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Sample records for allium

  1. Conservation of Allium germplasm collection by cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zámečník, Jiří; Grospietsch, Martin; Kotková, Renata; Faltus, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Allium is important crop in the Czech Republic. Allium sativum L. germplasm is maintained in the field collection and this fact increases risk of accidental lost of genotype. Conservation of Allium sativum L. germplasm by means cryopreservation decreases risks of genotype lost. Allium sativum L. samples are stored at ultralow temperature that stopped all biochemical processes and the samples are stored without any changes for many years. This methodology describes procedure of material prepar...

  2. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  3. The genus Allium. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for the pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and, in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of the genus Alliums, in addition to having certain characteristics, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. In addition to there being variation of flavor between different alliums, there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. Of course, these are of importance to the consumer and food technologist-processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set this against data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength", will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been much studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area and also will touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertent components of animal diets, tainting of milk and other food products. It is our

  4. [Content of biologically active substances--selenium, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and chlorophyllin of Allium ursinum L and Allium victorialis L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkina, N A; Malankina, E L; Kosheleva, O V; Solov'eva, A I

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of selenium, flavonoids, chlorophyll and vitamin C by Allium ursinum L. and Allium victorialis L. are studied. Allium victorialis L. is shown to accumulate twice more selenium and flavonoids compared to Allium ursinum L. Increase of insolation elevates the concentration of the element, flavonoids and ascorbic acid in plants. Selenium concentration in Allium victorialis L. after selenium fertilization is higher compared to Allium ursinum L. The results indicate the significance of Allium victorialis L. as a source of natural antioxidants: selenium, flavonoids and ascorbic acid.

  5. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  6. The genus Allium--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Alliums have been grown for many centuries for their characteristic, pungent flavor and medicinal properties. The present review, which includes references published up to the middle of 1984, is primarily concerned with the chemical composition, flavor, and physiological properties of these crops, their extracts, and processed products. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the organoleptically and biologically active components of onion and garlic. Following a brief historical introduction, current production of commercially important alliums is described and their botanical origins and interrelationships are explained. Following consideration of the major economic diseases and pests of alliums, the agronomic, husbandry, and practices associated with their cultivation are described, particular emphasis being placed upon the storage and processing of onion and garlic. The detailed, overall chemical composition and nutritional value of members of the genus Allium are presented in Section 7; after an outline of the origin and nature of flavor components and precursors, the flavor volatiles of individual members are presented. The effects of agronomic, environmental, and processing practices on chemical and flavor content and quality are considered in Section 9. The following section deals critically with the human and animal studies which have been conducted into the medical and therapeutic properties of alliums, emphasis being placed upon the studies into the antiatherosclerotic effect of onion and garlic and their essential oils. After a study of antimicrobial properties of alliums and their effects on insects and animals, an overview is presented which highlights unexplored or inadequately studied areas and suggests rewarding areas for future research.

  7. Biased chloroplast and mitochondrial transmission in somatic hybrids of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.; Kassies, W.; Geels, R.; Lookeren Campagne, van M.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Creemers-Molenaar, J.

    1998-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants, produced by symmetric protoplast fusion between leek (Allium ampeloprasum) and cytoplasmic male sterile onion (Allium cepa), were analysed for their organelle composition. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses were performed using PCR amplification of the V7 region of the mitocho

  8. Comparative study on Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Calić-Dragosavac, D; Malenčić, D; Zdravković-Korać, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant and scavenging activity and to make a comparison between Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant activity. This study reports the results on the root, stalk and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase), reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids and soluble protein contents and quantities of malonyldialdehyde and ·OH radical. In Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs the total antioxidant capacity was determined by the FRAP method and scavenger activity by the DPPH method. The present results indicated that the crude extract of Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture exhibited antioxidant and scavenging abilities in all investigated plant parts, especially in the roots. According to our results, the tissue culture plants exhibited the highest activities in the roots in contrast to the cultivated plants where highest activities were observed in the leaves.

  9. The genus Allium--Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However, only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for their pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of alliums, in addition to being characteristic, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. As well as there being variation of flavor between different alliums there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. These are, of course, of importance to the consumer and food technologist/processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set against this data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength," will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been extensively studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area; it will also touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally, mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertant components of animal diets, tainting of milk, and other food products. It is our intention to review

  10. [Chromosomal organization of centromeric Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons in Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, A V; Kirov, I V; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on the presence of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the centromeric region of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The paper identifies the putative Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposons (CR) among the DNA sequences of A. cepa present in the NCBI database and evaluates their copy number in the genomes of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The putative copy number of Ty3/gypsy CR constituted about 26000 for A. cepa and about 7000 for A. fistulosum. The chromosomal organization of Ty3/gypsy CR was analyzed with the help of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The 300-bp PCR products synthesized with genomic DNA of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum and primers designed for the sequence ET645811 of A. cepa (Genome Survey Sequence database), displaying similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the CR Ty3/gypsy family, served as FISH hybridization probes. On the chromosomes of A. cepa, hybridization signals were mainly localized in the centromeric region. On the chromosomes of A. fistulosum the signals were less expressed in the centromeric regions, though they were abundant in other chromosomal regions. The pathways of evolution in these closely related species are discussed.

  11. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens ssp. montanum

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    Nicolae DRAGOŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoenoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent than in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  12. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens var. montanum

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    Bogdan DRUGĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoeonoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent that in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  13. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

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    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  14. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

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    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  15. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

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    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  16. Evaluation of genotoxicity of coal fly ash in Allium cepa root cells by combining comet assay with the Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Ashit Kumar; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. Its utilization and disposal is of utmost importance. Using onion (Allium cepa) root tip system, the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential toxic and genotoxic effects of fly ash, collected from a thermal power plant in West Bengal, India. Prior to testing, the collected fly ash sample was mixed with sand in different proportions. Allium bulbs were allowed to germinate directly in fly ash and after five days the germinating roots were processed for the Allium test. Additionally, the Allium test was adapted for detecting DNA damage through comet assay. The results from the Allium test indicate that fly ash at 100% concentration inhibits root growth and mitotic indices; induces binucleated cells as a function of the proportion, but is not toxic at very low concentration. In the comet assay, a statistical increase for DNA strand breaks was found only at higher concentrations. The sample was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and As, whose presence could partly be responsible for the toxicity of fly ash. The study concludes that the classical Allium test can give a more comprehensive data when done in combination with the comet assay, which is faster, simpler and independent of mitosis. Also when fly ash is used for other purposes in combination with soils, it should be judiciously used at very low concentrations in order to protect the ecosystem health from any potential adverse effects.

  17. Saponins and flavonoids of Allium triquetrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2003-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the flowers and bulbs of Allium triquetrum has been undertaken, leading to the isolation of five new furostanol saponins, triquetrosides A1/A2 (1a/1b), B (3), and C1/C2 (4a/4b), from the flowers, along with ascalonisides A1/A2 (6a/6b). The 22-O-methyl derivatives of triquetrosides A1/A2 (2a and 2b) and C1/C2 (5a and 5b) were also isolated, but they are considered extraction artifacts. Large amounts of seven kaempferol glycosides, of which one (7) has a new structure, were also isolated from both flowers and bulbs. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods.

  18. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and garlic ( Allium sativum ). The production of leek

  19. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  20. Influence of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L. essential oils on the growth of some yeasts and moulds

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    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from spices, as natural antimicrobial agents, attract particular attention due to their possible role in food protection from microorganisms, and their nontoxicity, in contrast to the synthetic preservatives. In this work, inhibitory effect of Allium ampeloprasum and two onions (Allium cepa, Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar, essential oils in different concentrations (1, 4, 7 and 10% on three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula sp. and three moulds (Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium griseofulvum and Eurotium amstelodami was investigated. All three essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. cerevisiae in concentration of only 1%. Among onions, Kupusinski jabučar essential oil had stronger influence to C. tropicalis, while Allium ampeloprasum essential oil did not show any influence on this yeast. Rhodotorula sp. was influenced only by Allium ampeloprasum essential oil. The strongest inhibitory effect on A. tamarii showed Kupusinski jabučar (57% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%, while on P. griseofulvum, the strongest influence showed Allium ampeloprasum essential oil (78.3% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%. Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar essential oils, in concentrations of 7 and 10% respectively, completely inhibited the growth of E. amstelodami.

  1. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

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    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  3. Methylmercury as a mitosis disturbing agent. [Allium cepa; Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C.

    1969-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the genetic effects of mercurials. These investigations included both cytological and genetical analyses. One of the main purposes of the investigations was to establish the lowest dose of the mercurials, which was genetically active. For the cytological work root tips cells of Allium cepa were used, while the genetical analyses were preformed on Drosophila melanogaster. The cytological tests on Allium included methyl mercury hydroxide, methyl mercury dicyandiamide, phenyl mercury hydroxide, and methoxyethylmercury chloride. The pesticide Panogen was also tested. The results from these studies are summarized.

  4. Forskolin: genotoxicity assessment in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khalid Pasha; Aarey, Archana; Tamkeen, Shayesta; Jahan, Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Forskolin, a diterpene, 7β-acetoxy-8,13-epoxy-1α,6β,9α-trihydroxy-labd-14-en-11-one (C22H34O7) isolated from Coleus forskohlii, exerts multiple physiological effects by stimulating the enzyme adenylate cyclase and increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations. Forskolin is used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, and other diseases. A cytogenetic assay was performed in Allium cepa to assess possible genotoxic effects of forskolin. Forskolin was tested at concentrations 5-100 μM for exposure periods of 24 or 48 h. Treated samples showed significant reductions in mitotic index (p < 0.05) and increases in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (p < 0.01) at both exposure times. The treated meristems showed chromosome aberrations including sticky metaphases, sticky anaphases, laggard, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, polyploidy, fragments, breaks, and C-mitosis. Forskolin may cause genotoxic effects and further toxicological evaluations should be conducted to ensure its safety.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of cypermethrin on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Kaya, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fadime; Yalçin, Emine

    2012-10-01

    In this study, toxic effects of the cypermethrin in Allium cepa L. cells were investigated. For this aim, we investigated the changes in pigment contents, antioxidant enzymes, mitotic index and chromosomal abnormalities as indicators of toxicity. The seeds were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 ppm) of cypermethrin for 72 h. The result showed that there was a significant alteration in the tested parameters depending on treatment dose in the seeds exposed to cypermethrin when compared to the control group. Cypermethrin exposure significantly reduced the carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b pigments in all treatment groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase showed a concentration-time dependent increase and the maximum increase was observed on day 15 of treatment at 6.0 ppm cypermethrin exposure. The activity of catalase increased gradually with increasing cypermethrin concentration, but a soft decrease in CAT activity was decreased after 15 days of 1.5 ppm and 3.0 ppm cypermethrin treatment. In the roots treated with 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm cypermethrin, the level of malondialdehyde was about 1.8, 2.4, and 3.4 times higher than the control group, respectively. It was also found that cypermethrin has a mitodepressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of cyprmethrin. All of the concentrations of cypermethrin induced chromosomal abnormalities and the most common abnormality observed in the present study was chromosome bridges.

  7. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  8. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  9. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  10. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAGUNATHAN Irulappan; PANNEERSELVAM Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 μg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 μg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells.

  11. Cultuurkook in Allium en Crocus werkt positief tegen krokusknolaaltje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Allium en Crocus kunnen worden aangetast door het krokusknolaaltje. Onderzoek door PPO Bloembollen heeft geleid tot een kookadvies. Daarna kwam de vraag op of hier een cultuurkookbehandeling uit af te leiden is, die jaarlijks kan worden uitgevoerd om de partijen gezond te houden. Inmiddels is uitgez

  12. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Metwally

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day. Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm burden and ova count. Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT , ­ glutamyltransferase (GGT , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP, acid phosphatase (AP, while a decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL and LDL, triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase and phosphofructokinase (PFK enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count. Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities

  13. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842 Methanolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željana Fredotović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a comparative study of the phytochemical profile and the biological activity of two onion extracts, namely Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842, members of the family Amaryllidaceae. The identification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and their individual quantities, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The potency of both extracts to scavenge free radicals was determined by the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC methods. The DNA protective role was further tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET assay and by Fenton’s reagent causing double-strand breaks on the closed circular high copy pUC19 plasmid isolated from Escherichia coli. In the presence of both extracts, a significant decrease in DNA damage was observed, which indicates a protective role of Allium cepa and Allium × cornutum on DNA strand breaks. Additionally, cytotoxicity was tested on glioblastoma and breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that both extracts had antiproliferative effects, but the most prominent decrease in cellular growth was observed in glioblastoma cells.

  14. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842) Methanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredotović, Željana; Šprung, Matilda; Soldo, Barbara; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Budić-Leto, Irena; Bilušić, Tea; Čikeš-Čulić, Vedrana; Puizina, Jasna

    2017-03-11

    Here, we report a comparative study of the phytochemical profile and the biological activity of two onion extracts, namely Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842), members of the family Amaryllidaceae. The identification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and their individual quantities, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The potency of both extracts to scavenge free radicals was determined by the DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The DNA protective role was further tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay and by Fenton's reagent causing double-strand breaks on the closed circular high copy pUC19 plasmid isolated from Escherichia coli. In the presence of both extracts, a significant decrease in DNA damage was observed, which indicates a protective role of Allium cepa and Allium × cornutum on DNA strand breaks. Additionally, cytotoxicity was tested on glioblastoma and breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that both extracts had antiproliferative effects, but the most prominent decrease in cellular growth was observed in glioblastoma cells.

  15. Ultrastructural localization of active genes in Allium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the anti-RNA/DNA hybrid antibody as the probe, we labeled and analyzed the precise transcriptional sites of active genes in Allium cepa cells in situ. The results showed that the location of labeled signals appeared in mitochondrion was the same as that in chloroplast, generally concentrated at the central matrix space where there were no cristae and thylakoids. In the extranucleolar regions of nucleus, the labeled signals of transcriptional sites were situated at the perichromatin fibrils, which decondensed and stretched out from the chromosome territories. Our results also displayed the concentrations of labeled signals in a cer-tain region of nucleus, and this means that the gene tran-scription rich region actually existed in Allium cepa cells. In nucleolus, the synthetic sites of rRNA were localized not only to the periphery of fibrillar centers but also to the DFC near FC.

  16. Phylogeny of Chinese Allium (Liliaceae) using PCR-RFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兴金; 葛颂; 许介眉; 洪德元

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen representative species were selected from all the nine sections of Chinese Allium on the basis of the classification of morphology and cytotaxonomy. The trnK and rpL16 gene fragments of chloroplast DNA were amplified from 18 species by PCR method. The two cpDNA fragments were digested by 26 restriction enzymes, and 303 polymorphic restriction sites were found, of which 163 were informative. The restriction site data were analyzed with PAUP (version 3.1.1) and MEGA (version 1.01) as well as PHYLIP. As a result, the genus Allium could be classified into six subgenera. The recognition of Sect. Anguinum in the Flora of China is reasonable, Sect. Rhizirideum, Sect. Haplostemon and Sect. Cepa are not monophyletic. The infrageneric system of this genus was also discussed.

  17. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L.), have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cult...

  18. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan Yuet Ping; Ibrahim Darah; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Chen Yeng; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative ...

  19. The effect of lead on Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerda, D

    1992-02-01

    The effect of lead on Allium cepa L. at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, 100 and 200 ppm were studied. Analysis focused on root growth, frequency of mitosis in a meristematic zone, and chromosomal aberrations. It was observed that lead reduces root growth and the frequency of mitotic cells in meristematic zones, and increases the frequency of aberrant cells. The intensity of the effects is a function of lead concentration.

  20. Interaction of Natural Dye (Allium cepa) with Ionic Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Allium cepa is a natural dye that has been extracted from onion skin with the help of soxhlet apparatus. The pigment in the dye pelargonidin was found to be 2.25%. The interaction of the dye with ionic surfactants, namely, cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and anionic (sodium lauryl sulphate) has been studied by spectrophotometrically, conductivity, and surface tension measurements. The thermodynamic and surface parameters have been evaluated for the interaction process. Th...

  1. Warmwaterbehandeling Allium en Crocus ; / Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor een cultuurkook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Allium Uit eerder onderzoek was gebleken dat het Krokusknolaaltje (Aphelenchoides subtenuis) in Allium goed kan worden bestreden door de bollen een warmwaterbehandeling van 4 uur bij 45°C te geven na 24 uur voorweken. De warmwaterbehandeling moet worden uitgevoerd binnen 10 dagen na rooien. Het was

  2. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries.

  3. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  4. Failure to observe mitotic rhythmicity in Allium meristems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, S.M.; Hillman, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Circadian rhythms clearly affect cell division in certain microorganisms and some animal tissue, but reports on mitotic rhythmicity in higher plants are contradictory, even for Allium cepa, the most widely studied material. Mitotic index was determined on root and shoot meristems of seedlings of one cultivar, and on roots of bulbs of another. Various times with respect to 24-h cycles of alternating light and darkness, or light-high temperature and darkness-low temperature were investigated. No evidence for rhythmicity was obtained.

  5. Polyploid induction of Allium ascalonicum L. by colchicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMINAH

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The low production rate of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L. in Indonesia could be caused by rarely excellent cultivars. Colchicine was one of the mutation agents frequently used in plant breeding in order to get polyploidy of cultivars. The aim of this research was to find out the differentiation of morphometric evidences and ploidy of shallot chromosomes induced by colchicines 1%. Preparation was made by squash method and stained by acetocarmine. The results indicated that the amount, length and shape of chromosomes altered by the application of the agent. The polyploids produced could be grouped into tetraploids, pentaploids, hexaploids, octaploids, and nonaploids.

  6. Radiation induction of multiaberrant cells in Allium cepa L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsokon, N.K.; Rashydov, N.M.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    2008-07-01

    'Rogue' cells determined by human geneticists as the cells with many chromosome aberrations. The main enigma of this phenomenon is its levels are unexpected higher in many studies. Frequently, these cells emergence in human are linked with radiation or viruses. 'Rogue' cells supposed to be very important in mutagenesis, oncogenesis and even in evolution process. We use plant assay (Allium cepa L.) to analyze the induction of cells with many chromosome aberration of different types. Cytogenetic damage of gamma-irradiation as frequency of multiaberrant cells in the root tip cells of Allium was determined. The empiric numbers of cells with many aberrations were compared with those expected in theoretical distributions (Poisson, geometric and Pascal). The frequency of multiaberrant cells in root tip cells was increased up to 83,33 +- 10,76 % under gamma-irradiation in various doses. Gamma-irradiation induced more multiaberrant cells in A. cepa meristems than expected in theoretical distributions. We supposed dependency of chromosome aberrations origin in the same cell after irradiation. The data obtained elucidate that under gamma-irradiation accumulation of aberrations in aberrant cells are not random, the appearance of one aberration in cell induced the appearance of others in the same cell. (author)

  7. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive.

  8. Assessment of arsenic toxicity using Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Yi, Huilan; Yi, Min

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and is a potential human carcinogen. Its carcinogenicity has been demonstrated in several models. In this study, broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and common onion (Allium cepa L.), two plant species which are commonly used for detecting the genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants, were used to measure possible genotoxic effect of arsenite (0.3-30 mg/l). Present results showed that arsenite (As(III)) induced micronuclei (MN) formation in both Allium and Vicia root tips. MN frequency significantly increased in Vicia root cells exposed to 0.3-10 mg/l arsenite and in Allium root cells exposed to 1-30 mg/l arsenite, which indicated that Vicia root tip cells are more sensitive to arsenite than Allium. Mitotic index (MI) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and showed significant differences in Vicia/Allium roots among treatments and the control, after exposure to 1-30 mg/l arsenite for at least 4 h. In the present study, MN frequency was positively associated with lipid peroxidation, which indicated that arsenite exposure can induce oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in plant cells. The results also suggested that Vicia/Allium root micronucleus (MN) assays are simple, efficient and reproducible methods for the genotoxicity monitoring of arsenic water contamination.

  9. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: an Allium cepa assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Yeng, Chen; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-06-26

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  10. In vitro micropropagation of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubomski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on micropropagation of Allium schoenoprasum embraced shoot formation from cultured shoot tips, shoot multiplication, root formations, and cold storage of rooted plants. All explants were cultured on modified Murashige-Skoog medium. Surface disinfection of shoots derived from stock plants was not necessary to obtain no infection culture. The highest shoot multiplication was obtained on medium with 20 g l-1 sucrose and 1.0 mg 1-1 6-benzylo-arninopurine (BA. Root formation was observed in both indoleacetic acid (IAA and indolebutyric acid (IBA. Rooted plants were successfully kept in cold storage (5°C ± 1°C darkness. Only 20% of plants died after 6 months of storage.

  11. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  12. Garlic (Allium sativum L.: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae, one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase, sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin. Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacterial, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipidaemic, anticarcinogenic, immunostimulant and hypoglycaemic properties. Clinically, garlic has been investigated for a variety of indications, namely, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidaemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  13. Ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Ayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ohshima, Kazusato; Fukuda, Shinji; Mine, Takara; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2016-09-02

    Three new ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose, 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid A, 1), 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid B, 2), and 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid C, 3) were isolated together with tuberonoid A (4), from the leaves of Allium macrostemon Bunge. The chemical structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the spectroscopic and chemical data.

  14. Allium telomeres unmasked: the unusual telomeric sequence (CTCGGTTATGGG)n is synthesized by telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkus, Petr; Peška, Vratislav; Sitová, Zdeňka; Fulnečková, Jana; Dvořáčková, Martina; Gogela, Roman; Sýkorová, Eva; Hapala, Jan; Fajkus, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic divergence in Asparagales plants is associated with switches in telomere sequences. The last switch occurred with divergence of the genus Allium (Amaryllidaceae) from the other Allioideae (formerly Alliaceae) genera, resulting in uncharacterized telomeres maintained by an unknown mechanism. To characterize the unknown Allium telomeres, we applied a combination of bioinformatic processing of transcriptomic and genomic data with standard approaches in telomere biology such as BAL31 sensitivity tests, terminal restriction fragment analysis, the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Using these methods, we characterize the unusual telomeric sequence (CTCGGTTATGGG)n present in Allium species, demonstrate its synthesis by telomerase, and characterize the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit of Allium cepa. Our findings open up the possibility of studying the molecular details of the evolutionary genetic change in Allium telomeres and its possible role in speciation. Experimental studies addressing the implications of this change in terms of the interplay of telomere components may now be designed to shed more light on telomere functions and evolution in general.

  15. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  16. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. against acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Adult male NMRI mice were used. They were orally administered soft extracts of the plants at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg for three consecutive days before inducing hepatotoxicity. Clinical signs of toxicity and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated; in addition, the morphological analysis of the liver was performed. Results: the biochemical parameters showed highly significant differences, but only three groups had results similar to the untreated control group. No macroscopic changes in the liver were confirmed. Microscopically, the absence of histopathological changes prevailed in the groups treated with Ocimum basilicum L. at both doses and Allium sativum L. at 200mg/kg; slight damage was observed by administering 400mg/kg of Allium sativum L., with significant differences from the untreated control group. Conclusions: soft extracts of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. at a dose of 200mg/kg have greater hepatoprotective activity against the toxic action of acetaminophen.

  17. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Yang, Jiazhen; Pu, Xiaoying; Du, Juan; Yang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shuming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases. PMID:28261311

  18. The relationship between antibrowning, anti-radical and reducing capacity of Brassica and Allium extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela C Bustos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous vegetable extracts from Allium and Brassica families were assayed for antibrowning capacity and related to their anti-radical and reducing power activities. The treatment  of mushrooms and avocado slices, with white cabbage, cauliflower, garlic and scallion extracts, reduced color changes during storage at 4 °C and -18 °C. Storage temperature and the type of extract employed influenced change of color variables. The contribution of polyphenols on measured antioxidant activity of extracts was also discussed. Allium antibrowning properties were closely related to antioxidant capacity, while the Brassica extracts were less effective. Treatment with Allium extracts extended the storage time of frozen and refrigerated mushrooms and avocado slices, in comparison with untreated samples.

  19. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  20. Configuration of nucleolarDNA in situ in nucleolus ofAllium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The location and configuration of nucleolar DNA have not beendetermined for a long time. In this paper, we have observed the nucleolar ultrastructure and the character of nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells by conventional electron microscopy and the cytochemical NAMA-Ur DNA specific staining method. Furthermore, we have properly improved the NAMA-Ur method so as to analyze the location and configuration of nucleolar DNA in situ. Our results indicated that the nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells is mainly located at the border between fibrillar centers and dense fibrillar component, especially distributed in the configuration of encircling the fibrillar centers.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  2. Uji Efek Repellent Nabati Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) Terhadap Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Yanti

    2016-01-01

    Repellent is a substance used as a repellent or insect or other pest deterrent. Repellent is one part of the pesticide.Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill or control pests. In fact, the use of chemical pesticides that are not rational cause negative effects in terms of the environment, especially in terms of human health. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a natural substance that has many benefits and rewards. Bulb of garlic (Allium sativum L.) contain substances that are toxic to ins...

  3. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Studies on the mitotic chromosome scaffold of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJIAN; SHAOBOJIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    An argentophilic structure is present in the metaphase chromosomes of garlic(Allium sativum),Cytochemical studies indicate that the main component of the structure is non-histone proteins(NHPs).The results of light and electron microscopic observations reveal that the chromosme NHP scaffold is a network which is composed of fibres and granules and distributed throughout the chromosomes.In the NHP network,there are many condensed regions that are connected by redlatively looser regions.The distribution of the condensed regions varies in individual chromosomes.In some of the chromosomes the condensed regions are lognitudinally situsted in the central part of a chromatid while in others these regions appear as coillike transverse bands.At early metaphase.scaffolds of the sister chromatids of a chromosome are linked to each other in the centromeric region,meanwhile,they are connected by scafold materials along the whole length of the chromosome.At late metaphase,however,the connective scaffold materials between the two sister chromatids disappear gradually and the chromatids begin to separate from one another at their ends.but the chromatids are linked together in the centromeric region until anaphase.This connection seems to be related to the special structure of the NHP scaffold formed in the centromeric region.The morphological features and dynamic changes of the chromosome scaffold are discussed.

  5. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L., have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cultivars of winter Slavonian garlic were spectrophotometrically determined. Genetic diversity of winter Slavonian garlic cultivars significantly affected the content of ascorbic acid and the total antioxidant activity. The total antioxidant activity significantly positively correlated with the content of ascorbic acid (r2 = 0.64, p = 0.006, while the content of total phenols and total antioxidant activity were not significantly related. Cultivar PFO 1 had the highest antioxidant activity (8.006 μmol Trolox /g FW and the highest ascorbic acid content (8.57 mg /100 g FW, thus, the best quality of the four tested garlic cultivars.

  6. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  7. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  9. Antioxidant activity of ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jelena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L. Ethanolic (50%; v/v extracts of edible leek parts (stem and leaf were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction, which was followed by evaluation of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The results of antioxidant activity were compared with control antioxidants: vitamin C and BHT. The higher content of phenols (69.46 mg GAE/g dry extract and flavonoids (33.53 mg CE/g dry extract was found in the ethanolic extract of leek stem. The measured values of IC50 were 98.90 g/ml and 61.05 g/ml for the ethanolic extract of leek leaf and stem, respectively.

  10. Isolation and characterization of new onionins A2 and A3 from Allium cepa, and of onionins A1, A2, and A3 from Allium fistulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Kudo, Rino; Yamaguchi, Koki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Takeya, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the new stable sulfur-containing compounds onionins A2 (1) and A3 (2) were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of Allium cepa L. and identified as the stereoisomers of onionin A1 discovered in our previous study. Their chemical structures, 3,4-dimethyl-5-(1E-propenyl)-tetrahydrothiophene-2-sulfenic acid-S-oxides, were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, 1 and 2 together with onionin A1 were successfully isolated from the leaves of the Welsh onion, Allium fistulosum L. The onion-extracted fractions showed good potential to inhibit the polarization of M2 activated macrophages, indicating their possible ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation.

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Allium cepa L.: the production of transgenic onions and shallots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Kik, C.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development

  12. Corn gluten meal as an alternative organic preemergence herbicide for onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  13. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds. Part I. Cytological investigations on allium roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C.

    1969-01-01

    The cytological effect of organic mercury compounds was investigated on root mitosis of allium cepa. All the compounds tested caused c-mitosis. The data indicates that methyl and phenyl mercury compounds act at lower concentrations than any other c-mitotic agents.

  14. Genetical studies of resistance to Phytophthora porri in Allium porrum, using a new early screening method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, W.D.; Nes, van M.; Reinink, K.; Kik, C.

    1997-01-01

    A new screening method was developed to evaluate resistance of leek (Allium porrum) to Phytophthora porri, based on inoculation by 24 h-immersion of leek plantlets in the 3–6 leaf stage in a suspension of ca. 100 zoospores.ml-1. The immersion test was used for identifying new sources of resistance a

  15. Two new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yuan; Teng Fei Ji; Ai Guo Wang; Jian Bo Yang; Ya Lun Su

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the n-BuOH extract from the seeds of Allium cepa L.led to isolation of four furostanol saponins,two of which were new compounds,named ceparoside A (1a) and ceparoside B (2a).The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated through a combination of NMR,MS spectral data and chemical analysis.

  16. Factors influencing induction, propagation and regeneration of mature zygotic embryo-derived callus from Allium cepa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study on the effects of subspecies, cultivar, basal medium, sucrose concentration and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentration on callus induction, propagation and subsequent plant regeneration in Allium cepa has been carried out. Mature zygotic embryos from two onion (cvs. Sturon a

  17. Cryobanking of Korean allium germplasm collections: results from a 10 year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H H; Popova, E; Shin, D J; Yi, J Y; Kim, C H; Lee, J S; Yoon, M K; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing the thermal behavior of explants and cryoprotectant solutions using DSC and influx/efflux of cryoprotectants using HPLC; 3. assessing genetic stability of regenerants; and 4. revealing the efficiency of cryotherapy. Bulbil primordia, i.e. asexual bulbs formed on unripe inflorescences, proved to be the most suitable material for conservation of bolting varieties due to high post-cryopreservation regrowth and lower microbial infection level, followed by apical shoot apices from single bulbs and cloves. A total of 1,158 accessions of garlic as well as some Allium species have been cryopreserved during 2005-2010 using the droplet-vitrification technique with a mean regeneration percentage of 65.9 percent after cryostorage. These results open the door for large-scale implementation of cryostorage and for simplifying international exchange for clonal Allium germplasm.

  18. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  19. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  20. Cytogenetic evaluation of gold nanorods using Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshwari, A; Roy, Barsha; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-12-01

    The current study reveals the impact of gold nanorods (NRs) capped with CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) or PEG (polyethylene glycol) on Allium cepa. The morphology and surface charge of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were characterized by electron microscopic and zeta potential analyses. The chromosomal aberrations like clumped chromosome, chromosomal break, chromosomal bridge, diagonal anaphase, disturbed metaphase, laggard chromosome, and sticky chromosome were observed in the root tip cells exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs. We found that both CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were able to induce toxicity in the plant system after 4-h interaction. At a maximum concentration of 10 μg/mL, the mitotic index reduction induced by CTAB-capped gold NRs was 40-fold higher than that induced by PEG-capped gold NRs. The toxicity of gold NRs was further confirmed by lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress analyses. The unbound CTAB also contributed to the toxicity in root tip cells, while PEG alone shows less toxicity to the cells. The vehicle control CTAB contributed to the toxic effects in root tip cells, while PEG alone did not show any toxicity to the cells. The results revealed that even though both the particles have adverse effects on A. cepa, there was a significant difference in the mitotic index and oxidative stress generation in root cells exposed to CTAB-capped gold NRs. Thus, this study concludes that the surface polymerization of gold NRs by PEG can reduce the toxicity of CTAB-capped gold NRs.

  1. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  2. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  3. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  4. Effects of bromine on mitosis in root-tips of Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chury, J.; Slouka, V.

    1949-01-01

    The root-tips of Allium cepa, 1.5-2 cm. long, were exposed to pure bromine vapor for five minutes. The root-tips were then washed for ten minutes in water, and kept in fresh-water at a temperature of 20-24/sup 0/C. Squash preparations were made and stained according to the method of Darlington and La Cour. Bromine acting for five minutes on the root-tips of Allium has a specific effect on the cell nucleus in the resting stage. The effects induced are shown thirty-six hours after treatment by spindle abnormalities in metaphase and anaphase, and result in polyploidy in a large number of cells. Bromine produces chromosome and chromatid fragmentation; the latter may be followed by reunion. The effect of the bromine is cumulative and depends on the time which elapses between treatment and fixation. The cytological effects induced by bromine strongly suggest that it is another specific mutafacient chemical.

  5. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  6. Inhibitory activity against urease of quercetin glycosides isolated from Allium cepa and Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Samah; Kawai, Azusa; Kai, Kenji; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of edible plants and seaweeds were tested for their inhibitory activity against Jack bean urease. Quercetin-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside was isolated from Allium cepa as a urease inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 190 microM-. Quercetin and two quercetin glycosides, avicularin and guaijaverin, were isolated from Psidium guajava as urease inhibitors with respective IC(50) values of 80 microM-, 140 microM-, and 120 microM-.

  7. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abayomi, Louise Anike; Terry, Leon A.; White, S. F.; Warner, P J

    2006-01-01

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2–12 μmol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit...

  8. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.; Umezurike, Gabriel M.

    1981-01-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. c...

  9. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda L. Gindri; Ana Paula D. Coelho; Solange B. Tedesco; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L) and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quanti...

  10. The impact of atmospheric H2S on growth and sulfur metabolism of Allium cepa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, M; De Kok, LJ

    2002-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric H2S deposition on growth and sulfur metabolism has been studied in onion (Allium cepa L.). The H2S Uptake followed saturation kinetics with respect to the H2S concentration. The maximum H2S uptake rate (JH(2)S(max)) was approx. 1 mumol g(-1) FW h(-1) and the KH2S (H2S conce

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from the Tunisian Allium nigrum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouis-Soussi, Lamia Sakka; Ayeb-Zakhama, El Asma; Mahjoub, Aouni; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of different Allium nigrum L. organs and the antibacterial activity were evaluated. The study is particularly interesting because hitherto there are no reports on the antibacterial screening of this species with specific chemical composition. Therefore, essential oils from different organs (flowers, stems, leaves and bulbs) obtained separately by hydrodistillation were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antibacterial...

  12. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of extract of Amaranthus spinosus L. in Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, J E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the apoptosis inducing effects of Amaranthus spinosus L. aqueous extract in Allium cepa root meristematic cells and human erythrocytes. Cytogenetic assay revealed many apoptosis inducing cytogenetic aberrations viz., cytoplasmic breakage, cytoplasmic disintegration, cytoplasmic shrinkage, receding of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuolation, enucleated cell, ghost cell, nuclear vacuolation, nuclear fragmentation and nuclear disintegration. A remarkable modification of red blood cell surface morphology was observed in the result of RBC assay. The treated RBCs show membrane blebbing and shrinkage, features typical for apoptosis in nucleated cells. Significant induction of cell death was observed in treated Allium root tip cells after Evans blue staining, disclosing the membrane damage potential of the plant extract. TTC assay results in reduced mitochondrial/metabolic activity in Allium root tip cells after treatment, designating the adverse effect of plant extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results confirm the apoptosis inducing potential of A. spinosus extract. Confirming the present results by further in vitro studies, it can be effectively targeted against cell proliferation during cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis. Thus from the present investigation it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of A. spinosus exhibited apoptosis induction and cytotoxic activities.

  13. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras’kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  14. Purification and Properties of Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) in Allium Sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Li-rong; WANG Ya-jun; WU Min; HONG Shui-sheng; CHEN Jia; Meng Qing-fan; LIU Lan-ying

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases(SODs) were purified to homogeneity from Allium Sativum by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography with DEAE-cellulose(DE52) and Sephadex G-75. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-AGE), Allium Sativum is predicted to contain four SODs. The molecular weights of the native SODs are 41.3 kD, 37.0 kD, 35.2 kD and 31.0 kD, which consist of subunits of 20.7 kD, 18.4 kD, 17.7 kD and 15.4 kD respectively. Because of their specific sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, cyanogens potassium and chloroform-alcohol, the SODs in Allium Sativum appear to be Cu, Zn-SOD isoenzymes. The isoelectric analysis indicates that three of the four isoenzymes are acidic proteins with isoelectric points at pH 3.5, 3.7 and 4.0, respectively, and the fourth one is a basic protein with isoeletric point at pH 8.5.

  15. In vitro Antitrichomonas Activity of Allium Hirtifloium (Persian Shallot in Comparison with Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Taran

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. Although Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, The only drug approved for the treatment of trichomoniasis in some countries is metronidazole. Genus Allium plants including garlic; shallot and onion have had an important medicinal role for centuries. Some study have proven antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal and antihelmintic properties of genus Allium plants. at first PSHE and PSDE ( persian shallot hydroalcoholic and dichlromethanic extract was prepared in ethanol/water (50:50 and dichlromethane respectively at cool temperature (10ºC. genus Allium plants extracts were shown to decrease the oxygen uptake, reduce the growth of the organism, inhibit the synthesis of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids and damage membranes. In this study the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs of PSHE, PSDE and metronidazole respectively were 10, 5 and 2µg/ml. Persian shallot inhibited growth of T. vaginalis at low concentrations and in short times, therefore this plant have some antitrichomonas components (including allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides that antimicrobial properties of these was proven.

  16. Can Genotoxic Effect be Model Dependent in Allium Test?-An Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Singh Rathore

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity of peracetic acid (PAA has been assessed in two models (protocols of Allium cepa conducting two sets of experiments to know whether the results would be model dependent. One experiment was set as per Fiskesjo's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were grown in five concentrations of peracetic acid (0.039, 0.078, 0.156, 0.312 and 0.625 ppm in tap water. Another experiment was set as per Rank and Nielson's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were first grown in tap water for 24 hours and were then further grown in the same concentrations of peracetic acid as in earlier model. Genotoxic effects of peracetic acid were assessed in both models using usual parameters i.e. shape, colour and length of root tips, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Magnitude of effect differed significantly in both models. More severe genotoxic effects could be seen in Fiskesjo's model. It is suggested that root primordial cells were in G0 state in Fiskesjo's model, which presumably lacked their defense system, hence were more prone to peracetic acid toxicity. Mitotically dividing root cells in Rank and Nielsen's model were equipped with antioxidant system and were more resistant to peracetic acid

  17. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a

  18. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance.

  19. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation.

  20. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  1. Exposure of Allium cepa root cells to zidovudine or nevirapine induces cytogenotoxic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuamah, Chika K; Ekama, Sabdat O; Audu, Rosemary A; Ezechi, Oliver C; Poirier, Miriam C; Odeigah, Peter G C

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs have proved useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected persons, though there are concerns about the effects of exposure to these DNA-reactive drugs. We investigated the potential of the plant model Allium cepa root tip assay to demonstrate the cytogenotoxicity of zidovudine and nevirapine and as a replace-reduce-refine programme amenable to resource-poor research settings. Cells mitotic index were determined in squashed root cells from Allium cepa bulbs exposed to zidovudine or nevirapine for 48 hr. The concentration of zidovudine and nevirapine inhibiting 50% root growth after 96 hr exposure was 65.0 µM and 92.5 µM respectively. Root length of all antiretroviral-exposed roots after 96 hr exposure was significantly shorter than the unexposed roots while additional root growth during a subsequent 48 hr recovery period in the absence of drug was not significantly different. By ANOVA, there was a significant association between percentage of cells in mitosis and zidovudine dose (p=0.004), but not nevirapine dose (p=0.68). Chromosomal aberrations such as sticky chromosomes, chromatin bridges, multipolar mitoses and binucleated cells were observed in root cells exposed to zidovudine and nevirapine for 48 hr. The most notable chromosomal aberration was drug-related increases in sticky chromosomes. Overall, the study showed inhibition in root length growth, changes in the mitotic index, and the induction of chromosomal aberrations in Allium bulbs treated for 96 hr or 48 hr with zidovudine and nevirapine. The study reveals generalized cytogenotoxic damage induced by exposure to zidovudine and nevirapine, and further show that the two compounds differ in their effects on mitosis and the types of chromosomal aberrations induced.

  2. Exposure of Allium cepa root cells to zidovudine or nevirapine induces cytogenotoxic changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika K Onwuamah

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral drugs have proved useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected persons, though there are concerns about the effects of exposure to these DNA-reactive drugs. We investigated the potential of the plant model Allium cepa root tip assay to demonstrate the cytogenotoxicity of zidovudine and nevirapine and as a replace-reduce-refine programme amenable to resource-poor research settings. Cells mitotic index were determined in squashed root cells from Allium cepa bulbs exposed to zidovudine or nevirapine for 48 hr. The concentration of zidovudine and nevirapine inhibiting 50% root growth after 96 hr exposure was 65.0 µM and 92.5 µM respectively. Root length of all antiretroviral-exposed roots after 96 hr exposure was significantly shorter than the unexposed roots while additional root growth during a subsequent 48 hr recovery period in the absence of drug was not significantly different. By ANOVA, there was a significant association between percentage of cells in mitosis and zidovudine dose (p=0.004, but not nevirapine dose (p=0.68. Chromosomal aberrations such as sticky chromosomes, chromatin bridges, multipolar mitoses and binucleated cells were observed in root cells exposed to zidovudine and nevirapine for 48 hr. The most notable chromosomal aberration was drug-related increases in sticky chromosomes. Overall, the study showed inhibition in root length growth, changes in the mitotic index, and the induction of chromosomal aberrations in Allium bulbs treated for 96 hr or 48 hr with zidovudine and nevirapine. The study reveals generalized cytogenotoxic damage induced by exposure to zidovudine and nevirapine, and further show that the two compounds differ in their effects on mitosis and the types of chromosomal aberrations induced.

  3. Analyses of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Potentials of Loranthus micranthus using the Allium cepa Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Iwalokun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus (LM is one of the Nigerian folk medicinal plants used chronically for the management of immuno-depressive illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and hypertension. There has not been report on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the plant. This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic, mitodepressive and genotoxic effects of LM against Allium cepa root cells. The roots of Allium cepa (onion bulb were exposed to different concentrations (2.5-40 mg/mL of L. micranthus aqueous leaf extract (LMAE using NaN3 (100 ug/mL and distilled water as positive and negative controls and examined macroscopically and microscopically for toxic effects. Phytochemical screening of the plant was also carried out using conventional methods. LMEA was found to significantly (p0.05 at 5 mg/mL compared to the control and did not display significant variation in activity between 20 and 40 mg/mL concentrations respectively (p>0.05. Furthermore, LMAE at 10 mg/mL was found to produce the highest number of aberrant cells but failed to elicit c-mitosis found only at 40 mg/mL. LMAE at 5 mg/mL produced the least number of aberrant cells and also failed to induce micronucleus and binucleated cell formation found mostly at 40 mg/mL. Chromosomal aberrations including stickiness, multipolar anaphase and lagging chromosomes, breaks and bridges were induced by all the extract concentrations tested but not dose-dependently. Tannins, alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids were also present in the extract. Our findings indicate that LM is cytotoxic, mitodepressive and genotoxic to Allium cepa especially at doses beyond pharmacological range in vitro and suggest for safety reasons, the continuous use of this plant at lower concentrations for human phytomedicine coupled with a need to conduct further in vivo genotoxic tests.

  4. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  5. Effect of Media on Gynogenesis Induction in Leek (allium ampeloprasum L. Breeding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L. is one of the economically important members of the genus Allium (family:Alliaceae. It is a self-compatible, outbreeding, tetraploid (2n=4X= 32 crop species that is very difficult to improve through traditional breeding strategies. Entegration of doubled haploid (DH techniques such as gynogenesis into the leek breeding programs may speed up the variety development. In order to optimize a gynogenesis induction protocol for leek, we carried out experiments by culturing immature flower buds on various tissue culture media. Among the media tested, BDS and MS-based media with various combinations of plant growth regulators provided gynogenic embryos. Frequencies of gynogenic plantlet development were generally low and plantlets were obtained from almost all media included in the experiments. A total of 48 gynogenic plants were produced from approximately 30 thousand immature flower buds from six donor materials included in the experiments. In the DNA amount measurements performed with flow cytometry, it was found that gynogenic A. ampeloprasum plants were mostly diploid (55.56 % and the others were tetraploid (44.44 %. Diploid and tetraploid gynogenic plants were transferred to in vivo for further evaluation and grown in a greenhouse to produce selfed seed. Our studies with leek and several other Alliums indicate that gynogenesis induction frequencies are generally low due to genotypic effect. In order to obtain sufficient numbers of gynogenic lines from leek breeding populations, high numbers of immature flowers should be cultured on gynogenesis induction media. We suggest use of large size flower buds collected several days prior to anthesis while establishing gynogenesis induction cultures in leek. BDS medium that is commonly used in onion gynogenesis studies can also be used for the production of gynogenic leek lines.

  6. Alien genes introgression and development of alien monosomic addition lines from a threatened species, Allium roylei Stearn, to Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoa Q; Yoshimatsu, Yasuyuki; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-05-01

    To produce alien monosomic addition lines (AMALs) of Allium cepa (genomes CC, 2n = 2x = 16) carrying extrachromosomes from Allium roylei (RR, 2n = 2x = 16), reciprocal backcrossing of allotriploids (2n = 24, CCR) with diploids (2n = 16, CC) and selfing of a single allotriploid were carried out. The chromosome numbers in the BC(2)F(1) and BC(1)F(2) progenies ranged from 16 to 32. Forty-eight plants were recorded to possess 2n = 17 among a total of 169 plants in observation. Through the analyses of isozymes, expressed sequence tag (EST) markers, and karyotypes, all eight possible types of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic addition lines (CC+1R-CC+8R) could be identified. Seven types of representative AMALs (without CC+2R) were used for the GISH analysis of somatic chromosomes. Except for CC+6R, all AMALs showed an entire (unrecombined) extrachromosome from A. roylei in the integral diploid background of A. cepa. A single recombination between A. cepa and A. roylei was observed on the extrachromosome in the remaining type. All alloplasmic AMALs possessing A. roylei cytoplasm showed high or complete pollen sterility. Only the autoplasmic CC+4R with A. cepa cytoplasm possessed relatively high pollen fertility. The bulbs of CC+4R displayed the distinct ovoid shape that discriminates them from spherical or oval ones in other AMALs. Downy mildew screening in the field showed higher resistance in A. roylei, a hypo-allotriploid (CCR-nR, 2n = 23), and an allotriploid (CCR, 2n = 24). Meanwhile, no complete resistance was found in some AMALs examined. This was the first trial toward the establishment of a complete set of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic additions.

  7. ANTIOKSIDACIJSKA AKTIVNOST OZIMOGA SLAVONSKOGA ČEŠNJAKA (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Brojna istraživanja provedena na češnjaku (Allium sativum L.) dokazala su prisutnost antioksidacijskih i fenolnih spojeva, nekoliko sumpornih spojeva i vitamina. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je ispitati razlike u sadržaju ukupnih fenola, askorbinske kiseline i ukupne antioksidacijske aktivnosti četiri kultivara ozimoga slavonskoga češnjaka te utvrditi postojanje korelacija između tih parametara. Sadržaj askorbinske kiseline, ukupni sadržaj fenolnih spojeva te ukupna antioksidacijska aktivnos...

  8. The cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by sulphates in Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Elena DOROFTEI; Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess the cyto- and genotoxic effects of sulphate on Allium cepa mitosis for root meristem. Three different concentrations of sodium sulphate (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5%) have been used, in which the onion bulbs were immersed for different periods of time such as 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique and using Schiff reagent. The cytotoxic effects of sulphate were investigated by ...

  9. Allimacrosides A-E, new steroidal glycosides from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Sik; Suh, Won Se; Park, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-02-01

    A new pregnane-type steroidal glycoside (1), two new spirostane-type steroidal glycosides (2, 3), and two new furostane-type steroidal glycosides (4, 5), named allimacrosides A-E, together with four known compounds (6-9) were isolated from a 80% MeOH extract of Allium macrostemon Bunge. The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, and HR-FAB-MS data analysis. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay.

  10. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanes...

  11. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  12. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  13. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis) Ciferri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Satyabrata; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Mandal, Purander; Tripathy, Pradyumna; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur) in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001). All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India. PMID:27904458

  14. Comparison of split nitrogen appliacation strategies in leek (Allium porrum) to reduce N fertilization on sandy soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, van W.C.A.; Meurs, E.J.J.; Radersma, S.; Grashoff, C.

    2006-01-01

    High nitrogen (N) fertilization to maximize production of leek (Allium porrum L.) combined with low N recovery can lead to considerable nitrogen pollution of the environment. A field trial was conducted in 2002 and 2003 on a sandy soil in the Netherlands. To synchronize N supply and N demand, two st

  15. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  16. 维药洋葱子质量标准研究%Research on quality specification of Allium cepa seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翡翠; 何强; 聂继红

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Allium cepa seed by setting up the quality control specification of Allium cepa seed. Methods: Collecting different origin of 10 batch Allium cepa seed samples.the original plant of which were identificated, the properties of which were described, the powder of which were microscopic identificated. And Allium cepa seed were identificated on TLC method in contrast to p -Sitosterol. Determination of the 10 batch Allium cepa seed of impurities, moisture, ash, peroxide value and extract according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version (Vol I ) of appendix K H and K. The fatty oil determination method of Allium cepa seed were inspected according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version (Vol I ) of appendix K N. Results: The origins, macroscopic and microscopic identification of Allium cepa seed are described, and the TLC identification method was formulated with thiacyclohexane-ethyl ether-ethyl acetate (20^5.5:2.5) as developing solvent, temporarily formulating impurities can not lead 1.4%, moisture can not lead 10.0%, total ashes can not lead 12.0%, acid-insoluble ashes can not lead 6.50%, peroxide value can not lead 0.13, extract not less 10.00%. Determine the fatty oil of Allium cepa seed shall be not less than 9.0% . Conclusion: Setting the Allium cepa seed quality control standard can be used to evaluate the quality of Allium cepa seed.%目的:建立维药洋葱子的质量控制标准.方法:于不同产地采集10批洋葱子样品,对其原植物进行鉴定,对其性状进行鉴别;对其粉末进行显微鉴别;以β-谷甾醇为对照品对洋葱子药材进行薄层色谱鉴别;按照《中国药典》2010年版(一部)附录测定10批洋葱子药材的杂质、水分、总灰分、酸不溶性灰分、过氧化值、浸出物;按照《中国药典》2010年版(一部)附录测定10批洋葱子药材的脂肪油含量.结果:对洋葱子药材的来源、性状进行了描

  17. Tissue culture study of the medicinal plant leek (allium ampeloprasum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monemi, Mohammad Bagher; Kazemitabar, S Kamal; Bakhshee Khaniki, Gholamreza; Yasari, Esmaeil; Sohrevardi, Firouzeh; Pourbagher, Roghayeh

    2014-01-01

    Persian shallot, also called leek (Allium ampeloprasum), is a monocotyledon plant of the lily family (Liliaceae). It belongs to the genus Allium, has a characteristic taste and morphological features, making it to be considered as one of the popular herbal medicine. This research was conducted with the purpose of obtaining optimal conditions for tissue culture of Persian shallot and comparing its active ingredient production in vitro versus in vivo. In this study, the auxin 2, 4-D and benzyl aminopurine- 6 (BAP) hormones, each at two concentrations (0.5 and 0.1 mg/ L) and Kin at 0.5 mg/ L were used in the format of a randomized complete block design in three replications. Results showed that the best culture media for callus formation for leaf and seed explants were the MS cultures with the hormonal compositions (0.5 mg/ L of 2, 4- D, 0.1 mg/ L of BAP) and (0.5 mg/ L of Kin and 0.1 mg/ L of 2, 4- D). Identification of the chemical composition of the essential oils, extracted either from leek callus or leaf was carried out using GC mass analysis. Twenty one compounds were detected in the GC mass spectra, seven of which constitutv about 51.5% of the total amount of compounds present in the essential oils were identified. Our data demonstrate that the leek essential oil constituents as well as callus formation can be affected by culture medium condition.

  18. Mutagenicity of two herbicides widely used on soybean crops by the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maruhen Amir Datsch; Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Dos Santos, Thayná Assakawa; Vieira, Gabriela Maciel; Cechinato, Carlye Nicheli; Kazanovski, Michele; Grégio d'Arce, Luciana Paula

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the mutagenic effects of two herbicides: Clorimurom Nortox(®) and Imazaquim Ultra Nortox(®) widely used on soybean crops in Brazil. As a test system, Allium cepa assay was used, which analyzes the frequency of micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and the mitotic index (MI). Four concentrations of each herbicide (50, 75, 100 and 125 %) were tested in triplicate using distilled water (negative control) and methyl methanesulfonate (positive control) as controls. Three experimental repetitions were realized. Clorimurom Nortox(®) showed a significantly lower MI than the negative control for the concentrations of 75, 100 and 125 %, but the CA was significantly increased at all concentrations. There was no recovery for CA or MI. The 125 % concentration of Imazaquim Ultra Nortox(®) was cytotoxic and also exerted an effect on the other parameters. The concentration of 100 % showed a statistically increased MN and there was no recovery, while the 75 % concentration significantly affected CA, with recovery observed. The two herbicides showed mutagenic damage in Allium cepa cells, which implies a careful handling of these products, to minimize the risk of human and environmental contamination.

  19. Leaf-shape remodeling: programmed cell death in fistular leaves of Allium fistulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xi-Lu; Su, Hui; Zhou, Ya-fu; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Wen-Zhe

    2015-03-01

    Some species of Allium in Liliaceae have fistular leaves. The fistular lamina of Allium fistulosum undergoes a process from solid to hollow during development. The aims were to reveal the process of fistular leaf formation involved in programmed cell death (PCD) and to compare the cytological events in the execution of cell death to those in the unusual leaf perforations or plant aerenchyma formation. In this study, light and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the development of fistular leaves and cytological events. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays and gel electrophoresis were used to determine nuclear DNA cleavage during the PCD. The cavity arises in the leaf blade by degradation of specialized cells, the designated pre-cavity cells, in the center of the leaves. Nuclei of cells within the pre-cavity site become TUNEL-positive, indicating that DNA cleavage is an early event. Gel electrophoresis revealed that DNA internucleosomal cleavage occurred resulting in a characteristic DNA ladder. Ultrastructural analysis of cells at the different stages showed disrupted vacuoles, misshapen nuclei with condensed chromatin, degraded cytoplasm and organelles and emergence of secondary vacuoles. The cell walls degraded last, and residue of degraded cell walls aggregated together. These results revealed that PCD plays a critical role in the development of A. fistulosum fistular leaves. The continuous cavity in A. fistulosum leaves resemble the aerenchyma in the pith of some gramineous plants to improve gas exchange.

  20. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76–39.71%); group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36–19.05%); and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26–25.01%); P<0.0001. Conclusion We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol. PMID:27849301

  1. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Hydropower reservoirs: cytotoxic and genotoxic assessment using the Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Cassiano Lazarotto; Zanotelli, Patrícia; Dalegrave, Daniela; De Nez, Dinara; Szczepanik, Jozimar; Carazek, Fábio; Franscescon, Francini; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Siebel, Anna Maria; Magro, Jacir Dal

    2017-02-17

    Hydropower offers a reliable source of electricity in several countries, and Brazil supplies its energy needs almost entirely through hydropower plants. Nevertheless, hydropower plants comprise large buildings and water reservoirs and dams, resulting in huge ecological disruptions. Here, we analyzed the impact of four hydropower reservoirs construction in metals and pesticides incidence and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of sediment elutriate of rivers from southern Brazil. Our analyses have evidenced the elevated incidence of different metals (lead, iron, cadmium, and chrome) and pesticides (methyl parathion, atrazine, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). We showed that Allium cepa exposed to sediment elutriates did not change the seed germination rate and mitotic index. However, roots from Allium cepa exposed to reservoirs sediment elutriates showed increased occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and nuclear abnormalities. Therefore, the results obtained in our study indicate that sediment from reservoirs present elevated concentration of metals and pesticides and a significant genotoxic potential. Taken together, our data support that hydropower reservoirs represent an environmental scenario that could impact surrounding wildlife and population.

  3. SELENIUM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onions (Allium cepa L. are important source of bioactive compounds including polyphenols and have potential beneficial properties for human health. Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that is required in small amounts. The aim of the research was to find out how selenium (Se treatment affects on the quality of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.The Se treatment increased the content of total polyphenols (TCA and antioxidant activity (AA. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 508.16±27.59 to 607.56±23.15. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 25.90±0.47 to 39.72±2.64.

  4. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.K.S.ChAUHAN; P.N.SAXENA; 等

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To validate the use of Allium sativum sativum as a reliable test model for gentoxicity,isoproturon,a substituted phenylalkylures herbicide,was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system.ethod :Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24hr.EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8ppm for the root growth.In addition on root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discoloruation and stiffness of roots.Results:Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon(35-280ppm),including EC50,significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr.Conclusion:The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48hr post exposure.howerver in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon.Further,present study also suggests that Allium satiuvum is a sensitive,efficient,and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  5. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To validate the use of Allium sativum as a reliable test model for genotoxicity, isoproturon, a substituted phenylalkylurea herbicide, was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system. Method Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24 hr. EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8 ppm for the root growth. In addition to root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discolouration and stiffness of roots. Results Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon (35-280 ppm), including EC50, significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr. Conclusion The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48 hr post exposure, however in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon. Further, present study also suggests that Allium sativum is a sensitive, efficient, and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  6. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  7. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid by Allium test and micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkara, Arzu; Akyıl, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Erdoğmuş, S Feyza; Konuk, Muhsin; Sağlam, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid using both micronuleus (MN) assay, in human lymphocytes, and Allium cepa assay, in the root meristem cells. In Allium test, EC50 value was determined in order to selecting the test concentrations for the assay and the root tips were treated with 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations of pyracarbolid. One percent of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In the micronucleus assay, the cultures were treated with four concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) of pyracarbolid for 24 and 48 h, negative and positive controls were also used in the experiment parallely. The results showed that mitotic index (MI) significantly reduced with increasing the pyracarbolid concentration at each exposure time. It was also obtained that prophase and metaphase index decreased significantly in all concentration at each exposure time. Anaphase index decreased as well and results were found to be statistically significant, except 24 h. A significant increase was observed in MN frequency in all concentrations and both treatment periods when compared with the controls. Pyracarbolid also caused a significant reduction in the cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) in all concentration and both exposure time.

  8. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from Allium cepa var. aggregatum and study of their probiotic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannu Shafakatullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum or the A. cepa Aggregatum Group is a botanical variety of the species Allium cepa, to which the multiplier onion also belongs. Shallots are called "small onions" in South India and are used extensively in cooking. The scientific use of shallots as a source of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB has not yet been examined. Indigenous knowledge revealed shallots as a good health source. An attempt has been made to find out the possibilities of LAB in fresh shallots. Four isolates were identified on the basis of their morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical tests and their probiotic properties were evaluated. These isolates were screened for resistance against bile salt, gastric juice, intestinal juice, different NaCl concentrations, acidic pH, ability to inhibit pathogens, antibiotic resistance, adherence capacity as well as survival under different storage temperatures. Isolated strains Bacillus coagulans (Lactobacillus sporogenes, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus lactis showed satisfactory probiotic potentials.

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Allium roseum L. var. grandiflorum Briq. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touihri, Imen; Boukhris, Maher; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José; Hanchi, Belgacem; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4.64 µg/mL and 8.22 µg/mL respectively. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP assay, was 285 µmol equivalent Trolox/g of essential oil. The scavenging effect on DPPH radicals of essential oil was estimated as IC50 values at 156 µg/mL. The inhibition of superoxide anion production in a model of cancer cell lines was significant for both lines HT29 and CACO2 with IC50 of 20.25 µg/mL and 29.12 µg/mL respectively. Allium roseum essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans given by an MIC value of 0.019 mg/mL. This biological effect appears to be related mainly to the presence of organosulfur compounds.

  10. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods: Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results: Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76–39.71%; group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36–19.05%; and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26–25.01%; P<0.0001. Conclusion: We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

  11. The cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by sulphates in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DOROFTEI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess the cyto- and genotoxic effects of sulphate on Allium cepa mitosis for root meristem. Three different concentrations of sodium sulphate (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5% have been used, in which the onion bulbs were immersed for different periods of time such as 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique and using Schiff reagent. The cytotoxic effects of sulphate were investigated by calculating the mitotic index and also through the analysis of chromosomes alterations during the mitosis. The phase ratio of cells undergoing mitosis in all the phases is estimated for all variants. For microscopy investigations it was used a Novex Holland B microscope with digital camera included. The cytological analysis realized on Allium cepa revealed a strong decrease in the mitotic index due to sulphate treatments which is more intense with the time of exposure. Moreover this phenomenon is associated with the appearance of different chromosomal complement alterations including the appearance of highly condensed chromatin. The mitotic index and genotoxic observations over the chromosomes can also be correlated with phase ratio of cells undergoing mitosis.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Panneerselvam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycidol is used as a stabilizer in the manufacture of vinyl polymers and natural oils and as an intermediate in the synthesis of glycerol, glycidyl ethers, and amines. It is also used as an alkylating agent,demulsifier, and dye-leveling agent and for sterilizing milk of magnesia. Glycidol is an alkylating agent which reacts readily with glutathione; it causes a decrease in glutathione content in rat liver, probably reflecting its binding to glutathione. It is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. The study investigated the cytotoxic effects of glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells. Different concentrations of glycidol ranging 10, 20, 40 and 50μg/ml for 1, 2, 3 and 5h were treated with root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. Fuelgen squash technique was used to determine the aberrations in root tip cells. For each concentration 3000 well-spread cells were scored and cytological abnormalities such as break, gap, exchange, multiple breaks and chromosome fragments were observed. One way analysis of variance was used the study the significant different control and treatment exposed root tip cells.Significant difference between control and glycidol exposed cells were observed. Increasing concentrations increased the number of chromosomal aberrations.

  13. The location of nectaries and nectar secretion in the flowers of Allium giganteum Regel

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    Beata Żuraw

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the flowers of Allium there are found septal nectaries; in particular species, their outlet can be located in different parts of the ovary. The inflorescences of these plants are a rich source of nectar for insects. The location and structure of septal nectaries in the flowers of Allium giganteum Regel were investigated. Light and scanning electron microscopy was used. The septal nectaries were found to be located in the lower part of the ovary and in the gynophore on which the ovary is borne. Nectar is secreted into the nectary slits from which it flows through the ducts to three openings located in the upper part of the gynophore, from whence it gets outside in the vicinity of the expanded parts of the filaments. Sugar concentration in the nectar of A. giganteum averaged 54.5%, while sugar weight per flower was determined to be 0.36 mg. When converted into sugar weight per inflorescence, numbering more than 2,000 flowers, it was 771.7 mg.

  14. Disponibilidade hídrica e germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L. Water availability and germination of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.

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    Z. Piana

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência do teor de água do substrato na germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de ambiente de laboratório. Os efeitos de cinco níveis de água no substrato solo x areia (3:1, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da capacidade de retenção foram avaliados através da porcentagem de emergência no 14° dia da semeadura e pesos da matéria verde e seca das plântulas normais. Para tanto, 200 sementes do cultivar Pira Ouro por tratamento, em quatro repetições de 50, foram semeadas a 1,5 cm de profundidade, mantendo-se constantes os níveis de água no substrato. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que os níveis de umidade do solo indicados para germinação de sementes de cebola são de 40% e 60% da capacidade de retenção do substrato, por possibilitarem uma melhor emergência, peso da matéria verde e seca das plântulas.One essay was conducted under laboratory conditions, in order to verify the influence of substrate water content on the germination of onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. The effect of five water levels in the medium soil x sand (3:1 - 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% retention capacity-were evaluated through the emergence percentage 14 days after seedling and the weight of fresh and dry matters of normal seedlings. For that purpose, 200 treated seeds of Pira Ouro cultivar were sown 1.5 cm deep in four replicátions of 50, with a constant water content in the medium. The best results showed that the soil moisture levels suggested for the germination of onion seeds were 40% to 60% of the substrate retention capacity, once they provide better emergence, weight of the fresh and dry matters of seedlings.

  15. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

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    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  16. Farmacologia celular : alguns aspectos das modificações morfologicas produzidas nas raizes de Allium ampeloprasum L. quando crescidas em cultura hidroponica na presença da diamino difenil sulfona (DDS) ; documentação fotografica

    OpenAIRE

    Thais Leprevost de Medina

    1982-01-01

    Resumo: O autor descreve as modificações que se observam quando raízes de cebola, Allium cepa L. e de alho,Allium sativum L. e Allium ampeloprasum L. crescidas em cultura hidropônica, são transferidas e mantidas durante vários períodos de tempo nas mesmas condições experimentais, numa solução de DIAMINO DIFENIL SULFONA (DDS) em água distilada. A DIAMINO DIFENIL SULFONA prejudicou o desenvolvimento radicular dos Allium alterando-lhes o aspecto, a conformação e o crescimento das raizes .....

  17. Uso do sistema teste de Allium cepa como bioindicador de genotoxicidade de infusões de plantas medicinais The use of Allium cepa test as a bioindicator of genotoxicity of medicinal plants infusions

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    Margarete Dulce Bagatini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Mundialmente, muitas espécies de plantas medicinais são utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças. No entanto, a maioria dessas espécies não foram suficientemente estudadas, principalmente quanto à presença de substâncias citotóxicas/mutagênicas em sua composição ou decorrentes do próprio metabolismo e podem causar danos à saúde da população. A presença de substâncias mutagênicas nas espécies vegetais que causam alterações cromossômicas podem ser detectadas durante o ciclo celular de uma espécie. O sistema teste de Allium cepa é freqüentemente utilizado para avaliação do potencial genotóxico de extratos de plantas medicinais através da análise de células meristemáticas provenientes de pontas de raízes tratadas com infusões medicinais (chás. O conhecimento do potencial genotóxico destas espécies medicinais, através da análise do ciclo celular de Allium cepa serve como indicativo de segurança para a população que utiliza chás medicinais como única alternativa para o tratamento de doenças. Essa revisão, objetiva informar a respeito da importância do teste de Allium cepa para avaliação preliminar da genotoxicidade de infusões de plantas medicinais.All over the world, many species of medicinal plants are used for disease treatments. However, most of them were not deeply studied; and the presence of cytotoxic or mutagenic substances in their composition or resulting from their metabolism may be harmful to human beings. The mutagenic effects caused by such substances result in chromosomal changes which are detecTable during the cell cycle of a species through cytogenetic analysis. The Allium cepa test system is widely used for evaluating the genotoxic potential of infusions (tea made of medicinal plants, through the cell cycle analysis. The knowledge of the genotoxic potential of such species through the Allium cepa test serves as a warning and safety bioindicator for the population who uses medicinal

  18. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, L A; Terry, L A; White, S F; Warner, P J

    2006-05-15

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2-12 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit using 1 unit of pyruvate oxidase was 1-2 micromol/g FW. Optimum concentrations of co-factors TPP, FAD and MgSO4 comprising the enzyme cocktail were determined as being 0.04, 0.1 and 30 mM, respectively.

  19. Rhodamine B induces long nucleoplasmic bridges and other nuclear anomalies in Allium cepa root tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dehong; Bai, Bing; Jiang, Donghua; Shi, Lin; Cheng, Shunchang; Tao, Dongbing; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-03-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of rhodamine B on root tip cells of Allium cepa was investigated. A. cepa were cultured in water (negative control), 10 ppm methyl methanesulfonate (positive control), and three concentrations of rhodamine B (200, 100, and 50 ppm) for 7 days. Rhodamine B inhibited mitotic activity; increased nuclear anomalies, including micronuclei, nuclear buds, and bridged nuclei; and induced oxidative stress in A. cepa root tissues. Furthermore, a substantial amount of long nucleoplasmic bridges were entangled together, and some nuclei were simultaneously linked to several other nuclei and to nuclear buds with nucleoplasmic bridges in rhodamine B-treated cells. In conclusion, rhodamine B induced cytogenetic effects in A. cepa root tip cells, which suggests that the A. cepa root is an ideal model system for detecting cellular interactions.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33 on Allium cepa determined using Taguchi's L₈ orthogonal array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Gonca; Özdemir, Utkan; Aksoy, Özlem

    2013-12-01

    In this study, Taguchi L₈ experimental design was applied to determine cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33, which is the most toxic azo reactive dye species, on Allium cepa. With this aim, A. cepa test system was performed to achieve targeted experimental design with three factors (concentration of dye, pH and volume) in two different levels. Toxic conditions were determined considering calculated signal-to-noise ratios. "Smaller is better" approach was followed to calculate signal-to-noise ratios as it was aimed to obtain lower root lengths. In the work, toxic effects of azo dye were also predicted by using the Taguchi method. Taguchi model showed that experimental and predicted values were closer to each other demonstrating the success of Taguchi approach.

  1. Genotoxicity effects of Flusilazole on the somatic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakca, Dilek Unal; Silah, Hulya

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the fungicide flusilazole on somatic cells of Allium cepa. For evaluation of cytogenetic effects, root meristem cells of A. cepa were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 45 ppm (EC50 concentration) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The mitotic index and different types of chromosomal abnormalities such as bridges, stickiness and laggards were determined in both control and test groups. Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide double staining and fluorescence microscope was used to determine the stability of chromosome structure. Data obtained from staining process indicated that ratio of necrotic cells significantly increased by the flusilazole presoaking. The RAPD-PCR method was used and the higher doses treated-group (45 ppm) was more distant to the control group compare with others.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity.

  3. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  4. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils.

  5. The distribution of Allium schoenoprasum L. subsp. sibiricum (L. Hartm. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kwiatkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorological analysis of the distribution of Allium schoenoprasum L. subsp. sibiricum (L Hartm. presented in the paper is based on literature data, herbaria and the authors own observations. A. *sibiricum is a rare and threatened species in Poland, reported exclusively from the Karkonosze Mts. and the Pilsko Massif in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. The author discusses the taxonomic position, general distribution as well as environmental and phytocoenotic conditions preferred by the species in Europe. Detailed phytosociological analysis of phytocoenoses in which A. *sibiricum typically occurs in the Karkonosze Mts. is presented. They belong to the association Allietum sibirici Šmarda 1950 which is described here for the first time from Poland.

  6. A Comprehensive Review on Nickel (II And Chromium VI Toxicities - Possible Antioxidant (Allium Sativum Linn Defenses

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    Kusal K.Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity associated with nickel (II and chromium (VI is mainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS with subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. Both nickel and chromium can generate free radicals (FR directly from molecular oxygen in a two step process to produce superoxide anion and in continued process, produce highly toxic hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidative effects are compounded by fact that they also inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione. Garlic (Allium sativum has played an important dietary and medicinal role throughout the history of mankind. Garlic has the potential to enhance the endogenous antioxidant status in nickel as well as hexavalent chromium induced lipid peroxidation in normal and diabetic rats.

  7. Genotoxicity of tetrodotoxin from puffer fish tested in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khora, S S; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1997-07-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) extracted and purified from puffer fish Arothron nigropunctatus was tested for genotoxicity employing the root meristem cells of Allium cepa as the assay system. The genotoxicity endpoints investigated were mitotic index (MI), meta-anaphases with spindle aberrations, interphases with micronuclei (MNC) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in metaphase chromosomes. The results demonstrated that TTX inhibited mitosis at concentrations of > or = 30 microM as evident by the fall of MI, but failed to induce MNC at significant levels at any of the concentrations tested (10-100 microM). TTX was thus proved to be neither clastogenic nor aneugenic in the present study. It was, however, noteworthy that TTX at far lower concentrations, 0.1-5.0 microM, significantly enhanced the frequencies of SCE which indicated possible interference of the toxin in DNA replication and repair.

  8. Effects of cobalt (III) complexes of Schiff bases on root tip mitosis. [Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanu, T.; Krishna, B.A.; Dhananjoy, K.; Satyabrata, R.; Kamalendu, D.

    1984-01-01

    Cytological effects of two newly synthesized Cobalt (III) complexes, namely, (Co(BSOP)(NH/sub 3/)/sub 2/)(NO/sub 3/), (1) and (Co(BSOP)(PY)/sub 2/)(NO/sub 3/), (2) (where, BSOP = dianion of N,N-orthophenylenebis (salicylaldimine), Py = pyridine) were studied on Allium cepa root tip cells. Many interesting abnormalities, including diplochromatic structure, grouping, stickiness, beadedness, erosion, fragmentation and bridge formation of chromosomes and granulation of the interphase nucleus were observed under the influence of these cobalt (III) complexes. The mitotic index had been simulated at threshold concentrations, but affected at higher concentrations and prolonged treatment. The inhibitory action in prolonged treatment may be due to an accumulation effect. Mechanisms of such effects have been discussed qualitatively and are described as a non-delayed type. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  9. [On the effect of Chinese lacquer upon the cell division of root tip of Allium cepa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, H; Liang, W

    1997-01-01

    Chinese Lacquer, as a fine coating, has been studied and applied for thousands years. The allergic reaction in Chinese Lacquer on the human skin has also been known early. The reaction of Chinese Lacquer on mitosis of cell in plant meristem have not been reported yet and was carefully studied in this paper. The result showed that Chinese Lacquer induced severe abnormality of mitotic division in Allium cepa root tips. This was more obvious in the anaphase and telophase, especially in the former phase laggard chromosomes, chromosome bridges, acentric fragments and polypolar distribution could be seen frequently. A lot of polynuclear bodies were observed in the telophase. Therefore, we think that the Chinese Lacquer can be used as a plant cell mutagen, and suggest geneticists and physiologists to do more researches on the effects of Chinese Lacquer at the genetic variation, metabolism etc.

  10. Genotoxicity of five food preservatives tested on root tips of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa

    2007-01-10

    The effects of the food preservatives sodium benzoate (SB), boric acid (BA), citric acid (CA), potassium citrate (PC) and sodium citrate (SC) have been studied on root tips of Allium cepa L. Roots of A. cepa were treated with a series of concentrations, ranging from 20 to 100 ppm for 5, 10 and 20 h. The results indicate that these food preservatives reduced mitotic division in A. cepa compared with the respective control. Mitotic index values were generally decreased with increasing concentrations and longer treatment times. Additionally, variations in the percentage of mitotic stages were observed. The total percentage of aberrations generally increased with increasing concentrations of these chemicals and the longer period of treatment. Different abnormal mitotic figures were observed in all mitotic phases. Among these abnormalities were anaphase bridges, C-mitosis, micronuclei, lagging, stickiness, breaks and unequal distribution.

  11. Cytotoxic Effects of (5 Medicinal Plants on Mitosis in Allium cepa Root Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Udo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effects that plant extracts from 5 medicinal plants may have on mitosis in Allium cepa. Root of A .cepa were immersed in alcoholic extracts at the concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/mL, respectively for each of the following plants: Gnetum africanum Welw., Lasianther aafricana P. Beauv, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. and Vernonia amygdalina Del. Leafy vegetable which are commonly used in herbal medicine. Results obtained show that the various concentrations of the extracts from test plants had toxic effects on the cells, which caused significant reduction (p<0.05 in the mitotic index when compared with the control. Other effects were prophase inhibition, the delay of mitosis and nuclear lesion. The cytotoxic effect makes a case for a precaution in the use of the leafy extracts in herbal medicine practice.

  12. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species.

  13. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products.

  14. The effect of Allium sativum on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia reperfusion induced cardiac injury

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    Bhatti Rajbir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum extract on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury has been studied. Hearts from adult albino rats of Wistar strain were isolated and immediately mounted on Langendorff′s apparatus for retrograde perfusion. After 15 minutes of stabilization, the hearts were subjected to four episodes of 5 min ischemia, interspersed with 5 min reperfusion (to complete the protocol of ischemic preconditioning, 30 min global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In the control and treated groups, respective interventions were given instead of ischemic preconditioning. The magnitude of cardiac injury was quantified by measuring Lactate Dehydrogenase and creatine kinase concentration in the coronary effluent and myocardial infarct size by macroscopic volume method. Our study demonstrates that garlic extract exaggerates the cardio protection offered by ischemic preconditioning and per se treatment with garlic extract also protects the myocardium against ischemia reperfusion induced cardiac injury.

  15. Hypertension after ingestion of baked garlic (Allium sativum) in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2010-04-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Schnauzer was referred 2-days after accidental ingestion of baked garlic. Regenerative anemia (Hematocrit 22%) and the elevated methemoglobin (8.7%) concentration were detected upon hematological examination. Eccentrocytes, Heinz bodies and ruptured red blood cells were also noted on blood smear films, which were the results from the oxidative injury of the Allium species. The dog was hypertension (systolic mean 182 mmHg) concurrent with other clinical signs, such as vomiting and dark brown urination. Treatment with continuous oxygen, antioxidant drugs and antihypertensive therapy resulted in good progress. The dog was discharged 4 days after hospitalization. There were no remarkable findings in the follow up hematologic examination 24 days after discharge, but the dog still had a high blood pressure and continued on antihypertensive therapy. No recurrence was noted and the blood pressure returned to normal levels 4 months later.

  16. Phenolic Compounds from Allium schoenoprasum, Tragopogon pratensis and Rumex acetosa and Their Antiproliferative Effects

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    Petr Saha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive, Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 100, 75, 50 and 25 µg/mL. Phenolic composition was also determined by HPLC. The results indicate that even low concentrations of these flowers’ phenolic compounds inhibited cell proliferation significantly and the possible use of the studied herb’s flowers as sources of active phenolic compounds for human nutrition.

  17. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF WILD GARLIC (Allium ursinum FROM ROMANIAN SPONTANEOUS FLORA

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    MARIANA LUPOAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild Romanian spontaneous garlic’s (Allium ursinum antimicrobial activity was tested in order to establish the inhibition potential of growth of some microorganisms. As test microorganisms were used pure cultures of fungs (Aspergillus glaucus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis isolated from food microbiota. There were also, used microbial strains isolated from different pathological products: wound secretions (Staphylococcus aureus, throat swab (Streptococcus pyogenes, urine (Escherichia coli and oral mucosa (Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of used extracts is highlighted depending on the type of the vegetal tissue (leaves, roots, bulbs and the nature of the solvent used for extraction. Extracts used in these experiments are recommended to use in food industry to preserve the stability and to improve the organoleptic quality of products.

  19. Antioxidant activity of garlic essential oil (Allium Sativum) grown in north Indian plains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reena lawrence; Kapil lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil isolated from fresh rhizomes of garlic (Allium sativum) of the family Alliaceae in an yield of 0.2% (v/w). Methods:2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitrogen oxide scavenging, reducing power and毬-carotene bleaching assays were conducted. BHT and gallic acid were kept as standards.Results:IC50 values observed for DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays were 0.5 mg/mL and 50毺g/mL respectively. In reducing power assay absorbance increased linearly with increasing concentration of the oil, in毬-carotene bleaching method also there is 84% bleaching in first one hour and it decreased to 45 % by the completion of second hour. Conclusions: The results clearly indicate garlic essential oil is effective in scavenging free radical and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.

  20. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donghua Liu; Ingrid Kottke

    2003-06-01

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium sativum L. exposed to three different concentrations of Cd (100 M, 1 mM and 10 mM) for 9 days was carried out. The results showed that Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes – high vacuolization in cytoplasm, deposition of electron-dense material in vacuoles and nucleoli and increment of disintegrated organelles. Data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed that Cd was localized in the electron-dense precipitates in the root cells treated with 10 mM Cd. High amounts of Cd were mainly accumulated in the vacuoles and nucleoli of cortical cells in differentiating and mature root tissues. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of Cd are briefly explained.

  1. Biochemical and genetic analysis of carbohydrate accumulation in Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; McCallum, John; Shaw, Martin; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) exhibit wide variation in bulb fructan content, and the Frc locus on chromosome 8 conditions much of this variation. To understand the biochemical basis of Frc, we conducted biochemical and genetic analyses of Allium fistulosum (FF)-shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) alien monosomic addition lines (AALs; FF+1A-FF+8A) and onion mapping populations. Sucrose and fructan levels in leaves of FF+2A were significantly lower than in FF throughout the year, and the springtime activity of acid invertase was also lower. FF+8A showed significantly higher winter sucrose accumulation and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Inbred high fructan (Frc_) lines from the 'W202Ax Texas Grano 438' onion population exhibited significantly higher sucrose levels prior to bulbing than low fructan (frcfrc) lines. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity in these lines was correlated with leaf hexose content but not with Frc phenotype. Markers for additional candidate genes for sucrose metabolism were obtained by cloning a major SPS expressed in onion leaf and exhaustively mining onion expressed sequence tag resources. SPS and SuSy loci were assigned to chromosome 8 and 6, respectively, using AALs and linkage mapping. Further loci were assigned, using AALs, to chromosomes 1 (sucrose phosphate phosphatase), 2 (SuSy and three invertases) and 8 (neutral invertase). The concordance between chromosome 8 localization of SPS and elevated leaf sucrose levels conditioned by high fructan alleles at the Frc locus in bulb onion or alien monosomic additions of chromosome 8 in A. fistulosum suggest that the Frc locus may condition variation in SPS activity.

  2. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Han, Jeong Suk Hyeon; Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Subramani, Boopathi; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-02-16

    Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT) encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7) with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231) with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis) and Hd3a (rice), with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day), LD (long-day), and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101) and LM (late maturation, 36122). The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  3. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  4. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 mg/14-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations (MA, i.e., bridges, fragments, and lagging chromosomes). MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the Ml, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  5. Antimicrobial evaluation, acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Lawal; Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu; Florence Inje Oibiokpa; Hadiza Mohammed; Sheriff Itopa Umar; Garba Muhammed Haruna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial and toxicological effects of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs extract in wister rat using biochemical and hematological parameters. Methods: A total of 20 wister rats were assigned into four (A–D) groups of five animals each. Group A served as the control and was administered 1 mL of distilled water. Groups B–C were given 300, 600 and 1 200 mg/kg body weight of garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs extract for 5 weeks. Results: Garlic bulbs extract produced significant inhibitory activities against all bacteria tested at concentrations of 120 and 160 mg/mL. However, at concentration of 80 mg/mL, the extract had no inhibitory activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration ranged between 80–120 mg/mL and 120–160 mg/mL respectively. Toxicological study revealed that the extract did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) alteration to serum aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase activities, total bilirubins, Na, K, creatinine, red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, granulocyte and organs-body weight ratio. However, serum alanine transaminase activ-ities, total proteins, direct bilirubins, Cl− concentrations and body weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) lowered while the concentrations of urea, albumin, white blood cell, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume count were raised significantly (P<0.05) in rats dosed with 600 and 1 200 mg/kg of the extract. However, at a dose of 300 mg/kg only, the concentrations of Cl−, urea and albumin were mildly altered. Conclusions: The extract caused selective changes in some biochemical parameters of organ function;however, since only mild alteration was observed at a dose of 300 mg/kg, the garlic bulb may be considered to be relatively safe and could be explored as an oral remedy at this dose.

  6. Allium fistulosum as a novel system to investigate mechanisms of freezing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Karen K; Kobayashi, Shion; Hyett, Craig; Hamilton, Kaila; Liu, Jun; Li, Bin; Borondics, Ferenc; Pedersen, Tor; Tse, John; Ellis, Tom; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Allium fistulosum was investigated as a novel model system to examine the mechanism of freezing resistance in cold hardy plants. The 250 × 50 × 90 µm average cell size and single epidermal cell layer system allowed direct observation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), functional group localization during acclimation, freezing and thawing on an individual cell basis in live intact tissues. Cells increased freezing resistance from an LT50 of -11°C (non-acclimated) to -25°C under 2 weeks of cold acclimation. Samples were processed using Fourier transform infrared technology (FTIR) on a synchrotron light source and a focal plane array detector. In addition, confocal fluorescent microscopy combined with a cryostage using ER selective dye of ER-Tracker allowed more detailed examination of membrane responses during freezing. Cold acclimation increased the ER volume per cell, and the freeze-induced cell deformation stopped ER streaming and ER vesiculation subsequently occurred through the breakdown in the ER network. Freeze-induced ER vesicles in cold-acclimated cells were larger and more abundant than those in non-acclimated cells. According to FTIR, the carbohydrate/ester fraction and α-helical/β-sheet secondary structure localized in the apoplast/plasma membrane region were most visibly increased during cold acclimation. Results suggest the mechanism of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in very hardy cells may be associated with both alterations in the apoplast/plasma membrane region and the ER cryodynamics. Allium fistulosum appears to be a useful system to obtain direct evidence at both intra and extracellular levels during cold acclimation and the freezing process.

  7. Antiinflammatory and neurological activity of pyrithione and related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides from Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejčová, Petra; Kučerová, Petra; Stafford, Gary Ivan

    2014-01-01

    antiinflammatory effects which are comparable with those of common pharmaceuticals (IC50 of 7.8 and 15.4µM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). On the other hand, neurological activities of the compounds were rather modest. Some compounds moderately inhibited AChE (IC50 of 104-1041µM) and MAO-A (IC50 of 98-241µ......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum) is a bulbous plant native to Turkey, Iran and Central Asia. It is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including inflammation and stress. Antiinflammatory and neurological activities...... of pyrithione and four related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides which are prominent constituents of Allium stipitatum were tested. METHODS: The antiinflammatory activity was tested by the ability of the compounds to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), whereas the neurological activities were evaluated...

  8. Water quality of urban streams: the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings test as a tool for surface water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  9. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  10. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Catia; Fabbri, Alessia; Geraci, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  11. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum on growth factors, some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Farahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic (Allium sativum on growth factors,some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. A totalnumber of 360 fish (average weight 20.88±0.25 g was used. Fish were divided into four groups fed ondiets containing garlic in different levels; 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group dietwas without garlic. The experiment extended for two months. The results showed that, weight gain andgrowth performance of O. mykiss significantly (p-1 diet of garlic than all other groups. Total lipids content in fish body decreased in treatments and itwas lower in fish fed on 30 g kg-1 diet of garlic. The results of this study show that addition of garlicAllium sativum to fish diet can promote growth and improve fish health.

  12. Molecular Phylogeny Analysis of Allium Sativum in Alliaceae%大蒜在葱科的分子分类地位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯进慧; 李同祥; 蔡文佳

    2014-01-01

    通过扩增获得18S rRNA和叶绿体16S rRNA基因序列,测序并提交GenBank ,登录号分别是JF719285和JF719286.利用大蒜和GenBank相关序列构建系统发育树,进行分子演化分析.结果表明:大蒜18S rRNA 基因与球序韭、韭菜、茖葱等葱科植物序列相似度高;叶绿体16S rRNA基因与龙舌兰科和薯蓣科的物种序列相似度高.大蒜与葱科植物在18S rRNA序列上具有较高的同源性.18S rRNA序列在植物演化方面的区分度比16S rRNA高.%In the paper ,molecular phylogeny of Allium sativum were discussded with the analysis of rRNA gene .18S rRNA gene and chloroplast 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified .The two rRNA genes were submitted to Genbank and the accession numbers were JF719285 and JF719286 .Gene sequences of Allium sativum was analyzed with related species in GenBank .The results showed that :Allium sativum 18S rRNA gene has a high homology with many species within Alliaceae ,such as Allium thunbergii ,Allium tuberosum and Allium victorialis .Allium sativum and Alliaceae plants has a high similarity in 18S rDNA . The discrimination accusation of 18Sr RNA sequences in plant phylogeny analysis is better than that of 16S rRNA .

  13. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Moon Park; Dong Woo Kim; Seung Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence w...

  14. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas ...

  15. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other mola...

  16. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (PAllium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  17. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Izharul Haq; Vineeta Kumari; Sharad Kumar; Abhay Raj; Mohtashim Lohani; Ram Naresh Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to ...

  18. On the effects of secretions of saprophytic bacteria on the course of mitosis in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Kobierzyńska

    2015-01-01

    The influence of 21 strains of saprophytic bacteria isolated from onion cultures on the course of mitosis and on the level of chromosome aberrations in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L. was studied. Liquid cultures of all bacterial strains caused no changes in divisions of the cells. However, ten of the strains were responsible for disturbances in this process. The nature of these disturbances depended to a large extent on the kind of medium in which the bacteria were grown.

  19. Introductory studies of bacterial effects on the course of mitosis in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of spontaneous chromosome aberrations and other phenomena concomitant with mitoses in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. adventitious roots grown in water, depends to a large extent on the intensity of bacteria multiplication. From the water culture two strains of bacteria, which were most numerous, were isolated - Agrobacterium and Flavobacterium. A supernatant from bacteria grown on Davis medium induced chromosome sticking together, c-mitoses and the formation of polyploid nuclei in the roots of onion.

  20. On the effects of secretions of saprophytic bacteria on the course of mitosis in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of 21 strains of saprophytic bacteria isolated from onion cultures on the course of mitosis and on the level of chromosome aberrations in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L. was studied. Liquid cultures of all bacterial strains caused no changes in divisions of the cells. However, ten of the strains were responsible for disturbances in this process. The nature of these disturbances depended to a large extent on the kind of medium in which the bacteria were grown.

  1. The Cytogenetic Effects of Sodium Metabisulfite, a Food Preservative in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    RENCÜZOĞULLARI, Eyyüp

    2001-01-01

    The effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on mitosis were investigated in Allium cepa L. The roots of A. cepa were treated with SMB concentrations of 7.5 mg/lt, 15 mg/lt and 30 mg/lt for 10- and 20-hour treatment periods. SMB significantly decreased the mitotic index (MI) at all concentrations and treatment periods. While the decreasing of the MI was dose-dependent at 10 hours treatment time, SMB increased the mitotic abnormalities dose dependently.

  2. The effect of bulb planting time and type of mulch on the yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Laskowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bulb planting time and the type of mulch on the morphological traits of plants and on bulb yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch. 'Purple Sensation'. Bulbs of 12 cm diameter were used as the study material. The bulbs were planted in plots on three dates: September 15th, October 1st, and October 15th. The plantation was mulched after frost with two types of mulch: composted pine bark and wheat straw. Phenological phases of the plants were observed during the growing season. At the full flowering stage, several observations and measurements were taken: length of leaves, length of inflorescence peduncle, peduncle diameter, inflorescence diameter, and number of flowers per inflorescence. After harvest, total numerical and weight yield of bulbs were evaluated as well as number and weight of the largest bulbs (21–22 cm diameter. The study showed that in order to obtain Allium aflatunense of high ornamental value, which is determined by the number of flowers per inflorescence and the inflorescence peduncle diameter, bulbs need to be planted in the middle of September. Bulb planting in October leads to production of inflorescences of greater diameter. The optimum method of Allium aflatunense cultivation which ensures production of good total yield of bulbs, expressed in its weight, is bulb planting on September 15th and soil mulching with composted pine bark or straw. Mulching a plantation of Allium aflatunense planted on September 15th with bark has a positive effect on the number and weight of bulbs of 21–22 cm diameter.

  3. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (Meaning pungent belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on lead induced toxicity in mice. Chronic dose of lead (2 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and the nonenzymatic antioxidant as glutathione (GSH and total protein content in the liver, kidney and brain. This decrease was accompanied with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level. Also, there were disturbances in the liver, kidney and brain functions manifested by significant changes in their functional markers. Efficacy of garlic to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Mostly, all of the investigated parameters were restored nearly to the normal values after raw garlic extract treatment. In conclusion, garlic exerts its effects not only as an antioxidant but also as a sulfur donor. So, garlic has a promising role and it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.

  4. Evaluación preclínica de la actividad hepatoprotectora de Ocimum basilicum L. y Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la búsqueda de alternativas de tratamiento naturales, orientadas a proteger el hígado de los efectos nocivos de hepatotoxinas, es un tema importante dentro de las investigaciones médico-farmacéuticas. Objetivo: evaluar preclínicamente la actividad hepatoprotectora de las especies Ocimum basilicum L. y Allium sativum L. en un biomodelo de toxicidad inducido por paracetamol. Métodos: se realizó un estudio farmacológico preclínico para evaluar el efecto hepatoprotector de las especies Ocimum basilicum L. y Allium sativum L. frente a la toxicidad inducida por el paracetamol. Se emplearon ratones adultos machos NMRI a los que se administró por vía oral extractos blandos de las plantas de estudio a dosis de 200mg/kg y 400mg/kg, tres días consecutivos previos a la inducción de la hepatotoxicidad. Se evaluaron los signos clínicos de toxicidad, parámetros bioquímicos hepáticos; también se realizó el análisis morfológico del hígado. Resultados: los parámetros bioquímicos analizados mostraron diferencias altamente significativas, pero solo tres grupos presentaron un comportamiento similar al grupo control no tratado. No se confirmaron alteraciones macroscópicas del hígado. Microscópicamente, predominó la ausencia de alteraciones histopatológicas en los grupos donde se administró Ocimum basilicum L. a ambas dosis y Allium sativum L. a 200mg/Kg; también se observó daño leve al administrar 400mg/Kg de Allium sativum L, con diferencias significativas respecto al grupo control no tratado. Conclusión: los extractos blandos de las especies Ocimum basilicum L. y Allium sativum L. a 200mg/kg, poseen mayor actividad hepatoprotectora frente a la acción tóxica del paracetamol.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  6. Anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae in mice

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    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allium ascalonicum Linn. (Liliaceae is a mildly aromatic annual herb used to flavor food. Ethnobotanical survey revealed application of A. ascalonicum in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS disorders. Objective: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of aerial part hydroethanolic extract of A. ascalonicum. Methods: The hole-board, elevated plus maze, light/dark exploration, open field and social interaction tests were used in this study. Groups of mice were treated orally with distilled water (10 ml/kg, diazepam (1 mg/kg, and A. ascalonicum (50-400 mg/kg. Evaluations were done 1 h post-treatment and the duration of observation was mostly 5 min. In the hole-board test, mice were observed for number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, the time spent in the open/closed arms and the number of entries by mice were observed. In the light/dark exploration test, the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light and dark compartments, number of rearing and assisted rearing were determined. In respect of the open field test, observations were made for the number of rearing, assisted rearing, and sectional crossings. In the social interaction test, pairs of mice were observed for number of interactions including sniffing, following, and partner grooming. Results: In the hole-board test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the number/duration of head dips and number of sectional crossings. In the elevated plus maze test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05 increased the number of entries into the open arm with Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(11:448-459 Page 449 of 459corresponding reduction in number of entries into the closed arm. In the light/dark exploration test, A. ascalonicum significantly (p<0.05, 0.01 increased the latency of entry into the dark box, time spent in the light box, and number of rearing and assisted rearing. In

  7. Effects of Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} on the nucleus and nucleolus in root tip cells of allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D.; Jiang, W.; Wang, W. [Tianjin Normal Univ. (China); Zhai, L. [Xinhua High School, Tianjin (China)

    1995-11-01

    Metal toxicity in plants has been known for a long time. Much importance has increasingly been attached to the problems of metal pollution with the development of modern industry and agriculture. If metals in plants are accumulated to a large extent, it might seriously affect them. The cytological effects of cobalt and mercury have been studied in Allium cepa by documentation of c-mitosis. Also, the quantification of chromosome aberration in Vicia faba root-tip cells treated by magnesium sulphate and in Allium cepa by metyl mercury chloride and mercuric chloride has been reported. Cytological research on the poisoning effects of Mg, Co and Hg on the nuclei and nucleoli in root-tip cells of plants has hardly been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of magnesium, cobalt and mercury ions on root growth, and on the nuclei and nucleoli of root tip cells of Allium-cepa. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  8. 沙葱提取物抗菌效果的研究%Antibacterial Effect of Extracts from Allium mongolicum Regel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚蕾; 罗瑞明

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on antibacterial activity and stability of the ethanol extracts from Allium mongolicum Regel. [Method] Taking Allium mongolicum Regel.(AMR) as experimental material, the antibacterial and stability test, antibacterial capacity and antibacterial activity substance stability of extracts were studied. [Result] Size order of antibacterial effect of extracts on these 5 strains tended to be:Saccharomyces cerevisiae > Penicillium sp.> Aspergillusniger> Staphylococcusaureus> Escherichia coli; under neutral or slight alkaline conditions, optimum antibacterial effect presented best; and UV light irradiation basically had no influence on tested strains. [Conclusion] Antibacterial effect of ethanol extract shows great difference among these strains, and antibacterial activity substance is of good heat and UV light stability.

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  10. Evaluation of the cytogenotoxicity of textile effluents using Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the raw (EB and treated (ET effluents of two textile mills located in south of Minas Gerais State that have their effluents treated at the same Effluent Treatment Plant was investigated using the Allium cepa test system. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the root elongation and mitotic index (MI endpoints and the genotoxicity was assessed by de determination of chromosome aberrations (CA.The effluent samples were tested at the concentrations 0 (ultrapure water, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % (v/v. A Completely Randomized Design with four replicates of 30 seeds was used. The effluent samples in almost all tested concentrations promoted an increase in root elongation compared to the negative control and this effect was probably related to nutrients levels and organic matter in effluent samples. A lower MI at all concentrations of ET compared to EB. The highest MI was observed at 100% (v/v concentration of both effluents. The highest rates of CA occurred at concentrations 75% (v/v of EB and 100% (v/v of both effluents. The effluent samples showed no cytotoxic effect, but cell division occurred disorderly, leading to increase rate of AC, revealing a genetoxic effect. Improvements in the wastewater treatment are needed to reduce environmental impacts.

  11. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, S K; Umezurike, G M

    1981-10-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. cepacia and B. polymyxa and lyase and pectinesterase activities for all of the isolates, usually at higher levels of activity than those of the pectin medium culture filtrates. In both culture media, Vibrio sp. showed the highest lyase and pectinesterase activities. In the viscometric test, all of the isolates achieved at least a 50% decrease in viscosity for lyase enzyme, with M. epidermidis and Vibrio sp. recording viscosity decreases as high as 83%. The ability to cause soft rot in onion bulbs was demonstrated by P. cepacia and Xanthomonas sp. Benzoic acid at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml caused total suppression of enzyme production, whereas sodium benzoate at this concentration reduced pectinesterase production by 71% and lyase production by 72%. The possible use of these preservatives in the control of soft rot in onions is noted.

  12. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice's footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine.

  13. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Leon Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice’s footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine.

  14. Phytosteroids from tissue culture of Allium cepa L. and Trachyspermum ammi S prague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Chaturvedi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of secondary metabolites by cultured cells provides a particularly important benefit to manipulate and improve the production of desired compounds; thus biotechnological approaches to increase the concentrations of the metabolites are discussed. Present study deals with the production, isolation and identification of phytosterols from tissue culture of Allium cepa and from plant parts and tissue culture of Trachyspermum ammi. Steroidal analysis of plant parts showed the maximum amount of stigmasterol (0.240 mg/gdw which was comparatively little less than that of the amount of β- sitosterol (0.295 mg/gdw in the seeds of T. ammi . The maximum amount of stigmasterol was present in four weeks old tissue of T. ammi (0.249 mg/gdw whereas the highest content of β- sitosterol was observed in six weeks old tissue of A. cepa (0.315 mg/gdw However, lanosterol, was present only in the tissue of A. cepa which was maximum in six weeks old tissue (0.039 mg/gdw.

  15. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles and its effect on actively dividing cells of mitosis in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaonkar, Dipali; Shende, Sudhir; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Nanobiotechnological application of copper nanoparticles has paved the way for advancement in agriculture owing to its bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Recently, researchers have focussed on bioinspired synthesis of copper nanoparticles as a viable alternative to existing physicochemical techniques. For the commercialization of nanocopper, the toxicity evaluation is a major issue. In this context, Citrus medica (L.) fruit extract-mediated copper nanoparticles were synthesized and its different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg mL(-1) ) were evaluated for its effect on actively dividing cells of Allium cepa. The study clearly revealed that copper nanoparticles increased mitotic index up to the concentration of 20 µg mL(-1) . In addition, a gradual decline in mitotic index and increase in abnormality index was observed as the concentration of copper nanoparticles and treatment duration were increased. Aberrations in chromosomal behavior such as sticky and disturbed chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase, c-metaphase, bridges, laggard, disturbed telophase, and vacuolated nucleus were also observed.

  16. Cytogenetic effects of three commercially formulated pesticides on somatic and germ cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchy, Aashiq H; Wani, Aijaz A; Kamili, Azra N

    2016-04-01

    Cytological effects of Endosri-ES (endosulfan), Nuvan-NU (dichlorvos), and Kvistin-KS (carbendazim) were evaluated on mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa. Test concentrations were chosen by calculating EC50 values of formulated ES, NU, and KS, which turned to be 60, 200, and 500 ppm (parts per million), respectively. Cytological studies were undertaken on root meristem cells of A. cepa using EC50, 1/2 × EC50, and 2 × EC50 of these pesticides for 24 and 48 h. Similarly, a meiotic study was conducted by applying the pesticides at the aforesaid concentrations from seedling to bud stage. A set of onion bulbs exposed to tap water was run parallel for negative control and maleic hydrazide (112.09 ppm) as positive control. During the study period, mitotic index (MI) decreased at all the pesticide concentrations compared to the negative control. Among various chromosomal aberrations, chromatin bridges, breaks, stickiness, laggard, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, C-mitosis, multipolarity, ring chromosome as well as micronuclei were observed in mitotic preparations. In contrast, meiotic aberrations revealed comparatively less frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the most frequent were lagging chromosome, stray bivalents, secondary association, chromatin bridge, disturbed anaphase, and stickiness. Comparative analysis of the pesticides showed that NU was highly toxic to plant cells than KS, while as ES showed intermediate effects between the two. Further, our study revealed that all the three pesticides produce genotoxic effects which can cause health risks to the human populations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles to Structure and Metabolic Activity of Allium cepa Root Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fei; Wang, Shuling; Xin, Hua

    2016-11-01

    Roots of Allium cepa were exposed to six CuO NPs suspensions (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mg L(-1)) in this study. Results revealed that with the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the Cu content in roots increased significantly. Compared to control, onion roots treated with CuO NPs (except 5 mg L(-1) suspension) grew slowly after 24 h. The surface of the root cap and meristematic zone were obviously damaged. The apical meristem of roots treated by 10 mg L(-1) and above concentrations stopped division. The nucleus of meristematic cells deformed, and nucleoli number increased. The plasmolysis occurred, and the cell membrane and nuclear membrane fractured. With the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the MDA content increased, and the root activity decreased. When dealt with 80 mg L(-1) CuO NPs for 72 h, onion roots appeared to be corroded.

  18. Toxicity of silver ions and differently coated silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Milošić, Anita; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Tolić, Sonja; Peharec Štefanić, Petra; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Tkalec, Mirta; Balen, Biljana

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs. In this study we investigated the toxicity of AgNO3 and three types of laboratory-synthesized AgNPs with different surface coatings [citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] on Allium cepa roots. Ionic form of Ag was confirmed to be more toxic than any of the AgNPs applied. All tested AgNPs caused oxidative stress and exhibited toxicity only when applied in higher concentrations. The highest toxicity was recorded for AgNPs-CTAB, which resulted with increased Ag uptake in the roots, consequently leading to strong reduction of the root growth and oxidative damage. The weakest impact was found for AgNPs-citrate, much bigger, negatively charged NPs, which also aggregated to larger particles. Therefore, we can conclude that the toxicity of AgNPs is directly correlated with their size, overall surface charge and/or surface coating.

  19. Genotoxicity of sulcotrione pesticide and photoproducts on Allium cepa root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Eric; Sta, Chaima; Trivella, Aurélien; Goupil, Pascale; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by toxic agents in the environment has become matters of concern to agricultural countries. Sulcotrione, a triketone herbicide used to control dicotyledonous weeds in maize culture is rapidly photolyzed on plant foliage and generate two main photoproducts the xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulfonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA). The aim of this study was to analyze the potential toxicity of the herbicide and the irradiated herbicide cocktail. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione were investigated in Allium cepa test. The sulcotrione irradiation was monitored under sunlight simulated conditions to reach 50% of phototransformation. Concentrations of sulcotrione in the range 5 × 10(-)(9)-5 × 10(-)(5)M were tested. Cytological analysis of root tips cells showed that both non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione caused a dose-dependent decrease of mitotic index with higher cytotoxicity for the irradiated herbicide which can lead to 24.2% reduction of mitotic index compared to water control. Concomitantly, chromosomal aberrations were observed in A.cepa root meristems. Both non irradiated sulcotrione and irradiated sulcotrione induced a dose-dependent increase of chromosomal abnormalities frequencies to a maximal value of 33.7%. A saturating effect in anomaly frequencies was observed in meristems treated with high concentrations of non irradiated sulcotrione only. These data suggest that photolyzed sulcotrione cocktail have a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule and question about the impact of photochemical process on environment.

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  1. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  3. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height.

  4. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum-shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F(2) mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of landfill leachate using plant (Allium cepa) and fish (Leporinus obtusidens) bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; da Silva, Luciano Basso

    2013-11-01

    The disposal of municipal waste in landfills may pose an environmental problem because the product of the decomposition of these residues generates large volumes of leachate, which may present high toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of a sample of untreated leachate in fish (Leporinus obtusidens) and onions (Allium cepa). The leachate was collected in a landfill located in the region of Vale do Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. The fish were exposed to raw leachate, at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 5%, 10% and 20% for 6 days, while the bulbs of A. cepa were exposed to concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% for 48 h. For fish, the concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20% were lethal, thus indicating high toxicity; however, sublethal concentrations (0.5% and 1.0%) showed no genotoxicity by micronucleus test when compared with the control group. In the bioassays involving onions, high toxicity was observed, with significant reduction of root growth and mitotic index in bulbs exposed to the 100% concentration of the leachate. An increase in the frequency of chromosome abnormalities in the A. cepa root cells in anaphase-telophase was observed in accordance with the increase in the concentration of leachate (5%, 10%, 25% and 50%), with values significantly greater than the control, at the highest concentration. The results showed that the leachate contains toxic and genotoxic substances, thus representing a major source of environmental pollution if not handled properly.

  6. [Cytogenetic effects of toxic metal salts on apical meristem cells of Allium cepa L. seed roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, A I; Kaliniak, T B; Blium, Ia B

    2001-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the influence of the salts of Cd, Pb, Ni, Al, Cu and Zn at concentrations 10(-6)-10(-3) M on cytogenetic parameters of Allium cepa apical meristem cells was carried out. It was shown that these metal compounds could induce both the clastogenic and the aneugenic effects (including mitosis and cytokinesis disturbances). Based on ability to cause the chromosome aberrations the metal salts were arranged in such row of genotoxicity: ZnSO4 > Pb(CH3COO)2 > Al(NO3)3 approximately NiSO4 > CdCl2 > CuSO4. The investigated compounds of cadmium, lead, nickel and aluminum were found to be more effective aneugens than clastogens. According to our data NiSO4 had the strongest antimitotic activity (it increased the percentage of chromosome lagging of, multipolar anaphases, C-mitoses in 69.6 times, compared to the control). The ability of other metal salts to induce such abnormalities decreased in the range: CdCl2 > Al(NO3)3 > Pb(CH3COO)2 > CuSO4 > ZnSO4. Increasing of binuclear cells on the slides was revealed after treatment by all tested substances, however Ni sulfate was found as the strongest inducer of cytokinesis abnormalities. Presented results allowed to suggest that cytoskeleton could be a cell target for salts of some metals (especially for NiSO4).

  7. Toxicological Evaluation of Root Methanolic Extract of Strobilanthes heyneanus Nees Using Allium Test

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    Renjana P. K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of methanolic extract of the roots of Strobilanthes heyneanus Nees have been studied on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Roots of A. cepa were exposed to different concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% of the extract for ½, 1, 2 and 3 h. Mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations in the treated cells were analysed. Distilled water has been used as control. Mitotic index val¬ues were decreased with increasing concentrations and longer treatment durations compared to the control (p < 0.05 in dose and time dependent manner. Additionally, different abnormal mitotic figures were observed in all treatments. Among these abnormalities were nuclear and chromosome lesions, anaphase bridges, C-mitosis, pulverization, stathmo-anaphases, diagonal orientation, chromosome fragments etc. The total percentage of aberrations generally increased with increasing concentrations of the extract and longer durations of exposure. The observations of the present study are a clear indication of clastogenic and non-clastogenic property of the extract, which is evident from the direct actions on the chromosomes and manifestation of spindle abnormalities.

  8. Further studies in the influence of phenyl mercury acetate on mitosis in Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielecki, E.

    1977-01-01

    In the present experiments root tips of Allium cepa were treated with 0.0001 to 0.47% aqueous solutions of phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) for 2 to 72 hrs. The observation concerned the frequency of mitoses, disturbances of the mitotic cycle and chromosome injuries. Low concentrations after a short treatment showed a stimulating action, manifesting itself in the increase of the total number of mitoses and of the mitotic activity. The prolongation of the treatment led to an inhibition of the spindle action. The high concentrations inhibited cytokinesis since 2 hrs of treatment giving rise to binucleate cells. In these concentrations besides binucleate cells with diploid nuclei also cells with two tetraploid nuclei were observed. The origin of the latter cells is discussed. The prolongation of the treatment with high concentrations had a mitodepressive action. C-mitosis occurred already after 2 hrs treatment from the concentration 0.1% upwards. With the prolongation of the time of treatment the peak of the c-mitotic activity moved downwards to the lowest concentrations (0.001 and 0.0001%). Lethal changes like stickiness and erosion of chromosomes increased in proportion to the increase of concentration and the time of treatment. The chromosome breaks were observed already after 2 hrs treatment (0.001 to 0.47%) in metaphasee as well as in prometaphase and prophase inside the nuclear membrane. This phenomenon was intensified after treatment with stronger solutions and a longer time of treatment. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning (bleaching) creams on Allium cepa root tip mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udengwu, O S; Chukwujekwu, J C

    2008-09-15

    The Allium test was used to study the cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning creams--Ikb, Tura, Top gel, Dorot and Mililo. These creams are commonly used by some black skinned people (especially the females) as skin lightening (bleaching) agents. The results showed that all the five bleaching creams were mito-depressive in action. They exhibited both chromatoclassic and mitoclassic effects. Their depressive effects were found to increase with duration of treatment. The induced abnormalities included chromosome contraction, spindle breakages, c-metaphase, star anaphase, chromosome stickiness and sticky bridges, precocious chromosome movement as well as endomitosis. It is suggested that since all eukaryotic cells are basically the same, these observed abnormalities could be similar to the effects these chemicals have on human skin when they are applied. Some of these are known to cause alteration in melanin formation as well as the biosynthesis of the enzyme tyrosinase. Furthermore, since certain points on the chromosomes called fragile sites have been implicated in oncogenesis, the observed abnormalities may be part of (or include) the switching on mechanisms of such genes, which could be responsible for the transformation of normal skin cells to malignant cells in those who abuse these creams.

  10. Assessment of genotoxicity of some common food preservatives using Allium cepa L. as a test plant

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    Himadri Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food preservatives play important role in today's food supplies that are used to prolong the self-life of products by protecting them from deterioration caused by micro-organisms. In this study, investigations were carried out to study the impacts of food preservatives like butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, sorbic acid, propyl gallate and sodium nitrate. The effects of these preservatives at concentration of 1000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 2000 ppm, 2500 ppm for 4 h, 8 h and 16 h of exposure period were studied on the root tips of Allium cepa. Cytological studies revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05 inhibition in mitotic index with an increase in concentration of the food preservatives when compared with the control. Most frequent cytological abnormalities observed were bridges, multipolarity, C-mitosis, stickiness and cell death. The total percentages of abnormalities were also increased with increasing concentration and time duration. The abnormalities (% in root system caused by used preservatives were recorded as butylated hydroxytoluene < butylated hydroxyanisole < sodium nitrate < sorbic acid < propyl gallate.

  11. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

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    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  12. Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Guandu River waters in the Allium cepa system

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    Jennifer Vieira Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guandu River is the main source of water supply for the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and has been facing serious environmental problems due to increasing population and industrial pollution, as well as the presence of polluted tributaries. This study analyzed the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the Guandu River’s waters, through the use of the Allium cepa test system. Collection points were chosen at the greatest confluences of pollutant sources. The sampling included two different seasons: the rainy season (January and February and the dry season (June and July. The analyses of 5000 cells per treatment showed that all the points studied had some degree of cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. Two sampling locations, which receive major influxes from the polluted waters of the Poços/Queimados and Cabuçu/Ipiranga Rivers, stood out for the strong presence of micronuclei, sticky chromosomes, mitotic spindle abnormalities, necrotic cells and nucleolar changes compared to the negative control. At least two locations also found changes in the mitotic index. The existence of variations in the number of cytotoxic and genotoxic changes between periods of rain and drought indicates that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the water pollutants varies according to time, depending on the discharges of the tributary rivers and the increase of contaminated effluents. The results highlight the importance of bio-monitoring to assist managers in the control of effluent discharge.

  13. Physiological, anatomical, biochemical, and cytogenetic effects of thiamethoxam treatment on Allium cepa (amaryllidaceae) L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yalçin, Emine; Türkmen, Zafer; Yapar, Kürşad; Sağir, Saffet

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, toxic effects of active substance thiamethoxam of the insecticide Eforia were investigated on Allium cepa L. For this aim, we used the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, frequency of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and mitotic index (MI) as indicators of toxicity. Also, the changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with thiamethoxam were examined. The seeds in all the treatment groups were treated with three different doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) of thiamethoxam for 72 h. The results showed that there were significant alterations in the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, MDA level, MN, CAs, and MI frequency depending on application dose in the seeds exposed to thiamethoxam compared to control group. Thiamethoxam treatments significantly reduced the germination percentage, root length, and weight gain in all the treatment groups (P thiamethoxam has a mito-depressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of applied-thiamethoxam (P thiamethoxam significantly enhanced the lipid peroxidation and caused an increase in MDA levels at each dose treatment (P thiamethoxam caused severe toxic effects on A. cepa cells, and the maximum toxic effect was observed at the dose level of 500 mg/kg.

  14. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  15. [Chromosome CPD(PI/DAPI)- and CMA/DAPI-banding patterns in Allium cepa L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E S; Punina, E O; Rodionov, A V

    2002-04-01

    Chromosome banding patterns of Allium cepa L. were obtained by using fluorochrome combinations chromomycin A3 (CMA) + 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), DAPI + actinomycin D (AMD) and propidium iodide (PI) + DAPI. In A. cepa, telomeric heterochromatin displayed dull fluorescence after staining with DAPI and DAPI/AMD. After staining with the GC-specific CMA and AT-specific DAPI, the CMA-positive fluorescence of the NOR region and the telomeric bands of C-heterochromatin was observed. In combination with DAPI, PI, a dye with low AT/GC specificity, produced almost uniform fluorescence of chromosomal arms and heterochromatin, whereas the NOR-adjoining regions displayed bright fluorescence. Denaturation of chromosomal DNA (95 degrees C for 1-3 min) followed by renaturation in the 2 x SSC buffer (37 degrees C, 12 h) altered the chromosome fluorescence patterns: specific PI-positive bands appeared and the contrast of CMA-banding increased. Bright fluorescence of the NOR and adjoining regions was also observed in the case. Three-minute denaturation led also to a bright PI-positive fluorescence of telomeric heterochromatin. The denaturation of chromosomal DNA before staining results in changes of the DAPI fluorescence pattern and in the appearance of DAPI fluorescence in GR-rich NOP regions. The mechanisms underlying the effects of denaturation/renaturation procedures on chromosome banding patterns obtained with different fluorochromes are discussed.

  16. Hazardous phytotoxic nature of cobalt and zinc oxide nanoparticles assessed using Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Seo, Yeong Deuk; Lee, Dae Sung

    2011-02-15

    The increasing use of nanotechnology requires the clarification of the behavior and the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) as they are released into the environment. This study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs using the roots of Allium cepa (onion bulbs) as an indicator organism. The effects of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs on the root elongation, root morphology, and cell morphology of a plant, as well as their adsorption potential, were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with dispersions of the cobalt and zinc oxide NPs having three different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μg ml(-1)). With increasing concentrations of the NPs, the elongation of the roots was severely inhibited by both the cobalt and the zinc oxide NPs as compared to that in the control plant (untreated A. cepa roots). Massive adsorption of cobalt oxide NPs into the root system was responsible for the phytotoxicity. Zinc oxide NPs caused damage because of their severe accumulation in both the cellular and the chromosomal modules, thus signifying their highly hazardous phytotoxic nature.

  17. The importance of sexual and asexual reproduction in the recent evolution of Allium vineale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceplitis, A

    2001-08-01

    In the weedy plant species Allium vineale (wild garlic), individuals may simultaneously produce sexually and asexually derived offspring, by seed and bulbils, respectively. In this study, genetic and genotypic diversity was determined in samples from 14 European A. vineale populations using nuclear (RAPD) and cytoplasmic (PCR-RFLP of cpDNA) markers to investigate the importance of the different reproductive modes. In the whole sample, 77 nuclear multilocus genotypes and four chloroplast haplotypes (chlorotypes) were found. Populations exhibited a high degree of subdivision for nuclear and cytoplasmic markers as estimated from hierarchical F-statistics; at the same time, identical chlorotypes could be found in populations separated by large distances. Genotypic diversity was significantly lower than expected under free recombination in almost all populations, indicating that recruitment into populations is mostly by asexually produced offspring. Nevertheless, within each chlorotype, the distribution of markers from pairs of nuclear loci was incompatible with a purely clonal structure, suggesting that many multilocus genotypes have originated by sexual recombination rather than by mutation within asexual lineages. It is argued that the weedy habit of A. vineale is likely to have favored bulbil reproduction, whereas sexually generated genotypes may have facilitated local adaptation during the species' expansion across Europe.

  18. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  19. Investigations of the capacity and strength of seed germination in Allium victorialis L.

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    Krystyna Winiarczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the strength and energy of seed germination in Allium victorialis. Despite the normal structure of seeds containing a viable embryo and compliance with all International Seed Testing Association recommendations, no germination in A. victorialis was observed. Additionally, the scarification and stratification treatments applied did not improve the dynamics of germination of A. victorialis seeds. Microbiological analyses of soil sampled from natural localities of the plant revealed a typical composition of bacteria and fungi. The high number of fungi [4.5 log10CFU (colony forming units of fungi × g−1 dry mass of soil] and various groups of bacteria (about 7.0 log10CFU of bacteria × g−1 dry mass of soil were detected in the root-free-soil around garlic roots. In the interior of A. victorialis roots, the number of microorganisms decreased 1000 to 10 000 times but all the tested microbial groups, especially copiotrophic bacteria and fungi (1.6 and 2.2, respectively, log10CFU × g−1 dry mass of roots were detected. Changes in such parameters as dehydrogenase activity, pH values, and the total organic C (TOC content in the particular parts of the rhizosphere and in comparison to the rhizosphere with root-free-soil were observed. The dehydrogenase activity and TOC content were highly positively correlated with the total number of CFU of the microorganisms.

  20. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species. PMID:25987765

  1. Overcoming seed dormancy of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium) through cold stratification, gibberellic acid, and acid scarification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Dashti; Hojat Ghahremani-Majd; Mahmood Esna-Ashari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) is bulbous perennial herb widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry in Iran.We studied germination of mooseer seeds in two separate experiments.In the first experiment,we evaluated four treatments:sulfuric acid scarification,sandpaper scarification,cold stratification,and gibberellic acid (GA3)application.In the second experiment,we evaluated combinations of these treatments.All treatments in the first experiment had no effect on seed germination,suggesting that mooseer seeds have physical and physiological dormancy.In the second experiment,the highest germination percentage (86.6%) was observed after five minutes scarification with sulfuric acid (75% v/v),followed by 60 days of cold stratification.Duration of sulfuric acid scarification (5,10,and 20 min) did not affect germination rates,but increasing duration of cold stratification (from 15to 60 days),increased germination from 28.3% to 86.6%.Our study showed that mooseer seeds have both physical and physiological dormancy.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of commercial rice wine extracts of Taiwanese Allium fistulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsan-Chang; Jang, Hung-Der; Lin, Wang-De; Duan, Peng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of commercial rice wine extracts obtained from different plant parts of Allium fistulosum were assayed. The results showed that commercial rice wine extracts of A. fistulosum contained 28.3-95.9 μL/mL allicin and exhibited significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity ranged from 90.2% to 52.1%, and the IC50 value ranged from 14.6 to 26.0 μg/mL. The total phenolic content of wine extracts was 56.4-198.9 mg GAE/g extracts. The TEAC assay of extracts ranged from 6.2 to 15.5 mmol/g extracts. Antibacterial activities were tested against 4 bacteria b y using agar disc diffusion and tube dilution tests. All extracts exhibited antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, A. fistulosum wine extracts could be used as natural and functional additives in cooking foods.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTION

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    Dr. Papiya Bigoniya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum L. (Liliacea is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 animal each as vehicle control (2 % tragacanth suspension, standard drug frusemide (20 mg/kg, p.o, and n-butanol extract (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o treated. Urine was collected in a graduated cylinder and its volume was measured for next 5 hr. Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations were measured. Phytochemical analysis of A. sativum n-butanol fraction showed presence of steroids, triterpenoidal saponins and carbohydrates. At 20 mg/kg dose onset of diuresis and total volume of urine formed was significantly (P<0.01-0.05 higher. Fifth hour urine volume at 20 mg/kg dose was 9.3 ml as compared to 5.5 ml of control. Extract at 20 mg/kg dose produced 24.57% increase in Na+ excretion against 132.65% increase by frusemide when compared to control signifying natriuretic and aquaretic response. The study confirmed the ethnopharmacological and Ayurvedic use of A. sativum as a diuretic agent.

  4. Clastogenicity of pentachlorophenol, 2,4-D and butachlor evaluated by Allium root tip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Abul Farah, M; Niamat Ali, M; Ahmad, Waseem

    2002-02-15

    The meristematic mitotic cells of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. For assessing genotoxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (butachlor), 50% effective concentration (EC(50)), c-mitosis, stickiness, chromosome breaks and mitotic index (MI) were used as endpoints of genotoxicity. EC(50) values for PCP and butachlor are 0.73 and 5.13 ppm, respectively. 2,4-D evidently induced morphological changes at higher concentrations. Some changes like crochet hooks, c-tumours and broken roots were unique to 2,4-D at 5-20 ppm. No such abnormalities were found in PCP and butachlor treated groups, however, root deteriorated and degenerated at higher concentrations (butachlor it was recorded 71.6%, which is near to the control value. All chemicals induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant level. The highest chromosome aberration frequency (11.90%) was recorded in PCP at 3 ppm. Large number of c-mitotic anaphases indicated that butachlor acts as potent spindle inhibitor, whereas, breaks, bridges, stickiness and laggards were most frequently found in PCP showing that it is a potent clastogen.

  5. The effectiveness evaluation of indigenous microorganism (IMO preparations in the growth of onion (Allium cepa L.

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    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done at the Credit and Services Cooperative (CCS “Juan de Mata Reyes”, in Pedro Betancourt municipality, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microorganisms (IMO preparations on the growth of onion (Allium cepa L., variety Texas Early Grano. Five treatments were studied (control, a 2 mL.m2 treatment before transplantion, a 4 mL.m2 treatment before transplantation, and both 2 and 4 mL.m2 treatments 20 days after transplantion. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design. The professional statistical pack STATISTICA, version 6.0 for WINDOWS was used for data processing. The results were statistically processed using simple analysis of variance and the Duncan´s multiple comparison Test for media with a level of significance of pd”0.05. The native microorganisms in the preparations were characterized. 60 days after transplantation, the parameters height of plant, number of leaves and diameter of the false stem were evaluated; and at harvest time, the total yield (t.ha-1 and the number of bulbs in diameter category were determined. The best results concerning the height of the plant (cm, diameter of false stem (mm and total yield (t.ha-1.were obtained with the preparation of 2 mL.m2 at the moment of transplantion, and 20 days after the application.

  6. Bactericidal Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic Against Multidrug Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 Epidemic Strains

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    Pramod Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emerging trend of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae associated with cholera epidemics is a matter of serious concern for the management of the disease. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics generally results in selection of antibiotic resistant strains. Introduction of newer antibiotics is a challenging task for the researchers as bacteria soon attain resistance. Therefore, identifying natural compounds of medicinal importance for control of cholera would be the best alternative. Garlic (Allium sativum was recognised for many centuries in early Chinese, Egyptian and Indian civilisations as an herbal or traditional medicine. In present study, garlic was selected for screening of antimicrobial efficacy against V. cholerae. A total of 55 V. cholerae strains isolated from various outbreaks/epidemics were subjected to antimicrobial testing as per CLSI, USA 2010 guidelines. Antimicrobial screening of garlic extract was performed against all the multidrug resistant strains of V. cholerae. The garlic extracts showed antibacterial activity against all the V. cholerae strains tested, irrespective of their origin, multidrug resistance and virulence. Antibacterial efficacy of garlic on V. cholerae was also evident from in vivo study on sealed adult mice model. Thus, the Garlic extract harnesses the potential to control infection of multidrug resistant V. cholerae, especially in outbreak like situations in remote and under developed areas where drug supply itself is a challenge

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

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    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  8. Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos mediated genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

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    Sibhghatulla Shaikh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are direct recipients of agro – toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. The meristematic mitotic cell of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. Onion root tips were grown on moistened filter paper in petri dish at room temperature. Germinated root tips were then exposed to three concentrations of each pesticide for 24 h. About 1 – 2 mm length of root tip was cut, fixed in cornoy’s fixative, hydrolyzed in warm 1 N HCL, stained with acetocarmine and squashed on glass slide. About 3000 cells were scored and classified into interphase and normal or aberrant division stage. Cytotoxicity was determined by comparing the mitotic index (MI of treated cells with that of the negative control. The MI of cells treated with Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos at one or more concentration was half or less than that of control are said to be cytotoxic. Genotoxicity was measured by comparing the number of cells/1000 in aberrant division stages at each dose with the negative control using Mann – Whitney U test. Both Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos are genotoxic at higher concentrations i.e. 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.028%, 0.056% inducing chromosome fragment, chromosome lagging and bridges, stick chromosome and multipolar anaphase.

  9. ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE OF GARLIC (Allium sativum ON GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOPARASITES OF SHEEP- SHORT COMMUNICATION

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    Fernanda Carlini Cunha Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuous and indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has caused a growing problem of parasite resistance to conventional treatments. In this context, plant essential oils and active components can be used as alternatives or in association with current anthel¬mintic treatment. Garlic (Allium sativum is a herbal medicine with various therapeutic properties: immunostimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic alcoholic tincture on gastrointestinal endoparasites of sheep. For this, 54 sheep were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment 1 (T1 received 40 g of garlic alcoholic tincture orally; treatment 2 (T2 received 60 g orally; T3 was the control group. Fecal samples were collected at days 0, 7 and 14, to perform laboratorial tests. Reduction of eggs per gram of feces in T1 and T2 was 0% on days 7 and 14. No difference in larvae genus was identified between treatments or days. In this experiment garlic alcoholic tincture presented no effect on gastrointestinal endoparasites of sheep.

  10. A comparative study of the neutral and acidic polysaccharides from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanjun; Wang, Fuhua; Wang, Mingchun; Ma, Liping; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-03-06

    Neutral and acidic polysaccharides, named AMP40N and AMP40S respectively, were isolated and purified from the dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge. Both of them showed a single and symmetrically sharp peak, indicating they were homogeneous polysaccharides. Molecular weights of AMP40N and AMP40S were determined to be 18.2 and 105.1 kDa, respectively. AMP40N was composed of arabinose and glucose, while AMP40S was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose and a certain amount of uronic acid. FT-IR, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation and GC-MS analysis revealed that non-reducing terminal and →2,6)-Glc-(1→ existed in AMP40N and AMP40S. The glycosidic linkage of arabinose in AMP40N was →2)-Ara-(1→, whereas it was Ara-(1→ in AMP40S. AMP40S had (1→2)-linked l-rhamnose residue. Both AMP40N and AMP40S exhibited strong anti-tumor potential against human gastric carcinoma cells BGC-823, in particular, AMP40S presented significantly higher inhibitory rate of 85.94% than AMP40N of 52.63%.

  11. Metabonomic analysis of Allium macrostemon Bunge as a treatment for acute myocardial ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Xu, Qian; Zheng, Ting; Huang, Fang; Han, Lintao

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) refers to a pathological state of the heart caused by reduced cardiac blood perfusion, which leads to a decreased oxygen supply in the heart and an abnormal myocardial energy metabolism. Acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) has posed a significant health risk for humans. Allium macrostemon Bunge (AMB), a popular traditional Chinese medicine, is used for MI treatment. The therapeutic effects of AMB were assessed and the detailed mechanisms of AMB for AMI treatment were investigated. We characterized the metabonomic variations in rats from the sham surgery, AMI, and AMB-pretreated AMI groups through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Thirty-five metabolites including carbohydrates, a range of amino acids, and organic acids were detected. The (1)H NMR spectra of the rat serum were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Results showed that AMI induced some physiological changes in rats and also led to metabolic disorders related to glycolysis promotion, amino acid metabolism disruption, and other metabolite metabolism perturbation. AMB pretreatment reduced the AMI injury and maintained metabolic balance, possibly by limiting the change in energy metabolism and regulating amino acid metabolism. These findings provide a comprehensive insight on the metabolic response of AMI rats to AMB pretreatment and are important for the use of AMB for AMI therapy.

  12. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation.

  13. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

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    Tülay Aşkin Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS (2⋅10−2 M has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P<.05 inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Inula viscosa leaf extracts with Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşkin Celik, Tülay; Aslantürk, Ozlem Sultan

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (2 * 10(-2) M) has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  15. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

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    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  16. Allium sativum produces terpenes with fungistatic properties in response to infection with Sclerotium cepivorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Mariela; Bottini, Rubén; Burba, José Luis; Piccoli, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated terpene biosynthesis in different tissues (root, protobulb, leaf sheath and blade) of in vitro-grown garlic plants either infected or not (control) with Sclerotium cepivorum, the causative agent of Allium White Rot disease. The terpenes identified by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in infected plants were nerolidol, phytol, squalene, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene, whose levels significantly increased when exposed to the fungus. Consistent with this, an increase in terpene synthase (TPS) activity was measured in infected plants. Among the terpenes identified, nerolidol, α-pinene and terpinolene were the most abundant with antifungal activity against S. cepivorum being assessed in vitro by mycelium growth inhibition. Nerolidol and terpinolene significantly reduced sclerotia production, while α-pinene stimulated it in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to fungal growth inhibition, electron microscopy observations established morphological alterations in the hyphae exposed to terpinolene and nerolidol. Differences in hyphal EtBr uptake suggested that one of the antifungal mechanisms of nerolidol and terpinolene might be disruption of fungal membrane integrity.

  17. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  18. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  19. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  20. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

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    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  1. Inhibition effect on the Allium cepa L. root growth when using hexavalent chromium-doped river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Szymanski, N; Palácio, S M; Módenes, A N; Rizzutto, M A; Silva, F G; Oliveira, A P; Oro, A C P; Martin, N

    2009-06-01

    The effect of Cr(6+) on Allium cepa root length was studied using both clean and polluted river waters. Seven series of Cr(6+)-doped polluted and non-polluted river waters were used to grow onions. Chromium concentration (Cr(6+)) of 4.2 mg L(-1)(EC(50) value), doped in clean river water caused a 50% reduction of root length, while in organically polluted samples similar root growth inhibition occurred at 12.0 mg Cr(6+) L(-1). The results suggested that there was a dislocation to higher values in toxic chromium concentration in polluted river water due to the eutrophization level of river water.

  2. The effects of fungicide benomyl (benlate) on growth and mitosis in onion (Allium cepa L.) root apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, F; Dalgiç, O

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of benomyl, a systemic fungicide were investigated in the mitotic cell division in onion (Allium cepa) root tip cells during germination. For this aim, different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mM) of benomyl solutions were used. All the concentrations used caused several abnormalities in mitotic cell divisions and the mitotic frequency in the onion root tip cells decreased as the concentration of benomyl solution increased. Based on our findings, it is reported that benomyl has some negative effects on mitotic divisions in onion root tip cells.

  3. Alteraciones en las mitosis de raicillas de allium cepa sometidas en un ambiente carente de oxígeno

    OpenAIRE

    de Greiff Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Se hizo un estudio de los efectos causados por un ambiente carente de oxígeno en células meristemáticas de raicillas de Allium cepa, llegándose a comprobar la presencia de alteraciones en el desarrollo de la mitosis y una disminución de la frecuencia mitótica relacionadas con el tiempo de exposición a dicho ambiente. Aunque las causas precisas de estas alteraciones son difíciles de señalar por su complejidad, parece ser que en su desarrollo están implicadas las disfunciones metabólicas ...

  4. Powdery mildew of Allium species caused by Oidiopsis taurica in Brazil Oídio em espécies do gênero Allium, causado por Oidiopsis taurica, no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (Syn. Oidiopsis sicula Scalia was identified as the causal agent of a powdery mildew disease occurring on distinct Allium species in Brazil. This disease was initially observed in plastic house and field-grown garlic (Allium sativum and leek (A. porrum accessions in Brasília (Federal District and in field-grown and greenhouse onion (A. cepa cultivars in Belém do São Francisco (Pernambuco State and Brasília, respectively. Typical symptoms consisted of chlorotic areas on the leaf surface corresponding to a fungal colony. These lesions turned to a brownish color with the progress of the disease. Fungi morphology was similar to that described for O. taurica. Endophytic mycelium emerging through estomata, light pale conidia were dimorphic (lanceolate primary conidia and somewhat cylindrical secondary conidia, fibrosin bodies were absent, conidia formed predominantly single (not in chains, and appressoria were non-lobed. Its sexual stage, Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arnaud, was not observed. Inoculations were performed with the O. taurica isolates from distinct Allium hosts. These isolates were also pathogenic to sweet pepper and tomato, indicating an apparent absence of host specialization. One bunching onion (A. fistulosum accessions was not infected by O. taurica suggesting that this species might carry useful resistance alleles to this pathogen. This is the first formal report of a powdery mildew disease on species of the genus Allium in Brazil. This disease might become important on these vegetable crops especially in hot and dry areas such as those in the Central and Northeast regions of Brazil.O fungo Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (= Oidiopsis sicula Scalia foi identificado como sendo o agente causal de uma nova doença do tipo oídio em alho (Allium sativum, alho porró (A. porrum e cebola (A. cepa no Brasil. Esta doença foi observada tanto em condições de casa de vegetação quanto a campo em Brasília e Pernambuco. O

  5. Conversion of chromosome-specific RAPDs into SCAR-based anchor markers for onion linkage maps and its application to genetic analyses inother Allium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuzaki, S.; Miyazaki, T.; McCallum, J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kik, C.; Yamashita, K.; Tashiro, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of previously developed Allium cepa linkage maps requires the availability of anchor markers for each of the eight chromosomes of shallot (A. cepa L. common group Aggregatum). To this end, eight RAPD markers originating from our previous research were converted into SCAR markers via clon

  6. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the s

  7. Sperm immobilization activity of Allium sativum L. and other plant extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KausikiChakrabarti; SulagnaPal; AsokK.Bhattacharyya

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To identify possible spermicidal agents through screening a number of edible medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity. Methods: Initial screening was made on the basis of ram cauda epididymal sperm immobiliza-tion immediately after addition of extracts. The most potent extract was selected and was evaluated on both ram and human spermatozoa. To unravel its mode of action several sperm functional tests were carried out, namely viability of cells, hypo-osmotic swelling test for membrane integrity and assays of membrane-bound enzyme 5'-nucleotidase and acrosomal marker enzyme acrosin. Results: The crude aqueous extract of the bulb ofAllium sativum L. Showed the most promising results by instant immobilization of the ram epididymal sperm at 0.25 g/mL and human ejaculated sperm at 0.5 g/mL. Sperm immobilizing effects were irreversible and the factor of the extract responsible for immobilization was thermostable up to 90℃. On boiling at 100℃ for 10 minutes, this activity was markedly reduced. Moreover, this extract was able to cause aggregation of ram sperms into small clusters after 30 minutes of incubation at 37℃. However this property was not found in human spermatozoa. More than 50 % reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling occurred in treated sperm as compared with the controls, indicating the possibility of plasma membrane disintegration which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5''-nucleotidase and acrosomal acrosin. Conclusion: The crude aqueous extract of A. Sativum bulb possesses spermicidal activity in vitro. (Asian J Androl 2003 Jun, 5:131-135 )

  8. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

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    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  10. Cytogenetic studies of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Rajeshwari, A; Jadon, Pradeep Singh; Chaudhuri, Gouri; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates the cytogenetic effects of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on the root cells of Allium cepa. The root tip cells of A. cepa were treated with the aqueous dispersions of Cr2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) at five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100μg/mL) for 4hr. The colloidal stability of the nanoparticle suspensions during the exposure period were ascertained by particle size analyses. After 4hr exposure to Cr2O3 NPs, a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) from 35.56% (Control) to 35.26% (0.01μg/mL), 34.64% (0.1μg/mL), 32.73% (1μg/mL), 29.6% (10μg/mL) and 20.92% (100μg/mL) was noted. The optical, fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses demonstrated specific chromosomal aberrations such as-chromosome stickiness, chromosome breaks, laggard chromosome, clumped chromosome, multipolar phases, nuclear notch, and nuclear bud at different exposure concentrations. The concentration-dependent internalization/bio-uptake of Cr2O3 NPs may have contributed to the enhanced production of anti oxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase to counteract the oxidative stress, which in turn resulted in observed chromosomal aberrations and cytogenetic effects. These results suggest that A. cepa root tip assay can be successfully applied for evaluating environmental risk of Cr2O3 NPs over a wide range of concentrations.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, "starch and sucrose metabolism" (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  12. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  13. Cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on root cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamta; Khan, S Sudheer; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2011-06-15

    Increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) in consumer products may enhance its release into the environment. Phytotoxicity study is important to understand its possible environmental impact. Allium cepa (Onion bulb) is the best model organism to study genetic toxicology of nanoparticles. Here we have reported cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on the root cells of A. cepa. The effects of ZnO NPs on the mitotic index (MI), micronuclei index (MN index), chromosomal aberration index, and lipid peroxidation were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with the dispersions of ZnO NPs at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100 μg ml(-1)). With the increasing concentrations of ZnO NPs MI decreased with the increase of pycnotic cells, on the other hand MN and chromosomal aberration index increased. The frequency of micronucleated cells was higher in ZnO NPs treated cells as compared to control (deionized distilled water). The number of cells in each mitotic phase changed upon ZnO NPs treatment. The effect of ZnO NPs on lipid peroxidation as examined by measuring TBARS concentration was evident at all the concentrations compared to bulk ZnO. The TEM image showed internalization of ZnO NPs like particles. SEM image of treated A. cepa demonstrated that the internalized nanoparticles agglomerated depending on the physico-chemical environment inside the cell. Our results demonstrated that ZnO NPs can be a clastogenic/genotoxic and cytotoxic agent. In conclusion, the A. cepa cytogenetic test can be used for the genotoxicity monitoring of novel nanomaterials like ZnO NPs, which is used in many consumer products.

  14. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  15. Effect of refinery waste effluent on tocopherol, carotenoid, phenolics and other antioxidants content in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Masood

    2013-08-01

    Pollution in water used for irrigation is a major cause of stress generation in plant system. Under these stress conditions, reactive oxygen species derived from molecular oxygen can accumulate in plant, resulting in the oxidation of nucleic acids, lipids, chlorophyll and so on. This study was conducted in Allium cepa to analyze the alteration in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants as a consequence of Mathura refinery waste water (MRWW) exposure. The studied antioxidants were glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASC). Their determination was carried out in A. cepa bulbs exposed to different concentrations of MRWW that is 0.25×, 0.5×, 0.75× and 1.0×. A significant increase in the levels of these nonenzymatic antioxidants in onion bulbs upon treatment with MRWW suggested that these can serve as suitable biomarkers of toxicity. The toxicity of waste water was also tested on the level of tocopherol (Toc) and carotenoid (CAR) in onion bulbs, and in both the cases a high level of these metabolites was noticed. Phenolic content of A. cepa after the waste water insult was found to be increased, again a manifestation of adaptation against heavy metal and oxidative stress. It is clear from our findings that GSH, ASC, Toc and CAR in A. cepa system could serve as potential biomarkers for the presence of toxicants like heavy metals and its hazards in MRWW. The test waste water demonstrated profound effects on these parameters which is suggestive of the warrior strategies adopted by the plant system against the pollution-induced stress.

  16. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

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    Amanda L. Gindri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quantified in the roots and leaves infusions by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD, with the mobile phase of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5: acetonitrile at 95:5 (v/v. To the genotoxicity test, onion bulbs were used. After the rootlets germination, each bulb was submitted for 24 h of the individual treatments. Were analyzed 1000 cells per bulb, in a total of 5000 cells per treatment. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of roots infusions induced chromosomes abnormalities, except for the highest, that caused a substantial inhibition in the mitosis, precluding to be observed abnormalities. In the leaves infusions, only the two higher concentrations caused the highest values of damage in the cellular cycle. The oxalic acid also caused abnormalities in the mitosis, and may be considered responsible by part of the genotoxic action of U. baccifera. Conclusions: Oxalic acid can be responsible by part of the chromosomal abnormalities caused by U. baccifera, although, there must have more metabolites that evoke the same effect promoting the genotoxic effect of this nettle.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  18. Cell cycle arrest in antheridial extract-treated root meristems of Allium cepa and Melandrium noctiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszewski, J; Kaźmierczak, A; Polit, J

    1998-01-01

    Previous results have demonstrated that extracts derived from maturing male sex organs of Chara tomentosa are capable of inducing profound structural and functional effects upon M-phase cells in the primary root meristems of Melandrium noctiflorum and Allium cepa. Evident changes produced by a putative factor engaged in morphogenesis of antheridial filaments are manifested by: (1) significant shortening of chromosomes, (2) decreased mitotic indices, and (3) altered proportions estimated for the prophase and telophase transit times. The present image analysis of late G2 phase nuclei in antheridial filaments of C. tomentosa supports the concepts that progressive changes of their functional activities correspond closely to the increasing proportion of condensed chromatin. Cytophotometric measurements of Feulgen-stained cell nuclei in root meristems after a prolonged incubation in antheridial extracts revealed that cells which previously divided asynchronously became preferentially arrested in G1 (M. noctiflorum) and G2 (A. cepa). The stages at which the cells arrest are supposed to counterpart restriction checkpoints that prevent the initiation of DNA synthesis and mitosis. This assumption has been confirmed by autoradiographic studies using 3H-thymidine. In terms of the "Principal Control Points" (PCP) hypothesis, the obtained results suggest that two PCPs regulate G1-->S and G2-->M transition in a nuclear structure-dependent and a species-specific manner. Although in antheridial extract-treated roots of both M. noctiflorum and A. cepa there are only slight changes in the levels of chromatin condensation, the relative proportions of G1- and G2-arrested cells and their nuclear density profiles differ, as compared with the control and carbohydrate-starved plants.

  19. Waterlogging tolerance of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) enhanced by exogenous spermidine and spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Jinn-Chin; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Fang, Denise Yi-Tan; Lai, Yu-Shen

    2009-08-01

    Soil flooding is a seasonal factor that negatively affects plant performance and crop yields. In order to investigate the effects of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) on the waterlogging stress, it was checked that the content of relative water content (RWC), proline, chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA), net photosynthesis, the rate of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radicals (O(2)(-)) generation and the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT) (EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 1.6.4.2) in Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L) plants. Pretreatment with 2 mM of Spd and Spm effectively maintained the balance of water content in plant leaves and roots under flooding stress. In addition, the data indicate that the protective role of proline should be considered minimal, as its accumulation was found to be inversely correlated with tolerance to stress; it also significantly retarded the loss of chlorophyll, enhanced photosynthesis, decreased the rate of O(2)(-) generation and H(2)O(2) content, and prevented flooding-induced lipid peroxidation. Spd and Spm helped to maintain antioxidant enzyme activities under flooding; however, APX activity was found to increase slightly in response to Spm. The antioxidant system, an important component of the water-stress-protective mechanism, can be changed by PAs, which are able to moderate the radical scavenging system and to lessen in this way the oxidative stress. The results suggest that pretreatment with Spd and Spm prevents oxidative damage, and the protective effect of Spd was found to be greater than that of Spm.

  20. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

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    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  1. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum essential oil and ethanol extract

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    Raja Zouari Chekki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish some nutritional properties of garlic cultivated in Tunisia and to evaluate the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activites of its essential oil and ethanol extract. Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum was characterized for moisture, ash and protein contents which were determined as 66%, 1.4% and 5.2% respectively. In addition, Fe (5.90 mg/kg, Cu (1.61 mg/kg, Mg (15 mg/kg and P (140 mg/kg were reported such as the major minerals in garlic. The fat profile of tunisian garlic was conducted, the main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (49.3% and linoleic acid (20.4%. Essential oil obtained from A. sativum was analysed by capillary GCMS. Diallyl disulfide (49.1% and diallyl trisulfide (30.38% were the main components of the five identified components. The phenolic content of The ethanol extract are analysed for its phenolic profiles, colorimetric analysis revealed that the total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents were respectively 43.63 mg GA/g, 13.18 mg quercetin/g and 24.24 mg of catechin/g. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, essential oil presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to its ethanolic extract. IC50 values observed for the essential oil and ethanol extract were 300 μg/ml and 600 µg/ml respectively. The essential oil and ethanol extract from raw garlic were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms. The results showed that ethanol extract was active against all tested strains: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogene, Yersinia enterocolitica and Bacillus cereus.

  2. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

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    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  3. Diallyl trisulfide, a chemopreventive agent from Allium vegetables, inhibits alpha-secretases in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Violet A; Stan, Silvia D

    2017-03-18

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women throughout the course of their lifetime creating a demand for novel prevention strategies against this disease. The Notch signaling pathway is often aberrantly activated in human malignancies including breast cancer. Alpha secretases, including ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease) -10 and -17, are proteases that play a key role in the cleavage of cell surface molecules and subsequent ligand-mediated activation of Notch signaling pathway. High expression levels of ADAM10 and 17 have been clinically associated with a lower disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a bioactive organosulfide found in garlic and other Allium vegetables, on alpha secretases in breast cancer cells. Here we report for the first time that DATS inhibits the expression of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 and estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and in Harvey-ras (H-Ras) transformed MCF10A-H-Ras breast epithelial cells. We also show that DATS induces a dose-dependent reduction in colony formation ability of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, suggesting a long-term effect of DATS on growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we show that DATS inhibits the Notch ligands Jagged-1 and Jagged-2 involved in activation of Notch signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings show that DATS targets Notch pathway components overexpressed in breast cancer tumors and may serve as a functionally relevant bioactive for breast cancer prevention.

  4. Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNear, Jr., David H.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A. (UCIN); (Kentucky)

    2012-12-10

    While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a 'background' of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, Se{sup 0} and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(II) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(II) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg{sup 0} in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

  5. Mutagénesis inducida en microbulbos de Allium sativum L.

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    Adriana Pardo Roldán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un protocolo de mutagénesis en microbulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. clon Boconó cultivado in vitro. Para el efecto se realizaron dos ensayos, uno de radiosensibilidad para establecer la dosimetría apropiada de radiación gamma y otro de mutagénesis para determinar el comportamiento de los materiales hasta la etapa de almacenamiento. En el primero los microbulbos fueron tratados con cuatros dosis de radiación gamma (6, 8, 10 y 12 Krad, más un control. Para establecer la dosis óptima se consideró la sobrevivencia del 50% de los microbulbos (DL50. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En el ensayo mutagénico los microbulbos fueron irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad y almacenados durante 45 días a 10 °C en condiciones de oscuridad En este caso se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos (0, 8 y 10 Krad y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En ambos ensayos, los microbulbos irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad registraron los mayores promedios para peso y diámetro, lo cual permite concluir que estas dosis son adecuadas para favorecer la producción de mutantes con características agronómicas deseables en el clon Boconó

  6. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-20

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension.

  7. Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNear, David H; Afton, Scott E; Caruso, Joseph A

    2012-03-01

    While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a "background" of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO(3)(2-), Se(0) and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(ii) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(ii) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg(0) in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

  8. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  9. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  10. Determination of genotoxic effects of Imazethapyr herbicide in Allium cepa root cells by mitotic activity, chromosome aberration, and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Recep; Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Öztürk, Nur Serap

    2015-02-01

    Imazethapyr (IM) is an imidazolinone herbicide that is currently used for broad-spectrum weed control in soybean and other legume crops. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of IM were investigated by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phases, chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) and DNA damage on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was determined as 20 ppm, and 0.5xEC50, EC50 and 2xEC50 concentrations of IM herbicide were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, 10 mg/L) were used as a negative and positive control, respectively. As A. cepa cell cycle is 24 hours, so, application process was carried out for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. All the applied doses decreased MIs compared to control group and these declines were found to be statistically meaningful. Analysis of the chromosomes showed that 10 ppm IM except for 48 h induced CAs but 40 ppm IM except for 72 h decreased CAs. DNA damage was found significantly higher in 20 and 40 ppm of IM compared to the control in comet assay. These results indicated that IM herbicide exhibits cytotoxic activity but not genotoxic activity (except 10 ppm) and induced DNA damage in a dose dependent manner in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  11. The effect of the humic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L. on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika PISTOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and humic acids and garlic powder (Allium sativum L. combination on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens were studied. A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 3 treatments (n=40. The control group of chickens was fed complete feed mixtures without any additives. Treatment T1 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1% of humic acid. Treatment T2 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1.8% of humic acid and 0.2% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 1999.1±355.8 and 1958.6±201.2 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 in both treatments groups compared to control group. In T1 was weight of gizzard (values in the order of the groups: 34.9±5.2; 43.1±9.4 and 38.9±7.0 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to control group. Carcass weight, weight of heart weight of liver and carcass yield of treatments groups was higher, but differences in these indicators were not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The results of this experiment indicate that humic acids may by an alternative replacement of feed antibiotics.

  12. Testing of the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of metolcarb by using both Ames/Salmonella and Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Recep; Akyil, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Konuk, Muhsin

    2010-08-01

    Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of metolcarb were investigated by both bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9) and Allium cepa root meristematic cells, respectively. Metolcarb was dissolved in DMSO in Ames/Salmonella test system. 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/plate doses of metolcarb were found to be mutagenic S. typhimurium TA98 without S9. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was determined 200 ppm and 0.5xEC50, EC50 and 2xEC50 concentrations of metolcarb were introduced to onion tuber roots and distilled water used as a negative control. Mitotic index (MI), increased in all concentrations compared to control at each exposure time. While disturbed anaphase-telophase, chromosome laggards, stickiness and bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, pro-metaphase, C-mitosis, polyploidy, binuclear cells and disturbed nucleus were observed in other cells. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows, Mann-Whitney test and Duncan's multiple range tests were performed respectively.

  13. Effects of the plant steroidal hormone, 24-epibrassinolide, on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, W M; Keller, G E; Kirkpatrick, J D; Jenkins, R L; Hunsinger, R N; McLaughlin, E W

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the steroidal plant hormone, 24-epibrassinolide (BL), on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips. The classical Allium test was used to gather and quantify data on the rate of root growth, the stages of mitosis, and the number of mitoses in control and BL-treated groups of onions. Low doses of BL (0.005 ppm) nearly doubled the mean root length and the number of mitoses over that of controls. Intermediate doses of BL (0.05 ppm) also produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were significantly greater than those of the controls. The highest dose of BL (0.5 ppm) produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were less than control values, but the differences were not statistically significant. Examination of longitudinally sectioned root tips produced relatively similar results. This study confirms the suppositions of previous authors who have claimed that exogenously applied BL can increase the number of mitoses in plants, but failed to show cytogenetic data. This is the first report detailing the effects of BL on chromosomes and the cell cycle.

  14. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging.

  15. A Study of the Shrinkage Changes and Mathematical Modeling of Garlic (Allium sativumL. During Convective Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativumL. is one of the most important Allium spice. From an economic point of view, the dried garlic slices are valuable products. In this research, garlic slices as a thin layer were dried in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer, under air flow of 1.5 m/s, air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70˚C and slice thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The mean values of shrinkage of garlic slices obtained 69.8%. In addition, the effects of the drying variables on the shrinkage of dried garlic were evaluated. The ANOVA results indicated that the air temperature and slice thickness had no significant effect on final shrinkage of dried garlic slices. In order to derive and select the appropriate shrinkage model, four mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE & RMSE the best model was found to describe the shrinkage behavior of garlic slice.

  16. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini; Marcia Flores da Silva; Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado

    1999-01-01

    A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas), em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM) do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim con...

  17. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  18. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory and antioxidant activities of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Furuta, Shoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-01-01

    In the course of searching for new whitening agents, we have found that the methanol extract of dried skin of Allium cepa shows potent melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) from the methanol extract of dried skin of A. cepa, which inhibited melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells with an IC50 value of 38.8 microM and mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 6.5 microM using L-tyrosine and 48.5 microM using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrates, respectively. In addition, the antioxidant activity of 1 was evaluated in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay; it showed 3.04 micromol Trolox equivalents/mmol. 1 was shown to be a promising ingredient that could be useful for treating hyperpigmentation and for protecting against oxidative stress.

  19. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-28

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

  20. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of sodium propionate, calcium propionate and potassium propionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa

    2008-06-01

    The effects of different treatments with food preservatives, sodium propionate (SP), calcium propionate (CP) and potassium propionate (PP), on the cytology and DNA content of Allium cepa were investigated. Five concentrations of these additives - 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000ppm - were applied for 24, 48, and 72h. All concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root-tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities in test material. Among these abnormalities were C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, binucleated cells, stickiness, laggards, and chromosome breaks. The nuclear DNA contents decreased when compared with control groups.

  1. Alteraciones en las Mitosis de Raicillas de Allium Cepa Sometidas en un Ambiente Carente de Oxígeno

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    de Greiff Sonia

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un estudio de los efectos causados por un ambiente carente de oxígeno en células meristemáticas de raicillas de Allium cepa, llegándose a comprobar la presencia de alteraciones en el desarrollo de la mitosis y una disminución de la frecuencia mitótica relacionadas con el tiempo de exposición a dicho ambiente. Aunque las causas precisas de estas alteraciones son difíciles de señalar por su complejidad, parece ser que en su desarrollo están implicadas las disfunciones metabólicas resultantes de la anaerobiosis, que afectan la producción de ATP de origen citoplasmático y nuclear, necesarios para la realización de la mitosis y otras funciones celulares.

  2. Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOURRAN P. LACERDA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control group and concentration. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. For cells under division, we observed a high number of cells in prophase. Therefore, under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic.

  3. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  4. Effects of water soluble oncostatic fraction from Rheum officinale Baill. rhizomes on Allium cepa root meristem. I. The mitotic activity

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    A. Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the oncostatic extracts from Rheum officinale rhizomes on the activity of meristematic cells from Allium cepa roots were investigated. A statistically significant decrease of the IM value was noted as well as of the total number of mitoses during incubation. The disturbances in the course of mitosis and cytokinesis are described and discussed. The kind of disturbances during postincubation points to damage of the S and G2 phases of the interphase nuclei. Cytochemical and autoradiographic studies demonstrated a diminished intensity of staining of DNA and RNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis during incubation, this leading in tum to a lower intensity of protein staining in postincubation. Disturbances in mitosis and cytokinesis after treatment wth 2,6-dihydroxyantraquinone, supposed to be the antimitotically active compound of the extract, are the same as those produced by the total water soluble fraction.

  5. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties.

  6. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally.

  7. Isolation of bioactive antioxidant compounds from the aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar.typicum Regel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lamia Sakka Rouis-Soussi; Asma El Ayeb; Saoussen Ben Salem; Hichem Ben Jannet; Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant activity of aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. (A. roseumvar.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel.) for the first time, as well as to isolate the main bioactive compounds. Methods: The chloroformic extract ofAllium roseum(A. roseum) and their fractions obtained by subjection to a chromatographic study were tested for their antioxidant activities by using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. An activity-guided purification was conducted to isolate five compounds in pure form where their structures were identified by means of nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Results:The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of chloroformic extract and their fractions fromA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. showed interesting results. The active chloroformic extract afforded five isolated compounds where their structures were identified asβ-sitosterol (1), chrysoeriol (2), luteolin (3), apigenin (4), andβ-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (5). All the compounds were isolated for the first time from theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. The three flavonoids (2–4) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 62.28, 21.26 and 513.42μg/mL, respectively (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and 218.00, 73.50 and 877.66μg/mL, respectively [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay]. An important value of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (2.10 mmol/L) was reported for luteolin (3). Conclusions:These results may suggest that theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. have great potential as a source of a natural preservative ingredient in beneficial for natural health products.

  8. Allium compounds, dipropyl and dimethyl thiosulfinates as antiproliferative and differentiating agents of human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Merhi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Faten Merhi1, Jacques Auger2, Francine Rendu1, Brigitte Bauvois11UMR 7131 UPMC Paris Universitas/CNRS, Groupe Hospitalier Broussais-HEGP, Paris, France; 2University F. Rabelais, IRBI, UPRESA CNRS 6035, Tours, FranceAbstract: Epidemiologic studies support the premise that Allium vegetables may lower the risk of cancers. The beneficial effects appear related to the organosulfur products generated upon processing of Allium. Leukemia cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML display high proliferative capacity and have a reduced capacity of undergoing apoptosis and maturation. Whether the sulfur-containing molecules thiosulfinates (TS, diallyl TS (All2TS, dipropyl TS (Pr2TS and dimethyl TS (Me2TS, are able to exert chemopreventative activity against AML is presently unknown. The present study was an evaluation of proliferation, cytotoxicity, differentiation and secretion of AML cell lines (U937, NB4, HL-60, MonoMac-6 in response to treatment with these TS and their related sulfides (diallylsulfide, diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide. As assessed by flow cytometry, ELISA, gelatin zymogaphy and RT-PCR, we showed that Pr2TS and Me2TS, but not All2TS and sulfides, 1 inhibited cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner and this process was neither due to cytotoxicity nor apoptosis, 2 induced macrophage maturation, and 3 inhibited the levels of secreted MMP-9 (protein and activity and TNF-α protein, without altering mRNA levels. By establishing for the first time that Pr2TS and Me2TS affect proliferation, differentiation and secretion of leukemic cell lines, this study provides the opportunity to explore the potential efficiency of these molecules in AML.Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, thiosulfinate, proliferation, differentiation, matrix metalloproteinase-9

  9. Comparison of the Nutrient and Active Ingredients in Three Kinds of Jinxiang Allium sativum L.%3种金乡大蒜中营养活性成分的含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇; 王文军; 李茜; 杨丹; 孔庆胜

    2016-01-01

    [目的]检测3种金乡大蒜中营养成分和活性物质含量,从化学分子水平探讨不同品种的差异,对于优化种质资源、提升大蒜后期加工利用的品质和附加值具有指导作用。[方法]采用食品化学的常规方法并结合大型仪器检测,测定大蒜中营养成分和活性成分的含量。[结果]基本营养成分可溶性糖、粗脂肪、蛋白质含量,以金乡紫皮蒜最高,金乡白皮蒜次之,独头蒜最少;金乡紫皮蒜维生素C含量最高,独头蒜次之,金乡白皮蒜最少;金乡白皮蒜的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性最高,紫皮蒜次之,独头蒜最差;锗和大蒜素DADS含量则是独头蒜最高。[结论]对于偏重营养成分的利用,金乡紫皮蒜有较大优势;而对于大蒜素和锗的特色保健功能利用,独头蒜有更大优势。%Objective] The research aimed to detect the difference of contents of nutrient and active ingredients in 3 kinds of Jinxiang Allium sa-tivum L.and to explore the differences of different varieties from the chemical molecular level .It performs important functions in optimizing the germplasm resourses and improving the quality additional value of late garlic processing.[Method]The nutrient and active ingredients of 3 kinds of Jinxiang Allium sativum L.were detected by traditional chemical methods and large-scale instruments methods.[Result]In the basic nutrients, such as soluble sugar, crude fat, protein and vitamin C,the Jinxiang purple skin Allium sativum L.had the highest content, the white skin Allium sativum L.took the second place and the single clove Allium sativum L.was the least.In the contents of vitamin C ,the Jinxiang purple skin Alli-um sativum L.had the highest content,the single clove Allium sativum L.took the second place and the white skin Allium sativum L.was the least.While in the activity of catalase(CAT), the Jinxiang white skin Allium sativum L.showed the maximum activity,the purple skin Allium

  10. Absence of mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the Drosophila wing-spot test and Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Laise Rodrigues; Brito, Arian Sandin; Melero, Anna Maria Gouvea de Souza; Zanin, Hudson; Ceragioli, Helder José; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cunha, Kênya Silva; Irazusta, Silvia Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the safety of the carbon nanotubes to human health and the environment, we investigated the potential toxicity and ability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NT), to induce DNA damage by employing the Allium cepa genotoxicity/mutagenicity test and the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. The results demonstrated that NT did not significantly induce genotoxic or mutagenic effects in the Allium cepa test. All concentrations evaluated in the SMART assay showed survival rates higher than 90percent, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity for NT. Furthermore, the various treatments showed no significant increase in the NT mutation and recombination frequencies in mwh/flr(3) genotype compared to respective negative controls, demonstrating the absence of DNA damage caused by NT.

  11. 山东莱州发现三倍体薤白%Discovery of Triploid Allium macrostemon Bunge in Laizhou City of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云; 王艳化; 任晓莉; 张琳丰

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze the karyotype of Allium macrostemon Bunge in Laizhou City of Shandong Province. [Method] The root tip of A.macrostemon was pretreated with 8-hydroxyquinoline solution, fixed, dissociated and stained for preparing the glass slide to reveal the chromosome number via the microscopic examination; the sparse cells with good chromosome morphology were photographed under microscope. [Result] Allium macrostemon Bunge in Laizhou City introduced in this study was triploid; its somatic chromosome number was 24 and karyotype formula was K(2n)=3x=24m(2SAT)+1Bs, thus the karyotype belongs to 1A type. One of the chromosome No. 3 contained satellite, and chromosome deletion may be existed in one of the chromosome No. 5. In addition, B chromosome was observed in some cells. [Conclusion] This introduction of triploid A.macrostemon found in China was the first time.

  12. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p < 0.05. The results showed that the three dyes used under the evaluated doses and exposure times were cytotoxic to the cells of the system-test used. Further cytotoxicity studies should be conducted for additional results and a proper evaluation of the effect of these three dyes on a cellular level.

  13. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    OpenAIRE

    Llana Ruiz-Cabello, M.; Puerto, M.; D Gutiérrez-Praena; Pichardo, S.; A. Jos; Cameán, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesar...

  14. Effects of Lead on the Morphology and Structure of the Nucleolus in the Root Tip Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ze Jiang; Huaning Zhang; Rong Qin; Jinhua Zou; Junran Wang; Qiuyue Shi; Wusheng Jiang; Donghua Liu

    2014-01-01

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1–1...

  15. Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of cells to benzo(a) pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaravdic, Mirsad

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants have been proposed as test organisms for the detection of genotoxic substances in the environment. Several plant test systems are already in use and are found to be as sensitive and reliable as other short-term tests. Allium cepa is one of these plants, which has been used in different studies to detect chromosome aberrations induced by chemicals. The use of non-animal test methods, including in vitro studies, provides importent tools to enhance our understanding of hazardous effect of chemicals, and for predicting these effects in humans. In vitro systems are used principally for screening purposes, and for generating toxicological profiles. Numerous chemicals can generate the breakage or interchange of DNA segments between chromosomal structures. Allium test is used as a screening method for genotoxicity evaluation of different chemical substances, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as representative member of PAHs, were investigated of genotoxicity by using Allium roote chromosomes assay. The treatment with different series of concentrations of BaP, ranging from 1.0-50.0 microg/ml respectively. Used BaP caused decreased in the Mitotic index (MI) and increase frequency of abnormal mitosis when compared with the control.

  16. 大葱壮阳作用研究%Study on Strengthening Yang of Allium fistulosum (L.) var.giganteum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨尚军; 张秀芹; 李胜; 王燕; 杨丙生; 白少岩; 高德海; 姚庆强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Allium fistulosum (L.) var.giganteum extracts on the organ indexes and histopathology changes of seminal vesicle, prostate and levator ani in castrated male rats. Methods 10 out of 60 male rats were used as the normal control. The other 50 male rats were castrated and divided into 5 groups. The groups were:(1) the castration model group, given distilled water 10 mL/kg. (2)-(4) the high, middle and low dose group, given 40 g/kg, 20 g/kg and 10 g/kg (crude drug)of Allium fistulosum (L.) var.giganteum extracts once a day for 4 weeks, respectively. (5) the positive group, given testosterone propionate injection (2 mg/kg) 0.2 mL subcutaneously, 5 days a week from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Rats of all groups were weighed and sacrificed 24 hours after stopping dosing. The weights of seminal vesicle, prostate and levator ani were messured and the organ indexes were figured out and compared to that of the castration model group using T-test. Finally, histopathology examination of seminal vesicle, prostate and levator ani were carried out. Results 40 g/kg, 20 g/kg and 10 g/kg of Allium fistulosum (L.) var.giganteum have no obvious effects on seminal vesicle, prostate and levator ani indexes(P>0.05). 40g/kg and 20g/kg could improve the conditions of prostate and levator ani histologically. 40g/kg could improve the conditions of seminal vesicle histologically. Conclusion Allium fistulosum (L.) var.giganteum extracts could improve the conditions of levator ani, prostate and seminal vesicle histologically. Allium fistulosum (L.) var.giganteum can strengthen yang.%目的:观察大葱提取物对雄性去势大鼠精囊、前列腺及肛提肌脏器指数及病理组织学的影响。方法雄性大鼠60只,取10只作为正常对照,另50只大鼠在戊巴比妥钠麻醉下摘除双侧睾丸,术后次日将大鼠随机分为5组:(1)去势模型组:蒸馏水10mL/kg;(2)~(4)大葱提取物大、中、小剂

  17. Analysis of Allium tuberosum 18S rRNA gene sequence and significance in taxonomy%韭菜18S rRNA基因序列分析和分类学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯进慧; 蔡侃; 樊继强; 孔文刚

    2012-01-01

    通过PCR方法扩增韭菜18S rRNA基因,测序获得1664bp的DNA序列,GenBank登录号是JF509958。将韭菜与GenBank中一些物种的18S rRNA基因序列进行序列对比,结果表明,韭菜18S rRNA基因序列与天门冬目的葱科、石蒜科、天门冬科的物种序列相似度高。通过测序绘制出韭菜18S rRNA二级结构。为韭菜资源在分子水平上的研究奠定了基础。%Allium tuberosum 18S rRNA gene Sequence were amplified with PCR,and a 1664bp DNA sequence were further analyzed.The accession number of the sequence in Genbank is JF509958.The gene sequence of Allium tuberosum 18S rRNA was analyzed with other species in GenBank.The result showed,Allium tuberosum was related to many families within Asparagales,such as Alliaceae,Amaryllidaceae and Asparagaceae.A 2D Radial drawing of Allium tuberosum 18S rRNA sequence was drawn.Reference data for further research of Allium tuberosum in molecular level was provided.

  18. Diversidade genética de cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L. por meio de marcador molecular rapd Genetic diversity of the cultivars of garlic (Allium sativum L. for molecular marker rapd

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    José Hortêncio Mota

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de determinar a diversidade genética entre doze cultivares de alho, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. Foram utilizados seis cultivares nobres e seis cultivares seminobres. A análise de agrupamento das similaridades genéticas foi realizada pelo método UPGMA, gerando um dendrograma utilizando o índice de Jaccard. Houve a formação de dois grupos, sendo o primeiro grupo formado pelas cultivares nobres (Roxo Pérola de Caçador, Chonan, Contestado 12, Caçador 30, Caçador 40 e Quitéria 595, ou seja, cultivares que precisam de vernalização para a formação do bulbo, e um segundo formado pelas cultivares seminobres (Gigante Curitibanos, Gigante Roxo, Gigante Roxão, Gravatá, Amarante e Cateto Roxo ou que não precisam de vernalização para a formação do bulbo. As cultivares nobres e seminobres apresentaram 57,1% e 54,2% de similaridade, respectivamente. Pelos resultados, pode-se concluir que o marcador molecular RAPD foi eficiente em separar dois grupos de cultivares de Allium sativum.The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity among twelve garlic cultivars, with RAPD molecular marker. Six cultivars noble and six cultivars half-noble were tested. The analysis of grouping by genetic similarities was carried out by the method of UPGMA with generated a dendrogram using the Jaccard index. Have the formation of two groups, being the first group formed by the cultivars noble (Roxo Pérola de Caçador, Chonan, Contestado 12, Caçador 30, Caçador 40 and Quitéria 595 those that need vernalization for the formation of the bulb and a second group formed by the cultivars half-noble (Gigante Curitibanos, Gigante Roxo, Gigante Roxão, Gravatá, Amarante and Cateto Roxo which do not need vernalization for formation of the bulb. The cultivars noble and half-noble presented 57,1% and 54,2% of similarity, respectively. The results allowed to conclued that RAPD molecular marker were

  19. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

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    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas, em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim contribuir para o crescimento das raízes de A. cepa expostas às concentrações de 5-aminouracil estudadas. As células meristemáticas da raiz de A. cepa parecem suportar um certo nível de danos não reparados no DNA, os quais não impedem a divisão celular e o conseqüente crescimento dos tecidos. Esta flexibilidade genética do genoma de vegetais deve se constituir numa resposta metabólica adaptativa para sustentar condições ambientais adversas.Cytological preparations of Allium cepa meristematic cells were examined under a light microscope to evaluate the effect of prolonged exposure (at least two-cell cycle to 5-aminouracil (5-AU on mitotic cell division in the roots. The results are a cytological demonstration that a lower concentration of 5-AU than usually employed for synchronizing proliferating cells in A. cepa root meristems induces chromosomal abnormalities and formation of micronucleus but does not fully block the cell flow into mitosis, and that micronucleated cells can proceed in mitosis and contribute to the enhancement of root length values reported by other authors. A. cepa root tip cells seems to support a certain damage level in DNA (around 10% of micronucleated cells in mitosis without having any negative effect on cellular proliferation and growth of the roots. This genetic flexibility of vegetable genomes may permit an attenuation of the adaptative metabolic-response to sustained adverse environmental conditions.

  20. Low Genetic Diversity Among Garlic (Allium sativum L. Accessions Detected Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Escasa Diversidad Genética entre Accesiones de Ajo (Allium sativum L. Detectada Mediante ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD

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    Mario Paredes C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a species of vegetative propagation, showing high morphological diversity. Besides, its clones have specific adaptations to different agroclimatic regions. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 65 garlic clones collected in Chile and introduced from different countries, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fourty random primers of 10 mers generated a total of 398 bands with an 87% of polymorphism. Each primer amplified between two and 20 bands. The size of the fragments obtained fluctuated between 3200 and 369 bp. The results showed that the clones analyzed had a genetic similarity rate of 94%. In addition, 70% of them were clustered in one major group. However, in spite of that situation several clones have different agronomic characteristicsEl ajo (Allium sativum L. es una especie de propagación vegetativa, que presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica. Los clones de esta especie tienen una adaptación específica a diferentes regiones agroclimáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad genética existente en 65 clones de ajos colectados en Chile e introducidos desde diferentes países, utilizando RAPD (ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar. Para esta evaluación se utilizaron 40 partidores de 10-mers. Los partidores generaron entre dos y 20 bandas, observándose un alto número de patrones con bandas múltiples. Los fragmentos generados difieren en su tamaño entre 3.200 y 369 pb. Los partidores generaron 398 bandas, de las cuales un 87% fueron polimórficas. El análisis estadístico realizado detectó una similitud genética alta, de un 94% entre las accesiones evaluadas, donde aproximadamente un 70% de los clones formaron un grupo homogéneo. Sin embargo, este grupo incluye clones que presentan diferentes características agronómicas

  1. Efecto del extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum Effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum

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    E. Argüello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de estimulantes de la germinación de los esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, colocados antes de la implantación del cultivo, son una alternativa de manejo de la enfermedad. Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de los esclerocios del patógeno. Extracto de puerro fue colocado en cajas de Petri con 50 esclerocios, mezclados con 10 g de suelo, a las concentraciones 50, 75 y 100% (extracto en agua. Se determinó la eficiencia sobre la germinación de los esclerocios y la viabilidad de los recuperados, no germinados, ambos a los 30 y 60 días. El extracto de puerro disminuyó el porcentaje de esclerocios recuperados. Con extracto al 100% y 75% germinaron un 32-38,5% y 31,5-35,5%, respectivamente, de los esclerocios en los dos tiempos evaluados, y valores menores se encontraron con extracto al 50%. La viabilidad de los esclerocios recuperados disminuyó entre 66,5 y 54,5%, para el extracto al 100%, y entre 68,5% y 51,5% para el extracto al 75%, a los 30 y 60 días, respectivamente. La supervivencia de los esclerocios disminuyó por la estimulación de la germinación y por la pérdida de viabilidad luego de aplicados los extractos.The use of sclerotial germination stimulants of Sclerotium cepivorum prior to crop planting is an alternative for the management of the disease. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of S. cepivorum. Aqueous leek extract at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100% were placed in Petri dishes containing 50 sclerotia mixed with 10 g soil. Both the efficacy of the extract on sclerotia germination and the viability of recovered ungerminated sclerotia were determined after 30 and 60 days. Leek extract reduced the percentage of recovered sclerotia in all cases. Percentages of germinated sclerotia ranged from 32 to 38.5% and from 31.5% to 35.5% at 100% and 75% extract concentration respectively, at

  2. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

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    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  3. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Amir, Mohd.; Baig, Mohd. Affan; Qureshi, M. Irfan; Ali, Sher; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI) from a plant Allium sativum (garlic) with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials. Methods Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI) was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD) spectroscopy. Results ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max)" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2–12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4–5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10–80°C) but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min) and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM). The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH. Conclusions To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids

  4. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Guatemala, definida por marcadores de ADN

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    Fredy Uber Rosales-Longo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de las poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Gua temala, definida por mar cado res de ADN. En Guatemala es escasa la in for ma ción sobre la diversidad genética de ajo. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: incidir en el mejoramiento de Allium sativum, so bre la base del conocimiento de su variabilidad genética, así mismo, establecer una colección in vi tro de la co lec ción de las poblaciones cultivadas en Guatemala. Los experimentos fueron realizados entre octubre de 2005 y marzo de 2006. La determinación de las variaciones de ADN se realizaron me dian te la téc ni ca de AFLP™. La información se analiza por medio de análisis de componentes principales, análisis de coordenadas principales y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante la inspección de los pro duc tos de AFLP™ y análi sis estadísticos, se detectó una alta variabilidad genética entre los materiales vegetales colectados. Las muestras clasificadas co mo del ti po “Chi leno”, correspondieron a los tipos “Criollo”. Nueve bien diferenciados grupos genéticos se conformaron en un dendrograma y se con fir mó que la diversidad genética descubierta es una función del lugar don de se cul ti van las po bla cio nes de ajo. Se identificó una mayor diversidad genética entre las mues tras de ajo del ti po “Crio llo” que las que se tienen en tre los ma te ria les del ti po “Chileno”, como producto de la mayor dispersión espacial de los primeros. Los materiales genéticos de ajo se encuentran actualmente preservados en un Banco de Germoplasma in vi tro en la Uni dad de Bio tec no lo gía del IC TA.

  5. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

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    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Sulfur Compounds Contents and Antiobesity Properties of Allium hookeri Prepared by Different Drying Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Hye; Kim, Na-Hyun; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Rho, Jung-Rae; Ock, Kwang Ju

    2017-01-01

    Despite the nutritional and medicinal values of Allium hookeri, its unique flavor (onion or garlic taste and smell) coming from sulfur containing compounds limits its usage as functional food. For comparative study, A. hookeri roots were prepared under two different drying conditions, namely, low-temperature drying that minimizes the volatilization of sulfur components and hot-air drying that minimizes the garlic odor and spicy taste of A. hookeri. In GC/MS olfactory system, the odorous chemicals and organosulfur compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were significantly decreased in hot-air drying compared to low-temperature drying. The spiciness and saltiness taste were noticeably reduced, while sourness, sweetness, and umami taste were significantly increased in hot-air dried A. hookeri according to electronic tongue. Although the content of volatile sulfur components was present at lower level, the administration of hot-air dried A. hookeri extract (100 mg/kg p.o.) apparently prevented the body weight gain and improved insulin resistance in C57BL/6J obese mice receiving high fat diet. Results suggested that the hot-air dried A. hookeri possessing better taste and odor might be available as functional crop and bioactive diet supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  7. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

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    Ki Moon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 but not of keratin growth factor (KGF or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1.

  8. Effects of Spent Pot Liner on mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content in meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2012-09-30

    Industrial waste usually contains complex mixtures of mutagenic chemicals. Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a complex solid waste from the aluminum industry, which is composed of organics, fluoride salts, inorganic cyanides, metals, and sodium. Due to the toxicity of these compounds, this study sought to use cytogenetics and flow cytometry to assess the effects of SPL on cell cycle parameters and DNA content in meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of leachates from SPL-soil mixtures were used for the study: 0, 10, and 25%. Roots were collected and analyzed after 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 h of exposure to the above SPL leachates. The results showed an overall mitodepressive effect accompanied by an increased percentage of condensed nuclei and genomic instability as evidenced by the presence of cellular/chromosomal abnormalities. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling revealed nuclei with fragmented DNA, a marker of programmed cell death. This study also addressed the question of reversibility of the effects of SPL and found that 36 h of exposure to 25% SPL seemed to be the point at which the effects on the induction of apoptosis became irreversible.

  9. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  10. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

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    Saray Quintero-Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile.

  11. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  12. Detection of GLV, OYDV and LYSV in potato onion (Allium cepa L.,Aggregatum group) by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qijiang; CHEN Dian; TONG Youli; LI Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Three pairs of primers were designed and synthesized from nucleotide sequences of garlic latent virus (GLV), onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) by using PCR primer design software. The expected fragments about 170 bp,287 bp, and 191 bp were amplified by RT-PCR for GLV, OYDV, and LYSV, respectively in disease-infected plants of potato onion(Allium cepa L., Aggregatum group), but such fragments were not obtained from healthy-looking plants and virus-free seedlings of shoot-tips. The amplified products ofGLV, OYDV and LYSV were cloned into pGEM-T vectors, and transformed into Escherichia coli.JM109. The recombinant plasmids were obtained and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank by performing a NCBI BLAST. The analysis showed that their homology attained 75% toplants was diluted to a series of 10-1 to 10-5 and the detection sensitivity of RT-PCR was 10-4 (about 4 ng). Thus, a method of identification and detection by RT-PCR of GLV, OYDV, and SLYV was established.

  13. Effect of Addition of Allium hookeri on the Quality of Fermented Sausage with Meat from Sulfur Fed Pigs during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun-Yeong; Pyun, Chang-Won; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity (ABTS(+)), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS(+) values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (psausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS(+), total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry.

  14. Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-11-01

    In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment.

  15. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found.

  16. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI½. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway.

  17. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  18. Pre-apoptotic activity of aqueous extracts of Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede on cells of Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyanathan, Neethu Kannan; Thoppil, John Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede is a member of Apocynaceae, seen in dry and rocky areas. The present study highlights the cytotoxic potential of C. sarcomedium mediated by apoptosis on cells of Allium cepa and human red blood cells (RBCs). Cytogenetic changes in A. cepa and in situ visualization of cell death were revealed through acetocarmine and Evans blue staining techniques. Quantitative estimation of cell death was carried out at 600 nm in a spectrophotometer. Membrane characteristics of RBC in response to the treatment were evaluated by May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell membrane damage is a major factor for assessing apoptosis which is observed in the present study (90.91 %). Cell shrinkage, cytoplasmic fragmentation, condensed chromatin and presence of apoptotic bodies were the common cytological changes in A. cepa associated with apoptosis. Blebs in RBC evidenced by SEM revealed the membrane damage potential of the plant. Results obtained hereby suggest that the plant is an effective source to be used in toxicological studies and anti-cancer therapy.

  19. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  20. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flávia de Castro; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; de Lima, Aliny Pereira; Ribeiro, Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa; da Silva, Hugo Delleon; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Ruthenium complexes have attracted much attention as possible building blocks for new transition-metal-based antitumor agents. The present study examines the mitotoxic and clastogenic effects induced in the root tips of Allium cepa by cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate {cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6))} at different exposure durations and concentrations. Correlation tests were performed to determine the effects of the time of exposure and concentration of ruthenium complex on mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration index. A comparison of MI results of cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6)) to those of lead nitrate reveals that the ruthenium complex demonstrates an average mitotic inhibition eightfold higher than lead, with the frequency of cellular abnormalities almost fourfold lower and mitotic aberration threefold lower. A. cepa root cells exposed to a range of ruthenium complex concentrations did not display significant clastogenic effects. Cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate therefore exhibits a remarkable capacity to inhibit mitosis, perhaps by inhibiting DNA synthesis or blocking the cell cycle in the G2 phase. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of this ruthenium complex will be important to define its clinical potential and to contribute to a novel and rational approach to developing a new metal-based drug with antitumor properties complementary to those exhibited by the drugs already in clinical use.

  1. Cytotoxicity of zinc nanoparticles fabricated by Justicia adhatoda L. on root tips of Allium cepa L.--a model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, T C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N; Santosh, T U; Sharath, B S

    2015-06-01

    Zinc nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Justicia adhatoda L. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characteristic absorption peak of the UV spectrum was recorded at 379 nm. The FTIR data revealed the possible biomolecules involved in bioreduction and capping of zinc nanoparticles for efficient stabilization. AFM and HR-TEM images have shown that the size of zinc nanoparticles ranges from 55 to 83 nm and they are spherical in shape. The biogenic zinc nanoparticles were evaluated for their toxic effect on mitotic chromosomes of Allium cepa as a model system. Experiments were conducted in triplicate to assay the effect of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of zinc nanoparticles on mitotic chromosomes at an interval of 6 h duration for 24 h. The investigation revealed that the mitotic index (MI) was decreased with increased concentration of zinc nanoparticles and exposure duration. The results revealed that zinc nanoparticles have induced abnormalities like anaphase bridge formation, diagonal anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky metaphase, laggards, and sticky anaphase at different percentages and times of exposure. It is evident from the observation that mitotic cell division becomes abortive at 100 % treatment of zinc nanoparticles.

  2. Immunolcocalization of actin in intact and DNA—and histone—depleted nuclei and chromosomes of allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANLIHONG; MIAOXING

    1998-01-01

    The presence of actin in eukaryotic nuclei and chromosomes,and especially in higher plant nuclei and chromosomes,has not been well established.We detected actin in meristematic cells of Allium cepa with indirect immunofluorescence technique and observed bright fluorescence in the intact nuclei and chromosomes,indicating that actin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of the higher plant.We labeld sections of the meristematic cells of A.cepa with immunogold technique,gold parti cles were concentrated in condensed chromatin and nucleoli,confirming the results of the immunofluoresence observations.We traeated the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa with DNase I and 2M NaCl and obtained DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chromosomes.Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the DNA-and histonedepleted nuclei and chromosomes reacted positively with the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that actin exists not only in intact nuclei and chromosomes,but also in DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chrmosomes of the plant.In addition,our immuno-fluorescence tests indicate that tropomyosin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa.

  3. DNA topoisomerase II-dependent control of the cell cycle progression in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, Aneta; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Bernasińska, Joanna; Maszewski, Janusz

    2014-03-01

    The catalytic ability of DNA topoisomerases (Topo) to generate short-term DNA breaks allow these enzymes to play crucial functions in managing DNA topology during S-phase replication, transcription, and chromatin-remodelling processes required to achieve commitment for the onset and transition through mitosis. Our experiments on root meristem cells of onion (Allium cepa) were designed to gain insight into the contribution of Topo II to plant-specific progression throughout interphase and mitosis. Irrespective of the position of the cell in interphase, the immunofluorescence of Topo II revealed similar nuclear labelling pattern with well defined signals dispersed in the nucleoplasm and the cortical zone of the nucleolus. Only weak labelling was detected in metaphase and anaphase chromosomes. Experiments with two potent anti-Topo II agents, doxorubicin (DOX, an anthracycline) and a bisdioxopiperazine derivative, ICRF-193, suggest that the inhibition-mediated increase in Topo II immunofluorescence may represent a compensatory mechanism, by which an up-regulated expression of the enzyme tends to counteract the drug-induced loss of indispensable catalytic and relaxation functions. γ-H2AX immunolabelling seems to indicate that both DOX- and ICRF-193-induced alterations in cell cycle progression reflect primarily the activity of the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint. Our findings provide evidence for the plant-specific cell cycle control mechanism induced by Topo II inhibitors under DNA stress conditions.

  4. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izharul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L. were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to 100% effluent concentration showed a reduction in root and shoot length and biomass by 65%, 67%, and 84%, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. A. cepa root tip cells exposed to effluent concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% v/v showed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI from 32 to 11% with respect to control root tip cells (69% indicating effluent induced cytotoxicity. Further, the effluent induced DNA damage as evidenced by the presence of various chromosomal aberrations like stickiness, chromosome loss, anaphase bridge, c-mitosis, tripolar anaphase, vagrant chromosome, and telophase bridge and micronucleated and binucleated cell in A. cepa. Findings of the present study indicate that pulp and paper mill effluents may act as genotoxic and phytotoxic agents in plant model system.

  5. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time.

  6. [Disruption of organization of mitotic microtubules in root meristem cells of Allium cepa induced by chloral hydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, E A; Svetlitskaia, O M; Chentsov, Iu S

    2002-01-01

    Data are presented on the effect of chlorahydrate on microtubule organization in the root meristem of Allium cepa. Our studies show that an incomplete preprophase band commonly appears during G2-prophase transition, yet the major effect is the lack of perinuclear microtubules, leading to inhibition of the prophase spindle formation and transition to C-mitosis. Upon chloralhydrate treatment of metaphase cells, we found cells with chromosomes regularly aligned within the metaphase plate and differently disorganized mitotic spindles. Concurrently, C-metaphase cells with remnants of kinetochore fibers were present. In addition, normal bipolar and abnormal irregular types of chromosome segregation were detected, this representing multipolar and diffuse anaphases. The major difference between them is the presence of polar microtubules during multipolar anaphase, and their lacking during diffuse anaphase. Alternatively, microtubule clusters between segregated groups of chromosomes are typical for cells with diffuse anaphase. During bipolar anaphase, excessive aster-like microtubules emanate from the spindle poles, and in telophase accessory phragmoplasts are observed at the cell periphery. The formation of incomplete phragmoplasts was observed after normal bipolar and abnormal chromosome segregation. We conclude that chloralhydrate may affect the nuclear surface capability to initiate the growth of perinuclear microtubules, thus blocking the prophase spindle formation. It also disturbs the spatial interaction between microtubules, which is crucial for the formation and functioning of various microtubular systems (preprophase band, spindle and phragmoplast).

  7. Cell proliferation in Allium cepa L. meristems under 8-hydroxyquinoline, a chelating agent that affects DNA and RNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, M L; De la Torre, C

    1986-02-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) chelates Mg2+ and Mn2+ and, secondarily, affects the activities of DNA and RNA polymerases. The in vivo effect of HQ has been estimated in Allium cepa L. meristems growing under new growth kinetics in the presence of this agent. HQ (at both 5 X 10(-5) M and 10(-4) M) depressed incorporation of [3H]uridine much more effectively than that of [3H]-thymidine. Cycle kinetics in meristems behaved as if they were independent of the rates of synthesis or accumulation of RNA since, under HQ, cycle time was only moderately modified and the new cycle kinetics achieved could be explained by the new rates of [3H]thymidine incorporation. Lengthened S periods were partially compensated for by shortened G2 phases, suggesting that, in these cells, both the growth cycle and its coupling with the DNA-division cycle were not disturbed by a decreased amount of RNA. Finally, the nucleolar cycle during mitosis, but not the interphase nucleolus, was modified under the new rates of RNA synthesis.

  8. The Anti-Inflammatory and Vasodilating Effects of Three Selected Dietary Organic Sulfur Compounds from Allium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Chen; Wu, Wen-Shiann; Shieh, Ja-Ping; Chu, Heuy-Ling; Lee, Chia-Pu; Duh, Pin-Der

    2017-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and vasodilating effects of three selected dietary organic sulfur compounds (OSC), including diallyl disulfide (DADS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and propyl disulfide (PDS), from Allium species were investigated. In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, the three OSC demonstrated significant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in activated RAW 264.7 cells was inhibited by the three OSC, indicating that the three OSC prevented the LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. For the vasodilative assay, the three OSC were ineffective in producing NO in SVEC4-10 cells, but they did enhance prostacyclin (PGI2) production. The expression of COX-2 in SVEC4-10 cells was activated by DADS and DMDS. Pretreatment of SVEC4-10 cells with the three OSC decreased ROS generation in H2O2-induced SVEC4-10 cells. In addition, the three OSC significantly inhibited angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE). The up-regulation of PGI2 production and COX-2 expression by DADS and DMDS and the reduction of ROS generation by DADS, DMDS, and PDS in SVEC4-10 cells contributed to the vasodilative effect of the three OSC. Collectively, these findings suggest that DADS, DMDS, and PDS are potential anti-inflammatory and vasodilative mediators. PMID:28134777

  9. Purification, amino acid sequence, and cDNA cloning of trypsin inhibitors from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Masanobu; Watanabe, Akira; Suematsu, Keiko; Hatano, Maki; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2003-08-01

    Three protease inhibitors (OTI-1-3) have been purified from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Molecular masses of these inhibitors were found to be 7,370.2, 7,472.2, and 7,642.6 Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. Based on amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence, OTI-1 and -2 are the N-terminal truncated proteins of OTI-3. All the inhibitors are stable to heat and extreme pH. OTI-3 inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasmin with dissociation constants of 1.3 x 10(-9) M, 2.3 x 10(-7) M, and 3.1 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The complete amino acid sequence of OTI-3 showed a significant homology to Bowman-Birk family inhibitors, and the first reactive site (P1) was found to be Arg17 by limited proteolysis by trypsin. The second reactive site (P1) was estimated to be Leu46, that may inhibit chymotrypsin. OTI-3 lacks an S-S bond near the second reactive site, resulting in a low affinity for the enzyme. The sequence of OTI-3 was also ascertained by the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a 101-residue precursor of the onion inhibitor.

  10. Nuclear lamina—like filaments and nuclear matrix in allium cepa as revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOSHUI

    1992-01-01

    In this study,freeze-fractured specimens of allium cepa root tip meristems were examined under the scanning electron microscope(SEM),This technique permitted the visualization of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope with nuclear pore complexes and polyribosomes.Some of the cell nuclei prepared with this procedure had fissures of various widths on their nuclear envelopes through which the nuclear lamina-like filaments(LLF) undernearth the nucleoplasmic side of the envelopes were clearly visible.The diameters of these filaments veried between 25 and 125nm.Many of the LLFs showed granular thickenings at places,and were attached to the inner surface of nuclear envelope in some regions .Similar LLFs were also seen at the peripheries of the freeze-fractured faces of nuclei.Meanwhile,the spatial relation between the nuclear matrix filaments(NMF) and other nuclear structures(nucleoli,chromation and peripheral lamina-like filaments) was revealed in these fractured preparations.In addition,the methods and techniques in studying the nuclear lamina morphology and the roles played by NMFs in activities of various nuclear sturctures were discessed in brief.

  11. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Extracts of Allium sativum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ocimum basilicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Stan; Adriana Popa; Dana Toloman; Teofil-Danut Silipas; Dan Cristian Vodnar

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized by chemical method (coprecipitation) and biological method using aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum),rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and basil (Ocimum basilicum).The influence of plant extract on the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of green synthesized nanoparticles was investigated.The X-ray diffraction studies reveal that all ZnO samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure.The particle size of ZnO NPs estimated by transmission electron microscopy analysis (between 14 and 27 nm) varies depending on the synthesis method of nanoparticles and the type of extracts from the plants used.The functional groups involved in the biosynthetic procedure were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.The presence of Mn2+ ions,Zn vacancy complexes and oxygen vacancies in ZnO samples was highlighted by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.The green synthesized ZnO NPs have shown a good bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains.ZnO NPs synthesized using extracts of the selected plant species have been found to exhibit more enhanced antibacterial and antioxidant activities as compared to chemical ZnO NPs.

  12. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ponmurugan Karuppiah; Shyamkumar Rajaram

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiberofficinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods: The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results: Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions: Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  13. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity of Electronic Waste Leachate from Iloabuchi Electronic Market, Diobu, Rivers State, Nigeria on Allium Cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Babatunde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human and environmental impact of electronic waste is increasing due to its careless disposal. Cytogenotoxicity of electronic waste from Iloabuchi electronic market, Diobu, Rivers State was investigated using the Allium cepa bioassay comprised of the root elongation and chromosome aberration tests. Leachate samples of e-waste analysed were above maximum permissible limits. Toxicity to root growth of A. cepa was evaluated at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% showed root growth inhibition at all concentrations of the samples compared to the control and root growth inhibition was concentration dependent. An effective concentration (EC50 at which root growth amounted to 50 % of control for the sample was 37.5%. Various morphological defects of the onion roots were observed including short, crochet roots, C-tumor roots and severe toxic effects where no growth was observed. In the in vivo genotoxity assay, all samples lowered the frequency of mitotic cells in the meristematic region of the roots at statistically significant levels (P < 0.05 compared to the control and mitotic inhibition was also concentration dependent. There was significant induction of aberrations at all concentrations tested compared to control. The high metal content of the e-waste leachate may be responsible for observed cytotoxicity in A. cepa roots cells.

  15. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adedayo O Ademiluyi; Ganiyu Oboh; Tosin R Owoloye; Oluwaseun J Agbebi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Results: Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues’ malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. Conclusions: These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents.

  16. Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) extract applied as a therapeutic immersion treatment for Neobenedenia sp. management in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, T A; Southgate, P C; Carton, A G; Hutson, K S

    2014-05-01

    Garlic, Allium sativum L., extract administered as a therapeutic bath was shown to have antiparasitic properties towards Neobenedenia sp. (MacCallum) (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). The effect of garlic extract (active component allicin) immersion on Neobenedenia sp. egg development, hatching success, oncomiracidia (larvae) longevity, infection success and juvenile Neobenedenia survival was examined and compared with freshwater and formalin immersion. Garlic extract was found to significantly impede hatching success (5% ± 5%) and oncomiracidia longevity (95% hatching success and mean oncomiracidia longevity of 37 ± 3 h. At much lower allicin concentrations (0.76 and 1.52 μL L(-1)), garlic extract also significantly reduced Neobenedenia infection success of L. calcarifer to 25% ± 4% and 11% ± 4%, respectively, compared with 55% ± 7% in the seawater control. Juvenile Neobenedenia attached to host fish proved to be highly resistant to allicin with 96% surviving 1-h immersion in 10 mL L(-1) (15.2 μL L(-1) allicin) of garlic extract. Allicin-containing garlic extracts show potential for development as a therapy to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the egg and larval stages.

  17. Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Allium ursinum Liophylisate: Impact on Lipoprotein Homeostasis and Cardiac Biomarkers in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann Bombicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation evaluates the capacity of Allium ursinum (wild garlic leaf lyophilisate (WGLL; alliin content: 0.261% to mitigate cardiovascular damage in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: (i cholesterol-free rabbit chow (control; (ii rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol (hypercholesterolemic, HC; (iii rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol + 2% WGLL (hypercholesterolemic treated, HCT; for eight weeks. At the zero- and eight-week time points, echocardiographic measurements were made, along with the determination of basic serum parameters. Following the treatment period, after ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemodynamic parameters were measured using an isolated working heart model. Western blot analyses of heart tissue followed for evaluating protein expression and histochemical study for the atheroma status determination. WGLL treatment mediated increases in fractional shortening; right ventricular function; peak systolic velocity; tricuspidal annular systolic velocity in live animals; along with improved aortic and coronary flow. Western blot analysis revealed WGLL-associated increases in HO-1 protein and decreases in SOD-1 protein production. WGLL-associated decreases were observed in aortic atherosclerotic plaque coverage, plasma ApoB and the activity of LDH and CK (creatine kinase in plasma. Plasma LDL was also significantly reduced. The results clearly demonstrate that WGLL has complex cardioprotective effects, suggesting future strategies for its use in prevention and therapy for atherosclerotic disorders.

  18. Therapeutic competence of dried garlic powder (Allium sativum on biochemical parameters in lead (Pb exposed broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwar Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the therapeutic competence of garlic (Allium sativum in lead (Pb exposed chickens. The experimental birds (n=350 were grouped into T0 (as control, T1, T2, T3 and T4. The birds of group T1 was provided with lead acetate at 100 mg/kg body weight. Group T2 had lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 1% garlic supplement, whereas group T3 was fed with lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 2% garlic supplement, and group T4 had lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 4% garlic supplement. The mean values (mg/dL of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and blood glucose in the birds of group T1 were significantly increased (p<0.01 on day 42 of post-treatment. Elevation of these parameters was suggestive for the pathological involvement of different organs like liver, kidney, muscles. Statistical analysis of variance indicated that lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 2% garlic supplement (T3 resulted significant (p<0.01 ameliorative effect on the biochemical parameters as compared to the group T2 and T4. In conclusion, potency of garlic in reversion of the values of the biochemical properties in Pb exposed chickens was close to the normal levels of the values.

  19. Subcellular localization of cadmium in the root cells of Allium cepa by electron energy loss spectroscopy and cytochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donghua Liu; Ingrid Kottke

    2004-09-01

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium cepa L. exposed to 1 mM and 10 mM cadmium (Cd) for 48 and 72 h was carried out. The results indicated that Cd induced several obvious ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolation, condensed cytoplasm with increased density of the matrix, reduction of mitochondrial cristae, severe plasmolysis and highly condensed nuclear chromatin. Electron dense granules appeared between the cell wall and plasmalemma. In vacuoles, electron dense granules encircled by the membrane were aggregated and formed into larger precipitates, which increase in number and volume as a consequence of excessive Cd exposure. Data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) confirmed that these granules contained Cd and showed that significantly higher level of Cd in vacuoles existed in the vacuolar precipitates of meristematic or cortical parenchyma cells of the differentiating and mature roots treated with 1 mM and 10 mM Cd. High levels of Cd were also observed in the crowded electron dense granules of nucleoli. However, no Cd was found in cell walls or in cells of the vascular cylinder. A positive Gomori-Swift reaction showed that small metallic silver grains were abundantly localized in the vesicles, which were distributed in the cytoplasm along the cell wall.

  20. Occurrence of differential meiotic associations and additional chromosomes in the embryo-sac mother cells of Allium roylei Stearn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Ravinder N. Gohil

    2011-04-01

    A small population of complex translocation heterozygote plants of Allium roylei from the Bani region of Jammu Province was studied for meiosis in the female track. This study resulted in identification of two variants, having embryo-sac mother cells (EMCs) with more than 16 chromosomes. EMCs of the remaining plants invariably had diploid $(2n = 16)$ chromosome complement. Female meiosis, in general, was found to be abnormal, with nearly 23% and 11% chromosomes associating as quadrivalents or trivalents at prophase I and at metaphase I, respectively. This was followed by irregular segregation of chromosomes at anaphase I. Amongst the variants; one had 38% EMCs with eight bivalents plus two small sized chromosomes. Their small size, dispensable nature and tendency to affect the pairing behaviour of normal complement are some of the features that latter chromosomes share with the B chromosomes. Seventeen to nineteen chromosomes were observed in 35% EMCs of other variant; the remaining cells had 16 chromosomes. Chromosomal behaviour in both kind of cells (euploid and aneuploid) was more or less similar. Unlike female meiocytes, male meiocytes analysed earlier of this strain always had 16 chromosomes which paired to form extremely complex associations involving 3–16 chromosomes. The most likely cause of this asynchrony with regards to number of chromosomes involved in multivalent formation seems to be interaction of genes controlling chiasma formation with the different physiological conditions of male and female meiocytes.

  1. Degradation of proteins by enzymes exuded by Allium porrum roots - a potentially important strategy for acquiring organic nitrogen by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Bartosz; Godlewski, Mirosław; Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko

    2009-10-01

    Nitrogen is one of the crucial elements that regulate plant growth and development. It is well-established that plants can acquire nitrogen from soil in the form of low-molecular-mass compounds, namely nitrate and ammonium, but also as amino acids. Nevertheless, nitrogen in the soil occurs mainly as proteins or proteins complexed with other organic compounds. Proteins are believed not to be available to plants. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that plants can actively participate in proteolysis by exudation of proteases by roots and can obtain nitrogen from digested proteins. To gain insight into the process of organic nitrogen acquisition from proteins by leek roots (Allium porrum L. cv. Bartek), casein, bovine serum albumin and oxidized B-chain of insulin were used; their degradation products, after exposure to plant culture medium, were studied using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Casein was degraded to a great extent, but the level of degradation of bovine serum albumin and the B-chain of insulin was lower. Proteases exuded by roots cleaved proteins, releasing low-molecular-mass peptides that can be taken up by roots. Various peptide fragments produced by digestion of the oxidized B-chain of insulin suggested that endopeptidase, but also exopeptidase activity was present. After identification, proteases were similar to cysteine protease from Arabidopsis thaliana. In conclusion, proteases exuded by roots may have great potential in the plant nitrogen nutrition.

  2. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2016-11-26

    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  3. An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Synergy of Garlic (Allium sativum and Utazi (Gongronema latifolium on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eja, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the on-going search for potent and resistance-free antimicrobial medicinal plants, the antimicrobial and synergistic effects of the plants, Allium sativum (E1 and Gongronema latifolium (E2 on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The sensitivities of E. coli and S. aureus to E1 and E2 and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the plant extracts, individually and in combination with themselves, and with ciprofloxacin (CPX and ampicillin (AMP, were tested using standard procedures. E1 and E2 individually showed appreciable antimicrobial effect (zones of inhibition > 16mm. The combination of E1 and E2 against the test organisms was not effective due to antagonism between E1 and E2. E1 or E2 when combined with CPX, completely suppressed the effect of CPX against E. coli, and rather produced additive effect on S. aureus similar to the combination of E2 and AMP against S. aureus, although CPX alone was more effective than either E1 or E2, unlike AMP. Synergism was observed in the combination of E1 and AMP against S. aureus. It is concluded that synergism associated with the combination of medicinal plants is doubtful. However, the synergistic or additive effect between garlic and conventional drugs to some strains of bacteria which are resistant to some conventional drugs, gives hope of fighting drug resistance.

  4. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion.

  5. Accepted 15 March 2012Available online 20 May 2012%Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balaji Meriga; Ramgopal Mopuri; T MuraliKrishna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts ofAllium sativum(A. sativum).Methods:Dried bulbs ofA. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.Results:Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae ofSpodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coliandKlebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity againstCandida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus andCandida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2’-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity(80%-90% of the standard).Conclusions: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy ofA. sativum againstS. litura, a polyphagous insect.

  6. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

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    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  7. Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Fresh and Dried Allium cepa L.%鲜洋葱和干洋葱挥发性化学成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪君; 徐怀德; 米林峰

    2012-01-01

    The volatile compounds from fresh and dried Allium cepa L.were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile composition profiling were analyzed by GC-MS combined with computer-assisted library search.Results showed that a total of 49 types of volatile compounds were identified from the fresh and dried Allium cepa L.30,28,28,25 types of volatile compounds were identified from 4 samples,which accounted for 94.25%,96.01%,83.40% and 86.11% of the total peak areas in four samples.These compounds were mainly sulfur compounds,alcohols,aldehyde,ester and other chemical groups.There was significant difference in volatile compound pattern and their relative contents from fresh and dried Allium cepa L.%采用固相微萃取方法,用气相色谱-质谱联用结合计算机谱图检索,对两个不同品种的鲜洋葱和干洋葱挥发性化学成分进行分析鉴定。结果表明:鲜洋葱和干洋葱样品共鉴定出挥发性成分49种,各样品挥发性成分种类分别为30、28、28种和25种,分别占其色谱流出组分总量的94.25%、96.01%、83.40%和86.11%它们主要是含硫化合物、醇类、醛类和酯类等;干洋葱挥发性成分与新鲜洋葱相比在组成和相对含量都存在着较大差异。

  8. Caracterización de germoplasma de cebollín (Allium cepa var. Aggregatum), en el municipio de Gibara, provincia de Holguín

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert Rodríguez García; Ramón Candelario Núñez Tablada; Vilma López Cruz; María de los Ángeles Ramos Paz

    2010-01-01

    Se colectaron y estudiaron 18 accesiones de cebollín (Allium cepa var Aggregatum) entre los productores del municipio Gibara se plantaron en las fincas de los productores de la CCS Mario Muñoz Gibara. El estudio se realizo en el período comprendido de enero del 2005 a diciembre del 2006, con el objetivo de realizar una caracterización del germoplasma para determinar las variedades existentes en del municipio. Entre los principales resultados obtenidos se identificaron dos variedades en el agr...

  9. The effect of oleander glycosides on the germination of pollen grains and the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-01-01

    The effect of water solution of a mixture of glycosides from oleander (Nerium oleander L.) on the germination of pollen grains and on the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L. has been studied. An inhibition of the germination and of the growth of pollen tubes was observed, proportionally to the concentration of glycosides. The pollen grains of A. cepa are more sensitive. The disturbances in mitosis lead to the formation of two or more uneven-siz...

  10. Geno-toxicity assay of sediment and water samples from the Upper Silesia post-mining areas, Poland by means of Allium-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, S.; Oudalova, A.; Michalik, B.; Dikareva, N.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology & Agroecology RAAS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Genotoxic potential of two environmental compartments (water and sediment) from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB), Poland were evaluated and compared by employing root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The clear genotoxic effect of water and sediment sampled was shown, with an important contribution of severe types of cytogenetic abnormalities. The most biologically relevant pollutants were revealed through multivariate statistical analysis of relationships between biological effects registered and the environment contamination. Overall, results of simultaneous use of conventional monitoring methods and biological tests suggested that contemporary levels of persistent pollutants in post-mining areas of the USCB may enhance the risk both for human health and biological components of natural ecosystems.

  11. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelli de Sousa Leite; Alisson Ferreira Dantas; George Laylson da Silva Oliveira; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; Sidney Gonçalo de Lima; Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó; Rivelilson M. de Freitas; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; José Arimateia Dantas Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuS...

  12. Efeitos agudos dos extratos hidroalcoólicos do alho (Allium sativum L. e do capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf sobre a pressão arterial média de ratos anestesiados Acute effects of Allium sativum L. and Cympobongon citratus (DC Stapf hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Singi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar os efeitos da aplicação aguda endovenosa dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Allium sativum e de Cymbopogon citratus sobre a pressão arterial de ratos. Foram usados Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, anestesiados, traqueostomizados e canulados através da veia jugular e da artéria carótida. Foram injetadas doses de 1 mg dos extratos separadamente e em associação (1mg + 1mg, em volumes de 0,2mL. A pressão arterial média (PAM foi registrada com um sistema Biopac, modelo MP100. O Allium sativum diminuiu a PAM de 124±2 mmHg, no controle, para 108±2 mmHg aos 15s. Da mesma forma, o Cymbopogon citratus diminuiu a PAM de 122±2 mmHg, no controle, para 106± 2 mmHg aos 15s. A associação de ambos também diminuiu a PAM de 126±3 mmHg, no controle, para 113±3 mmHg aos 15s. Os efeitos das duas plantas foram iguais e não foram incrementados quando associadas.This work aimed to verify the effects of acute intravenous applications of Allium sativum and Cymbopogon citratus hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. Adult male rats (Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, were used. The rats were anesthetized, tracheotomy and cannulation of both jugular and carotid were carried out. The injected doses were 1 mg separately as well as the association of both extracts, in volumes of 0,2 mL. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was recorded with a Biopac System, model MP100. The Allium sativum decreased the MAP only from 124±2 mmHg (control to 108±2 mmHg at 15s. The Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 122±2 mmHg (control to 106±2 mmHg after 15s. The 1mg of Allium sativum + 1mg of Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 126±3 mmHg (control to 113±3 mmHg after 15s. The effects of the two plants were the same and were not increased when in association.

  13. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  14. Effects of Cadmium Pollution in Soil on Physiological and Biochemical Index of Allium sativum L.%土壤镉污染对大蒜生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱翌; 杨立杰

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to study the effects of cadmium pollution in soil on physiological and biochemical index of Allium sativum L. and provided reference for the recovery of cadmium pollution in soil. [Method]By setting eleven Cd concentrations from 0.21 to 500 mg/kg in soil and the pot test, ecological corresponding mechanism of plant height, chlorophyll (Chl) content, catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) of Allium sativum L. was analyzed. [Result] The plant height had a strong tolerance to cadmium pollution in soil, while the total chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a content had no significant difference compared with control treatment, except Cd concentration was 500 mg/kg. The high Cd concentration would increase the damage to membrane of Allium sativum L. however with the regulation of physiological mechanism, the damage was gradually decreased.[Conclusion] Allium sativum L. had strong eco-physiological adaptability to Cd contaminated soil and it had potential for recovering Cd contaminated soil.

  15. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus sou

  16. Honey/Chitosan Nanofiber Wound Dressing Enriched with Allium sativum and Cleome droserifolia: Enhanced Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-03-01

    Two natural extracts were loaded within fabricated honey, poly(vinyl alcohol), chitosan nanofibers (HPCS) to develop biocompatible antimicrobial nanofibrous wound dressing. The dried aqueous extract of Cleome droserifolia (CE) and Allium sativum aqueous extract (AE) and their combination were loaded within the HPCS nanofibers in the HPCS-CE, HPCS-AE, and HPCS-AE/CE nanofiber mats, respectively. It was observed that the addition of AE resulted in the least fiber diameter (145 nm), whereas the addition of the AE and CE combination resulted in the least swelling ability and the highest weight loss. In vitro antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed in comparison with the commercial dressing AquacelAg and revealed that the HPCS-AE and HPCS-AE/CE nanofiber mats allowed complete inhibition of S. aureus and the HPCS-AE/CE exhibited mild antibacterial activity against MRSA. A preliminary in vivo study revealed that the developed nanofiber mats enhanced the wound healing process as compared to the untreated control as proved by the enhanced wound closure rates in mice and by the histological examination of the wounds. Moreover, comparison with the commercial dressing Aquacel Ag, the HPCS, and HPCS-AE/CE demonstrated similar effects on the wound healing process, whereas the HPCS/AE allowed an enhanced wound closure rate. Cell culture studies proved the biocompatibility of the developed nanofiber mats in comparison with the commercial Aquacel Ag, which exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. The developed natural nanofiber mats hold potential as promising biocompatible antibacterial wound dressing.

  17. In vitro Antiproliferative and Apoptosis Inducing Effect of Allium atroviolaceum Bulb Extract on Breast, Cervical, and Liver Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Somayeh; Esa, Norhaizan M.; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Hamid, Roslida A.; Pandurangan, Ashok K.; Etemad, Ali; Ismail, Patimah

    2017-01-01

    Natural products are considered potent sources for novel drug discovery and development. The multiple therapeutic effects of natural compounds in traditional medicine motivate us to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of bulb of Allium atroviolaceum in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. The bulb methanol extract of A. atroviolaceum was found to be an active cell proliferation inhibitor at the time and dose dependent manner. Determination of DNA content by flow cytometry demonstrated S and G2/M phase arrest of MCF-7 cell, correlated to Cdk1 downregulation, S phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 which is p53 and Cdk1-dependent, sub-G0 cell cycle arrest in HeLa aligned with Cdk1 downregulation, G0/G1, S, G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 which is p53-dependent. Apoptosis as the mechanism of cell death was confirmed by morphology study, caspases activity assay, as well as apoptosis related gene expression, Bcl-2. Caspase-8, -9, and -3 activity with downregulation of Bcl-2 illustrated occurrence of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in MCF7, while caspase-3 and -8 activity revealed extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, although Bcl-2 downregulated. In HeLa cells, the activity of caspase-9 and -3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 shows intrinsic pathway or mitochondrial pathway, whereas HepG2 shows caspase independent apoptosis. Further, the combination of the extract with tamoxifen against MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 and combination with doxorubicin against HeLa and HeG2 demonstrated synergistic effect in most concentrations, suggests that the bulb of A. atroviolaceum may be useful for the treatment of cancer lonely or in combination with other drugs. PMID:28197098

  18. Incorporation of Allium sativum in yogurt: In vitro study on inhibition of diabetes- and hypertension-associated enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabboo Amirdivani Amirdivani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inclusion of Allium sativum on yogurt formation and subsequent storage (4°C, up to 28 days on proteolysis, microbial activity, the inhibition of a-amylase, a-glucosidase and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE-1 in vitro were investigated. A. sativum-yogurt showed higher rates of pH reduction and increment of TA than plain-yogurt during incubation at 41°C. Highest proteolysis,  on day 7 showed in A. sativum-yogurt (62.7±0.80 mg/mL, which was 2-flod higher than plain yogurt (31.0±0.96 mg/mL. Bacterial counts in A.sativum-yogurt were higher for Lactobacillus spp. but lower for S. thermophillus (p<0.05 compared to those in plain yogurt throughout refrigerated storage. Highest inhibitory activities for α-amylase were recorded on day 14 of storage for A. sativum- and plain-yogurts (IC50= 13.7±1.99and 26.3±2.15mg respectively; p<0.05 and on day 7 for α-glucosidase (IC50= 120.7±22.71 and 192.3±33.24mg respectively; p<0.05. The highest anti-ACE-I activity was observed on day 7 of refrigerated storage with A. sativum-yogurt (IC50=6.9±0.23mg being more potent than plain-yogurt (IC50=9.7±0.12mg; p<0.05. A. sativum-yogurt was not favoured for overall aroma, sourness and bitterness in the sensory evaluations but recorded the same overall preference as plain yogurt. A. sativum enhanced the fermentation of yogurt in favour of the population of Lactobacillus spp, stimulated proteolysis of milk proteins and increased the in vitro inhibition of key enzymes associated with diabetes and hypertension.

  19. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion.

  20. Calcium movement, graviresponsiveness and the structure of columella cells and columella tissues in roots of Allium cepa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. cv. Yellow are differentially responsive to gravity. Long (e.g. 40 mm) roots are strongly graviresponsive, while short (c.g. 4 mm) roots are minimally responsive to gravity. Although columella cells of graviresponsive roots are larger than those of nongraviresponsive roots, they partition their volumes to cellular organelles similarly. The movement of amyloplasts and nuclei in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the rates of organellar redistribution when graviresponsive and nongraviresponsive roots are oriented horizontally. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of longer roots correlates positively with (1) their caps being 9-6 times more voluminous, (2) their columella tissues being 42 times more voluminous, (3) their caps having 15 times more columella cells, and (4) their columella tissues having relative volumes 4.4 times larger than those of shorter, nongraviresponsive roots. Graviresponsive roots that are oriented horizontally are characterized by a strongly polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip from the upper to the lower side, while similarly oriented nongraviresponsive roots exhibit only a minimal polar transport of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that the differential graviresponsiveness of roots of A. cepa is probably not due to either (1) ultrastructural differences in their columella cells, (2) differences in the rates of organellar redistribution when roots are oriented horizontally. Rather, these results indicate the graviresponsiveness may require an extensive columella tissue, which, in turn, may be necessary for polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip.

  1. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure.

  2. Genotoxicity assessment of pulp and paper mill effluent before and after bacterial degradation using Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Raj, Abhay; Lohani, Mohtashim; Satyanarayana, G N V

    2017-02-01

    A lignin peroxidases-producing Serratia liquefaciens was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper (P&P) mill effluent. The treatment led to reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, lignin and phenolic content by 84%, 72%, 61% and 95%, respectively. The effluent detoxification was studied by genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa L. (onion) root tip cells. Genotoxicity studies included measuring mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in root tip cells following treatment with 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v) of effluent. The root tip cells grown in untreated effluent showed a significant decrease in MI from 69% (control) to 32%, 27%, 22% and 11% at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% effluent concentration, respectively. This indicated that the untreated effluent was highly cytotoxic in nature. Further, root tip cells, when treated with different concentrations of effluent showed various CA and NA including c-mitosis, stickiness, chromosome loss, chromosome break, anaphase bridge, multipolar anaphase, vagrant chromosomes, micronucleated and binucleated cells. The MI observed in root tip cells grown in bacterial treated effluents at similar concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100% v/v) showed an increase of 33%, 36%, 42% and 66%. CA showed a substantial decrease and in some instances, complete absence of CA was also observed. The findings suggest that S. liquefaciens culture could be a potential bacterial culture for bioremediation of P&P mill effluent, as it is effective in substantial lowering of pollutants load as well as reduces the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of effluent.

  3. Actividad antioxidante e inhibidora de a-glucosidasa y a-amilasa de tres variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia X. López-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La cebolla (Allium cepa L. ha sido cultivada durante miles de años y es utilizada como un componente importante en la dieta del ser humano. Estudios recientes sugieren que su consumo puede reducir o prevenir problemas de salud como asma, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes, debido a sus efectos antioxidantes. En este estudio se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, la capacidad antiradical y la inhibición de las enzimas α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de extractos acuosos y etanólicos de tres variedades de cebolla (blanca, amarilla y morada. El contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales varió de 6.59 a 9.25 mg/100 g y la actividad antiradical expresada como % DPPH- se encontró entre 20.4% a 39.6% y de 46.8 a 89.2% para los extractos acuosos y etanólicos respectivamente. Todos los extractos etanólicos fueron capaces de inhibir la actividad α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de 58% a 34%% y 33 y 22% respectivamente, mientras que los extractos acuosos fueron menos efectivos. Entre los extractos estudiados, el extracto etanólicos de cebolla morada presenta la mayor concentración de compuestos fenólicos totales y la mayor actividad antiradical e inhibidora de α-glucosidasa. Las diferencias encontradas entre la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y las distintas actividades estudiadas parecen depender del perfil único de compuestos fenólicos que posee cada variedad de cebolla.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of efficient microorganisms and Trichoderma harzianum application on the production of onion plantlets (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the intensive-farming areas of the Cooperative of Credits and Services “Ramón Ruiz del Sol”, in Los Arabos, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the application effects of effective microorganism (EM and Trichoderma harzianum on the main growth indexes of onion seedlings (Allium cepa L. during nursery stage. Six treatments were studied ( control, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2, T. harzianum at 30 g.m-2, Effective Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at the moment of sowing and 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination of the seeds, and T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. 55 days after seed germination, the height of the seedlings, number of leaves per seedlings, diameter of the false stem, root length, as well as the fresh and dry weight of the radical system and the foliate area were evaluated. The results proved that the Effective Microorganisms (EM and T. harzianum application improved the production of quality onion seedlings. The treatment 5 (organic matter 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination had better results in the evaluated variables.

  5. Aislamiento e identificación de patógenos de la estirpe silvestre del ajo (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Astorga-Quirós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del ajo (Allium sativum L. en Costa Rica se podría convertir en una alternativa rentable para la producción y diversificación de los agricultores de hortalizas. Sin embargo, el tipo de reproducción vegetativa que presenta facilita la transmisión y diseminación de enfermedades, lo que provoca un debilitamiento progresivo de los bulbos. Actualmente, se buscan alternativas de manejo diferentes al control químico, para disminuir el impacto ecológico y ambiental de los patógenos que lo afectan. El control biológico es una de ellas, pero presenta dificultades para el aislamiento y la identificación certera de patógenos asociados a pudriciones que se dan en el suelo. Por lo anterior, el objetivo general de esta investigación consistió en aislar e identificar a nivel de especie cepas de Pseudomonas marginalis, Penicillium sp. y Sclerotium cepivorum a partir de material vegetativo de ajo en campo, para su utilización en futuros trabajos de control biológico de estas enfermedades. La metodología seguida permitió aislar e identificar con un alto porcentaje de certeza a P. marginalis, así como obtener cultivos monospóricos de Penicillium sp. y cultivos puros de S. cepivorum. Las técnicas descritas constituyen la base para futuros trabajos relacionados con las fitopatologías en el cultivo del ajo.

  6. Efecto hipotensor del extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas en un modelo experimental in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chaupis-Meza

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar si el extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas tiene igual o mejor efecto hipotensor que el captopril en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio experimental in vivo con ratas machos Holtzman, clasificados en cinco grupos: 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg de extracto de ajo, Captopril de 100 mg/kg y un grupo vehículo. El L-NAME (N- -nitro L-arginina-metil-éster administrado vía intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg desde el inicio del experimento, elevó la presión arterial desde el tercer día. El análisis estadístico consistió en las pruebas T de Student para medias pareadas, ANOVA y comparación múltiple de Scheffe. Resultados. El ajo macerado extraído por un proceso hidroalcohólico durante 18 semanas provocó una disminución de la presión arterial en animales de experimentación. El análisis de los tratamientos sobre la presión arterial media (PAM, obtuvieron diferencias significativas desde el tercer día. La comparación sobre la PAM final versus PAM basal (medias no diferentes y el efecto hipotensor (% fueron: ajo-100 (p=0,008, 59,8%; ajo-500 (p=0,021, 80,6%; ajo-1000 (p=0,034, 88,5%, Captopril (p=0,437, 99,9% y vehículo (p=0,001, 0%. Conclusiones. El ajo macerado a un periodo de 18 semanas resultó eficaz para producir un efecto hipotensor en ratas, inducidas a hipertensión arterial por L-NAME

  7. [Study of volatile organic compounds of fresh allium species using headspace combined with surface-enhanced Raman scattering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Zhang, De-Qing; Liu, Ren-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In order to identify volatile organic compounds of fresh plants at room temperature and avoid sample pretreatment and extractions which can be labor intensive, garlic, Chinese chives and scallion were chopped into pieces. Then some of them were placed in the headspace vial and sealed. The gases were drawn from the vial with a syringe and were injected very slowly into Ag colloids for test using R-3000 portable Raman spectrometer. The spectra of volatile organic compounds of allium species, fresh garlic, Chinese chive and shallot plants were successfully.recorded for the first time. For garlic high intensity bands are present at 307, 399, 569, 711, 1,182, 1,287, 1,397 and 1,622 cm(-1). For Chinese chives the high intensity band is present at 672 cm(-1). Low intensity bands are present at 274, 412, 575, 1,185, 1,289, 1,396, 1,618 cm(-1). For shallot high intensity bands are present at 693 cm(-1). Lower intensity bands are present at 372, 888, 1,023 cm(-1). Low intensity bands are present at 1,088, 1,211 and 1,322 cm(-1). The SERS of diallyl disulfide, allyl methyl sulfide and 1-propanethiol in liquid state and gas state were also obtained. The main volatile organic compound of fresh garlic, Chinese chive and shallot are diallyl disulfide, allyl methyl sulfide and 1-propanethiol respectively, and the volatile organic compound of fresh onion, scallion, shallot and chive are all 1-propanethiol. The presented results illustrate that combining headspace and SERS is a powerful tool for volatile organic compound analysis in fresh plants. The volatile organic compound can be detected in fresh plant samples directly and quickly without extraction.

  8. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economical Analysis of Onion(Allium Cepa L. Production in Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current conventional agricultural systems using intensive energy have to be revitalized through new integrated approaches relying on renewable energy resources, which can allow farmers to stop dependence on fossil resources. The aim of this study was determining the amount of input–output energy used in onion (Allium cepa L. production in Khorasan Razavi province. For this purpose, the data was collected from 55 onion farm workers in Khorasan Razavi. Inquiries were conducted in face-to-face interviews in April-May 2011. Farm workers were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy input was 98479 MJ.ha-1. The share of electricity and nitrogen fertilizer was 50.9 and 14.7%, respectively out of total energy input. The average onion yield under normal conditions was 73227 kg.ha-1 on irrigated farms. The net energy and energy productivity values were estimated to be 18684 MJ.ha-1 and 0.74 kg.MJ-1, respectively, and the ratio of energy output to energy input was found to be 1.19. This indicated an intensive use of input in onion production, which is not parallel to the increase in the final yield. Approximately 77.3% of the total energy input used in onion production was non-renewable (machinery, diesel, fertilizers, chemicals and electricity and only 22.7% was renewable energy form (human labor, manure, water for irrigation, seeds. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of onion production for one hectare was 79262908 Rials. Benefit–cost ratio was calculated as 1.65. Although energy efficiency of onion production in Khorasan Razavi province is low, it is economically justified.

  9. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae e de seu extrato aquoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae, in natura, e do extrato aquoso, frente à Candida albicans (Ca e a Estreptococos do grupo B (EGB. O alho in natura e os extratos aquosos 30% e 170%, foram submetidos à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana usando os métodos de Difusão em Ágar pela técnica do disco e do poço. Os resultados mostraram que o alho, in natura, apresentou halo de inibição de 55,3 ± 2,6 milímetros (mm frente a Ca e de 27,1 ± 2,6 mm frente à EGB, enquanto o halo de inibição do miconazol foi de 24 ± 0,5 mm e o da Penicilina G de 29,8 ± 0,3 mm. O extrato aquoso de alho a 30% não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana frente à Ca e à EGB Já o extrato aquoso de alho a 170% apresentou halo de inibição frente a Ca, de 11,3 ± 0,7 mm na técnica do disco e de 14,5 ± 0,9 mm na técnica do poço, porém não inibiu o crescimento da EGB Conclui-se que o alho in natura apresentou melhor efeito inibitório frente às cepas de Ca e de EGB

  10. Efecto hipotensor del extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas en un modelo experimental in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chaupis-Meza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar si el extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas tiene igual o mejor efecto hipotensor que el captopril en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio experimental in vivo con ratas machos Holtzman, clasificados en cinco grupos: 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg de extracto de ajo, Captopril de 100 mg/kg y un grupo vehículo. El L-NAME (N- -nitro L-arginina-metil-éster administrado vía intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg desde el inicio del experimento, elevó la presión arterial desde el tercer día. El análisis estadístico consistió en las pruebas T de Student para medias pareadas, ANOVA y comparación múltiple de Scheffe. Resultados. El ajo macerado extraído por un proceso hidroalcohólico durante 18 semanas provocó una disminución de la presión arterial en animales de experimentación. El análisis de los tratamientos sobre la presión arterial media (PAM, obtuvieron diferencias significativas desde el tercer día. La comparación sobre la PAM final versus PAM basal (medias no diferentes y el efecto hipotensor (% fueron: ajo-100 (p=0,008, 59,8%; ajo-500 (p=0,021, 80,6%; ajo-1000 (p=0,034, 88,5%, Captopril (p=0,437, 99,9% y vehículo (p=0,001, 0%. Conclusiones. El ajo macerado a un periodo de 18 semanas resultó eficaz para producir un efecto hipotensor en ratas, inducidas a hipertensión arterial por L-NAME

  11. Efek Rimpang Kunyit (Curcuma longa L. dan Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L. terhadap Sensitivitas Insulin pada Tikus Galur Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Sovia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown the antidiabetic effect of turmeric and garlic. However their mechanism of action remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of three turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and garlic extracts (Allium sativum L., that are, hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract on blood glucose levels with glucose tolerance test. Furthermore the most effective extracts and its active compound (curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine tested with insulin tolerance test. Forty Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups that was normal group, group that treated with a high fat emulsion (control group and remaining groups were treated with a high fat emulsion and turmeric extract 50 mg/kgBW, garlic extract 50 mg/kgBW, curcuminoid 25 mg/kgBW, S-methyl cysteine 25 mg/kgBW, turmeric-garlic extract combination each 25 mg/kgBW and curcuminoid-S-methyl cysteine combination each 12,5 mg/kgBW for 10 days. Insulin resistance was evaluated by insulin tolerance test. This study conducted from August–October 2010 at Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati (SITH Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB. Results of this study showed that insulin tolerance test constanta (KITT were bigger in animals that treated with garlic extract (7.2±0.84, curcuminoid (7.14±0.74 and combination of curcuminoid-S-methyl cysteine (7.46±0.64 compared with positive control group (3.2±1.92. In conclusions garlic extract, curcuminoid and combination of curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine improve insulin sensitivity.

  12. 浸种温度及时间对小根蒜种子发芽的影响%Effects of Soaking Temperature and Soaking Time on Germination of Allium macrostemon Bunge Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄云

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究浸种温度及时间对小根蒜(Allium macrostemon Bunge)种子发芽的影响,确定适合其发芽的温度和用水浸种的时间.[方法]采用普通培养皿发芽法.浸泡温度试验中小根蒜种子在8、14、22、26℃下用蒸馏水浸泡40 min;浸泡时间试验中小根蒜种子分别于22℃下用蒸馏水浸泡10、20、30、40、50、60min,不浸泡种子为对照(CK).[结果]影响小根蒜种子发芽的因素主要是温度.14℃有利于小根蒜种子发芽,低于或高于14℃均不利于其种发芽.浸种20 min以上都能提高小根蒜种子的发芽率,而浸种40 min的小根蒜种子发芽率是最高的.[结论]在14℃下用蒸馏水浸种40 min后小根蒜种子发芽速度最快.%[Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of soaking temperature and soaking time on germination of Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds, and confirm its suitable germination temperature and time. [Method] The common culture dish was used to culture Allium mac-rostemon Bunge seeds. They were soaked 40 min in distilled water under 8, 14, 22, and 26 ℃ in soaking temperature test, and soaked 20, 30, 40, SO, and 60 min under 22℃ in soaking time test, no soaking seeds were chose as control. [Method] The key factor of influencing germination of Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds was temperature. The temperature of 14℃ was in favor of Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds germination , while less than or more than 14℃ were not in favor. Soaking 20 min in distilled water could all improved Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds germination rate, and it was the highest when soaking time was 40 min. [Conclusion] Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds germination rate is the biggest when it is soaking 40 min in distilled water under 14℃.

  13. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of the fructooligosaccharide inulin in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Marin-Morales, M A; Monreal, M T F D; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Oliveira, R J

    2014-02-14

    This study evaluated the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of inulin in a chromosomal aberration assay in cultures of the meristematic cells of Allium cepa. The treatments evaluated were as follows: negative control--seed germination in distilled water; positive control--aqueous solution of methyl methanesulfonate (10 μg/mL MMS); mutagenicity--aqueous solutions of inulin (0.015, 0.15, and 1.50 μg/mL); and antimutagenicity--associations between MMS and the different inulin concentrations. The antimutagenicity protocols established were pre-treatment, simultaneous simple, simultaneous with pre-incubation, and post-treatment. The damage reduction percentage (DR%) was 43.56, 27.77, and 55.92% for the pre-treatment; -31.11, 18.51, and 7.03% for the simultaneous simple; 30.43, 19.12, and 21.11% for the simultaneous with pre-incubation; and 64.07, 42.96, and 53.70% for the post-treatment. The results indicated that the most effective treatment for inhibiting damages caused by MMS was the post-treatment, which was followed by the pre-treatment, suggesting activity by bioantimutagenesis and desmutagenesis. The Allium cepa assay was demonstrated to be a good screening test for this type of activity because it is easy to perform, has a low cost, and shows DR% that is comparable to that reported studies that evaluated the prevention of DNA damage in mammals by inulin.

  14. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  15. Low-dose toxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles fabricated by Swertia chirata on root tips and flower buds of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Nirlipta; Dutta Gupta, S

    2017-02-09

    Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (chem-AgNPs) have been assessed extensively to show adverse effects on plant cells but the role of biologically synthesized nanoparticles (bio-AgNPs) at lower concentrations and their toxicological impact on plant cells have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, bio-AgNPs were prepared using aqueous leaf extracts of Swertia chirata. This AgNPs showed absorption peak at 440nm of the visible spectrum. TEM analysis revealed that the average size of AgNPs were 20nm and mainly spherical in shape. AFM topographic images depicted the three dimensional aspects of AgNPs. XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature. FTIR spectrum of the AgNPs revealed the possible biomolecules involved in bioreduction and efficient stabilization of the particles. Low-dose of bio-AgNPs concentrations (5, 10 and 20μgml(-1)) were used for toxicity studies on Allium cepa. The studies revealed that various chromosomal aberrations were induced in both mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa even at lower concentrations of bio-AgNPs. Abnormalities in post meiotic products were also observed. Both mitotic and meiotic indexes decreased with increasing concentrations of bio-AgNPs in the treated cells. These findings implied that low dose bio-AgNPs can induce significant clastogenic effects on both meristematic and reproductive plant cells.

  16. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  17. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity.

  18. Polyphenols isolated from Allium cepa L. induces apoptosis by suppressing IAP-1 through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in human leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Ho; Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae-Hun; Park, Cheol; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, GonSup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Gi-Young; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as supplementary folk remedy for cancer therapy. Evidence suggests that Allium extracts have anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of A. cepa Linn are not fully elucidated in human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated anti-cancer effects of polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn (PEAL) in human leukemia cells and their mechanisms. PEAL inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptosis was suppressed by caspase 8 and 9 inhibitors. PEAL also up-regulated TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor DR5 and down-regulated survivin and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP-1). We confirmed these findings in other leukemic cells (THP-1, K562 cells). In addition, PEAL suppressed Akt activity and the PEAL-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in Akt-overexpressing U937 cells. In conclusion, our data suggested that PEAL induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in several human leukemic cells including U937 cells. The apoptosis was triggered through extrinsic pathway by up-regulating DR5 modulating as well as through intrinsic pathway by modulating IAP family members. In addition, PEAL induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that PEAL might be useful for the treatment of leukemia.

  19. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp.

  20. Estudo da atividade mutagênica das plantas, Euphorbia milii Des Moulins e Ricinus communis L através do teste de Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli A. da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a mutagenicidade e o grau de toxicidade de duas plantas tóxicas, a "mamona" (Ricinus communis e a "coroa-de-cristo" (Euphorbia milii, utilizando infusões das sementes de mamona e o látex da coroa-de-cristo, em células meristemáticas de Allium cepa. Foram analisados: o índice mitótico (IM, as anomalias do ciclo mitótico (ACM, anomalias interfásicas, (AI e o total de anomalias (TA. As soluções testes foram preparadas em três concentrações: MT1 - 0,5 g/l, MT2 - 1,0 g/l, MT3 - 2,0 g/l, e MT4 como controle. Da coroa-de-cristo extraiu-se o látex e dissolveu-se em água destilada nas concentrações CT1 -0,5 ml/l, CT2 - 1,0 ml/l, CT3 - 2,0 ml/l, e CT4 controle. Os resultados constataram que somente a mamona aumentou a freqüência de anomalias do ciclo mitótico, assim como, as anomalias interfásicas, demonstrando, dessa forma, uma ação tóxica para o material genético, através do teste de Allium cepa.

  1. Genotoxicity of a thiosulfonate compound derived from Allium sp. intended to be used in active food packaging: In vivo comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, Pilar; Puerto, María; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Martín-Cameán, Ana; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

    2016-04-01

    Components of Allium species have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. A commercial Allium sp. extract (Proallium AP(®)), of which the main constituent is propyl thiosulphinate oxide (PTSO), is being used in the development of active food packaging. In previous in vitro genotoxicity studies, PTSO, in the presence of metabolic activation, increased the appearance of micronuclei (MN). We assessed the genotoxicity PTSO in rats following oral administration (doses: 5.5, 17.4, and 55mg/kg). The comet assay in liver and stomach (OECD 489) and the MN assay in bone marrow (OECD 474) were carried out. After necropsy, histopathological examinations of the liver and the stomach were performed. The results revealed no in vivo genotoxicity and the histopathological analysis showed only slight modifications, such as increased glycogen storage in the liver and a degenerative process in stomach, with vacuolization of cell membranes, only at the highest dose. Therefore, the present work confirms that this compound is not genotoxic and could be considered as a natural alternative to synthetic preservatives used in the food packaging industry.

  2. Mutagenic potential of pollutans in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, Tremembé, SP, Brazil, using the Allium cepa test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Barbério

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenicity can be related to chromosomic breaks induced by environmental pollutants. The aim of this research was to characterize the mutagenic potential of the pollutants in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, in Tremembé city, São Paulo State, Brazil, analyzing chromosomal changes in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, in the summer (April and winter (August of 2008. The bulbs were exposed for 72 h to the treatments: water from river, Hoagland solution (negative control and 15 µg/L from MMS – methyl methanesulfonate (positive control. In each treatment, three bulbs were exposed and for each bulb, five slides were prepared. For mitotic index (MI and micronucleus (MN frequency rate, a total of 2,000 cells per root/slide were analyzed and 100 cells for the chromosome aberrations (CA. In April, the pollutants induced a high mutagenic potential in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, the frequency rate of MN, stickiness and CA from non-identified type were greater than the negative control. In August, the only significant change found was the chromosome bridges. There was no significant change for MI. These results indicate that the effluents which have varied sources are inducing harmful effects on the bioindicator, therefore, it is important to keep biomonitoring and adopting effluents control measures. The measures are important because these waters are used primarily for public supply and irrigation.

  3. Sensitivity of Allium and Nicotiana in cellular and acellular comet assays to assess differential genotoxicity of direct and indirect acting mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-05-01

    We have evaluated the extent of DNA damage induced by direct and indirect mutagens by cellular and acellular comet assays in two plant systems, Nicotiana tabacum (wild type tobacco) and Allium cepa (common onion). The objectives of this study were: (1) to generate dose-response curves for DNA migration values from root and shoot nuclei of A. cepa and N. tabacum treated with the direct acting mutagens, ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the indirect acting mutagen, cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), (2) to assess the differential response between isolated nuclei and nuclei of root and shoot and of both plants and (3) to examine the differences of sensitivity between direct and indirect acting mutagens by cellular and acellular comet assays. Similar sensitivities were evident in both plant systems to direct and indirect acting mutagens. The combination of cellular and acellular comet assays provided valuable insight to the mode of action of the genotoxicants used. The data obtained demonstrated the estimable capacity of the two plant systems to evaluate genotoxicity under different stress conditions and suggests Allium is a more desirable test system for rapid monitoring of genotoxicity.

  4. 蚕豆微核技术研究洋葱的抗突变作用%The Research of Anti-mutational Function of Allium cepa L. with the Micronucleus Test Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永燕; 王旭东; 刘瑞祥; 姚沁涛

    2013-01-01

    Vicia faba root tips micronucleus test to study on effect of water extract of Allium cepa L. on micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tips induced by cyclophosphamide, which provided the experimental basis for exploiting the antimutation-function of Allium cepa L. When the concentration of water extract of Allium cepa L. was between 0.1 g/mL and 1.0 g/mL, it did not induce micronucleus rate increases, micronucleus index below 1.5. In addition, it could inhibit the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by cyclophosphamide, and the rate of inhibitation was between 19.79 % and 66.70 %, which was in some relationship with the concentration of water extract of Allium cepa L. r=0.974 5. The result of research indicated that the water extract of Allium cepa L. had some anti-mutation function.%  利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核试验方法研究洋葱提取液对环磷酰胺诱导蚕豆根尖微核率的影响.当洋葱提取液的浓度在0.1 g/mL~1.0 g/mL之间,不诱导蚕豆根尖微核率的增加,其微核指数均低于1.5;此外,洋葱提取液能够有效地抑制环磷酰胺诱导的蚕豆根尖微核率的增加,抑制率在19.59%~66.70%之间,与其浓度之间存在一定的相关性,r=0.9745.结果表明洋葱提取液具有一定的抗突变作用.

  5. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Riffat A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmad, Masood [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: smasood_ahmad@lycos.com

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 {mu}M, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also

  6. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  7. The acceleration of garlic (Allium sativum L ethanolic extract on gingival wound healing process in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Bramanti Ngatidjan Setyo Purwono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L is a medicinal plant traditionally used to relieve pain. Garlic’s active constituents, allicin and triacremonone, have been proven to have antibacterial and antiinflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic ethanolic extract gel in gingival wound healing process of rats. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks with with body weight 200-250 g were subjected in this study. Rats were divided randomly into five groups with six rats in each group. Group I as negative control was given sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC base gel. Group II as positive control was given Benzydamine® gel and Group IV-V were given garlic ethanolic extract gel at dose of 20, 40 and 80%, respectively. Each group was subdivided into two sub groups of three rats according to the decapitation period which were 5th (D-5 and 7th (D-7 day after the garlic extract gel application. Excisional wounds using punch biopsy, 2.5 mm in diameter, were created at the mandibular labial gingiva between right and left incisor teeth of the rats. The garlic extract gel of each preparation dose was then applied on the wound three times a day, starting at 0 day until 7th day. The decapitation was conducted on the D-5 and D-7. Histological slides of wounded tissue were prepared. Epithelial thickness, new blood vessel, and number of fibroblast were examined. The results showed that the epithelial thickness of garlic ethanolic extract gel groups was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05, especially after 5thday application. However, the number of new blood vessels and the amount of fibroblast of those groups were not significantly higher than control group (p>0.05. In conclusion, topical application of garlic ethanolic extract gel accelerates the gingival wound healing process in rats by increasing epithelial thickness.     Keywords: garlic ethanolic extract - gingival wound healing - epithelium thickness

  8. Isolation of Egg Cells from Allium cepa L.%洋葱卵细胞的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美灵; 于金金; 吴晓琛; 魏冬梅; 田惠桥

    2012-01-01

    Viable egg cells of Allium cepa L. were isolated using enzymic digestion and mechanical dissection. The onion ovules were incubated in an enzymic solution for 50~110 min and then peeled its two intaguments. The outline of embryo sac in nucellus was seen clearly. Using a dissecting needle cutting necellus transversely and pushing its micropyle part, three cells of egg apparatus could be released from cut end of the nucellus. The egg cell could be separated with two synergids, reaching the purpose of isolation of onion egg cell. Enzymes are very important for isolating egg cell, and in optimal enzyme solution containing 0.02% Pectolyse Y-23, 0.08% Pectinase (Serva), 0.05% Cellulase (Onozuka RS), 0.05% Hemicellulase (Sigma), 10 egg cells (41.67%) could be isolated from 24 ovules in 1 h. With embryo sac development, two synergids display dimorphism in size. The isolation of onion egg cells makes a base for its in vitro fertilization, and provides the condition to study onion egg development using methods of molecular biology.%将洋葱的胚珠置于酶液中酶解50~110 min后剥去其珠被,可清楚地看到珠心中的胚囊轮廓.用解剖针将珠心从中部横切,然后挤压其珠孔部位,卵器细胞从胚珠的切口处逸出.再用显微操作仪的玻璃针将卵细胞和两个助细胞分开,达到分离洋葱卵细胞的目的.酶对分离卵细胞具有重要作用,在最佳的酶液浓度[0.02%果胶酶Y23、0.08%果胶酶(Serva)、0.05%纤维素酶和0.05%半纤维素酶]下酶解胚珠110 min后,解剖1h可从24个胚珠中分离出10个卵细胞(41.67%).随着胚囊的发育,两个助细胞的体积出现明显的二形性.洋葱生活卵细胞的分离为开展洋葱离体受精建立了基础,也为研究洋葱卵器细胞的发育创造了条件.

  9. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

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    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  10. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells Citotoxicidade dos corantes alimentares amarelo crepúsculo (E-110, vermelho bordeaux (E-123 e amarelo tartrazina (E-102 em células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L.

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    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito citotóxico dos corantes alimentares amarelo crepúsculo, vermelho bordeaux e amarelo tartrazina sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Cada corante foi avaliado nas doses de 0,4 e 4,0 mL, nos tempos de exposição de 24 e 48 horas, em células de pontas de raízes de Allium cepa L. Prepararam-se lâminas e analisaram-se células, em todo o ciclo celular, e a presença de aberrações celulares, totalizando 5.000 células para cada dose avaliada. Foi calculado o índice mitótico e a análise estatística foi feita por meio do teste quiquadrado (p < 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que os três corantes, nas doses e tempos de exposição avaliados, foram citotóxicos às células do sistema-teste utilizado. Estudos adicionais de citotoxicidade devem ser conduzidos para se somar a estes resultados e, assim, avaliar, com propriedade, a ação destes três corantes em nível celular.

  11. 大蒜抗菌活性蛋白的分离、纯化和鉴定%Isolation,Purification and Identification of Antimicrobial Proteins from Allium Sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雪盈; 徐栋梁; 闫浩; 夏立新; 刘志刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and purify the protein with antif ungal activity from Allium sativum. Methods Crude extracts were obtained from Allium sativum and antimicrobial proteins were purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-SephadexTM A-50, affinity chromatogra-phy on Affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on ResourceTM S. The antif ungal activity of the purified proteins was identified by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and antifungal activity test. Results The molecular mass of the purified protein was 13 ku. The protein inhibited the growth of Mycosphaerella arachidicola , but had no effects on Trichoderma viride , Aspergillus niger , Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium chrysogenum. In addition, another purified protein had a molecular mass of 4. 6 ku. The protein inhibited the growth of Trichoderma viride , but had no effects on Mycosphaerella arachidicola , Aspergillus niger , Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium chrysogenum. Conclusion Antimicrobial proteins isolated from Allium sativum can prohibit the growth of some fungi.%目的 从大蒜中分离纯化具有抗真菌活性的蛋白.方法 提取大蒜粗提液,通过DEAE-SephadexTM A-50阴离子交换层析、Affi-gel blue gel亲和层析和ResourceTM S阳离子交换层析纯化目的 蛋白.通过Tricine-SDS-PAGE、抗真菌活性检测鉴定该蛋白对不同真菌的抑制活性.结果 纯化得到的蛋白分子质量为13 ku,该蛋白对落花生褐斑病菌有明显的生长抑制活性,而对绿色木霉、黑曲霉、白地霉和产黄青霉没有生长抑制活性.纯化得到另外一种蛋白的分子质量约为4.6 ku,该蛋白对绿色木霉有明显的生长抑制活性,而对落花生褐斑病菌、黑曲霉、白地霉和产黄青霉没有生长抑制活性.结论 大蒜中存在抗真菌活性蛋白.

  12. Efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações cardiovasculares de ratos Wistar com infarto do miocárdio.

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    T. U. ANDRADE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O alho (Allium sativum apresenta várias ações benéficas ao sistema circulatório, tais como diminuição dos níveis de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol e da pressão arterial, além de efeito antioxidante. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações da hemodinâmica cardiovascular e estruturais macroscópicas do coração de animais com infarto induzido experimentalmente. Ratos Wistar foram tratados, previamente e após indução do infarto, com homogeneizado de alho na dose de 125mg/Kg/dia durante 21 dias, por via oral (uma semana antes e duas depois do procedimento de infarto. Os grupos controle passaram por cirurgia fictícia (SHAM. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controles e infartados com (SHAMT, INFT; respectivamente ou sem (SHAM, INF; respectivamente tratamento com alho. Houve redução da hipertrofia do ventrículo direito (INF=0,75±0,05 vs. INFT=0,61±0,03 mg/Kg; p<0,01, da área de infarto (INF=29,7±4,8% vs. INFT=20,4±1,4%; p<0,05 e regularização dos níveis de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS; INF=100±8 vs. INFT=127±7 mmHg; p<0,05 e média (PAM; INF=94±4 vs. INFT=110±6 mmHg; p<0,01 dos animais INFT comparados com os INF. Houve um menor número de animais mortos após o procedimento de infarto no grupo INFT em relação ao grupo INF (20%, n=2; 45,5%, n=5; respectivamente. Esses achados indicam que o alho tem um importante papel na prevenção e no controle de alterações cardiovasculares, uma vez que houve redução do número de mortes pós-infarto e melhor perfil cardiovascular dos animais INFT. Palavras-chave: Allium sativum. Infarto do miocárdio.Hipertrofia cardíaca. Hemodinâmica cardiovascular.

  13. 大蒜提取液对白鲢鱼肉的保鲜作用%Preservative Effects of Allium sativum L. Extract on Fresh Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Fillets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究大蒜(Allium sativum L.)提取液对白鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)鱼肉货架期品质的影响.[方法]测定货架期白鲢鱼肉的pH值、挥发性盐基总氮(TVBN)、TBA值和菌落总数,并进行感官评定.[结果]大蒜提取液能够有效地保持鱼肉货架期的品质,延缓鱼肉pH值、TVBN值、TBA值以及菌落总数的升高.[结论]该研究可为大蒜提取液在淡水鱼储藏保鲜方面的实际应用提供理论依据.

  14. Cytotoxicity on Allium cepa of the two main sulcotrione photoproducts, xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Eric; Richard, Claire; Goupil, Pascale; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2015-10-01

    The cytotoxic effects of 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA) and xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl (XDD), the two main photoproducts of sulcotrione, were investigated on Allium root meristematic cells at different concentrations. Degradation of sulcotrione was correlated to mitotic index decrease, together with increasing anomaly and c-mitosis frequencies. Mitotic index significantly decreased with increasing XDD and CMBA concentrations. Cell frequency with abnormal chromosomes increased with CMBA or XDD application rates. In contrast, CMBA induced a low micronucleus rate even for high concentrations while XDD increased the micronucleus ratio. C-mitoses, chromosomal aberrations due to an inactivation of the spindle, were enhanced by CMBA treatments but not by XDD. The photochemical degradation process of the pesticide can change the risk for the environment.

  15. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  16. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  17. Caracterización de germoplasma de cebollín (Allium cepa var. Aggregatum, en el municipio de Gibara, provincia de Holguín

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    Hubert Rodríguez García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron y estudiaron 18 accesiones de cebollín (Allium cepa var Aggregatum entre los productores del municipio Gibara se plantaron en las fincas de los productores de la CCS Mario Muñoz Gibara. El estudio se realizo en el período comprendido de enero del 2005 a diciembre del 2006, con el objetivo de realizar una caracterización del germoplasma para determinar las variedades existentes en del municipio. Entre los principales resultados obtenidos se identificaron dos variedades en el agroecosistema: Bola Roja de bulbos de color rojo violáceo, redondos globoso y pungencia fuerte y la variedad Amarillo Largo de bulbos amarillo naranja, fusiformes-oblongos y de pungencia media.

  18. Monoclonal antibody raised against human mitotic cyclin B1, identifies cyclin B-like mitotic proteins in synchronized onion (Allium cepa L.) root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S K; Ghosh, S

    1997-03-01

    Cyclin B-like mitotic proteins have been detected in synchronized Allium cepa L. root tip cells by using mouse monoclonal anti-cyclin B1 antibody raised against human cyclin B1. Immunoblot shows two closely placed isoforms of cyclin B-like proteins having an apparent molecular weight around 54 kDa. In vivo [35S]-methionine labelling followed by immunoprecipitation and autoradiography indicates that cyclin B-like proteins are mainly synthesized in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and destroyed in late mitosis. Immunoblotting data depict that the level of cyclin B-like proteins reaches the maximum at the late G2 to early M phase; and it becomes degraded in the late hours of mitosis. Moreover, the cyclin B isoforms are stabilized in colchicine-arrested metaphase cells as already reported in animal cells.

  19. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Takashi; Iwai, Akiko; Yano, Toshihiro

    2004-10-01

    Antihyperlipidemia or hypocholesterolaemic and antibacterial activities of red hot pepper and garlic are well known. To determine the effect of the dietary spices ingested to suppress blood lipids on the intestinal condition, we examined plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice that were fed diets containing 19% (w/w) beef tallow and 2% red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides 'Takanotume' (RP) or garlic Allium sativum 'White' (GP) for 4-weeks. Plasma triacylglyceride level was suppressed by the spices. RP lowered cecal bacteroidaceae, a predominant bacterial group (from 9.4 to 9.0 log CFU/g), bifidobacteria (from 8.7 to 7.6 log CFU/g), and staphylococci. Although GP increased the cecal weight including their contents, significant differences were not shown in the cecal microflora. These results suggest that RP can affect the intestinal condition and host health through the disturbance of intestinal microflora.

  20. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

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    Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD, by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronuclei (MN frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS.

  1. Bio-indication-based estimates as an integral part of the environment quality assessment on an example of allium-test application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Dikarev, V.; Dikareva, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Michalik, B.; Chalupnik, S.; Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Kozmin, G. [State Technical University of Atomic Energy, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Human nuclear and industrial activities can substantially increase environmental exposure levels. Concerns about the damaging effect of ionizing radiation have led to the establishment of radioprotection norms by ICRP and national regulatory authorities. A great deal of research has been carried out to specify and justify constraints for radionuclide discharges and safety levels, and regulatory decision making strategies are still an important topic for radiation protection of the environment and the public. Contamination of territories through human civil and military activities such as nuclear facilities operation, mining, nuclear weapon testing involves, however, a complex impact so that a mixture of radionuclides is often supplemented by other potentially hazardous substances (e.g. heavy or alkali metals). There is still a large lack of knowledge on actual hazard of such combined contamination and a need to fill the gap between an acquisition of spectrum and levels of environmental pollutants to possible adverse effects to biota and human health. A study was aimed at developing a complex approach for the environment health assessment integrating information on contaminants levels registered with routine techniques and bio indication-based estimates of adverse effects of their combination.Findings from two studies carried out in sites with different scenarios of long-term impact caused by human industrial activity are presented. In both studies, samples of water and/or soil were taken, and their cyto- and genotoxicity was tested with Allium cepa plant system to assess a hazardous potential of complex contamination.The present work and our previous investigations (Evseeva et al., 2005; Geraskin et al., 2005) demonstrate that an adequate environment quality assessment cannot relies only on information about pollutants concentrations. Unfortunately, limited lists of toxicants are adopted to control the levels of man-made stress to the environment. Furthermore

  2. Encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum don extract in β-cyclodextrin for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhiying; Wu, Min; Guo, Qiushi; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Bingren

    2013-05-22

    This work aims to evaluate the encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum Don extract (ACADFE) in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by analyzing the percutaneous penetration in vitro and in vivo, leading to an explanation of the physical mechanism during transdermal transport. The optimal inclusion compound containing ACADFE in β-CD was prepared in a 1:3 molar ratio. The physicochemical characterization of the inclusion complex was performed using IR, UV-vis, simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies. It was concluded that the inclusion complex could improve the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of ACADFE. The inclusion complex exhibited significant enhancement of percutaneous absorption both in vitro and in vivo. The dorsal skins of hairless mice were photographed using a confocal scanning laser microscope. Confocal scanning laser microscopy shows that penetration of the ACADFE-β-CD inclusion complex proceeds across skin via both follicular and transcellular routes.

  3. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

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    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  4. The effect of oleander glycosides on the germination of pollen grains and the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L.

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    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water solution of a mixture of glycosides from oleander (Nerium oleander L. on the germination of pollen grains and on the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L. has been studied. An inhibition of the germination and of the growth of pollen tubes was observed, proportionally to the concentration of glycosides. The pollen grains of A. cepa are more sensitive. The disturbances in mitosis lead to the formation of two or more uneven-sized doughter nuclei, or to the formation of restitution nuclei. These anomalies are more numerous in T. bracteata. From these results d t appears that pollen grains of A. cepa are characterized by a generally high physiological sensitivity and a small mitotic sensitivity, wheras for T. bracteata the opposite is true.

  5. Evaluación preliminar de la micorriza versículo-arbuscular en dos sistemas: pastizal y cebolla de bulbo Allium cepa

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    Muñoz F. Jaime Eduardo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante dos semestres la micorriza en dos sistemas: pastizal y cultivo de Allium cepa, en un mismo sitio con un contenido de P alto. Para el pastizal se tomaron muestras en cinco lotes identificando las especies presentes y su abundancia relativa, en A. cepa se tomaron muestras en cinco edades del cultivo. En ambos sistemas se evaluó porcentaje de infección por MVA (PI, número de esporas por 50 g de suelo (NES, se identificaron las especies de MVA y se obtuvo su frecuencia. En el pastizal la especie predominante Paspalum notatum presentó los mayores PI (16.2 y 15.4 y el mayor NES, Penisetum clandestinulll no adaptada a la zona presentó el menor PI (0.1% y el menor NES; para los dos semestres hubo correlación entre PI y NES y para cada variable a través de semestres, lo que indica que el comportamiento fue similar en las dos épocas. En Allium cepa, para los dos semestres, no se presentó infección por MVA en semillero y los PI de infección fueron muy bajos, menores de 5.3%, no obstante que la especie es considerada de alta dependencia de la MVA; esto puede deberse al alto contenido de P del suelo (167 ppm, y a la aplicación de fungicidas. En ambos sistemas las especies de MVA fueron las mismas, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme, Acaulospora longula, Glomus monosporum y Glolmus sp; Entrophospora infreguens no se presentó en A. cepa. Las especies predominantes en los dos sistemas fueron Glomus geosporum y Acaulospora longula.

    During two semesters Micorriza (VAM was evaluated in two systems: pastures and Allium cepa culture, in the same place, which had a high P content. For pastures were taken samples in five lots, identifying present species and their relative abundance. In A. cepa samples were taken in five culture ages, In both systems were evaluated infection percentage (lP for VAM, number of spores for 50 g of soil (NSS, were identified the VAM species and was obtained their frequency. At the pastures

  6. Allium pyrenaicum Costa and Vayr. (Liliaceae en el Valle del Roncal (Pirineo Occidental, Navarra : Propuesta para su protección legal /

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    Lorda López, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium pyrenaicum (Liliaceae se cita por primera vez para Navarra (Pirineo Occidental ; se trata de una planta endémica del Pirineo, con área disyunta en Cataluña, al Este, y en Aragón-Navarra, al Oeste. Además de los datos corológicos, en esta nota se estima el tamaño de la población y se comentan su hábitat, posibles riesgos y grado de protección. Tambien se aporta in mapa de distribución del taxón y fotografía de este ajo silvestre.

  7. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed.

  8. Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves(Allium sativum)in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adejoke; Elizabeth; Memudu; Ibukun; Dorcas; Akinrinade; Olalekan; Michael; Ogundele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aqueous garlic extract ingestion on testicular cellular integrity and serum testosterone levels.Methods: Twenty(20) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 120 g were used.Animals were divided into three groups. Group A served as control(10 rats for 28 and 56 d respectively), while treatment Groups B and C were given 200 mg/kg for Allium sativum(garlic cloves) extract for 28 and 56 d respectively.Results: Histological analysis revealed the presence of all spermatogenic lineages, appearance of proliferative activities in the interstitial cells, as well as increased serum testosterone levels.Conclusions: This study confirmed proliferative and restorative potentials in both acute and chronic garlic ingestion.

  9. Changes in chromosome structure, mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content from cells of Allium Test induced by bark water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraś, Mieczysław; Nowakowska, Julita; Sliwińska, Elwira; Pilarski, Radosław; Ilasz, Renata; Tykarska, Teresa; Zobel, Alicja; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-09-19

    The influence of water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC bark on the meristematic cells of the root tips of Allium cepa L., e.g. cells of Allium Test, was investigated. The experiment was carried out in two variants: (1) continuous incubation at different concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/ml) of the extract for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h; and (2) 24-h incubation in three concentrations of the extract (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), followed by post-incubation in distilled water for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. During the continuous incubation, the mitotic activity was reduced (2 and 4 mg/ml) or totally inhibited (8 and 16 mg/ml), depending on the concentration of the extract. All the concentrations resulted in gradual reduction of the mitotic activity. In the concentration of 2 mg/ml, the mitotic activity reached its lowest value after 12h (2 mg/ml) and after 24h in 4 mg/ml, followed by spontaneous intensification of divisions during further incubation. Instead, in higher concentrations of the extracts (8 and 16 mg/ml), the mitotic activity was totally inhibited within 24h and did not resume even after 72h. Incubation caused changes in the phase index, mainly as an increase in the number of prophases. After 24h of incubation, in all phases, condensation and contraction of chromosomes were observed. During post-incubation, divisions resumed in all concentrations, reaching even higher values than the control. Cytometric analysis showed that the extract caused inhibition of the cell cycle at the border between gap(2) and beginning of mitosis (G(2)/M).

  10. Allium : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-26-06 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Anther color 50 observations on 50 accessions / Bolting tendency 93 observations on 93 accessions / Botrytis aclada 34 observations on 19 accessions / Botrytis squamosa 15 observations on 9 accessions / Bulb base shape 354 o

  11. 中国葱属根茎组植物15种25居群的核型研究%Karyotypes of 25 Populations of 15 Species in Allium Section Rhiziridium from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春景; 周颂东; 黄德青; 何兴金

    2012-01-01

    Karyotypes of 25 populations of IS species in Allium section Rhiziridium from China were analyzed to discuss the evolutionary mechanisms of Allium section Rhiziridium and cytogeography of some species. Root tips for the study of mitotic chromosomes were obtained from potted plants and pretreated with paradichlorobenzene at room temperature for 9 hours. After 12-24 hours fixation in 1 : 3 acetic-alcohol, the root tips were macerated in 1 mol· L-1 HC1 for 9 minutes at 60% and then stained and squashed in carbol fuchsin. Karyotype asymmetry was assessed by As. K%. Results showed that taxa investigated were diploid or tetraploid. Furthermore, the karyotype types were 1A, 2A or 2B according to Stebbins' karyotype classification. Karyotypes of A. Tekesicola, A. Tianschanicum, A. Bee-sianum and A. Spirals were reported for the first time. Combined with previous karyotype studies, we suggested that; (1) The basic chromosome number of Allium section Rhiziridium from China is x = %. (2) The karyotype types evolutionary trend of Allium section Rhiziridium from China is 1A→2A→2B→2C . (3) Satellite chromosomes of Allium section Rhiziridium from China are varied in numbers and shapes. (4) Polyploidy and chromosome structural rearrangement are two important evolution patterns in Allium section Rhiziridium from China. (5) A. Cyaneum and A. Nutans have exploited new niches through polyploidy and asexual reproduction.%采用常规压片法,对15种25居群葱属根茎组植物进行核型研究,首次报道荒漠韭Allium tekesicola、蓝花韭A.beesianum的染色体数目和核型,并增补了一些根茎组植物的细胞学资料.结果表明:供试类群为二倍体或四倍体,核型类型为1A、2A或2B;高山韭A.sikkimense壤塘居群和荒漠韭具短臂随体,宽苞韭A.platyspathum的和布克赛尔居群、奇台居群具居间随体;野黄韭A.rude雅江居群和荒漠韭中各存在1条B染色体.结合前人研究结果,我们讨论了中国根茎组植物

  12. Studies on extracting technics of essential oils from Allium Mngolicum Regel%沙葱挥发油提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌仁张嘎; 张兴夫; 敖长金

    2011-01-01

    It is carried through research on extracting technics of essential oil from Allium Mngolicum Regel. In this paper using Allium Mngolicum Regel powder as raw material ,adopting vapor distillation,on the base of result analysis of single-factor test ,taking extraction yield of essential oil as target,the soaking time (A),ratio of materiol and water (B),Ultrasonic extraction time (C),distillation time (D) as factor making orthogonal expriment,the optimizing technics of extracting essential oil was built up. The result was shown that effect on extracting rate by different expriment factors, influence degree Ultrasonic extraction time, ratio of materiol and water, distillation time, soaking time in turn. The optimum combination was A1B3C3D3, that was to say ,the optimized condition is soaking 1.5 h, adding water 11 times, Ultrasonic extraction time 20 min,and steam distillation 3.5 h. A maximum extraction yield of essential oil of 0.46% was obtained under the optimized conditions. The optimizing technics of extracting were steady and reasonable by validate test.%文章对沙葱挥发油的提取工艺进行了研究,以沙葱粉为原料,采用水蒸气蒸馏法,在单因素试验结果与分析的基础上,以挥发油得率为指标,以浸泡时间(A)、料液比(B)、超声波处理时间(C)、蒸馏时间(D)为因素进行L9(34)正交试验,研究确定了提取沙葱挥发油的最佳工艺.试验结果表明,各因素影响沙葱挥发油提取率的程度由大到小的顺序为超声波处理时间>料液比=蒸馏时间>浸泡时间;最佳组合为A1B3C3D3,即浸泡时间1.5 h、料液比1∶11、超声波处理时间20 min、蒸馏时间3.5 h.在此最佳工艺条件下提取率为0.46%.通过验证试验表明,所选的最佳提取工艺稳定、可行.

  13. Semejanzas entre el ajo (Allium sativum costarricense y el ajo asiático según secuencias de ADN ribosomal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Barboza Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica, la producción de ajo (Allium sativum es escasa y se limita principalmente a las regiones de Llano Grande de Cartago. Sin embargo, por el precio que tiene actualmente en el mercado, el ajo costarricense se vislumbra como una hortaliza que podría constituirse en un recurso valioso para los productores nacionales. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se presenta la caracterización mediante secuencias ribosomales de materiales de ajo provenientes Costa Rica y su comparación con ajo importado de China. El ADN se extrajo a partir de hojas de vitroplantas de ajo mantenidas en un congelador a -70°C, pulverizadas en un mortero. El ADN ribosomal se amplificó, purificó y secuenció. Se realizó el análisis bioinformático de las secuencias ribosomales. El BLASTn permitió determinar que los productos de PCR amplificados corresponden a la secuencia parcial de los genes 28S y 18S (sitios de unión de los cebadores y a la secuencia completa de la región ITS-1, 5.8S e ITS-2. Se encontró que todas las secuencias alinearon en casi un 100% con la accesión EU626375.1 publicada en la base de datos del GeneBank, correspondiente al clon Allium sativum voucher BF-ALL-037. En general, las secuencias mostraron ser muy conservadas. Los puntajes obtenidos del alineamiento realizado con ClustalW reflejaron una identidad del 97 al 99% entre las secuencias.El presente estudio es el primer reporte de este tipo que se realiza sobre ajo costarricense y generó información básica e indispensable para continuar con los estudios moleculares de este cultivo.

  14. Atividade antiproliferativa e mutagênica dos extratos aquosos de Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle e Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae sobre o sistema teste de Allium cepa Antiproliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle and Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae on the Allium cepa test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Fachinetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies medicinais Baccharis trimera e Baccharis articulata, nativas no sul do Brasil, são muito utilizadas na medicina popular. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial efeito citotóxico destas infusões sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Ramos de duas populações de cada espécie coletados durante os estádios vegetativo e reprodutivo (floração foram usados para preparar infusões em duas concentrações: 15 mg mL-1 e 75 mg mL-1. Células das pontas de raízes Allium cepa são usadas como sistema teste in vivo. Foram preparadas lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. As células foram analisadas em todo o ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 4000 células para cada grupo de bulbos. O índice mitótico (IM foi calculado e realizado análise estatística através do teste Qui-quadrado (c² = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que as infusões de B. trimera nas duas populações causaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, mas não entre as concentrações, em ambos estádios utilizados. Os extratos de B. articulata também apresentaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, sendo que uma das populações apresentou diferença do IM entre as concentrações nos dois estádios, o que não ocorreu na outra população. Com relação à presença de células com aberrações cromossômicas, esta ocorreu em todas as populações estudadas. Os resultados indicaram que os extratos dessas espécies apresentaram efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico para as concentrações estudadas, não possuindo diferença nesses efeitos quanto ao estádio de desenvolvimento das plantas.The medicinal species Baccharis trimera and Baccharis articulata, which are native to the south of Brazil, are extensively used in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. Branches of two populations of each species collected during the vegetative and reproductive

  15. Effects of Fermentative Fluid of Lyophyllum decastes on Mitosis of Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa L. Under NaCl Stress%荷叶离褶伞发酵液对NaCl胁迫下洋葱根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴珍; 沈昱彤; 魏生龙; 卯旭辉; 贾秀苹; 梁根生; 王晓琴

    2016-01-01

    The root tip of Allium cepa L is treated with different concentrations of NaCl for 24 hours and 48 hours. The results shows that low concentrations of NaCl significantly promoted the growth of Allium cepa L, but higher concentrations(≥0.1 mol/L) played a poisoned role on the growth of Allium cepa L and have a dose-effect relationship. while we cultured the different NaCl treated Allium cepa L using diluted Fermentative Fluid of Lyophyllum decastes for 24 hours, the result shows that diluted Fermentative Fluid of Lyophyllum decastes can repair the genetic damage and promote the growth of a short period of time NaCl treated Allium cepa L (24 h), such as decreased micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate, increased mitotic index, but have a weak role for a long period of time treated NaCl Allium cepa L(48 h).%研究了荷叶离褶伞发酵液对NaCl胁迫下洋葱根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响。结果表明:低浓度NaCl (0.05 mol/L)对洋葱根的生长有促进作用,高浓度NaCl(≥0.10 mol/L)对洋葱根的生长有抑制作用,根尖细胞有丝分裂出现异常,且随着NaCl浓度增高和NaCl处理时间延长抑制作用越明显。荷叶离褶伞发酵液对低浓度NaCl (≤0.10 mol/L)短时间处理(24 h)导致的洋葱根尖细胞遗传损伤有一定的修复作用。

  16. Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L. by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Marie Løkke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in cut onions (Allium cepa L. were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  17. Fatty acid composition of Allium cepa L.seeds oil from Xinjiang%新疆洋葱籽油脂肪酸组成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 刘莉; 施玉格; 阿吉艾克拜尔·艾萨

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of Allium cepa L. seeds oil were analyzed by GC/MS. The results indicated that 12 kinds of fatty acids were identified. The content of unsaturated fatty acids was 79. 92%.The oleic acid content was 13.11%, the linoleic acid content was 65.90% ,the palmitic acid content was 10. 47%, and the stearic acid content was 4. 97%.%采用气相色谱-质谱联用法(GC/MS)对新疆洋葱籽油中脂肪酸组成及相对含量进行研究.结果表明,新疆洋葱籽油由棕榈酸、亚油酸、油酸等12种脂肪酸组成,不饱和脂肪酸达79.92%,其中油酸为13.11%,亚油酸为65.90%,棕榈酸为10.47%,硬脂酸为4.97%.

  18. Karyotype Analysis of Allium cepa L. by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization with Satellite DNA%洋葱染色体核型的FISH分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泓; O.Schrader; R.Ahne

    2003-01-01

    挑选洋葱(Allium cepa L.)(2n=2x=16,CC)有丝分裂中期细胞,以洋葱卫星DNA序列(AC-SAT-DNA)为探针,DIG-11-dUTP为标记物,用荧光原位杂交(FISH)方法观察其在染色体上的定位,并进行洋葱的核型分析.6号染色体为近端部着丝点染色体,在其长臂末端有一个卫星DNA序列的主要位点.其余每条染色体在其长、短臂的末端都各具有一个主要位点.差异表现在各染色体上卫星DNA序列的次要位点分布不同.根据洋葱8对染色体各自具有的独特的卫星DNA分布位点,可将洋葱8对染色体全部分开.以此为基础,构建了洋葱卫星DNA在染色体上分布的模式图.

  19. 洋葱籽化学成分的研究%Studies on Chemical Constituents of the Seeds of Allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玲; 吉腾飞; 王爱国; 杨建波; 苏亚伦

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究了洋葱籽(The seeds of Allium cepa L.)的化学成分.方法:运用硅胶柱色谱、大孔树脂HP-20、Sephadex LH-20、反相C-18柱层析进行分离纯化.结果:从洋葱籽乙醇提取物中分离得到了7个化合物,通过理化性质和波谱分析分别鉴定为天师酸(Ⅰ),N-trans-feruloyl tyramine(Ⅱ),β-sitosterol-3 β-glucopyranoside-6'-palmitate(Ⅲ),β-谷甾醇(Ⅳ),胡萝卜苷(Ⅴ),色氨酸(Ⅵ),腺嘌呤核苷(Ⅶ).结论:化合物Ⅴ~Ⅶ为首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物Ⅰ~Ⅳ是首次从该属中分离得到.

  20. Allium cepa Extract and Quercetin Protect Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress via PKC-ε Inactivation/ERK1/2 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurologic disorders. Allium cepa extract (ACE) and their main flavonoid component quercetin (QCT) possess antioxidant activities and protect neurons from oxidative stress. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly those linked to the antioxidant effects of the ACE. Primary cortical neuronal cells derived from mouse embryos were preincubated with ACE or QCT for 30 min and exposed to L-buthionine sulfoximine for 4~24 h. We found that ACE and QCT significantly decreased neuronal death and the ROS increase induced by L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ACE and QCT activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), leading to downregulation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in BSO-stimulated neuronal cells. In addition, ACE and QCT decreased the phosphorylated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results provide new insight into the protective mechanism of ACE and QCT against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. The results suggest that the inactivation of PKC-ε induced by phosphorylating ERK1/2 is responsible for the neuroprotective effect of ACE and QCT against BSO-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27668036

  1. A NEW FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDE FROM ALLIUM CEPA L. VAR AGROGATUM DON%分蘖葱头中新黄酮苷的结构鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓虹; 刘银燕; 刘丽娟; 周小平; 铃木敏夫

    2000-01-01

    目的研究百合科植物分蘖葱头(Allium cepa L. var agrogatum Don)鳞茎的黄酮类化学成分.方法利用Sephadex LH-20柱色谱进行分离纯化.从分蘖葱头中分离得到4个化合物,用IR,UV,MS,1HNMR,13CNMR,1H-1H COSY,1H-13C COSY和HMBC等光谱鉴定化合物.结果经光谱鉴定化合物结构为:槲皮素3'-甲氧基-4'-O-β-D-葡吡喃糖苷(I)、山奈酚(II)、槲皮素4'-O-β-D-葡吡喃糖苷(III)和槲皮素3,4'-二-O-β-D-葡吡喃糖苷(IV).结论化合物I为新的黄酮苷类化合物,命名为分蘖葱头苷甲(Alliumoside A); II,III和IV为首次从该植物中分得.

  2. In vitro effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon and Allium sativum on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenner L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils may be effective preventive or curative treatments against several flagelated poultry parasites and may become primordial either to organic farms, or as more drugs are bannished. The anti-flagellate activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon pericarps and Allium sativum bulbs was investigated in vitro on Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. On T. gallinarum, the minimal lethal concentration (MLC at 24 hours was 0.25 μl/ml for C. aromaticum oil, and 0.125 μl/ml for C. limon and A. sativum oils. On H. meleagridis, MLC was 0.5 μl/ml for C. aromaticum oil and 1 μl/m l for C. limon and A. sativum oils at 24 and 48 hours. Moreover, no synergistic effects were evidenced in vitro. The essential oil constituents, based on their GC retention times have been also identified. The major component is trans-cinnamaldehyde (79 % for C. aromaticum; limonene for C. limon (71 % and diallyl tri- and disulfide (79 % for A. sativum. Even if concentration and protocol adaptations are required for successful in vivo treatments, it appears that these oils may be useful as chemotherapeutic agents against several poultry parasites.

  3. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  4. The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Chmielnicka, Agnieszka; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Long-term treatment of Allium cepa seedlings with low concentration of hydroxyurea (HU) results in a disruption of cell cycle checkpoints, leading root apex meristem (RAM) cells to an abnormal organization of nuclear structures forming interphase (I) and mitotic (M) domains of chromatin at opposite poles of the nucleus. Thus far, both critical cell length and an uneven distribution of cyclin B-like proteins along the nuclear axis have been recognized as essential factors needed to facilitate the formation of biphasic interphase-mitotic (IM) cells. Two new aspects with respect to their emergence are investigated in this study. The first concerns a relationship between the polarity of increasing chromatin condensation (IM orientation) and the acropetal (base→apex) alignment of RAM cell files. The second problem involves the effects of auxin (IAA), on the frequency of IM cells. We provide evidence that there is an association between the advanced M-poles of the IM cell nuclei and the polarized accumulation sites of auxin efflux carriers (PIN2 proteins) and IAA. Furthermore, our observations reveal exclusion regions for PIN2 proteins in the microtubule-rich structures, such as preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplast. The current and previous studies have prompted us to formulate a hypothetical mechanism linking PIN2-mediated unilateral localization of IAA and the induction of bipolar IM cells in HU-treated RAMs of A. cepa.

  5. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P ≤ 0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  6. Sanguinarine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis-like programmed cell death(AL-PCD) in root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    A vast number of studies on plant cell systems clearly indicate that various biotic and abiotic stresses give rise to the uncontrolled increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess concentrations of ROS result in damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and DNA, which may lead, in consequence, to the apoptotic cell death. The current study investigates the effects of sanguinarine (SAN), a natural alkaloid derived from the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis, on root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. It is shown that SAN treatment generated large amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2·-). Oxidative stress induced in SAN-treated cells was correlated with DNA fragmentation, formation of micronuclei (MN), altered and 'degenerated' chromatin structures characteristic of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). The experiments with SAN + MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavable complexes) and SAN + ascorbic acid (AA; H2O2 scavenger) seem to suggest, however, that the high level of H2O2 is not the only factor responsible for changes observed at the chromatin level and for the consequent cell death. Our findings imply that Topo II-DNA covalent complexes and 26S proteasomes are also involved in SAN-induced DNA damage.

  7. Effects of Lead on the Morphology and Structure of the Nucleolus in the Root Tip Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.

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    Ze Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1–10 μM there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress.

  8. Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the commercial black dye in Allium cepa cells before and after bacterial biodegradation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Camargo, Bruna de Campos; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic actions of different concentrations (50 and 200 μg/L) of BDCP (Black Dye Commercial Product) used by textile industries, before and after bacterial biodegradation, by the conventional staining cytogenetic technique and NOR-banding in Allium cepa cells. Differences in the chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and alterations in the number of nucleoli were observed in cells exposed to BDCP with and without the microbial treatment. The significant frequencies of chromosome and nuclear aberrations noted in the tests with bacterially biodegraded BDCP indicate that the metabolites generated by degradation are more genotoxic than the chemical itself. Losses of genetic material characterize a type of alteration that was mainly associated with the action of the original BDCP, whereas chromosome stickiness, nuclear buds and binucleated cells were the aberrations that were preferentially induced by BDCP metabolites after biodegradation. The significant frequencies of cell death observed in the tests with biodegraded BDCP also show the cytotoxic effects of the BDCP metabolites. The reduction in the total frequency of altered cells after the recovery treatments showed that the test organism A. cepa has the ability to recover from damage induced by BDCP and its metabolites after the exposure conditions are normalized.

  9. Cytogenetic and microtubule array effects of the zineb-containing commercial fungicide formulation Azzurro(®) on meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Nancy B; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Mudry, Marta D

    2012-02-18

    Zineb [ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) zinc] is a widely employed foliar fungicide for agricultural and industrial applications. Allium cepa L. is a reliable model for the assessment of xenobiotic genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of the zineb-containing commercial formulation Azzurro(®) (70% zineb) in cell cycle stages of the meristem root cells of A. cepa. The mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations at anaphase/telophase (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and abnormalities in immunodetected microtubule structures, e.g., preprophasic band (PPB), mitotic spindle (MS), and phragmoplast (Phrag), were used as end-points. Azzurro(®) (1 and 10μg/ml) induced a significant increase in the frequency of CAs (P<0.05), and the higher concentration inhibited the MI (P<0.05) compared to control values. The frequency of MN did not differ from control values at any concentration. Treatment with 1μg/ml Azzurro(®) induced a significant increase in the frequency of abnormal PPB (P<0.01), MS (P<0.001), and Phrag (P<0.01) and, at 10μg/ml, enhancements in the frequencies of abnormal MS (P<0.05) and Phrag (P<0.05) were seen. A tubulin immunodetection assay showed that exposure to Azzurro(®) interferes with normal assembly of microtubule structures during mitosis.

  10. Genotoxicity evaluation of two metallic-insecticides using Allium cepa and Tradescantia pallida: A new alternative against leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Raphael Bastão; de Souza, Cleiton Pereira; Bueno, Odair Correa; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2017-02-01

    In order to combat leaf-cutting ants, the pesticide sulfluramid used to be the most widely utilized active ingredient. However, its use was banned in 2009 by the Stockholm Convention, although some countries were allowed to continue using it. As an effective alternative to its replacement, researchers developed a metallic-insecticide system, which is a natural product linked to metal complexes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of these new metallic-insecticides in change the genetic material of non-target organisms. The tests were performed utilizing chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus tests in the Allium cepa test system and the Trad-MCN test in Tradescantia pallida. To better understand the results, one of the components of the formula, 5-methyl-phenanthroline, was also analyzed according to the same parameters. To A. cepa, the results showed that one of the metallic insecticides induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at different concentrations, while the other metallic-insecticide showed chromosomal instability only at the highest concentration. The analysis of 5-methyl-phenanthroline revealed that it can be related with the positive results, since genotoxic effects were induced. In the Trad-MCN test, none of the metallic-insecticides showed genotoxic activity, although one of them induced more micronucleus formation.

  11. Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul, in Brazil, with the Allium cepa L. test

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    A. Barbério

    Full Text Available This work investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul (Brazil using Allium cepa roots. An anatomo-morphological parameter (root length, mitotic indices, and frequency of micronuclei were analysed. Eight bulbs were chosen at random for treatment for 24 to 120 hours with the River water collected in the years of 2005 and 2006 from sites in the cities of Tremembé and Aparecida (São Paulo state, Brazil. Daily measurements of the length of the roots grown from each bulb were carried out throughout the experiment. Mitotic index (MI and frequency of micronuclei (MN were determined for 2000 cells per root, using 3-5 root tips from other bulbs (7-10. Only in the roots treated with samples of the River water collected in 2005 in Tremembé city was there a decrease in the root length growth compared to the respective control. However, a reduction in MI values was verified for both sites analysed for that year. Considering the data involving root length growth and especially MI values, a cytotoxic potential is suggested for the water of the River Paraíba do Sul at Tremembé and Aparecida, in the year of 2005. On the other hand, since in this year the MN frequency was not affected with the river water treatments, genotoxicity is not assumed for the river water sampled at the aforementioned places.

  12. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristicafragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L.cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akeem AKINBORO; Kamaruzaman Bin MOHAMED; Mohd Zaini ASMAWI; Shaida Fariza SULAIMAN; Othman Ahmad SOFIMAN

    2011-01-01

    In this study,freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay.Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500,1000,2000,and 4000 mg/kg.Onions (A.cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark.Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation.2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards.Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA,but worse than BHT.The extract alone,as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division,and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P≤0.05).However,cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed.The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A.cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract.The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M.fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  13. Confined direct analysis in real time ion source and its applications in analysis of volatile organic compounds of Citrus limon (lemon) and Allium cepa (onion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue

    2012-05-30

    The DART (direct analysis in real time) ion source is a novel atmospheric pressure ionization technique that enables efficient ionization of gases, liquids and solids with high throughput. A major limit to its wider application in the analysis of gases is its poor detection sensitivity caused by open-air sampling. In this study, a confined interface between the DART ion source outlet and mass spectrometer sampling orifice was developed, where the plasma generated by the atmospheric pressure glow discharge collides and ionizes gas-phase molecules in a Tee-shaped flow tube instead of in open air. It leads to significant increase of collision reaction probability between high energy metastable molecules and analytes. The experimental results show that the ionization efficiency was increased at least by two orders of magnitude. This technique was then applied in the real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Citrus Limon (lemon) and wounded Allium Cepa (onion). The confined DART ion source was proved to be a powerful tool for the studies of plant metabolomics.

  14. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

  15. Allium stipitatum Extract Exhibits In Vivo Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Accelerates Burn Wound Healing in a Full-Thickness Murine Burn Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Jeevajothi Nathan, Jayakayatri; van Belkum, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The in vivo antibacterial and burn wound healing potency of Persian shallot bulbs (Allium stipitatum) were explored in a mice burn model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts were tested. Female BALB/c mice were inflicted with third-degree thermal injury followed by infection with MRSA. ASHE and ASDE formulated with simple ointment base (SOB) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w) were topically applied to burn wounds twice a day for 20 days. Silver sulfadiazine (1%) served as drug positive control. Microbiological analysis was carried out on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postwounding (dpw) and histopathological analysis at the end of the experiment (20 dpw). Both ointments demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with complete elimination of MRSA at 48–72 h after infection. The rate of wound contraction was higher (95–100%) in mice groups treated with ASHE and ASDE ointments after 15 dpw. Histological analysis revealed significant increase (p antibacterial as well as promising alternatives in managing thermal injuries. PMID:28321262

  16. Effects of lead on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in the root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze; Zhang, Huaning; Qin, Rong; Zou, Jinhua; Wang, Junran; Shi, Qiuyue; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-07-31

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1-10 μM) there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM) many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress.

  17. Quercetin and isorhamnetin in sweet and red cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) at harvest, after field curing, heat treatment, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Vågen, Ingunn M

    2010-02-24

    Effects of heat treatment and storage on quercetin and isorhamnetin content, major and minor components of isorhamnetin, and quercetin glucosides and aglycone, were investigated in onion (Allium cepa L.). The sweet onion 'Recorra' and red onions 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' were cultivated in the south part of Norway and thereafter stored for eight months. The onions were either not field dried, but stored directly, or field dried and then stored, or field dried and then heat treated before storage. Neither storage nor heat treatment caused any major differences in total flavonol content in the investigated sweet onion as well as in the red onion cultivars. The two major quercetin glucosides differed in their changes in content during storage; quercetin-4'-glucoside did not show any consistent changes during storage in the two red cultivars, independent of treatment, whereas quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside increased significantly by 30 or 51%, respectively, during storage in 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' in the 24 h heat treated onions. Isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside, which might possibly be of special interest from a human health point of view, was present at 2-3 times higher amount in the sweet onion cultivar than in the two red cultivars. Some of the quercetin glucosides present at lower concentrations, isorhamnetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-3,7,4'-triglucoside, and quercetin-7,4'-diglucoside, increased during storage in all treatments in both 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron', though sometimes a decrease was found at the end of storage.

  18. Quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides in onion (Allium cepa L.): varietal comparison, physical distribution, coproduct evaluation, and long-term storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-02-09

    During onion processing, the outer dried protective layer (outer paper layer) and first two fleshy leaf layers are removed. This coproduct material is a potential commercial source of flavonoids especially quercetin. In the following study, the flavonoid composition was determined in coproduct materials and the press cake (material generated after juice extraction) in several commercially important onion varieties grown in California. Flavonoids were characterized and quantified using LC-(ESI)MS/MS and HPLC. The long-term stability of quercetin glycosides was assessed in dried coproduct materials stored at 4 and 22 °C over a 12 month period. In all varieties, the predominant forms of quercetin were the quercetin 3,4'-O-glucoside and 4'-O-glucoside. The first layer had significantly higher levels of flavonoids than the outer paper, second, and inner flesh layers on a DW basis (p < 0.05). Allium cepa "Milestone" contained the highest levels (p < 0.05) of flavonoids (1703 mg/100 g on a dry weight basis (DW). Onion press cake had significantly higher levels of total quercetin as compared with fresh onions (p < 0.05). The levels of 4'-O-glucoside significantly decreased during the first month of storage and remained stable for 12 months of storage at either 4 or 22 °C (p < 0.05).

  19. Effect of Age of Explant on Transgenic Cotton (Gossypium Plant Due to Expression of Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene from Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynelle van Emmenes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important textile plant in the world and is one of the most important crops for the production of oilseed. Because of its worldwide economic importance, new cultivars are constantly being released in the world. Although great improvements have been achieved through traditional breeding methods, cotton breeders are facing many problems, i.e., narrow genetic base, inability to use alien genes and difficulty in breaking gene linkages. Genetic transformations analyses are main tools used by breeders to overcome these problems. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to determine the effect of age of explant on regeneration response of apical shoot for tissue culture and gene transfer systems of cotton. This enabled us evaluate it effects on cotton transformation. The age of explants was observed to have significant effect on shoot tip elongation. The elongation rates of the three varieties studied were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.1573 and was observed to be affected by the size of isolated tips. It was observed that if the starting size of the apex was less than 1 mm, the tips would not grow at all. Insecticidal lectin gene from Allium sativum was transferred into the transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using shoot apices as explants. Putative transgenic plants were confirmed by leaf GUS assay, kanamycin leaf test and molecular analysis of plantlet.

  20. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  1. Detección molecular de potyvirus en hojas y minibulbillos de ajo, Allium sativum, asociados a un programa de producción de semilla limpia

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    Javier Hernandez Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L, reproduces vegetatively using bulbils, condition that favors the spread of diseases, especially bacteria, fungi and viruses, which affect the quality and crop yield. For this reason, the molecular identification by RT-PCR of potyvirus: LYSV and OYDV in the production system of clean seed garlic of three national clones were implemented. In the production phase of clean seed was establishing garlic meristems micropropagation. Potyvirus presence in 586 seedlings was analyzed by ELISA and for RT-PCR in 70. RNA was extracted from leaves and small bulbs, yielding 1.7 to 226 ng/µl, and with this RNA, between 35 to 50 ng of cDNA. The results showed that the disinfection protocol produced a 73.6% viability of plants. ELISA analysis showed 96% sanitation of seedling to potyvirus, whereas, Leek Yellow Strip Virus, LYSV was identified in 8.6% of samples used RT-PCR methodology. Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV was not detected in any sample. The results show that the in vitro culture of meristem of garlic, is an excellent alternative for seed production, showing a 92% efficiency. Moreover, efficient diagnostics of LYSV potyvirus was validated in leaves and small bulbs of garlic.

  2. Efek Antidiabetes Kombinasi Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum Linn. dan Rimpang Kunyit (Curcumma domestica Val. dengan Pembanding Glibenklamid pada Penderita Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

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    Ame Suciati Setiawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. and curcumin extract (Curcumma domestica Val. can be used as an antidiabetic oral to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients and the clinical trial showed that the extract can decrease blood glucose at a dose 2.4 g/day. This clinical trial was conducted to know the antidiabetic effect of the combination of garlic and curcumin extract compared with antidiabetic oral, glibenclamide. The subjects were >35 years of age with type 2 DM who came to internal and endocrine clinic RSUP. Hasan Sadikin Bandung and has been treated with medical nutrition therapy for 2 weeks period November 2007–December 2008. The research design was parallel, randomized and double blind. The combination of garlic and curcumin extract decreased mean value of fasting blood glucose 9.25 mg/dL, 2h PP blood glucose 22.25 mg/dL, HbA1c 1,30% and insulin 12.57 mg/ dL compared with baseline whereas glibenclamide decreased the mean value of fasting blood glucose 72.37 mg/dL, 2h PP 114,25 mg/dL, HbA1c 4.12% and increased insulin 3.34 mg/dL. In conclusion, the extract combination has antidiabetic effect eventhough the effect was not as high as glibenclamide

  3. Chemical characterization of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their inhibition effect on the growth of some food pathogens

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    A.C.T. Mallet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the chemical composition of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their effect on the growth inhibition of microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa, S. Choleraesuis, A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum, important food contaminants. The main constituents of the oregano essential oil were 4-terpineol (27.03%, γ-terpinene (20.04%, and β-cymene (6.34%, and the main constituents of the garlic essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (38, 81%, diallyl disulfide (25.23%, and methyl allyl trisulfide (12.52%. Inhibition zones were formed in in vitro tests on the bacteria S. Choleraesuis and P. aeruginosa, except for A. sativum against P. aeruginosa. The inhibition of mycelial growth caused by the oregano essential oil occurred with the concentrations of 0.10, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL-1 for the A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum fungi, respectively. The CMI for the garlic oil began at the 0.03 mg mL-1 concentration for all species of fungi. The oils presented an inhibitory effect against the microorganisms studied and constitute an alternative for microbiological control in food.

  4. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure.

  5. Anti-mycobacterial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) against multi-drug resistant and non-multi-drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Abdul; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Shahid; Absar, Muhammad; Javed, Khursheed

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB throughout the developing world is very disturbing in the present scenario of TB management. There is a fundamental need to explore alternative anti-TB agents. Hence natural plants should be investigated to understand their antimicrobial properties and safety. Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of natural plant which possesses variety of biological properties like anti-tumor, anti-hyperlipedemic and anti-microbial etc. The present study was evaluated for anti-bacterial activity of garlic against non-MDR and MDR isolates of M. tuberculosis. A total of 20 clinical isolates of MTB including 15 MDR and 5 non-MDR were investigated. Ethanolic extract of garlic was prepared by maceration method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed by using 7H9 middle brook broth dilution technique. MIC of garlic extract was ranged from 1 to 3 mg/ml; showing inhibitory effects of garlic against both non-MDR and MDR M. tuberculosis isolates. Alternate medicine practices with plant extracts including garlic should be considered to decrease the burden of drug resistance and cost in the management of diseases. The use of garlic against MDR-TB may be of great importance regarding public health.

  6. Pyramided rice lines harbouring Allium sativum (asal) and Galanthus nivalis (gna) lectin genes impart enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, Y; Vijaya Kumar, S; Pasalu, I C; Balachandran, S M; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2011-03-20

    We have developed transgene pyramided rice lines, endowed with enhanced resistance to major sap-sucking insects, through sexual crosses made between two stable transgenic rice lines containing Allium sativum (asal) and Galanthus nivalis (gna) lectin genes. Presence and expression of asal and gna genes in pyramided lines were confirmed by PCR and western blot analyses. Segregation analysis of F₂ progenies disclosed digenic (9:3:3:1) inheritance of the transgenes. Homozygous F₃ plants carrying asal and gna genes were identified employing genetic and molecular methods besides insect bioassays. Pyramided lines, infested with brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), proved more effective in reducing insect survival, fecundity, feeding ability besides delayed development of insects as compared to the parental transgenics. Under infested conditions, pyramided lines were found superior to the parental transgenics in their seed yield potential. This study represents first report on pyramiding of two lectin genes into rice exhibiting enhanced resistance against major sucking pests. The pyramided lines appear promising and might serve as a novel genetic resource in rice breeding aimed at durable and broad based resistance against hoppers.

  7. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits.

  8. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

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    Aracelli de Sousa Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL. There are both natural (iCNSL and technical (tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-, during (co-, and after (post- treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  9. In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Crude Garlic (Allium sativum) Clove Extract on Selected Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species as Revealed by SEM, TEM, and SDS-PAGE Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyens, J; Labuschagne, M C; Thantsha, M S

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis. SEM micrographs revealed unusual morphological changes such as cell elongation, cocci-shaped cells with cross-walls, and distorted cells with bulbous ends. With TEM, observed changes included among others, condensation of cytoplasmic material, disintegration of membranes, and loss of structural integrity. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any differences in whole-cell protein profiles of untreated and garlic clove extract-treated cells. The current study is the first to reveal the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on probiotic Bifidobacterium species. The results indicate that garlic affects these beneficial bacteria in a manner similar to that exhibited in pathogens. These results therefore further highlight that caution should be taken especially when using raw garlic and probiotic bifidobacteria simultaneously as viability of these bacteria could be reduced by allicin released upon crushing of garlic cloves, thereby limiting the health benefits that the consumer anticipate to gain from probiotics.

  10. In vitro investigation of the toxic effects of extracts of Allium sativum bulbs on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus

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    F. Nchu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of the extracts of Allium sativum (Garlic were evaluated against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus using three types (Types A, B and C of contact toxicity bioassays. A. sativum bulbs were extracted with acetone, ethanol and dichloromethane (DCM solvents. Among these three solvents, it is the DCM extract of A. sativum that appears to have anti-tick activity. In the Type A contact toxicity bioassay, DCM extracts of A. sativum demonstrated a high acaricidal bioactivity against H. m. rufipes with 100 % of ticks killed in less than an hour, and toxicity persisted to the second day. A weak acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of A. sativum was observed in the Type B contact toxicity bioassay. In the Type C contact toxicity bioassay, a concentration of 24 % w/v of DCM extracts of garlic in sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus had killed 100% of H. m. rufipes (LC50= 5.9 % w/v and R. pulchellus (LC50 = 10.3 % w/v by 24 hours post-treatment of ticks. The results obtained from this study suggest that DCM extract of A. sativum is a potential source of novel acaricidal agents.

  11. Synthetic fusion-protein containing domains of Bt Cry1Ac and Allium sativum lectin (ASAL) conferred enhanced insecticidal activity against major lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajne, Sunita; Boddupally, Dayakar; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-02-10

    Different transgenic crop plants, developed with δ-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and mannose-specific plant lectins, exhibited significant protection against chewing and sucking insects. In the present study, a synthetic gene (cry-asal) encoding the fusion-protein having 488 amino acids, comprising DI and DII domains from Bt Cry1Ac and Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Ligand blot analysis disclosed that the fusion-protein could bind to more number of receptors of brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins of Helicoverpa armigera. Artificial diet bioassays revealed that 0.025 μg/g and 0.50 μg/g of fusion-protein were sufficient to cause 100% mortality in Pectinophora gossypiella and H. armigera insects, respectively. As compared to Cry1Ac, the fusion-protein showed enhanced (8-fold and 30-fold) insecticidal activity against two major lepidopteran pests. Binding of fusion-protein to the additional receptors in the midgut cells of insects is attributable to its enhanced entomotoxic effect. The synthetic gene, first of its kind, appears promising and might serve as a potential candidate for engineering crop plants against major insect pests.

  12. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Allium cepa L.var. Agrogatum Don%超声波辅助法提取毛葱黄酮的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 高炯杰

    2015-01-01

    以毛葱为原料,利用乙醇在超声波辅助下提取毛葱黄酮,经AB-8大孔吸附树脂纯化,通过三氯化铝和浓氨水定性试验,确定所制备的产品为纯度较高的毛葱黄酮.通过考察影响黄酮得率的主要3个因素乙醇浓度,超声时间,超声温度,利用响应面法确定毛葱黄酮的最佳提取工艺为:乙醇浓度为85.12%,提取温度为61.11℃,提取时间28.2 min,黄酮提取率达到2.024%.%Ultrasonic assisted extraction of flavonoids from Allium cepa L.var. Agrogatum Don by ethanol was studied in this essay. After macroporous adsorption resin AB-8 , the purified flavonoids were identified by AlCl 3 and ammonia reactions. Three impact factors such as ethanol concentration , ultrasonic time and temperature were determined and optimized by response surface method. And the optimal conditions were as follows: the Allium cepa L.var. Agrogatum Don was extracted by 85.12%ethanol at 61.11℃for 28.2 min, and the yield of flavonoids from Allium cepa L.var. Agrogatum Don was 2.024%.

  13. Avaliação da atividade mutagênica e antimutagênica da Aloe vera em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleo em linfócitos humanos binucleados

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    Régis T. Sturbelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Algumas das substâncias presentes nos vegetais podem ter efeitos mutagênicos, enquanto outras podem atenuar ou anular estes efeitos. Estima-se que mais de 200 substâncias ativas façam parte do gel de Aloe vera, sendo que os polissacarídeos chegam a 30%, e muitos dos benefícios terapêuticos, nutricionais e cosméticos são a eles atribuídos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito mutagênico e antimutagênico da solução de Aloe vera, em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleos em linfócitos humanos binucleados. Para as soluções, as folhas de Aloe vera foram trituradas, filtradas e esterilizadas. O teste de Allium cepa foi constituído de oito tratamentos e o de linfócitos, de cinco (com quatro repetições. Observou-se que na dose usual, a solução de Aloe vera não foi mutagência para o sistema de teste vegetal e nem para o humano. Já na dose dez vezes mais concentrada provocou um efeito citotóxico e mutagênico em Allium cepa. Em células vegetais a solução foi antimutagênica apenas quando colocada depois do paracetamol, enquanto que nas células humanas, essa ação se manifestou quando a solução foi utilizada ao mesmo tempo com o paracetamol.

  14. 胡葱与洋葱、葱亲缘关系初探%Preliminary study on the relationships among Allium ascalonicum L. ,A. cepa L. and A. Fistulosum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光花; 李华; 李春香; 徐玉芳

    2002-01-01

    Allium ascalonicum L.在我国的邦名比较混乱,而且它与洋葱、葱的亲缘关系不清.作者认为,它在我国的邦名应规范为胡葱,同时,从性状比较的角度研究胡葱与洋葱、葱之间的亲缘关系.结果表明,胡葱的植物学特征和生物学特性介于洋葱和葱之间.

  15. Evaluation of Two Mycorrhiza Species and Nitroxin on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in an Ecological Agroecosystem

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    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maintenance of soil fertility is one of the most important issues affecting the sustainability of food production. The application of ecological inputs such as mycorrhiza and biofertilizers are one of those approaches which are needed to maintain soil fertility Biofetilizers include different types of free living organisms that convert unavailable nutrients to available forms and enhance root development and better seed germination. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR occupy the rhizosphere of many plant species and have beneficial effects on the host plant. They may directly and indirectly influence the plant growth. A direct mechanism would be to increase plant growth by supplying the plant with nutrients and hormones. Indirect mechanisms, on the other hand, include reduced susceptibility to diseases and acting as a form of defense referred to as induces systematic resistance. Mycorrhiza arbuscular fungi are other coexist microorganisms that improve soil fertility, nutrients cycling and agroecosystem health. Mycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant organisms in agricultural soils. Many researchers have pointed to the positive roles of mycorrhizal fungi on plants growth characteristics. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are found in 85% of all plant families and occur in many crop species. Mineral nutrients such as potassium, calcium, copper, zinc and iron are assimilated more quickly and in greater amounts by mycorrhizal plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation has also been shown to increase plant resistance of pathogen attack. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a very powerful medicinal plant that is often underestimated. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in any mild climates. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (row and cooked or for medicinal purposes. They have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Despite of many studies on the effects of mycorrhiza and

  16. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

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    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND, Infectious bronchitis (IB and Infectious bursal disease (IBD according to locally adopted vaccination schedule keeping the other subgroup as non vaccinated control. Experimental birds in groups A, B, and C were provided with mentioned infusion @ 20, 10 and 5ml per liter of drinking water while group D was maintained as control. Relevant data were recorded throughout the experiment and or at the termination of the experiment and subjected to statistical analysis. Significantly low mean feed intake (3258.3g and better FCR (1.87 was recorded in group A. Other parameters like weight gain (1739.7g, antibody titer against ND (7.1, IBD (3300.5 and high density lipoprotein (71.6 g/dl were significantly increased in chicks from group A. Similarly, blood cholesterol (145.6 g/dl, triglyceride (145.8 g/dl and low density lipoprotein (57.5 g/dl were significantly reduced in group A. Overall vaccinated group had higher (P<0.05 antibody titer 7.2, 1796.2, 3202.8 against ND, IB and IBD, respectively compared to non-vaccinated group and had no influence on lipid profile. It was concluded that the infusion from the above plants in mentioned composition may not only be effectively used for improved broiler performance and better immunity but also to reduce the cholesterol level.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation Of Selected Plant Extracts As Biocontrol Agents Against Black Mold Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem Of Onion Bulbs Allium Cepa L.

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    Saifeldin A. F. El-Nagerabi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Black mold disease caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. is the most devastating infection occurs in onions Allium cepa L. under field and store conditions. The use of biocontrol agents is ecofriendly approach for controlling seedborne and soilborne diseases compared to the use of toxic synthetic fungicides. This study has been designed to assess the contamination levels of onion seeds with A. niger and its effect on seed germination and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Prunus mahaleb seeds Commiphora myrrha resin 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 g100 ml Syzygium aromaticum dry buds clove and Panax ginseng roots extracts 0.5 1.0 2.0 2.5 g100 ml against black mold of onion bulbs. The fungus is seedborne pathogen which significantly contaminated onion seeds 89-100 and reduced seed germination 39-83. The extracts of clove caused 43-96 inhibition in spore germination followed by mahaleb 37-96 myrrha 33-88 and ginseng 34-87. The highest concentration of these extracts 3.0 did not affect seed germination but significantly reduced seed contamination by A. niger up to 84 80 71 and 65 for Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum Panax ginseng and Prunus mahaleb respectively. The extracts apparently inhibited the fungal growth and mold development on stored onion bulbs which indicates the antifungal property of these extracts against A. niger. Therefore they can be recommended as effective biocontrol agents to reduce seed contamination and enhance the storability of onion bulbs. Thus the use of healthy and certified seeds for onion production is a priority.

  18. Mitochondrial and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in Zn(2+) Ions, ZnO-Bulk and ZnO-NPs treated Allium cepa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Azam, Ameer; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-01-25

    Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn(2+)) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5 nm) for 12 h exhibited significant decrease (23 ± 8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18 ± 7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ΔΨm were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO2(-) at 1240 cm(-1) and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060 cm(-1), suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn(2+) in plants.

  19. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system.

  20. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharadi, Geeta B; Patel, Kaksha J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, C B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only.

  1. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. PMID:28036352

  2. Mitochondrial and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in Zn2+ Ions, ZnO-Bulk and ZnO-NPs treated Allium cepa roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Azam, Ameer; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn2+) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5 nm) for 12 h exhibited significant decrease (23 ± 8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18 ± 7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ΔΨm were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO2− at 1240 cm−1 and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060 cm−1, suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn2+ in plants. PMID:28120857

  3. Avaliação do efeito do alho (Allium sativum L. sobre o colesterol plasmático em coelhos com hipercolesterolemia induzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klassa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas no tratamento de doenças ou como meio curativo é uma tradição popular e altamente difundida, sendo que muitos trabalhos abordam as propriedades terapêuticas e farmacológicas do alho na redução das hiperlipidemias. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência do extrato aquoso (E.A. do alho (Allium sativum L. no tratamento do colesterol plasmático em coelhos com hipercolesterolemia experimental. Os animais foram divididos em G1 (grupo controle e G2 (grupo tratado com alho. O experimento foi desenvolvido em três fases: na 1ª fase os animais receberam dieta comercial de coelhos para avaliar o nível basal de colesterol nos animais; na 2ªfase, todos os animais passaram a receber dieta suplementada com gema de ovo, até o final do experimento, para desenvolver hipercolesterolemia, e; na 3ª fase os animais do grupo G2 receberam o tratamento com E. A. de alho. O colesterol na 1ª fase foi de 39,94 ± 9,57 mg dL-1. Na 2ª fase houve elevação significativa (p<0,05 no nível de colesterol plasmático nos dois grupos -acima de 100 mg dL-1. Com relação ao tratamento, o alho não promoveu redução no colesterol plasmático dos coelhos, contrapondo os dados da literatura.

  4. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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    Tatiane Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE and quercetin (Qt on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced. Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL, and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM. Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation.

  5. Adding Medicinal Herbs Including Garlic (Allium sativum and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris to Diet of Laying Hens and Evaluating Productive Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In trying to finding phytogenic antibiotic-substitutes this study was done and effects of adding graded levels of Medicinal Herbs (MH including garlic (Allium sativum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris to laying hens’ diet on productive performance investigated. Approach: A total number of 108 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens after production peak were randomly divided in 18 cages (n = 6. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME = 2720 Kcal Kg-1 and CP = 154.2 g Kg-1 including three levels (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 of ground mixture of garlic and thyme (1:1 were fed to hens with 6 replicates per diet during 6 week trial period. Collected data of Feed Intake (FI, Egg Production (EP, Egg Mass (EM and calculated Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR as well as egg traits were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. Results: Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on EP, EM and FCR in laying hens (p>0.05. Dietary inclusion of MH decreased FI in weeks 1-6 (p≤0.05. Including diet with 0.1% MP improved means of egg weight (g comparing to the other two experimental diets. Adding 0.2% MH to diet increased egg yolk color as well as blood lymphocyte counts and decreased egg shell weight comparing to other dietary treatments (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary inclusion of garlic and thyme can have beneficial effects on performance of laying hens in terms of improving egg weight and yolk color.

  6. Inter- and intrachromosomal asynchrony of cell division cycle events in root meristem cells of Allium cepa: possible connection with gradient of cyclin B-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, Aneta; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    Alternate treatments of Allium cepa root meristems with hydroxyurea (HU) and caffeine give rise to extremely large and highly elongated cells with atypical images of mitotic divisions, including internuclear asynchrony and an unknown type of interchromosomal asynchrony observed during metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Another type of asynchrony that cannot depend solely on the increased length of cells was observed following long-term incubation of roots with HU. This kind of treatment revealed both cell nuclei entering premature mitosis and, for the first time, an uncommon form of mitotic abnormality manifested in a gradual condensation of chromatin (spanning from interphase to prometaphase). Immunocytochemical study of polykaryotic cells using anti-beta tubulin antibodies revealed severe perturbations in the microtubular organization of preprophase bands. Quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of the control cells indicate that the level of cyclin B-like proteins reaches the maximum at the G2 to metaphase transition and then becomes reduced during later stages of mitosis. After long-term incubation with low doses of HU, the amount of cyclin B-like proteins considerably increases, and a significant number of elongated cells show gradients of these proteins spread along successive regions of the perinuclear cytoplasm. It is suggested that there may be a direct link between the effects of HU-mediated deceleration of S- and G2-phases and an enhanced concentration of cyclin B-like proteins. In consequence, the activation of cyclin B-CDK complexes gives rise to an abnormal pattern of premature mitotic chromosome condensation with biphasic nuclear structures having one part of chromatin decondensed, and the other part condensed.

  7. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llana Ruiz-Cabello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesario evaluar la seguridad asociada al uso de estas sustancias en envases alimentarios que van a estar en contacto con el consumidor a través del alimento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la citotoxicidad producida por dipropil sulfuro y dipropil disulfuro, dos de los componentes del aceite esencial de ajo y cebolla, en la línea celular Caco-2, células humanas procedentes de carcinoma de colon. Los biomarcadores ensayados fueron el contenido total de proteínas, la captación de rojo neutro y la reducción de la sal de tetrazolio (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il-5-(3-carboximetoxifenil-2-(4sulfofenil-2H-tetrazolio. Las células fueron expuestas durante 2, 4 y 8 h a concentraciones comprendidas entre 0 y 200 µM. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas frente al control para ninguno de los tres marcadores, lo que demuestra que bajo las condiciones de los ensayos ambos compuestos azufrados no son citotóxicos para esta línea celular gastrointestinal y podrían ser útiles en la industria alimentaria para desarrollar envases activos.

  8. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

  9. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  10. Caracterización óptica y estructural de nanopartículas de Allium sativum L. impregnadas en lomo de bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johana Figueroa-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las características ópticas y estructurales de nanopartículas de polvo de ajo (Allium sativum L., obtenidas por reducción y selección de tamaño, para comparación con muestras de polvo de ajo comercial. El tamaño de partícula se determinó empleando microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM y las caracterizaciones óptica y estructural se realizaron, respectivamente, por espectroscopia infrarroja transformada de Fourier (FTIR y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Para determinar el efecto de las nanopartículas de polvo de ajo cuando fueron aplicadas sobre trozos de lomo (Longissimus dorsi de bovino se utilizó la técnica de fluorescencia. Los tamaños de las partículas del polvo sometido a reducción y selección de tamaño presentaron valores entre 50 y 100 nm y las de polvo de ajo normal entre 400 y 500 nm. En los espectros de FTIR se observaron los principales grupos funcionales y los difractogramas de rayos X permitieron concluir que se trata de materiales amorfos. Por su tamaño más reducido, las nanopartículas migran más rápido al interior del músculo del bovino que las micropartículas, lo que permite una mejor absorción y aprovechamiento de sus componentes y se constituye en un resultado innovador en el campo de la ciencia de los alimentos.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

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    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L

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    Subodh Kumar Chand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of post transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, 6 conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L. were analysed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450 family proteins were predicted and verified using 5’ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  13. Multiple garlic (Allium sativum L.) microRNAs regulate the immunity against the basal rot fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Mishra, Rukmini; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs. Forty-five miRNAs representing 39 conserved and six novel sequences responsive to FOC were detected. qRT-PCR analyses further classified them into three classes based on their expression patterns in susceptible line CBT-As11 and in the resistant line CBT-As153. North-blot analyses of six selective miRNAs confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Expression studies on a selective set of target genes revealed a negative correlation with the complementary miRNAs. Furthermore, transgenic garlic plant overexpresing miR164a, miR168a and miR393 showed enhanced resistance to FOC, as revealed by decreased fungal growth and up-regulated expression of defense-responsive genes. These results indicate that multiple miRNAs are involved in garlic immunity against FOC and that the overexpression of miR164a, miR168a and miR393 can augment garlic resistance to Fusarium basal rot infection.

  14. Low dose genotoxicity of 4-bromo-n,n-diethyl-5,5- dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphol-2-amine 2-oxide in mice bone marrow cells and Allium cepa L. root tip cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalcheva Vanya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of organophosphorus compounds is a subject of increasing interest and different new compounds have been synthesized. There are data that some known organophosphates are mutagens. Oxaphosphole derivatives possess biological activity and might influence proliferating cells. Bioassays are currently used in ecotoxicology to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of new chemicals. To provide a broad coverage of the mutagenic potential of a chemical, information on different experimental test-systems is required. Genotoxicity assays are usually performed at high doses, but humans are exposed to most environmental chemicals at low doses. The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of low doses (2.82x10-6 µg/kg and 2.82x10-9 µg/kg, corresponding to concentrations 10-12M and 10-15M of 4-bromo-N,N-diethyl- 5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphol-2-amine 2-oxide (Br-oxph in ICR mice bone marrow cells and Allium cepa L. root tip cells. Treatment with Br-oxph for 3 h produced alterations in the mitotic index in Allium cepa cells and induced chromosome aberrations in both test systems. These effects remained 48 h after the treatment. The data from the study showed the existence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Br-oxph at tested doses.

  15. Completion of the mitochondrial genome sequence of onion (Allium cepa L.) containing the CMS-S male-sterile cytoplasm and identification of an independent event of the ccmF N gene split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongju; Kim, Kyunghee; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sunggil

    2016-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) conferred by the CMS-S cytoplasm has been most commonly used for onion (Allium cepa L.) F1 hybrid seed production. We first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence containing CMS-S cytoplasm in this study. Initially, seven contigs were de novo assembled from 150-bp paired-end raw reads produced from the total genomic DNA using the Illumina NextSeq500 platform. These contigs were connected into a single circular genome consisting of 316,363 bp (GenBank accession: KU318712) by PCR amplification. Although all 24 core protein-coding genes were present, no ribosomal protein-coding genes, except rps12, were identified in the onion mitochondrial genome. Unusual trans-splicing of the cox2 gene was verified, and the cox1 gene was identified as part of the chimeric orf725 gene, which is a candidate gene responsible for inducing CMS. In addition to orf725, two small chimeric genes were identified, but no transcripts were detected for these two open reading frames. Thirteen chloroplast-derived sequences, with sizes of 126-13,986 bp, were identified in the intergenic regions. Almost 10 % of the onion mitochondrial genome was composed of repeat sequences. The vast majority of repeats were short repeats of Allium species. The complete onion mitochondrial genome sequence reported in this study would be fundamental information for elucidation of onion CMS evolution.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of FT homologous gene AcLFT3 in Allium cepa%洋葱成花素同源基因AcLFT3的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 韦贺远; 刘彬昕; 陈典

    2014-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of florigen homologous gene AcLFT3 was obtained by RT-PCR and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. The protein structure of AcLFT3 was analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression pattern of AcLFT3 among organs with different developmental stages in Allium cepa were analyzed by QRT-PCR. All the results will establish a foundation for molecular mechanism of bolting and florescence in Allium cepa. In this study, the cloned cDNA sequence of AcLFT3 in Allium cepa was 838 bp with a 540 bp open reading frame (ORF). The deduced AcLFT3 protein was a member of the PEBP family, which had 179 amino acids. The molecular weight of AcLFT3 protein was 20.1 ku and its isoelectric point was 8.81. As AcLFT3 had the closest relationship to Allium fistulosum (84.4%), followed by Iris fulva. QRT-PCR result showed that AcLFT3 was expressed during all the organs with different developmental stages. More interestingly, AcLFT3 was highly expressed in leaves of Allium cepa from the stage of vernalization to bolting.%以RT-PCR结合RACE方法克隆洋葱成花素同源基因AcLFT3的全长cDNA序列,利用生物信息学方法对蛋白结构进行预测分析,采用实时定量PCR法分析洋葱AcLFT3基因在不同时期不同器官的表达模式,为探讨洋葱抽薹开花的分子机制奠定基础。克隆获得的洋葱成花素同源基因AcLFT3 cDNA全长序列共838 bp,其中开放读码框为540 bp,编码由179个氨基酸组成、等电点为8.81、分子质量为20.1 ku的一个PEBP家族蛋白。AcLFT3与大葱成花素蛋白的同源性最高,为84.4%,其次为鸢尾。实时荧光定量PCR分析表明,AcLFT3基因在洋葱不同生长发育阶段器官中均有表达,以春化后抽薹前的叶片中表达量最高。

  17. 洋葱花药发育中钙离子分布特征%Distribution of Calcium in Developing Anthers of Allium cepa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈肖; 魏冬梅; 田惠桥

    2010-01-01

    采用焦锑酸钾沉淀钙离子技术,对洋葱((Allium cepa)花药发育中Ca2+分布进行了研究.在小孢子母细胞时期,小孢子母细胞中的钙沉淀颗粒很少,但绒毡层细胞的内切向壁已出现明显的钙沉淀颗粒.在四分体时期,四分体小孢子的胼肤质壁中出现较多的钙沉淀颗粒;绒毡层细胞内切向壁的钙沉淀颗粒消失,而在外切向壁和径向壁部位的钙沉淀颗粒增加.在小孑包子早期,小孢子中也出现了钙沉淀颗粒,而绒毡层细胞内切向壁表面出现了很多絮状物,其上附有细小钙沉淀颗粒.到小孢子晚期,小孢子中出现一些小液泡,细胞质中的钙沉淀颗粒有所下降.此时绒毡层细胞已明显退化,但在绒毡层膜上仍有一些乌氏体和钙沉淀颗粒.在二胞花粉早期,营养细胞中的液泡收缩、消失,细胞质中又出现了较多的钙沉淀颗粒,在质体和其内部的淀粉粒表面上附有较多的钙沉淀颗粒.到二胞花粉晚期,花粉中的钙沉淀颗粒已明显下降,仅在花粉外壁中还有一些钙沉淀颗粒.

  18. Cytotoxicity of Spent Pot Liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: A comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Dos Santos Gedraite, Leonardo; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-11-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL. A comparative approach between the effects on M2 cells and meristematic cells of the proximal meristem zone (referred as M1 cells in this study) could lead to understanding how DNA damage caused by SPL behaves on successive generations of cells. Allium cepa cells were exposed to 4 different concentrations of SPL (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10gL(-1)) mixed with soil and diluted in a CaCl2 0.01M to simulate the ionic forces naturally encountered on the environment. A solution containing only soil diluted on CaCl2 0.01M was used as control. M1 and M2 cells were evaluated separately, taking into account four different parameters: (1) mitotic alterations (MA); (2) presence of condensed nuclei (CN); (3) mitotic index (MI); (4) presence of micronucleus (MCN). Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 roots tip cells for these four parameters accessed. M1 cells was more prompt to reveal citogenotoxicity through the higher frequency of MA observed. Meanwhile, for M2 cells higher frequencies of MCN and CN was noticed, followed by a reduction of MI. Also, it was possible to detect significant differences between the tested treatments and the control on every case. These results indicate SPL toxic effects carries on to future cells generations. This emphasizes the need to properly manage this waste. Joint evaluation of cells from both M1 and M2 regions was proven valuable for the evaluation of a series of parameters on all toxicity tests.

  19. Análisis combinado acústico-mecánico durante el almacenamiento de cebolla (allium fistulosum mínimamente procesada

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    Andrea González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La cebolla de rama (Allium fistulosum es una hortaliza altamente perecedera debido a su contenido de humedad, a su elevada tasa metabólica y al deficiente manejo poscosecha al cosecharla y transportarla. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la relación entre el deterioro visual del producto y los cambios generados en las propiedades mecánicas y acústicas del mismo. Se utilizó cebolla de rama cultivada en Aquitania, Boyacá Colombia, sometida a condiciones: empaque a vacío (10 mbar y sin empaque (HR 68%; y almacenada a 4 oC y 16 oC, hasta deterioro por apariencia visual. Los cambios mecánico acústicos en firmeza, crujencia y fractura para la cebolla sin empaque y almacenado a 4 °C se presentaron en el día 15 de almacenamiento, y el deterioro visual en el día 13. Para el producto sin empaque almacenado a 16 °C, el mayor cambio se presentó el día sexto. El producto empacado a vacío y almacenado a 4 °C presentó cambios mecánico acústicos y de apariencia visual en el día 15 y para el producto empacado a vacío y almacenado a 16 °C se presentaron cambios en el día seis, en las características de firmeza, crujencia y fracturabilidad, coincidiendo con la disminución de la apariencia visual. En términos generales fue más evidente el cambio en la disminución de la fracturabilidad para la cebolla almacenada a 16 oC, en las dos condiciones de empaque. Los métodos instrumentales empleados permitieron aproximar el tiempo de deterioro de cebolla mínimamente procesada, en beneficio del establecimiento de la vida útil percibida por aspecto visual.

  20. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Siska; Ahammed, Musabbir; Jang, Seong Hun; Ohh, Sang Jip

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract (OE) supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR), blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively). On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04) than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01) and ether extract (p = 0.04) linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p = 0.03) with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01) redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality. PMID:27809460

  1. Citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade da água do rio Subaé (Humildes, Bahia, Brasil usando Allium cepa L. como bioindicador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ramos Machado Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo dos anos, o rio Subaé na Bahia tem sido impactado por atividade industrial pelo lançamento de efluentes tóxicos em suas águas. O presente estudo analisou os efeitos citotóxicos e genotóxicos provocados pela água do trecho deste rio que banha o município de Humildes-BA, utilizando o teste do Allium cepa. Amostras de água foram obtidas em três pontos de coleta (PI, PII e PIII para as análises de parâmetros fisico-químicos. Bulbos de A. cepa foram colocados por 72 h para germinação nas amostras de água em triplicata. As radículas foram submetidas por 12-h a 4 oC, fixadas em Carnoy por 12-h e coradas com técnica de Feulgen. Foram analisadas 6.500 células/tratamento. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada pelo índice mitótico (IM e a genotoxicidade, por anormalidades cromossômicas (AC. Os testes fisico-químicos revelaram que PI e PIII apresentavam valores de OD, DBO5 e DQO alterados. O teste de toxicidade indicou que houve inibição do crescimento das raízes nos pontos PI (10,3 % e PII (10,6 %, quando comparados ao controle negativo (11,9 %. No PI, foram encontrados 6,2 % de ACs, 6 % em PII e 5,4 % em PIII, valores acima do controle positivo (3 %, evidenciando o efeito genotóxico nos pontos estudados. A partir dos resultados, pode-se inferir que as águas do Rio Subaé podem conter substâncias que provavelmente estão afetando o ciclo celular do A. cepa, sendo importante que outras análises sejam realizadas em diferentes estações do ano, para melhor monitoramento das condições ambientais locais.

  2. Ação genotóxica e antiproliferativa de Polygonum punctatum Elliott (Polygonaceae sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

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    T. PASTORI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:A espécie Polygonum punctatum Elliott (Polygonaceae é amplamente utilizada pela população como planta medicinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de avaliar o potencial genotóxico e mutagênico de P. punctatum utilizando raízes de bulbos e radículas em sementes germinadas de Allium cepa através do teste in vivo, e realizar comparações da extração do material vegetal por calor (infusões e extração a frio (extrato. Para isso, foram preparadas dois tipos de soluções, infusões e extratos foliares de P. punctatum, em duas concentrações 0,4 g mL-1 e 2,4 g mL-1. A infusão foi preparada pela adição das folhas secas em água destilada fervente (100ºC, permanecendo por 10 minutos enquanto o extrato foi preparado através da maceração das folhas secas em água destilada fria. Para o teste em A. cepa foram utilizados, para cada tratamento, seis grupos de quatro bulbos e seis caixas gerbox com 50 sementes em cada caixa. Duas lâminas para cada tratamento foram obtidas através da técnica de esmagamento das raízes e coradas com orceína acética 2%. Foram contadas 2000 células por grupo de bulbos e 3000 células por grupo de sementes, observando-se a ocorrência de interrupções em metáfases, alterações cromossômicas estruturais, bem como a inibição ou aumento da divisão celular. Os valores do índice mitótico foram calculados e analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste χ2(p≤0,05. Os resultados demonstraram que as infusões e os extratos de folhas apresentaram redução nos valores de índices mitóticos nas concentrações utilizadas em relação ao controle em água destilada. Foram identificadas alterações cromossômicas na divisão celular, tais como pontes anafásicas, em todas as concentrações de infusões e extratos indicando assim que P. punctatum possui atividade antiproliferativa e genotóxica.

  3. Effect of Low Frequency Magnetic Field (LFMF on the Germination of Seeds and Selected Useful Characters of Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman HOŁUBOWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields (MF have been reported widely as pre-sowing seeds treatment to increase their vigour, seedling growth and the plants’ yield. Although, it has been shown that MF could affect seed germination and the seedling root growth, still their further effect on plant’s life has been found to be inconsistent, especially under field conditions. Commercial seed lots of onion (Allium cepa L. of the cultivars ‘Octavia’ and ‘Eureka’ were soaked for 12 hours in the distilled water at 20 °C. Next, they were exposed to low frequency magnetic field (LFMF of magnetic induction B=20 mT, for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The LFMF was generated using a standard medical device for magnetostimulation VIOFOR JPS. Next, the seeds were evaluated for germination and received bulbs were analysed for the selected useful characters including the root length, maximal diameters, dry matter and quercetin content. For the LFMF treatment of 60 minutes, for the cultivars ‘Octavia’ and ‘Eureka’, the energy of germination increased from 75.8% and 65% (control to 88.3% and 87.5%, respectively. For the LFMF treatment of 60 minutes, the germination capacity, for the same cultivars, increased from 85% and 76.3% (control to 92% and 90%, respectively, Treated for 60 minutes with LFMF onion seeds had longer seedlings than the ones from the control seeds. These values, for both cultivars, increased from 5.3 cm and 4.2 cm (control to 8.4 cm and 5.7 cm, respectively. LFMF used for 60 minutes on the ‘Octavia’ onion seeds, increased their emergences in the field and length of the roots on the bulbs. LFMF used had no effect on the dry matter of bulbs grown out from the seeds when exposing them for 10 and 30 minutes. However, when exposing them for 60 minutes, LFMF decreased the dry matter and increased the amount of quercetin.

  4. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F. Willd. (Asteraceae sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

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    M.G. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F. Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifosato em 90% água, um herbicida amplamente utilizado com conhecido potencial genotóxico, e de um controle negativo composto por água destilada. Após período de 24 horas, as radículas foram coletadas das infusões, fixadas em etanol-ácido acético (3:1 por 24 horas e estocadas em etanol 70%. Foram analisadas células em todas as fases do ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 2500, para cada grupo de bulbos. Os índices mitóticos (IM foram calculados e submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste χ² a 5%. Os resultados mostraram que, em ambas as populações de M. cordifolia, houve redução do IM de todos os tratamentos em relação ao controle negativo. Em ambas as populações, obteve-se aumento nos valores dos índices mitóticos em função do aumento da concentração da infusão. Ocorreram aberrações cromossômicas em ambas as populações estudadas. Concluiu-se que as infusões de M. cordifolia, nas concentrações estudadas, possuem efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico sobre o ciclo celular de A. cepa.

  5. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.

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    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus, cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense, ortiga (Urtica urens, manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla, caléndula (Calendula officinalis, yerbabuena (Menta viridis, ajo (Allium sativum y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum, preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l, fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete aplicaciones (52, 60, 68, 76,84, 92 y 100 días después del trasplante, incluyendo un testigo químico Ridomil (metalaxil + mancozeb (2 g/l y el testigo absoluto; se evaluaron la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor, y el número y el peso de bulbos cosechados. El ANOVA mostró que de las siete aplicaciones realizadas, la última presentó efectos estadísticos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor. El extracto de manzanilla superó al Ridomil en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor sin diferencias estadísticas entre sí, y fue significativamente mejor al observado con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, caléndula y el testigo; el extracto de manzanilla superó al testigo químico en el número y peso de bulbos de cebolla sin presentar diferencias estadísticas, y fue significativamente mejor al obtenido con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, ortiga, caléndula, yerbabuena, clavo y el testigo absoluto. El extracto de manzanilla es una alternativa ecológica que se debe tener en cuenta en el manejo integrado de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo.

  6. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L. Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

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    Sun-Ho Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes,α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L. extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose, a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL. The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL. Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053 on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model

  7. Nutrigenomic evaluation of garlic (Allium sativum) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and immune characteristics in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, N.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.; Batra, K.; Sihag, S.; Maan, S.; Maan, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In this study, a planned research work was conducted to investigate the nutrigenomic aspects of supplementation of Allium sativum (garlic) and Ocimum sanctum (holy basil) leaf powder on the growth performance and immune characteristics of broilers. Materials and Methods: A 6 weeks feeding trial was conducted with 280-day-old Ven Cobb broilers, distributed randomly into seven experimental groups. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet formulated as per BIS standards. The broilers of treatment groups T2 and T3 were fed basal diet supplemented with the commercially available garlic powder (GP) at levels of 0.5% and 1.0% of the feed, respectively, while broilers in T4 and T5 were fed basal diet supplemented with commercial grade holy basil leaf powder (HBLP) at levels 0.5% and 1.0% of the feed, respectively. Birds in the T6 were fed with 0.5% GP and 0.5% HBLP, whereas T7 was fed with 1.0% GP and 1.0% HBLP. At the end of the feeding trial (6th week), blood samples were collected and analyzed for relative mRNA expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, TLR 4 and TLR 7 using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The mean body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were improved (p<0.05) in broilers fed the GP and HBLP incorporated diets compared with the control group. The relative mRNA expression levels of TLR 2, TLR 4 and TLR 7 in the peripheral blood of the broilers were found to be increased (p<0.05) in the birds supplemented with graded levels of the GP and HBLP as compared to the untreated group. Conclusion: The present work concludes that the inclusion of GP and HBLP could enhance the production performance and immune status of birds by augmenting the T-cell mediated immune response and thereby protects them from disease without decreasing growth traits as a possible substitution to conventional antimicrobials. PMID:28246456

  8. 沙葱提取物对羊肉香肠抗氧化效果的研究%Study of Allium Mongolicumregel Extracts on Antioxidative Effect of Mutton Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚蕾; 罗璨; 范艳丽; 剧柠

    2016-01-01

    The anti oxidative effect of Allium mongolicum extract of mutton sausage was studied when the sen-sory quality, peroxide value(POV), TBA value, acid value(AV) were taken as the evaluating indicators. The experimental results showed that:Allium mongolicum alcohol extract had antioxidant properties higher than wa-ter extract and Allium pulp. The alcohol extracts can slow down the oxidation rate of the mutton sausage, and with the increased of the amount of the increased, the antioxidant effect was also increased. The concentration of ethanol extract had a great influence on the sensory of mutton sausage. The sensory quality of sausage had better when 1%-1.5%of the alcohol extracts was added. The storage experiment of mutton sausage with the addition of 1 % ethanol extracts in 3 ℃-5 ℃ temperature demonstrated that it had a significant antioxidant activity, which was beneficial to the storage of mutton sausage.%以感官品质、过氧化值(POV)、TBA值、酸价(AV)为指标,研究沙葱提取物对羊肉香肠的抗氧化效果。试验结果表明:沙葱醇提物比水提物及沙葱浆具有更高的抗氧化性能,沙葱醇提物能减缓羊肉香肠的氧化速度,并且随着添加量的增加,抗氧化效果也增加。醇提物浓度对羊肉香肠感官影响较大,添加1%~1.5%时香肠的感官品质较好,使用添加量为1%醇提物进行3℃~5℃贮藏试验,证明其具有显著的抗氧化性,对羊肉香肠贮藏有利。

  9. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of AcADLFY from Allium cepa var. Aggregatum Don%分蘖洋葱AcADLFY基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 邓志园; 叶阳阳; 刘彬昕; 陈典

    2014-01-01

    LEAFY基因是植物开花调控网络中的关键基因,影响植物的成花与开花时间。研究根据已有LEAFY同源基因保守区设计简并引物,结合3' RACE和5' RACE,采用RT-PCR方法克隆得到分蘖洋葱LEAFY同源基因的ORF序列,该序列长1119 bp,编码372个氨基酸,命名为AcADLFY,GenBank登录号为JX275963。AcADLFY氨基酸序列含有5'-N端脯氨酸富集区、亮氨酸拉链结构和酸性区,符合转录因子的结构特征。序列分析表明,分蘖洋葱AcADLFY基因与洋葱的LEAFY基因高度同源,氨基酸水平上的相似性为98.66%。半定量RT-PCR结果表明,AcADLFY在幼嫩的花器官中有表达,在成熟花器官和叶片中没有表达。试验克隆分蘖洋葱的LFY同源基因,为解决分蘖洋葱的有性生殖障碍提供参考。%The LEAFY gene plays a key role in the regulation network of plant flower develop-ment, it affects the flowering of plants and flowering time. According to the conserved domain of existing LEAFY homologous gene, a pair of homologous primers was designed and the open reading frame (ORF) sequence of LEAFY homologous gene from Allium cepa var. Aggregatum Don was isolated using RT-PCR method. The obtained gene was named AcADLFY (GenBank accession No: JX275963). The AcADLFY gene contains a 1 119 bp ORF encoding 372 amino acids. The amino acid sequence con-tains a 5'-N proline-rich region, acidic region, which are typical structure features of transcription factor. Sequence analysis showed that the AcADLFY was from Allium cepa var. Aggregatum Don had a high homology with LFY from Allium cepa L. and similarity of amino acid level was 98.66%. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AcADLFY was detected in the young flower organs, and there was no expression in the mature flower organs and leaves. Cloning of LFY homologous genes from Allium cepa var. Aggregatum Don provided a reference for resolving its sexual reproduction barriers.

  11. 洋葱种质资源数量性状的主成分分析和聚类分析%Clustering and Principal Component Analysis of Germplasm Resources of Onion(Allium cepa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沁滨; 侯喜林; 张波; 杨金明; 冷月强; 蒋芳玲

    2007-01-01

    洋葱(Allium cepa L.)属百合科葱属二年生植物,是世界上主要蔬菜作物之一,也是中国主要的栽培和出口蔬菜。随着农业产业结构的调整,对洋葱优良品种的需求日益增加。由于中国洋葱品种改良起步较晚,加上洋葱品种选育的周期较长,生产上的用种主要依赖进口。本研究采用多元统计分析方法对连云港市农业科学院和南京农业大学园艺学院多年收集、

  12. Research of Aqueous Extract of Onion (Allium cepa L.)in the Preservation of Fresh Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)%洋葱水提取液对白鲢鱼肉的保鲜作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 陈加平

    2010-01-01

    将洋葱(Allium cepa L.)的水提取液应用于新鲜白鲢鱼肉的保鲜,通过测定货架期白鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)鱼肉的pH、挥发性盐基总氮(TVBN)、TBA值、菌落总数以及新鲜度感官评定,研究了提取液对于白鲢鱼肉货架期品质的影响.结果表明,洋葱提取液能够有效地保持鱼肉的货价期品质,延缓鱼肉pH、TVBN值、TBA值以及菌落总数的升高.

  13. 新鲜大蒜中蒜氨酸酶的分离纯化及性质%Purification and Properties of Alliinase from Fresh Garlic(Allium sativum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 王荣; 李冠; 苟萍

    2005-01-01

    用葡聚糖凝胶G-200层析柱分离纯化了新鲜大蒜(Allium sativum)中的蒜氨酸酶,SDS-PAGE结果为单一条带,分子量为53 kD在35℃下以蒜氨酸为底物,Km为0.693 mmol·L-1,Vmax为0.353 mmol·min-1,最适反应温度为30℃,热稳定的温度在50℃以下.Zn2+对酶有抑制作用,Mn2+使酶活力增加.

  14. 洋葱细胞核仁内DNA的结构变化及排布过程%The Structural Transformation of Nucleolar DNA and Its Arrangement in Nucleolus of Allium cepa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶伟; 张立勇; 黄百渠; 焦明大; 何孟元; 郝水

    2001-01-01

    By using the DNA specific cytochemical staining method (NAMA_Ur) and conventional electron microscopic technique, the authors examined the configuration of intranucleolar DNA in Allium cepa L. cells and found that nucleolar DNA within the fibrillar center (FC) underwent a structural transformation process from condensed to extended state. The authors' observations also displayed a continuous arrangement process of nucleolar DNA, i.e., the extranucleolar DNA entered FC through the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) channel, then extended to the periphery of FC or to the border between FC and dense fibrillar component (DFC), and distributed along the periphery of FC. Thence, by passing through the NOR channel between FCs, the nucleolar DNA continued to transfer to other FCs and arranged in the same above_mentioned forms.%以洋葱(Allium cepa L.) 细胞为研究材料,应用DNA细胞化学特异染色方法(NAMA_Ur)及常规电子显微镜技术,观察了洋葱细胞核仁FC(纤维中心)内DNA的超微结构,发现FC内DNA存在着一个介于集缩到解集缩之间的变化过程,并揭示了DNA在核仁内的连续排布过程,即核仁外DNA经过核仁通道进入到FC后,继续沿FC的边缘或DFC(致密纤维成分)与FC的交界处环绕FC而排布,再经FC之间的核仁通道,延伸到另外的FC区域。

  15. Content Determination of Quercetin in Microemulsion of Fiavonoid-rich Allium cepa L.var.agrogatnm Don Extract%分蘖葱头总黄酮微乳中槲皮素的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武敏; 王静; 郭秋实; 丁志英; 孙波

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contents of quercetin in microemulsion of flavonoid-rich allium cepa L var. Agrogatnm don extract. High performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was used in this experiment. The condition a follows: Shmisadezu LC-10A Tvp (250mm × 4.6mm) was adopted, mobile phase consisted of methanol- water (51:49), th( wavelength was 365nm, and the flow rate was 1.0mL/min. The calibration curve of quercetin was in good linearity with th< range of 0.268-85.816 μg (r=0.999 9). The average recovery was 98.03%, and RSD was 1.02%. The HPLC method is simple stable, accurate and reproducible, and it can be used for determining the content of quercetin in microemulsion o flavonoid-rich allium cepa Lvar. Agrogatnm don extract.%用高效液相色谱法测定分蘖葱头总黄酮微乳中的槲皮素含量.采用Shmisadezu LC-10A Tvp高效液相色谱仪,YMC-PackPro C18RS(I.D.250mm×4.6mm)色谱柱,流动相:甲醇-0.4%磷酸溶液(51:49);检测波长:365nm;流速:1.0mL/min.结果表明,槲皮素在0.268~85.816μg/mL范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率98.03%,RSD 1.02%.该方法简单、快速、准确、重复性好,可用于测定分蘖葱头总黄酮微乳中的槲皮素含量.

  16. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de alho e casca de canela contra fungos do grupo Aspergillus flavus Evaluation of essential oils from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum zeilanicum and their toxicity against fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson de C. Viegas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da propriedade inibitória de óleos essenciais vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos e da importância das espécies do grupo Aspergillus flavus, que apresentam potencial para síntese de aflatoxina, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro a toxicidade de óleos essenciais vegetais contra fungos do grupo A. flavus, isolados a partir da cultura do amendoim. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a toxicidade de oito óleos essenciais vegetais no desenvolvimento micelial de dois isolados do grupo A. flavus, em comparação ao fungicida sintético benomyl. Em seguida, foi avaliada a toxicidade dos óleos de casca de canela (Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. e de bulbilho de alho (Allium sativum L. contra 37 isolados do grupo A. flavus, durante 12 meses. A maior inibição do desenvolvimento micelial de A. flavus foi obtida com o emprego dos óleos essenciais de casca de canela e de bulbilho de alho, e o efeito inibitório variou com o isolado testado.Considering the inhibitory property of essential plant oils on the mycelial development of fungi, and the importance of Aspergillus flavus-like fungi which may produce aflatoxins, this research was designed to evaluate the toxicity of essential oils against fungi belonging to the group A. flavus isolated from peanut crops. The toxicity of eight essential oils against two isolates of A. Flavuslike fungi was evaluated in comparison to the synthetic fungicide benomyl. The toxicity of Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. and Allium sativum L. essential oils was also evaluated against 37 fungal isolates for a period of 12 months. The highest inhibition of the mycelial development of A. flavus was obtained with cinnamon and garlic essential oils. The inhibitory effect on growth was variable according to the fungal isolate.

  17. Allium cepa extracts inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer in vitro%洋葱提取物对结肠癌细胞增殖的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周阿成; 金黑鹰; 谈瑄忠; 钱晓磊; 张春霞; 何勇山; 王水明

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究洋葱水提取物和乙醇提取物中黄酮类化合物的含量及其各自对结肠癌细胞株增殖的抑制作用.方法:采用水提取和乙醇提取洋葱后,用紫外可见分光光度仪检测提取物中黄酮类化合物含量.体外培养结肠癌细胞株(LoVo cells、SW480 cells、HT-29 cells、HCT-8 cells),采用不同浓度的黄酮类化合物(0、2.5、5、10、20、40、60、80 mg/L)对其进行干预,WST-8法检测洋葱水提取物和乙醇提取物对结肠癌细胞株增殖的抑制作用.结果:洋葱水提取物中黄酮类化合物含量较乙醇提取物高.WST-8法检测洋葱水提取物和乙醇提取物对结肠癌细胞株的抑制作用具有剂量和时间依赖性,且72 h时水提取物较乙醇提取物对结肠癌细胞株(SW480)增殖抑制(%)更显著(10 mg/L:37.77±5.84 vs 17.36±5.24;20 mg/L:52.35±5.72 vs 24.15±5.54; 40 mg/L:68.17±7.76 vs 32.79±6.02; 60 mg/L:71.08±8.16 vs 47.55±2.45; 80 mg/L:76.00±5.87 vs60.35±6.61,均P<0.05).结论:洋葱水提取物和乙醇提取物对体外培养的结肠癌细胞株的增殖有明显抑制作用,其作用机制有待进一步研究.%AIM: To determine the contents of flavonoids in water and alcohol extracts of Allium cepa and to investigate their inhibitory effect on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.METHODS: The contents of flavonoids extracted from Allium cepa with water and alcohol were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Colorectal cancer cells (Lovo cells, SW480 cells, HT-29 cells and HCT-8 cells) were cultured in vitro and incubated with different concentration of flavonoids (0,2.5,5,10,20,40, 60,80 mg/L). Cell proliferation was tested by WST-8 assay.RESULTS: The content of flavonoids was higher than in the water extract of Allium cepa than in the alcohol extract. Both the water and alcohol extracts of Allium cepa inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The water extract of

  18. EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZA Y GALLINAZA SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y LA CALIDAD DE CEBOLLA CABEZONA (Allium cepa L. ‘Yellow Granex’ EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZAE AND HEN MANURE FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF ONION (Allium cepa L. ‘YELLOW GRANEX’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Yolima Agudelo Becerra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En condiciones de campo se evaluó el efecto de hongos micorrizógenos y de gallinaza, comparado con la aplicación de fertilizante mineral, sobre la producción y la calidad de cebolla cabezona (Allium cepa L. ‘Yellow Granex’ en el municipio de Cucaita - Boyacá (Colombia. Las semillas germinaron en suelo, y 70 días después de la germinación, se seleccionaron plántulas de tamaño uniforme, se transplantaron y se inocularon (0,86 ton/ha de Mycofertil o no con hongos micorrícicos. Se aplicaron tres dosis de gallinaza (0 - 1 y 2 ton/ha y 0,5 ton / ha de fertilizante comercial 15 - 15 - 15. Se evaluó la producción total, la producción de bulbos de primera y segunda calidad, así como de los bulbos dañados. Se utilizó el diseño de bloques al azar con tres replicaciones. Se hizo un análisis de varianza (ANOVA para los datos registrados y se realizó la prueba de comparación de medias de Duncan con un nivel de significancia de 0,01. Los resultados mostraron que las micorrizas y la gallinaza incrementaron la producción total y de las cebollas de primera calidad, comparados con la aplicación fertilizante mineral solo o complementado con 1 ó 2 ton/ha de gallinaza. Sin embargo, la producción de cebolla de segunda calidad fue superior en las parcelas tratadas con micorrizas, comparadas con los otros tratamientos sin ellas. Por otro lado, la adición de micorrizas redujo la cantidad de bulbos dañados. El tratamiento con fertilizante mineral solo presentó la producción total más baja y la menor producción de cebolla de primera y segunda calidad, pero la más alta producción de cebollas dañadas, en comparación con los demás tratamientos evaluados. Los resultados se discutieron con base en el incremento en la toma de nutrientes y en la reducción del efecto de patógenos radiculares en las plantas colonizadas con micorrizas.Under field conditions, the effects of mycorrhizae and hen manure fertilization, compared to the application

  19. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Quercetin from Allium cepa L.var.Agrogatum Don on Serum Lipids Index of Hyperlipidemic Mouse%分蘖葱头槲皮素对高血脂小鼠血脂影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2015-01-01

    从分蘖葱头中提取制备槲皮素,研究其对高脂饲料喂养昆明小鼠建立高血脂模型的影响.利用试剂盒测定小鼠体重、脏器系数、血清中血清甘油三酯(Triglyceride,TG)、总胆固醇(Total Cholesterol,TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol,LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol,HDL-C)指数,计算动脉硬化指数(Arteriosclerosis Index,AI).结果表明:与高脂阴性对照组相比,连续50 d灌胃分蘖葱头槲皮素能够有效控制高血脂小鼠体重,对主要脏器没有实质性伤害,且可以显著降低高脂血症小鼠的血清TC、TG、LDL-C水平和AI值,明显升高血清HDL-C水平,具有一定的降血脂作用,能调节高脂血症小鼠的血脂水平,防止动脉粥样硬化症(Atherosclerosis,AS)的形成.综上所述,分蘖葱头槲皮苷能够预防和防治动脉粥样硬化症,有效降低高血脂的发病率,可以作为一种降血脂资源进行有效开发.%The anti-hyperlipidemic activity of