H+/K+-ATPases from anti-CD3/CD28 activated T cells. Furthermore, inhibition the H+/K+-ATPases by use of BMT-1 should lead to intracellular acidification, inhibiting T cell proliferation. To explore this possibility, the effect of BMT-1 on intracellular pH changes was examined by using BCECF as a pH-dependent fluorescent dye. Interestingly, increases in the pHi were observed in activated T cells, and T cells treated with BMT-1 showed a more acidic intracellular pH. Finally, BMT-1 targeted the H+/K+-ATPases and inhibited the proliferative response of anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated T cells. A cell cycle analysis indicated that BMT-1 arrested the cell cycle progression of activated T cells from the G1 to the S phase without affecting CD25 expression or interleukin-2 (IL-2 production; treating IL-2-dependent PBMCs with BMT-1 also led to the inhibition of cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BMT-1 inhibits the proliferation of T cells by interfering with H+/K+-ATPases and down-regulating intracellular pHi. This molecule may be an interesting lead compound for the development of new immunomodulatory agents.

  20. Regulatory T-cells and immune tolerance in pregnancy : a new target for infertility treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerin, Leigh R.; Prins, Jelmer R.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of the maternal immune response to accommodate the semi-allogeneic fetus is necessary for pregnancy success, and disturbances in maternal tolerance are implicated in infertility and reproductive pathologies. T regulatory (Treg) cells are a recently discovered subset of T-lymphocytes with

  1. The role of Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS) in proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H-D; Zhang, W-G; Sun, M-N; Duan, Q-F; Li, F-L; Li, H

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS), which plays an essential role in the synthesis of selenoprotein, affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells. Human trophoblast JEG-3 cells were divided into four groups: control group, SEPSECS silenced-expression group, empty vector group and SEPSECS over-expression group. Over-expression and silenced-expression were achieved by transfection with plasmid DNA or RNA oligonucleotide, respectively. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays were performed to investigate cell proliferation, while apoptosis was tested by annexin V-FITC, PI double staining and caspases-3 activation assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the level of progesterone (PG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). SEPSECS silenced-expression clearly inhibited proliferation of JEG-3 cells (p < 0.05), significantly induced cell apoptosis (p < 0.01) and reduced the production of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). On the contrary, SEPSECS over-expression significantly promoted both cell proliferation (p < 0.01) and secretion of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). SEPSECS significantly affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells, suggesting that a potential relationship exists among SEPSECS, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone production of human placental trophoblast cells. Furthermore, this may provide a clue to uncover the relationship between selenium and human placental in association with an emphasis on the importance of selenium adequacy during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of valproic acid and pioglitazone on cell cycle progression and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells

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    Marie Saghaeian Jazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is an aggressive hematologic malignant tumor. Administration of chemical compounds influencing apoptosis and T cell development has been discussed as promising novel therapeutic strategies. Valproic acid (VPA as a recently emerged anti-neoplastic histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor and pioglitazone (PGZ as a high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ agonist have been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different studies. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on human Jurkat cells. Materials and Methods: Treated cells were evaluated for cell cycle progression and apoptosis using flowcytometry and MTT viability assay. Real-time RT-PCR was carried out to measure the alterations in key genes associated with cell death and cell cycle arrest. Results: Our findings illustrated that both VPA and PGZ can inhibit Jurkat E6.1 cells in vitro after   24 hr; however, PGZ 400 μM presents the most anti-proliferative effect. Interestingly, treated cells have been arrested in G2/M with deregulated cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A phosphatase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B or p27 expression. Expression of cyclin D1 gene was inhibited when DNA synthesis entry was declined. Cell cycle deregulation in PGZ and VPA-exposed cells generated an increase in the proportion of aneuploid cell population, which has not reported before. Conclusion: These findings define that anti-proliferative effects of PGZ and VPA on Jurkat cell line are mediated by cell cycle deregulation. Thus, we suggest PGZ and VPA may relieve potential therapeutic application against apoptosis-resistant malignancies.

  3. Homeostatic Proliferation and IL-7R Alpha Expression Do Not Correlate with Enhanced T Cell Proliferation and Protection in Chronic Mouse Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Robin; Seddon, Benedict; Langhorne, Jean

    2011-01-01

    While chronic infection has been shown to enhance protection from disease caused by several pathogens, the mechanisms are not known. The gamma-c family of cytokines IL-7, IL-2, and IL-15 are implicated in homeostatic proliferation, which is thought to maintain T cell memory. However in chronic infection, prolonged antigen exposure itself may contribute to lymphocyte survival. We have previously observed that chronic malaria infection enhances protection to re-infection, as well as enhancing B...

  4. Parathyroid hormone dependent T cell proliferation in uremic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, E; Ladefoged, Jens; Brandi, L

    1993-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is combined with an impairment of the immune system. The T cell may be a target for the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Rats with CRF have high blood levels of PTH. Therefore, the present investigation examined some aspects of the T cell function in both normal...... and CRF rats before and after parathyroidectomy and after an isogenic kidney transplantation. The T cell proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures obtained from CRF rats than from normal rats. After...... parathyroidectomy the T cells of normal as well as of uremic rats could still be significantly stimulated by PHA, but now no significant difference was seen. When CRF was reversed after an isogenic kidney transplantation and PTH reversed to levels in the normal range, the T cell proliferative response to PHA...

  5. Differences between primed allogeneic T-cell responses and the primary mixed leucocyte reaction. Primed T cells become independent of the blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies against IL-1 beta and the CD5, CD11a (LFA-1), and CD11c (p 150,95) molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Morling, N

    1988-01-01

    .01) and the purified protein derivative (PPD) induced lymphocyte transformation response (42%, P less than or equal to 0.01) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), whereas primed allogeneic responses to PBMC and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cell lines were unaffected by this MoAb. In addition, preliminary data...... monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) directed against (i) adhesion molecules belonging to the CD11 cluster of leucocyte antigens (CD11a, LFA-1; CD11b, MAC1 = CR3; and CD11c, p 150,95); (ii) various T cell-related antigens (CD2, CD4, CD5 and CD8); and (iii) recombinant IL-1 beta. The CD5-, CD11a- and CD11c...

  6. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Hu

    Full Text Available It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1 cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation.

  7. Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shi Hao; Bertulfo, Fatima Carla; Sanda, Takaomi

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-AL...

  8. Gender-Dependent Survival of Allogeneic Trophoblast Stem Cells in Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple-Farmer, Jessica; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Smithies, Oliver; Binas, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In view of the well-known phenomenon of trophoblast immune privilege, trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) might be expected to be immune privileged, which could be of interest for cell or gene therapies. Yet in the ectopic sites tested so far, TSC transplants fail to show noticeable immune privilege and seem to lack physiological support. However, we show here that after portal venous injection, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled TSCs survive for several months in the livers of allogeneic female but not male mice. Gonadectomy experiments revealed that this survival does not require the presence of ovarian hormones but does require the absence of testicular factors. By contrast, GFP-labeled allogeneic embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are reliably rejected; however, these same ESCs survive when mixed with unlabeled TSCs. The protective effect does not require immunological compatibility between ESCs and TSCs. Tumors were not observed in animals with either successfully engrafted TSCs or coinjected ESCs. We conclude that in a suitable hormonal context and location, ectopic TSCs can exhibit and confer immune privilege. These findings suggest applications in cell and gene therapy as well as a new model for studying trophoblast immunology and physiology. PMID:19523327

  9. Triiodothyronine promotes the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells through the MAPK/ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Song-Bai; Jing, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Xiao-ming; Du, Jian-Lin; Liu, Ya-Jie; Qin, Qin; She, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has important functions in the development and physiological function of the heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether 3,5,3′-Triiodothyronine (T3) can promote the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells (EPCs) and to investigate the potential underlying mechanism. Our results showed that T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The thyroid hormone nuclear receptor inhibitor bisphenol A (100 μmol/L) did not affect T3's ability to induce proliferation. Further studies showed that the mRNA expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), MAPK3, and Ki67 in EPCs in the T3 group (10 nmol/L) increased 2.9-, 3-, and 4.1-fold, respectively, compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 in the T3 group increased approximately 2-fold compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and there were more EPCs in the S phase of the cell cycle (20.6% vs. 12.0%, P < 0.05). The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the ability of T3 to promote the proliferation of EPCs and to alter cell cycle progression. This study suggested that T3 significantly promotes the proliferation of EPCs, and this effect may be achieved through activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Epicardial progenitor cells were successfully cultured from E12.5 mice. • Thyroid hormone T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs. • This biological effect may be mediated via activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway.

  10. Niclosamide suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation via the Wnt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomizawa M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Tomizawa,1 Fuminobu Shinozaki,2 Yasufumi Motoyoshi,3 Takao Sugiyama,4 Shigenori Yamamoto,5 Makoto Sueishi,4 Takanobu Yoshida6 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Rheumatology, 5Department of Pediatrics, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital, Yotsukaido City, Chiba, Japan Background: The Wnt pathway plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We analyzed the association of the Wnt pathway with the proliferation of hepatoma cells using Wnt3a and niclosamide, a drug used to treat tapeworm infection. Methods: We performed an MTS assay to determine whether Wnt3a stimulated proliferation of Huh-6 and Hep3B human hepatoma cell lines after 72 hours of incubation with Wnt3a in serum-free medium. The cells were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL after 48 hours of incubation. RNA was isolated 48 hours after addition of Wnt3a or niclosamide, and cyclin D1 expression levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The promoter activity of T-cell factor was analyzed by luciferase assay 48 hours after transfection of TOPflash. Western blot analysis was performed with antibodies against β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1. Results: Cell proliferation increased with Wnt3a. Niclosamide suppressed proliferation with or without Wnt3a. Hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL staining suggested that apoptosis occurred in cells with niclosamide. Cyclin D1 was upregulated in the presence of Wnt3a and downregulated with addition of niclosamide. The promoter activity of T-cell factor increased with Wnt3a, whereas T-cell factor promoter activity decreased with niclosamide. Western blot analysis showed that Wnt3a upregulated β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1, while niclosamide downregulated them. Conclusion: Niclosamide is a potential

  11. Redirecting T cells to eradicate B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: bispecific T-cell engagers and chimeric antigen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoss, I; Bargou, R C; Nagorsen, D; Friberg, G R; Baeuerle, P A; Forman, S J

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in antibody technology to harness T cells for cancer immunotherapy, particularly in the difficult-to-treat setting of relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL), have led to innovative methods for directing cytotoxic T cells to specific surface antigens on cancer cells. One approach involves administration of soluble bispecific (or dual-affinity) antibody-based constructs that temporarily bridge T cells and cancer cells. Another approach infuses ex vivo-engineered T cells that express a surface plasma membrane-inserted antibody construct called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Both bispecific antibodies and CARs circumvent natural target cell recognition by creating a physical connection between cytotoxic T cells and target cancer cells to activate a cytolysis signaling pathway; this connection allows essentially all cytotoxic T cells in a patient to be engaged because typical tumor cell resistance mechanisms (such as T-cell receptor specificity, antigen processing and presentation, and major histocompatibility complex context) are bypassed. Both the bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody construct blinatumomab and CD19-CARs are immunotherapies that have yielded encouraging remission rates in CD19-positive r/r ALL, suggesting that they might serve as definitive treatments or bridging therapies to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. With the introduction of these immunotherapies, new challenges arise related to unique toxicities and distinctive pathways of resistance. An increasing body of knowledge is being accumulated on how to predict, prevent, and manage such toxicities, which will help to better stratify patient risk and tailor treatments to minimize severe adverse events. A deeper understanding of the precise mechanisms of action and immune resistance, interaction with other novel agents in potential combinations, and optimization in the manufacturing process will help to advance immunotherapy outcomes in the r

  12. The impact of HLA matching on long-term transplant outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for CLL: a retrospective study from the EBMT registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michallet, M; Sobh, M; Milligan, D

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed 368 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation reported to the EBMT registry between 1995 and 2007. There were 198 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings; among unrelated transplants, 31 were well matched in high...... worsened significantly when EBMT risk score increased. HLA matching had no significant impact on relapse (siblings: 24% (21-27); WMUD: 35% (26-44), P=0.11 and MM: 21% (18-24), P=0.81); alemtuzumab T-cell depletion and stem cell source (peripheral blood) were associated with an increased risk. Our findings...... support the use of WMUD as equivalent alternative to HLA-matched sibling donors for allogeneic HSCT in CLL, and justify the application of EBMT risk score in this disease....

  13. Novel therapies and their integration into allogeneic stem cell transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglowski, Samantha M; Byrd, John C

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous advances have been made in elucidating the biology of and improving treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These studies have led to identification of select CLL patient groups that generally have short survival dating from time of treatment or initial disease relapse who benefit from more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Allogeneic transplantation represents the only potentially curative option for CLL, but fully ablative regimens applied in the past have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Reduced-intensity preparative regimens has made application of allogeneic transplant to CLL patients much more feasible and increased the number of patients proceeding to this modality. Arising from this has been establishment of guidelines where allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be considered in CLL. Introduction of new targeted therapies with less morbidity, which can produce durable remissions has the potential to redefine where transplantation is initiated in CLL. This review briefly summarizes the field of allogeneic stem cell transplant in CLL and the interface of new therapeutics with this modality. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormalities in iNKT cells are associated with impaired ability of monocytes to produce IL-10 and suppress T-cell proliferation in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Anjali; Kendrick, Yvonne R; McMichael, Andrew J; Ho, Ling-Pei

    2014-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized by marked T-cell expansion of T helper 1 (Th1) cells. The cause of T-cell overactivity is unknown. We hypothesized that interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by a yet undefined cell type might be defective, resulting in loss of regulation of T-cell activity. Focusing on IL-10-producing monocytes, we first showed that monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of corticosteroid-naïve sarcoidosis patients (n = 51) produced less IL-10 compared to controls, and were less able to suppress T-cell proliferation. In addition, monocytic IL-10 production correlated negatively with disease activity score. As invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known to both interact with monocytes and be reduced in sarcoidosis patients, we then asked whether iNKT-specific defects might be responsible for this reduced IL-10 production. We found that greater numbers of circulating iNKT cells was associated with higher IL-10 production. Moreover, iNKT cells enhanced monocytic IL-10 production in vitro. Defective IL-10 production and T-cell suppression by sarcoidosis monocytes could be restored following their coculture with iNKT cells, in a CD1d- and cell contact-dependent process. We suggest that reduced iNKT-cell numbers in sarcoidosis may lead to impaired monocytic IL-10 production and unchecked T-cell expansion in sarcoidosis. These findings provide fresh insight into the mechanism of sarcoidosis disease, and interaction between iNKT cells and monocytes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Humanized mouse model for assessing the human immune response to xenogeneic and allogeneic decellularized biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond M; Johnson, Todd D; He, Jingjin; Rong, Zhili; Wong, Michelle; Nigam, Vishal; Behfar, Atta; Xu, Yang; Christman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    Current assessment of biomaterial biocompatibility is typically implemented in wild type rodent models. Unfortunately, different characteristics of the immune systems in rodents versus humans limit the capability of these models to mimic the human immune response to naturally derived biomaterials. Here we investigated the utility of humanized mice as an improved model for testing naturally derived biomaterials. Two injectable hydrogels derived from decellularized porcine or human cadaveric myocardium were compared. Three days and one week after subcutaneous injection, the hydrogels were analyzed for early and mid-phase immune responses, respectively. Immune cells in the humanized mouse model, particularly T-helper cells, responded distinctly between the xenogeneic and allogeneic biomaterials. The allogeneic extracellular matrix derived hydrogels elicited significantly reduced total, human specific, and CD4 + T-helper cell infiltration in humanized mice compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels, which was not recapitulated in wild type mice. T-helper cells, in response to the allogeneic hydrogel material, were also less polarized towards a pro-remodeling Th2 phenotype compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels in humanized mice. In both models, both biomaterials induced the infiltration of macrophages polarized towards a M2 phenotype and T-helper cells polarized towards a Th2 phenotype. In conclusion, these studies showed the importance of testing naturally derived biomaterials in immune competent animals and the potential of utilizing this humanized mouse model for further studying human immune cell responses to biomaterials in an in vivo environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Similar effect of autologous and allogeneic cell therapy for ischemic heart disease : Systematic review and meta-analysis of large animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen of Lorkeers, Sanne J.; Eding, Joep Egbert Coenraad; Vesterinen, Hanna Mikaela; van der Spoel, Tycho Ids Gijsbert; Sena, Emily Shamiso; Duckers, Henricus Johannes; Doevendans, Pieter Adrianus; Macleod, Malcolm Robert; Chamuleau, Steven Anton Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: In regenerative therapy for ischemic heart disease, use of both autologous and allogeneic stem cells has been investigated. Autologous cell can be applied without immunosuppression, but availability is restricted, and cells have been exposed to risk factors and aging. Allogeneic cell

  17. A novel anti-EMMPRIN function-blocking antibody reduces T cell proliferation and neurotoxicity: relevance to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Smriti M; Silva, Claudia; Wang, Janet; Tong, Jade Pui-Wai; Yong, V Wee

    2012-04-05

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; CD147, basigin) is an inducer of the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We reported previously that blocking EMMPRIN activity reduced neuroinflammation and severity of disease in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To improve upon EMMPRIN blockade, and to help unravel the biological functions of EMMPRIN in inflammatory disorders, we have developed several anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibodies. Of these monoclonal antibodies, a particular one, clone 10, was efficient in binding mouse and human cells using several methods of detection. The specificity of clone 10 was demonstrated by its lack of staining of EMMPRIN-null embryos compared to heterozygous and wild-type mouse samples. Functionally, human T cells activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 elevated their expression of EMMPRIN and the treatment of these T cells with clone 10 resulted in decreased proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase- 9 (MMP-9) production. Activated human T cells were toxic to human neurons in culture and clone 10 pretreatment reduced T cell cytotoxicity correspondent with decrease of granzyme B levels within T cells. In vivo, EAE mice treated with clone 10 had a markedly reduced disease score compared to mice treated with IgM isotype control. We have produced a novel anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody that blocks several aspects of T cell activity, thus highlighting the multiple roles of EMMPRIN in T cell biology. Moreover, clone 10 reduces EAE scores in mice compared to controls, and has activity on human cells, potentially allowing for the testing of anti-EMMPRIN treatment not only in EAE, but conceivably also in MS.

  18. A novel anti-EMMPRIN function-blocking antibody reduces T cell proliferation and neurotoxicity: relevance to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Smriti M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; CD147, basigin is an inducer of the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. We reported previously that blocking EMMPRIN activity reduced neuroinflammation and severity of disease in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Methods To improve upon EMMPRIN blockade, and to help unravel the biological functions of EMMPRIN in inflammatory disorders, we have developed several anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibodies. Results Of these monoclonal antibodies, a particular one, clone 10, was efficient in binding mouse and human cells using several methods of detection. The specificity of clone 10 was demonstrated by its lack of staining of EMMPRIN-null embryos compared to heterozygous and wild-type mouse samples. Functionally, human T cells activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 elevated their expression of EMMPRIN and the treatment of these T cells with clone 10 resulted in decreased proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase- 9 (MMP-9 production. Activated human T cells were toxic to human neurons in culture and clone 10 pretreatment reduced T cell cytotoxicity correspondent with decrease of granzyme B levels within T cells. In vivo, EAE mice treated with clone 10 had a markedly reduced disease score compared to mice treated with IgM isotype control. Conclusions We have produced a novel anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody that blocks several aspects of T cell activity, thus highlighting the multiple roles of EMMPRIN in T cell biology. Moreover, clone 10 reduces EAE scores in mice compared to controls, and has activity on human cells, potentially allowing for the testing of anti-EMMPRIN treatment not only in EAE, but conceivably also in MS.

  19. Splenocytes cultured in low concentrations of IL-2 generate NK cell specificities toward syngenic and allogenic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Jeppesen, M; Claesson, M H

    2000-01-01

    Splenocytes cultured in the presence of 30-60 units/ml IL-2 for 5 days develop natural killer activity toward syngeneic and allogeneic tumor cell targets. The IL-2 activated splenocytes, themselves, are partially resistant, whereas concanavalin A-activated T blast cells are completely resistant...... to killing. Surprisingly, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I-negative target cells are also resistant to natural killer (NK)-cell-mediated killing. Cells resistant to killing were unable to block NK-cell-mediated killing of sensitive targets as judged from cold target cell inhibition experiments......, and one type of target cells sensitive to killing did generally not cross-block killing of other killing-sensitive target cell types. Alloantigen exposure of splenocytes, i.e., one-way mixed lymphocyte cultures, partially prevents the development of NK-cell activity. Our data suggest that target...

  20. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor during allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, E; Andersen, J; Ostrowski, S R

    2011-01-01

    the course of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Twenty SCT patients were included in the study. suPAR was measured by ELISA in daily taken plasma samples during the pretransplant conditioning with chemotherapy and weekly for 1 month after infusion of the graft. suPAR levels before the start...

  1. Ex Vivo Oncolytic Virotherapy with Myxoma Virus Arms Multiple Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant Leukocytes to Enhance Graft versus Tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilly, Cameron L.; Villa, Nancy Y.; Lemos de Matos, Ana; Ali, Haider M.; Dhillon, Jess-Karan S.; Hofland, Tom; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Chan, Winnie; Bogen, Bjarne; Cogle, Christopher; McFadden, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplant-derived T cells have the potential to seek and eliminate sites of residual cancer that escaped primary therapy. Oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) exhibits potent anti-cancer efficacy against human cancers like multiple myeloma (MM) and can arm transplant-derived T cells

  2. CD4+ T regulatory cells from the colonic lamina propria of normal mice inhibit proliferation of enterobacteria-reactive, disease-inducing Th1-cells from scid mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, M; Brimnes, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2003-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells into scid mice leads to a chronic colitis in the recipients. The transferred CD4+ T cells accumulate in the intestinal lamina propria (LP), express an activated Th1 phenotype and proliferate vigorously when exposed ex vivo to enteric bacterial antigens. As LP CD4......+ T cells from normal BALB/c mice do not respond to enteric bacterial antigens, we have investigated whether colonic LP-derived CD4+ T cells from normal mice suppress the antibacterial response of CD4+ T cells from scid mice with colitis. LP-derived CD4+ T cells cocultured with bone marrow......-derived dendritic cells effectively suppress the antibacterial proliferative response of CD4+ T cells from scid mice with colitis. The majority of these LP T-reg cells display a nonactivated phenotype and suppression is independent of antigen exposure, is partly mediated by soluble factor(s) different from IL-10...

  3. Effect of IL-2 on recovery of proliferation ability of irradiated T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ninghai; Zhang Lansheng

    1989-01-01

    3 H-thymidine incorporation assay was used to evaluated the proliferation ability of normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes irradiated with or without exogenous IL-2 by 60 Co γ-ray at various doses after exposure to 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 Gy γ-ray, the DNA synthesis is blocked. It indicated IL-2 has damage effect on the proliferation ability of T cells. 3 H-thymidine incorporation rate in cells decreases with increasing dose of irradiation. Incorporation of 3 H-Tdk in irradiated groups in the dose range of 1 to 40 Gy was compared with that in the control group. The incorporation rate 3 H-TdR in these irradiated groups is 27 to 82 % of that in control group. The inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was partially enhanced by adding IL-2, but the inhibiting effect on proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to irradiation at more than 10 Gy is not reversible

  4. Methotrexate induces poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-dependent, caspase 3-independent apoptosis in subsets of proliferating CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Albertsen, L; Bendtzen, K

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of action of methotrexate (MTX) in autoimmune diseases (AID) is unclear. A pro-apoptotic effect has been demonstrated in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), but studies employing conventional antigens have disputed a pro-apoptotic effect. CD4+ T helper (Th....... Exposure of CA-stimulated PBMC to MTX significantly increased their level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and a similar tendency was observed in TT-stimulated cells. Unlike CA and TT, the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induced proliferation of both CD4- and CD4+ T cells, and induced......) cells play a significant role in most AID. We therefore examined directly, by flow cytometry, the uptake of MTX by the T helper (Th) cells stimulated for 6 days with Candida albicans (CA) or tetanus toxoid (TT), and its consequences with respect to induction of apoptosis. While none of the resting Th...

  5. Distinct Biomarker Profiles in Ex Vivo T Cell Depletion Graft Manipulation Strategies: CD34+ Selection versus CD3+/19+ Depletion in Matched Sibling Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantilena, Caroline R; Ito, Sawa; Tian, Xin; Jain, Prachi; Chinian, Fariba; Anandi, Prathima; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Draper, Debbie; Koklanaris, Eleftheria; Hauffe, Sara; Superata, Jeanine; Stroncek, David; Muranski, Pawel; Barrett, A John; Battiwalla, Minoo

    2018-03-01

    Various approaches have been developed for ex vivo T cell depletion in allogeneic stem cell transplantation to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Direct comparisons of T cell depletion strategies have not been well studied, however. We evaluated cellular and plasma biomarkers in 2 different graft manipulation strategies, CD3 + CD19 + cell depletion (CD3/19D) versus CD34 + selection (CD34S), and their associations with clinical outcomes. Identical conditions, including the myeloablative preparative regimen, HLA-identical sibling donor, GVHD prophylaxis, and graft source, were used in the 2 cohorts. Major clinical outcomes were similar in the 2 groups in terms of overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and cumulative incidence of relapse; however, the cumulative incidence of acute GVHD trended to be higher in the CD3/19D cohort compared with the CD34S cohort. A distinct biomarker profile was noted in the CD3/19D cohort: higher levels of ST2, impaired Helios - FoxP3 + Treg reconstitution, and rapid reconstitution of naïve, Th2, and Th17 CD4 cells in the early post-transplantation period. In vitro graft replication studies confirmed that CD3/19D disproportionately depleted Tregs and other CD4 subset repertoires in the graft. This study confirms the utility of biomarker monitoring, which can be directly correlated with biological consequences and possible future therapeutic indications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Ceacam1 separates graft-versus-host-disease from graft-versus-tumor activity after experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney X Lu

    Full Text Available Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT is a potentially curative therapy for a variety of hematologic diseases, but benefits, including graft-versus-tumor (GVT activity are limited by graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD. Carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ceacam1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein found on epithelium, T cells, and many tumors. It regulates a variety of physiologic and pathological processes such as tumor biology, leukocyte activation, and energy homeostasis. Previous studies suggest that Ceacam1 negatively regulates inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease models.We studied Ceacam1 as a regulator of GVHD and GVT after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT in mouse models. In vivo, Ceacam1(-/- T cells caused increased GVHD mortality and GVHD of the colon, and greater numbers of donor T cells were positive for activation markers (CD25(hi, CD62L(lo. Additionally, Ceacam1(-/- CD8 T cells had greater expression of the gut-trafficking integrin α(4β(7, though both CD4 and CD8 T cells were found increased numbers in the gut post-transplant. Ceacam1(-/- recipients also experienced increased GVHD mortality and GVHD of the colon, and alloreactive T cells displayed increased activation. Additionally, Ceacam1(-/- mice had increased mortality and decreased numbers of regenerating small intestinal crypts upon radiation exposure. Conversely, Ceacam1-overexpressing T cells caused attenuated target-organ and systemic GVHD, which correlated with decreased donor T cell numbers in target tissues, and mortality. Finally, graft-versus-tumor survival in a Ceacam1(+ lymphoma model was improved in animals receiving Ceacam1(-/- vs. control T cells.We conclude that Ceacam1 regulates T cell activation, GVHD target organ damage, and numbers of donor T cells in lymphoid organs and GVHD target tissues. In recipients of allo-BMT, Ceacam1 may also regulate tissue radiosensitivity. Because of its expression on both the

  7. Financial burden in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Nandita; Chang, Yu-hui; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Slack, James; Beebe, Timothy; Roy, Vivek; Noel, Pierre; Fauble, Veena; Sproat, Lisa; Tilburt, Jon; Leis, Jose F; Mikhael, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an expensive treatment for hematological disorders, little is known about the financial consequences for the patients who undergo this procedure. We analyzed factors associated with its financial burden and its impact on health behaviors of allogeneic HCT recipients. A questionnaire was retrospectively mailed to 482 patients who underwent allogeneic HCT from January 2006 to June 2012 at the Mayo Clinic, to collect information regarding current financial concerns, household income, employment, insurance, out-of-pocket expenses, and health and functional status. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with financial burden and treatment nonadherence. Of the 268 respondents (56% response rate), 73% reported that their sickness had hurt them financially. All patients for whom the insurance information was available (missing, n = 13) were insured. Forty-seven percent of respondents experienced financial burden, such as household income decreased by >50%, selling/mortgaging home, or withdrawing money from retirement accounts. Three percent declared bankruptcy. Younger age and poor current mental and physical functioning increased the likelihood of financial burden. Thirty-five percent of patients reported deleterious health behaviors because of financial constraints. These patients were likely to be younger, have lower education, and with a longer time since HCT. Being employed decreased the likelihood of experiencing financial burden and treatment nonadherence due to concern about costs. A significant proportion of allogeneic HCT survivors experience financial hardship despite insurance coverage. Future research should investigate potential interventions to help at-risk patients and prevent adverse financial outcomes after this life-saving procedure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring of a new approach of immunotherapy with allogenic 111In-labelled NK cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, Birgit; Lauer, Isabel; Schelper, Lutz F.; Hof, Katharina von; Richter, Eckart; Baehre, Manfred; Frohn, Christoph; Brand, Joerg-Matthias; Kirchner, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The transfusion of allogenic, in vitro expanded natural killer cells (NKC) is a novel therapy option in oncology. To date, however, the biodistribution and kinetics of allogenic NKC have not been investigated. Therefore, in this study three patients with renal cell carcinoma received 3-7 x 10 8 NKC labelled with indium-111 oxine with a tenfold excess of unlabelled cells during NKC therapy. Whole-body scintigrams were obtained (0.5-144 h) in the anterior and posterior views. Scintigrams were analysed using a region of interest technique, and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies of the abdomen were performed. Results were compared to those obtained with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the peripheral blood (determination of foreign DNA, nested PCR, limit of detection 0.01%). Shortly after transfusion of NKC, more than 50% of the activity was accumulated in the lungs. We observed redistribution effects from lungs to liver, spleen and bone marrow. No significant loss of activity could be detected. In two of four large metastases, tracer accumulation could be proven by SPET. As confirmed by scintigrams and PCR, the fraction of circulating transfused cells was low at all times. Long-term activity retention might be caused either by survival of the allogenic cells, as confirmed by PCR (up to 3 days p.i.), or by phagocytosis of labelled cellular fragments. However, PCR data and uptake in metastases indicated long survival of a portion of allogenic NKC. Such long survival and low retention of the cells in the lung are requirements for an effective immunotherapeutic approach. (orig.)

  9. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case series of 12 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant with a matched related donor. Male to female ratio was 1:1. The main complication post-transplant was graft-versus-host disease (n=7 patients. Transplant-related mortality involved one patient; cause of death was multi-organ failure. After a median follow up of 36.0±11.3 months, overall survival was 16%.

  10. Immature and maturation-resistant human dendritic cells generated from bone marrow require two stimulations to induce T cell anergy in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Berger

    Full Text Available Immature dendritic cells (DC represent potential clinical tools for tolerogenic cellular immunotherapy in both transplantation and autoimmunity. A major drawback in vivo is their potential to mature during infections or inflammation, which would convert their tolerogenicity into immunogenicity. The generation of immature DC from human bone marrow (BM by low doses of GM-CSF (lowGM in the absence of IL-4 under GMP conditions create DC resistant to maturation, detected by surface marker expression and primary stimulation by allogeneic T cells. This resistence could not be observed for BM-derived DC generated with high doses of GM-CSF plus IL-4 (highGM/4, although both DC types induced primary allogeneic T cell anergy in vitro. The estabishment of the anergic state requires two subsequent stimulations by immature DC. Anergy induction was more profound with lowGM-DC due to their maturation resistance. Together, we show the generation of immature, maturation-resistant lowGM-DC for potential clinical use in transplant rejection and propose a two-step-model of T cell anergy induction by immature DC.

  11. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagler, Arnon; Rocha, Vanderson; Labopin, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cy) combined with total-body irradiation (TBI) or with busulfan (Bu) are currently the most common myeloablative regimens used in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) in adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Intravenous (IV) Bu has more predictable...

  12. Specific Factors Influence the Success of Autologous and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thissiane L. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, both autologous and allogeneic, requires a rapid and durable engraftment, with neutrophil (>500/µL and platelet (>20,000/µL reconstitution. Factors influencing engraftment after autologous or allogeneic HSCT were investigated in 65 patients: 25 autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PBSCT and 40 allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT patients. The major factor affecting engraftment was the graft source for HSCT. Neutrophil and platelet recovery were more rapid in autologous PBSCT than in allogeneic BMT [neutrophil occurring in median on day 10.00 (09.00/11.00 and 19.00 (16.00/23.00 and platelet on day 11.00 (10.00/13.00 and 21.00 (18.00/25.00, respectively; p < 0.0001]. The type of disease also affected engraftment, where multiple myeloma (MM and lymphoma showed faster engraftment when compared with leukemia, syndrome myelodysplastic (SMD and aplastic anemia (AA and MM presented the best overall survival (OS in a period of 12 months. Other factors included the drug used in the conditioning regimen (CR, where CBV, melphalan (M-200 and FluCy showed faster engraftment and M-200 presented the best OS, in a period of 12 months and age, where 50–59 years demonstrated faster engraftment. Sex did not influence neutrophil and platelet recovery.

  13. Long-term outcomes among older patients following nonmyeloablative conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for advanced hematologic malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorror, Mohamed L; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storer, Barry E

    2011-01-01

    A minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who are older or have comorbid conditions.......A minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who are older or have comorbid conditions....

  14. H2A/K pseudogene mutation may promote cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jisheng; Jing, Ruirui; Lv, Xin; Wang, Xiaoyue; Li, Junqiang; Li, Lin; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Daoguang; Bi, Baibing; Chen, Xinjun [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Yang, Jing-Hua, E-mail: sdu_crc_group1@126.com [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Surgery, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston 510660, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene is active. • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene can promote cell proliferation. - Abstract: Little attention has been paid to the histone H2A/K pseudogene. Results from our laboratory showed that 7 of 10 kidney cancer patients carried a mutant H2A/K pseudogene; therefore, we were interested in determining the relationship between mutant H2A/K and cell proliferation. We used shotgun and label-free proteomics methods to study whether mutant H2A/K lncRNAs affected cell proliferation. Quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of mutant H2A/K lncRNAs resulted in the upregulation of many oncogenes, which promoted cell proliferation. Further interaction analyses revealed that a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-protein interaction network, with PCNA in the center, contributes to cell proliferation in cells expressing the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs. Western blotting confirmed the critical upregulation of PCNA by mutant H2A/K lncRNA expression. Finally, the promotion of cell proliferation by mutant H2A/K lncRNAs (C290T, C228A and A45G) was confirmed using cell proliferation assays. Although we did not determine the exact mechanism by which the oncogenes were upregulated by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs, we confirmed that the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs promoted cell proliferation by upregulating PCNA and other oncogenes. The hypothesis that cell proliferation is promoted by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs was supported by the protein expression and cell proliferation assay results. Therefore, mutant H2A/K lncRNAs may be a new factor in renal carcinogenesis.

  15. The effect of myostatin on proliferation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui Juan; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Xu Zhe; Li, Nai Shi; Wang, Lin Jie; Yang, Hong Bo; Gong, Feng Ying

    2015-06-01

    Myostatin is a critical negative regulator of skeletal muscle development, and has been reported to be involved in the progression of obesity and diabetes. In the present study, we explored the effects of myostatin on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide spectrophotometry, intracellular triglyceride (TG) assays, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR methods. The results indicated that recombinant myostatin significantly promoted the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the expression of proliferation-related genes, including Cyclin B2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, Pcna, and c-Myc, and IGF1 levels in the medium of 3T3-L1 were notably upregulated by 35.2, 30.5, 20.5, 33.4, 51.2, and 179% respectively (all Pmyostatin-treated 3T3-L1 cells. Meanwhile, the intracellular lipid content of myostatin-treated cells was notably reduced as compared with the non-treated cells. Additionally, the mRNA levels of Pparγ, Cebpα, Gpdh, Dgat, Acs1, Atgl, and Hsl were significantly downregulated by 22-76% in fully differentiated myostatin-treated adipocytes. Finally, myostatin regulated the mRNA levels and secretion of adipokines, including Adiponectin, Resistin, Visfatin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (all Pmyostatin promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation by increasing the expression of cell-proliferation-related genes and by stimulating IGF1 secretion. Myostatin inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by suppressing Pparγ and Cebpα expression, which consequently deceased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells by inhibiting the expression of critical lipogenic enzymes and by promoting the expression of lipolytic enzymes. Finally, myostatin modulated the expression and secretion of adipokines in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Prolonged Survival of Subcutaneous Allogeneic Islet Graft by Donor Chimerism without Immunosuppressive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brend Ray-Sea Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether tolerance-induced protection of islets in the renal subcapsular space can also prevent subcutaneous allogeneic islets from being rejected. We used bone marrow stem cells from C57BL/6 (H2b mice to construct donor chimerism in conditioned diabetic BALB/c (H2d mice and investigated the effect of donor chimerism on engraftment and survival of subcutaneously transplanted allogeneic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. We also studied the anti-inflammatory effect of mesenchymal stem cell on islet engraftment. Full but not low-grade or no donor chimerism was associated with successful engraftment of allogeneic islets and restoration of normoglycemia in the treated diabetic mice. The temporary hyperglycemia was 11 ± 1 versus 19 ± 5 days (p<0.05 for the mice with full donor chimerism with transplanted islets in the renal subcapsular space versus the subcutaneous space, respectively. Cotransplantation of mesenchymal stem cell did not enhance alloislet engraftment. Full multilineage donor chimerism was associated with a higher transient expansion of CD11b+ and Gr-1+ myeloid progenitor cells and effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. In conclusion, full donor chimerism protected both renal subcapsular and subcutaneous allogeneic islets in this rodent transplantation model.

  17. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of human dendritic cells and T cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Przesdzing, I; Metzke, D; Schmitz, J; Radbruch, A; Baumgart, D C

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) is a probiotic yeast preparation that has demonstrated efficacy in inflammatory and infectious disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in controlled clinical trials. Although patients clearly benefit from treatment with Sb, little is known on how Sb unfolds its anti-inflammatory properties in humans. Dendritic cells (DC) balance tolerance and immunity and are involved critically in the control of T cell activation. Thus, they are believed to have a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of chronic inflammatory disorders, not only in the gut. We therefore decided to investigate if Sb modulates DC function. Culture of primary (native, non-monocyte-derived) human myeloid CD1c+CD11c+CD123– DC (mDC) in the presence of Sb culture supernatant (active component molecular weight < 3 kDa, as evaluated by membrane partition chromatography) reduced significantly expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80 (P < 0·01) and the DC mobilization marker CC-chemokine receptor CCR7 (CD197) (P < 0·001) induced by the prototypical microbial antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, secretion of key proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were notably reduced, while the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased. Finally, Sb supernatant inhibited the proliferation of naive T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction with mDC. In summary, our data suggest that Sb may exhibit part of its anti-inflammatory potential through modulation of DC phenotype, function and migration by inhibition of their immune response to bacterial microbial surrogate antigens such as LPS. PMID:19161443

  18. Anti-Donor Immune Responses Elicited by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Extracellular Vesicles: Are We Still Learning?

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    Paul Lohan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous MSC may be the safer choice in terms of avoiding unwanted immune responses, factors including donor comorbidities may preclude these cells from use. In these situations, allogeneic MSC derived from genetically unrelated individuals must be used. While allogeneic MSC were initially believed to be immune-privileged, substantial evidence now exists to prove otherwise with multiple studies documenting specific cellular and humoral immune responses against donor antigens following administration of these cells. In this article, we will review recent published studies using non-manipulated, inflammatory molecule-activated (licensed and differentiated allogeneic MSC, as well as MSC extracellular vesicles focusing on the immune responses to these cells and whether or not such responses have an impact on allogeneic MSC-mediated safety and efficacy.

  19. Transplantation of Allogeneic PW1pos/Pax7neg Interstitial Cells Enhance Endogenous Repair of Injured Porcine Skeletal Muscle

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    Fiona C. Lewis, BSc, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle-derived PW1pos/Pax7neg interstitial cells (PICs express and secrete a multitude of proregenerative growth factors and cytokines. Utilizing a porcine preclinical skeletal muscle injury model, delivery of allogeneic porcine PICs (pPICs significantly improved and accelerated myofiber regeneration and neocapillarization, compared with saline vehicle control-treated muscles. Allogeneic pPICs did not contribute to new myofibers or capillaries and were eliminated by the host immune system. In conclusion, allogeneic pPIC transplantation stimulated the endogenous stem cell pool to bring about enhanced autologous skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. This allogeneic cell approach is considered a cost-effective, easy to apply, and readily available regenerative therapeutic strategy.

  20. Co-infusion of haplo-identical CD19-chimeric antigen receptor T cells and stem cells achieved full donor engraftment in refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Bo Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL have poor prognosis. Autologous CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T cells have potentials to cure patients with B cell ALL; however, safety and efficacy of allogeneic CD19 CAR-T cells are still undetermined. Case presentation We treated a 71-year-old female with relapsed and refractory ALL who received co-infusion of haplo-identical donor-derived CD19-directed CAR-T cells and mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC following induction chemotherapy. Undetectable minimal residual disease by flow cytometry was achieved, and full donor cell engraftment was established. The transient release of cytokines and mild fever were detected. Significantly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine transaminase, bilirubin and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase were observed from days 14 to 18, all of which were reversible after immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest that co-infusion of haplo-identical donor-derived CAR-T cells and mobilized PBSCs may induce full donor engraftment in relapsed and refractory ALL including elderly patients, but complications related to donor cell infusions should still be cautioned. Trial registration Allogeneic CART-19 for Elderly Relapsed/Refractory CD19+ ALL. NCT02799550

  1. Cellular prion protein and γ-synuclein overexpression in LS 174T colorectal cancer cell drives endothelial proliferation-to-differentiation switch

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    Sing-Hui Ong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tumor-induced angiogenesis is an imperative event in pledging new vasculature for tumor metastasis. Since overexpression of neuronal proteins gamma-synuclein (γ-Syn and cellular prion protein (PrPC is always detected in advanced stages of cancer diseases which involve metastasis, this study aimed to investigate whether γ-Syn or PrPC overexpression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, LS 174T cells affects angiogenesis of endothelial cells, EA.hy 926 (EA. Methods EA cells were treated with conditioned media (CM of LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP, and their proliferation, invasion, migration, adhesion and ability to form angiogenic tubes were assessed using a range of biological assays. To investigate plausible background mechanisms in conferring the properties of EA cells above, nitrite oxide (NO levels were measured and the expression of angiogenesis-related factors was assessed using a human angiogenesis antibody array. Results EA proliferation was significantly inhibited by LS 174T-PrP CM whereas its telomerase activity was reduced by CM of LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP, as compared to EA incubated with LS 174T CM. Besides, LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM inhibited EA invasion and migration in Boyden chamber assay. Furthermore, LS 174T-γ-Syn CM significantly inhibited EA migration in scratch wound assay. Gelatin zymography revealed reduced secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by EA treated with LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM. In addition, cell adhesion assay showed lesser LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP cells adhered onto EA, as compared to LS 174T. In tube formation assay, LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM induced EA tube formation. Increased NO secretion by EA treated with LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM was also detected. Lastly, decreased expression of pro-angiogenic factors like CXCL16, IGFBP-2 and amphiregulin in LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM was detected using the angiogenesis antibody array. Discussion These results

  2. G-CSF-primed BM for allogeneic SCT: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessach, I; Resnick, I; Shimoni, A; Nagler, A

    2015-07-01

    G-SCF-mobilized PBSC (GPB) grafts have a higher cell dose and somewhat more committed progenitor cells than steady-state BM (SBM), resulting in faster engraftment and faster immunological reconstitution. On the other hand, transplant related mortality (TRM), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) are similar both for PB and for BM. In contrast to SBM, G-CSF-primed BM (GBM) grafts stimulate HSC proliferation, increasing cell dose and thus resulting in faster engraftment because of higher cell dose infused, or because of treatment with G-CSF. Furthermore, GBM may induce tolerance and functional modulations in donor hematopoiesis and immunity, further reducing GVHD incidence, which is already lower with SBM compared with GPB grafts. Overall, a growing body of clinical evidence suggests that GBM transplants may share the advantages of GPB transplantations, without the associated increased risk of GVHD, and might be an attractive graft source for allogeneic SCTs.

  3. Lck/PLCγ control migration and proliferation of interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells via the Rac1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llavero, Francisco; Artaso, Alain; Lacerda, Hadriano M; Parada, Luis A; Zugaza, José L

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we have reported that the IL-2-stimulated T cells activate PKCθ in order to phosphorylate the serine residues of αPIX-RhoGEF, and to switch on the Rac1/PYGM pathway resulting in T cell migration and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism connecting the activated IL-2-R with the PKCθ/αPIX/Rac1/PYGM pathway is still unknown. In this study, the use of a combined pharmacological and genetic approach identified Lck, a Src family member, as the tyrosine kinase phosphorylating PLCγ leading to Rac1 and PYGM activation in the IL-2-stimulated Kit 225 T cells via the PKCθ/αPIX pathway. The PLCγ tyrosine phosphorylation was required to activate first PKCθ, and then αPIX and Rac1/PYGM. The results presented here delineate a novel signalling pathway ranking equally in importance to the three major pathways controlled by the IL-2-R, i.e. PI3K, Ras/MAPK and JAK/STAT pathways. The overall evidence strongly indicates that the central biological role of the novel IL-2-R/Lck/PLCγ/PKCθ/αPIX/Rac1/PYGM signalling pathway is directly related to the control of fundamental cellular processes such as T cell migration and proliferation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Apoptosis-Inducing-Factor-Dependent Mitochondrial Function Is Required for T Cell but Not B Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasta, Sandra; Dillon, Christopher P; Sturm, Oliver E; Verbist, Katherine C; Brewer, Taylor L; Quarato, Giovanni; Brown, Scott A; Frase, Sharon; Janke, Laura J; Perry, S Scott; Thomas, Paul G; Green, Douglas R

    2016-01-19

    The role of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in promoting cell death versus survival remains controversial. We report that the loss of AIF in fibroblasts led to mitochondrial electron transport chain defects and loss of proliferation that could be restored by ectopic expression of the yeast NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1. Aif-deficiency in T cells led to decreased peripheral T cell numbers and defective homeostatic proliferation, but thymic T cell development was unaffected. In contrast, Aif-deficient B cells developed and functioned normally. The difference in the dependency of T cells versus B cells on AIF for function and survival correlated with their metabolic requirements. Ectopic Ndi1 expression rescued homeostatic proliferation of Aif-deficient T cells. Despite its reported roles in cell death, fibroblasts, thymocytes and B cells lacking AIF underwent normal death. These studies suggest that the primary role of AIF relates to complex I function, with differential effects on T and B cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Peng-Yeh [Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Chong-Bin [Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Min-Jen, E-mail: biomjt@ccu.edu.tw [Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  6. Donor hematopoiesis in mice following total lymphoid irradiation requires host T-regulatory cells for durable engraftment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Antonia M. S.; Poyser, Jessica; Küpper, Natascha J.; Burnett, Cassandra; Ko, Rose M.; Kohrt, Holbrook E.K.; Florek, Mareike; Zhang, Pei; Negrin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is a unique regimen that prepares recipients for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation by targeting lymph nodes, while sparing large areas of the bone marrow. TLI is reported to increase the frequency of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells (Treg) relative to conventional T cells. In this study, barriers to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment following this nonmyeloablative conditioning were evaluated. TLI/ATG resulted in profound lymphoablation but endogenous host HSC remained. Initial donor HSC engraftment occurred only in radiation exposed marrow sites, but gradually distributed to bone marrow outside the radiation field. Sustained donor engraftment required host lymphoid cells insofar as lymphocyte deficient Rag2γc−/− recipients had unstable engraftment compared with wild-type. TLI/ATG treated wild-type recipients had increased proportions of Treg that were associated with increased HSC frequency and proliferation. In contrast, Rag2γc−/− recipients who lacked Treg did not. Adoptive transfer of Treg into Rag2γc−/− recipients resulted in increased cell cycling of endogenous HSC. Thus, we hypothesize that Treg influence donor engraftment post-TLI/ATG by increasing HSC cell cycling, thereby promoting the exit of host HSC from the marrow niche. Our study highlights the unique dynamics of donor hematopoiesis following TLI/ATG, and the effect of Treg on HSC activity. PMID:24591203

  7. Impact of alemtuzumab treatment on the survival and function of human regulatory T cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havari, Evis; Turner, Michael J; Campos-Rivera, Juanita; Shankara, Srinivas; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Roberts, Bruce; Siders, William; Kaplan, Johanne M

    2014-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for the CD52 protein present at high levels on the surface of B and T lymphocytes. In clinical trials, alemtuzumab has shown a clinical benefit superior to that of interferon-β in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Treatment with alemtuzumab leads to the depletion of circulating lymphocytes followed by a repopulation process characterized by alterations in the number, proportions and properties of lymphocyte subsets. Of particular interest, an increase in the percentage of T cells with a regulatory phenotype (Treg cells) has been observed in multiple sclerosis patients after alemtuzumab. Since Treg cells play an important role in the control of autoimmune responses, the effect of alemtuzumab on Treg cells was further studied in vitro. Alemtuzumab effectively mediated complement-dependent cytolysis of human T lymphocytes and the remaining population was enriched in T cells with a regulatory phenotype. The alemtuzumab-exposed T cells displayed functional regulatory characteristics including anergy to stimulation with allogeneic dendritic cells and ability to suppress the allogeneic response of autologous T cells. Consistent with the observed increase in Treg cell frequency, the CD25hi T-cell population was necessary for the suppressive activity of alemtuzumab-exposed T cells. The mechanism of this suppression was found to be dependent on both cell–cell contact and interleukin-2 consumption. These findings suggest that an alemtuzumab-mediated increase in the proportion of Treg cells may play a role in promoting the long-term efficacy of alemtuzumab in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:24116901

  8. Endothelial cells promote the proliferation of lymphocytes partly through the Wnt pathway via LEF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shu-Hong; Nan, Ke-Jun; Wang, Yao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific 'non-self' antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Endothelial cells (ECs) can trigger the activation of T cells through their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we examined the effect of ECs on the proliferation of lymphocytes. We report that the proliferation of T and B cells can be improved by interaction with ECs. LEF-1 is one of the main molecular mediators in this process, and the inhibition of LEF-1 induces apoptosis. These results suggest that LEF-1 modulates positively the proliferation of lymphocytes induced by their interaction with ECs.

  9. Impact of cytomegalovirus reactivation on relapse and survival in patients with acute leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seok; Kim, Hee-Je; Jeon, Young-Woo; Lee, Sung-Eun; Cho, Byung-Sik; Lee, Dong-Gun; Eom, Ki-Seong; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Min, Chang-Ki; Cho, Seok-Goo; Min, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-reactivation is associated with graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effect by stimulating natural-killer or T-cells, which showed leukemia relapse prevention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We enrolled patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n = 197) and acute lymphoid leukemia (n = 192) who underwent allogeneic-HSCT in first remission. We measured RQ-PCR weekly to detect CMV-reactivation and preemptively used ganciclovir (GCV) when the titer increased twice cons...

  10. Systemic T Cells Immunosuppression of Glioma Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Is Mediated by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

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    Rossana Domenis

    Full Text Available A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes. Phenotypic characterization, cell proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion and intracellular cytokine production were analysed by distinguishing among effector T cells, regulatory T cells and monocytes. In unfractionated PBMCs, GSC-derived exosomes inhibited T cell activation (CD25 and CD69 expression, proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and did not affect cell viability or regulatory T-cell suppression ability. Furthermore, exosomes were able to enhance proliferation of purified CD4+ T cells. In PBMCs culture, glioma-derived exosomes directly promoted IL-10 and arginase-1 production and downregulation of HLA-DR by unstimulated CD14+ monocytic cells, that displayed an immunophenotype resembling that of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs. Importantly, the removal of CD14+ monocytic cell fraction from PBMCs restored T-cell proliferation. The same results were observed with exosomes purified from plasma of glioblastoma patients. Our results indicate that glioma-derived exosomes suppress T-cell immune response by acting on monocyte maturation rather than on direct interaction with T cells. Selective targeting of Mo-MDSC to treat glioma should be considered with regard to how immune cells allow the acquirement of effector functions and therefore counteracting tumor progression.

  11. Induction of transplantation tolerance by combining non-myeloablative conditioning with delivery of alloantigen by T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chaorui; Yuan, Xueli; Bagley, Jessamyn; Blazar, Bruce R.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Iacomini, John

    2008-01-01

    The observation that bone marrow derived hematopoietic cells are potent inducers of tolerance has generated interest in trying to establish transplantation tolerance by inducing a state of hematopoietic chimerism through allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. However, this approach is associated with serious complications that limit its utility for tolerance induction. Here we describe the development of a novel approach that allows for tolerance induction without the need for an allogeneic bone marrow transplant by combining non-myeloablative host conditioning with delivery of donor alloantigen by adoptively transferred T cells. CBA/Ca mice were administered 2.5Gy whole body irradiation (WBI). The following day the mice received Kb disparate T cells from MHC class I transgenic CBK donor mice, as well as rapamycin on days 0–13 and anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody on days 0–5, 8,11 and 14 relative to T cell transfer. Mice treated using this approach were rendered specifically tolerant to CBK skin allografts through a mechanism involving central and peripheral deletion of alloreactive T cells. These data suggest robust tolerance can be established without the need for bone marrow transplantation using clinically relevant non-myeloablative conditioning combined with antigen delivery by T cells. PMID:18280792

  12. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adre