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Sample records for alleviate orotic acid-induced

  1. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

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    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  2. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling

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    Nagao Koji

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control group, fatty liver model group, SSC-treated group with SSC at levels of 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.05%. Model rats were established by administration with 1% orotic acid (OA. After the experiment period, serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and hepatic lipid concentrations were determined. To search for a possible mechanism, we examined the changes of key enzymes and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic lipids biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation. Results Both 0.03% and 0.05% SSC treatment alleviated hepatic steatosis and reduced serum TG and TC concentration significantly in OA fed rats. Hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH activities were inhibited by SSC treatment. SSC also decreased the gene expression of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c. Otherwise, the rats feeding with SSC showed increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT activity in the liver. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, together with its target gene CPT and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO mRNA expression were also upregulated by SSC. Conclusions According to our study, the lipids-lowering effect of dietary SSC may be partly associated with the enhancement of β-oxidation via PPARα activation. In addition, the inhibited SREBP-1c- mediated lipogenesis caused by SSC may also contribute to alleviating fatty liver.

  3. Long-term fatty liver-induced insulin resistance in orotic acid-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver rats.

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    Han, Xiuqing; Liu, Chunhua; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether fatty liver preceded insulin resistance or vice versa using a long-term orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model without the confounding effects of obesity and hyperlipidemia and explored the role of the liver in insulin resistance. Male Wistar rats were fed with or without OA supplementation for 30, 60, and 90 days. The NAFLD group showed increased liver lipid at 30, 60, and 90 days; glucose intolerance was noted at 60 and 90 days. Furthermore, partial liver proteins and gene expressions related to upstream signaling of insulin were decreased. However, the liver glycogen content was elevated, and gluconeogenesis genes expressions were obviously decreased at 90 days. The occurrence of fatty liver preceded insulin resistance in OA-induced NAFLD without the interference of obesity and hyperlipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance may not play a conclusive role in insulin resistance in this model. PMID:26775542

  4. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling

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    Nagao Koji; Li Zhao-Jie; Xue Yong; Wang Jing-Feng; Wang Yu-Ming; Hu Xiao-Qian; Yanagita Teruyoshi; Xue Chang-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal ...

  5. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

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    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  6. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

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    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  7. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  8. Prednisolone-appended alpha-cyclodextrin: alleviation of systemic adverse effect of prednisolone after intracolonic administration in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis rats.

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    Yano, H; Hirayama, F; Arima, H; Uekama, K

    2001-12-01

    The titled compound is a cyclodextrin derivative in which prednisolone 21-succinate (PDsuc) is covalently bound to one of the secondary hydroxyl groups of alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CyD) via an ester linkage. In this study, the PDsuc-appended alpha-CyD ester conjugate (PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate) was intracolonically administered to rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid-induced colitis, and its antiinflammatory and systemic adverse effects were compared with those of prednisolone (PD) alone and the PD/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CyD complex (PD/HP-beta-CyD complex), which is a noncovalent inclusion complex. Colonic damage score, ratio of distal colon wet weight to body weight, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated as measures of the therapeutic effect of PD, whereas the ratio of thymus wet weight to body weight was evaluated as a measure of the side effect of PD. The local antiinflammatory activity increased in the order of PD alone approximately PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate keeps the local concentration in the colon at a low but constant level. The results suggest that the PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate can alleviate the systemic adverse effect of PD while maintaining the therapeutic activity of PD. This kind of knowledge will be useful in the rational design of steroid prodrugs for the colon-specific drug delivery system. PMID:11745769

  9. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF MAGNESIUM OROTATE ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    I. Yu. Torshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orotic acid is one of the intermediates in the pyrimidine biosynthesis. Mechanisms of physiological effects of orotic acid are poorly known. Analysis of data about these mechanisms is presented. Effects of orotic acid and magnesium orotate on cardiovascular system as well as therapeutic implementation of magnesium orotate in cardiology are discussed.

  10. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  11. Method of preparing orotic acid labelled with radioisotope 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method is presented of universally labelled (U-14C)-orotic acid of a mole activity higher than 250 mCi/mMole. The Claisen condensation with (1,2-14C)-oxalic acid ethylester and (1,2-14C)-acetic acid ethylester having mole activities higher than 50 mCi/milliatom 14C results in the sodium salt of (U-14C)-oxalacetic acid ethylester. When reacted with S-methyl-(14C)-isothiouronium iodide (having an activity higher than 50 mCi/mMole), the substance yields S-methyl-(U-14C)-2-thioorotic acid ethylester whose hydrolysis in an acid medium results in (U-14C)-orotic acid. The (U-14C)-orotic acid can easily be separated from the reaction mixture in the form of precipitate which chemically and radiochemically is almost pure. When an inactive oxalic acid ethylester is used for synthesis, (2,4,5-14C)-orotic acid of a mole activity higher than 150 mCi/mMole can be prepared using the procedure described. (B.S.)

  12. Sensitive and Selective Determination of Orotic Acid in Biological Specimens Using a Novel Fluorogenic Reaction.

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    Yin, Sheng; Dragusha, Shpend; Ejupi, Valon; Shibata, Takayuki; Kabashima, Tsutomu; Kai, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Orotic acid is an intermediate in the synthesis pathway of uridine-5'-monophosphate, and increases in body fluids of patients suffering from hereditary disorders such as orotic aciduria and hyperammonemia. In this study, we developed a spectrofluorometric method with or without high-performance liquid chromatography for the selective and sensitive quantification of orotic acid in human biological specimens, using 4-trifluoromethylbenzamidoxime (4-TFMBAO) as a fluorogenic reagent. This reagent provided intensive fluorescence for only orotic acid amongst 62 compounds including structurally related bio-substances such as nucleic acid bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, amino acids, vitamins, bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatine, creatinine and sugars. Under optimized reaction conditions, orotic acid was reacted with 4-TFMBAO, K3[Fe(CN)6] and K2CO3 in an aqueous solution. The fluorescence produced from the orotic acid derivative was measured at an excitation of 340 nm and an emission of 460 nm. A concentration of 1.2 μM orotic acid per 1.0 mM creatinine in normal urine and 0.64 nmol orotic acid per 5.0 × 10(5) HeLa cells were determined by this method. The present method permitted the facile quantification of orotic acid in healthy human urine and cultured HeLa cells by spectrofluorometry and/or high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:26026930

  13. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall Rmerge of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 2.2 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 44%

  14. Production of orotic acid by a Klura3Δ mutant of Kluyveromyces lactis.

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    Carvalho, Nuno; Coelho, Eduardo; Gales, Luís; Costa, Vítor; Teixeira, José António; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated that a Klura3Δ, mutant of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis is able to produce and secrete into the growth medium considerable amounts of orotic acid. Using yeast extract-peptone-glucose (YPD) based media we optimized production conditions in flask and bioreactor cultures. With cells grown in YPD 5% glucose medium, the best production in flask was obtained with a 1:12.5 ratio for flask: culture volume, 180 rpm, 28°C and 200 mM MOPS for pH stabilization at neutral values (initial culture pH at 8.0). The best production in a 2 L bioreactor was achieved at 500 rpm with 1 vvm aeration, 28°C and pH 7.0. Under these optimum conditions, similar rates of orotic acid production were obtained and maximum concentration achieved after 96 h was 6.7 g/L in flask and bioreactor cultures. These results revealed an excellent reproducibility between both systems and provided evidence for the biotechnological potential of Klura3Δ strain to produce orotic acid since the amounts obtained are comparable to the production in flask using a similar mutant of the industrially valuable Corynebacterium glutamicum. PMID:26707627

  15. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari [Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi [Department of Parasitology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Shigeharu [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Kita, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kitak@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  16. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  17. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum orotate phosphoribosyltransferase with autologous inhibitory protein–protein interactions

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    Kumar, Shiva; Krishnamoorthy, Kalyanaraman; Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K., E-mail: rathod@chem.washington.edu [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    P. falciparum orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, a potential target for antimalarial drugs and a conduit for prodrugs, crystallized as a structure with eight molecules per asymmetric unit that included some unique parasite-specific auto-inhibitory interactions between catalytic dimers. The most severe form of malaria is caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) is the fifth enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine-synthesis pathway in the parasite, which lacks salvage pathways. Among all of the malaria de novo pyrimidine-biosynthesis enzymes, the structure of P. falciparum OPRTase (PfOPRTase) was the only one unavailable until now. PfOPRTase that could be crystallized was obtained after some low-complexity sequences were removed. Four catalytic dimers were seen in the asymmetic unit (a total of eight polypeptides). In addition to revealing unique amino acids in the PfOPRTase active sites, asymmetric dimers in the larger structure pointed to novel parasite-specific protein–protein interactions that occlude the catalytic active sites. The latter could potentially modulate PfOPRTase activity in parasites and possibly provide new insights for blocking PfOPRTase functions.

  18. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420..., Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by...

  19. Structural Properties, Order-Disorder Phenomena, and Phase Stability of Orotic Acid Crystal Forms.

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    Braun, Doris E; Nartowski, Karol P; Khimyak, Yaroslav Z; Morris, Kenneth R; Byrn, Stephen R; Griesser, Ulrich J

    2016-03-01

    Orotic acid (OTA) is reported to exist in the anhydrous (AH), monohydrate (Hy1), and dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate (SDMSO) forms. In this study we investigate the (de)hydration/desolvation behavior, aiming at an understanding of the elusive structural features of anhydrous OTA by a combination of experimental and computational techniques, namely, thermal analytical methods, gravimetric moisture (de)sorption studies, water activity measurements, X-ray powder diffraction, spectroscopy (vibrational, solid-state NMR), crystal energy landscape, and chemical shift calculations. The Hy1 is a highly stable hydrate, which dissociates above 135 °C and loses only a small part of the water when stored over desiccants (25 °C) for more than one year. In Hy1, orotic acid and water molecules are linked by strong hydrogen bonds in nearly perfectly planar arranged stacked layers. The layers are spaced by 3.1 Å and not linked via hydrogen bonds. Upon dehydration the X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state NMR peaks become broader, indicating some disorder in the anhydrous form. The Hy1 stacking reflection (122) is maintained, suggesting that the OTA molecules are still arranged in stacked layers in the dehydration product. Desolvation of SDMSO, a nonlayer structure, results in the same AH phase as observed upon dehydrating Hy1. Depending on the desolvation conditions, different levels of order-disorder of layers present in anhydrous OTA are observed, which is also suggested by the computed low energy crystal structures. These structures provide models for stacking faults as intergrowth of different layers is possible. The variability in anhydrate crystals is of practical concern as it affects the moisture dependent stability of AH with respect to hydration. PMID:26741914

  20. Investigation of vital pathogenic target orotate phosphoribosyltransferases (OPRTase) from Thermus thermophilus HB8: Phylogenetic and molecular modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, Kanagarajan; Prabhu, Damodharan; Richard, Mariadasse; Nachiappan, Mutharasappan; Biswal, Jayashree; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman

    2016-06-01

    Biosynthesis pathways of pyrimidine and purine are shown to play an important role in regular cellular activities. The biosynthesis can occur either through de novo or salvage pathways based on the requirement of the cell. The pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway has been linked to several disorders and various autoimmune diseases. Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRTase) is an important enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of orotate to orotate monophosphate in the fifth step of pyrimidine biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of 228 OPRTase sequences shows the distribution of proteins across different living forms of life. High structural similarities between Thermusthermophilus and other organisms kindled us to concentrate on OPRTase as an anti-pathogenic target. In this study, a homology model of OPRTase was constructed using 2P1Z as a template. About 100ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed to investigate the conformational stability and dynamic patterns of the protein. The amino acid residues (Met1, Asp2, Glu43, Ala44, Glu47, Lys51, Ala157 and Leu158) lining in the binding site were predicted using SiteMap. Further, structure based virtual screening was performed on the predicted binding site using ChemBridge, Asinex, Binding, NCI, TosLab and Zinc databases. Compounds retrieved from the screening collections were manually clustered. The resultant protein-ligand complexes were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations, which further validates the binding modes of the hits. The study may provide better insight for designing potent anti-pathogenic agent. PMID:26861612

  1. Valproic acid induced pancreatitis: a case report

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    Bhupen Barman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. Apart from its common side effect there is definite association between valproic acid therapy and acute pancreatitis. Since 1979, many cases of acute pancreatitis induced by valproic acid have been published in medical literature. Here we are reporting a case of valproic acid induced acute pancreatitis in a 27 years old boy. The treatment is supportive, re-challenge is hazardous and should be avoided. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1765-1767

  2. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

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    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  3. Simultaneous determination of orotic acid and folic acid in pure forms and in pharmaceuticals formulations by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out to develop a simple, rapid and accurate HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Orotic Acid and Folic Acid in pharmaceutical formulation. The separation was done on ODS column by the application of isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic technique. Mobile phase consisted of 800 ml phosphate buffer pH 7.2 and 70 ml methanol. The method was successfully used for the determination of these drugs in the presence of additives and excipients, which were normally encountered in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method of analysis was applied for the individual analysis of both these constituents in their pure forms and found equally effective. (author)

  4. A flexible loop at the dimer interface is a part of the active site of the adjacent monomer of Escherichia coli orotate phosphoribosyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Annette; Aghajari, Nushin; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Gajhede, Michael

    1996-01-01

    the fold of a flexible loop region with a highly conserved amino acid sequence among OPRTases, a region known to take part in catalysis. The structure of this region was not determined in the model used for molecular replacement, and it involves interactions at the dimer interface through a bound...... region for the orotate part of OMP (residues 25-27), and the pyrophosphate binding region (residues 71-73)....

  5. Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase MoPyr5 is involved in uridine 5'-phosphate synthesis and pathogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Liu, Muxing; Dong, Yanhan; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-04-01

    Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRTase) plays an important role in de novo and salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis and is widely used as a screening marker in genetic transformation. However, the function of OPRTase in plant pathogens remains unclear. In this study, we characterized an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ura5, the OPRTase MoPyr5, from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Targeted gene disruption revealed that MoPyr5 is required for mycelial growth, appressorial turgor pressure and penetration into plant tissues, invasive hyphal growth, and pathogenicity. Interestingly, the ∆Mopyr5 mutant is also involved in mycelial surface hydrophobicity. Exogenous uridine 5'-phosphate (UMP) restored vegetative growth and rescued the defect in pathogenicity on detached barley and rice leaf sheath. Collectively, our results show that MoPyr5 is an OPRTase for UMP biosynthesis in M. oryzae and indicate that UTP biosynthesis is closely linked with vegetative growth, cell wall integrity, and pathogenicity of fungus. Our results also suggest that UMP biosynthesis would be a good target for the development of novel fungicides against M. oryzae. PMID:26810198

  6. Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Phosphorylase and Orotate Phosphoribosyl Transferase Levels as Predictive Factors of Chemotherapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a clinicopathologic study on protein and mRNA levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) using biopsy tissue specimens before treatment. The mRNA levels have been measured in tumor cells microdissected from paraffin-embedded specimens (Danenberg Tumor Profile method: DTP method). We studied the mRNA and protein expression as effect predictive factors in chemotherapy. The subjects consisted of 20 cases of untreated oral squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone chemotherapy with TS-1 (16 males and 4 females, tongue in 8 cases, upper gingiva in 3 cases, lower gingiva in 3 cases, buccal mucosa in 5 cases and floor of the mouth in 1 case). TS gene expressions of the responders were lower than those for the nonresponders. Furthermore, regarding males who were less than 70 years of age, stage I and II, well differentiated type and tongue, TS mRNA expression of the responders were lower than that for the nonresponders. The mRNA expression of OPRT for the male responders was lower than that for the nonresponders. No remarkable difference was observed by immunohistochemistry. In this study, the measurement of the TS levels using the DTP method may potentially act as a predictive factor of antitumor effectiveness

  7. Action Research for Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rajasekhar

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the process adopted in an action research project for poverty alleviation undertaken in two project areas of NGOs. After describing the process adopted to initiate action research, the paper discusses the methods conducted to acquire knowledge on processes generating poverty, and strategies adopted to alleviate poverty both by the poor and local organisations. Methods adopted to translate the knowledge into action are also discussed. Conclusions are provided at the end.

  8. Incorporation of [14C]-orotic acid into DNA of regenerating rat liver results in a greater specific radioactivity of DNA-5-methylcytosines than DNA-cytosines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine in vivo organization of events related to 5-methylcytosine (5-MC) occurrence in DNA, they determined the distribution of orotic acid incorporation into 5-MC vs cytosine (C) of rat liver DNA during liver compensatory hyperplasia. Rats were injected with 5 μCi of [6-14C]-orotic acid at 2 h intervals from 12 to 26 h post-partial hepatectomy. After a 2-h incorporation, livers were removed, DNA was isolated by Marmur's procedure and hydrolyzed by formic acid. Individual pyrimidines were isolated, quantitated by preparative and analytical high pressure liquid chromatography, and specific radioactivities determined. Two peaks of DNA synthesis were observed: a major peak at 18 h and a smaller peak at 22-24 h. The specific radioactivity of labeled thymine in DNA was approximately twice that of labeled C from 16 to 24 h. A more complex pattern was seen for labeling in 5-MC vs C during the same period. Values for 5-MC/C ratios increased to a maximum of 1.5 from 16 to 20 h, then decreased to 1.0 from 20 to 26 h. Thus in regenerating rat liver, [14C]-orotic acid label occurred to a 1.5-fold greater extent among DNA-5-MC than DNA-C during DNA synthesis. These results suggest the existence of mechanisms for: (a) preferential DNA synthesis in regions enriched in 5-MC content, or (b) different rates of turnover for 5-MC and C during DNA replication

  9. Bioequivalence evaluation of two amlodipine salts, besylate and orotate, each in a fixed-dose combination with olmesartan in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Yun Lee,1 Jung-Ryul Kim,2,3 Jin Ah Jung,4 Wooseong Huh,2,5 Mi Young Bahng,6 Jae-Wook Ko1,2 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 6Dong-A ST Co., Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: A fixed-dose combination of amlodipine and olmesartan is used to treat high blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two fixed-dose combinations, ie, amlodipine orotate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg and amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg, in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-sequence, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 30 healthy adult volunteers. Blood samples were collected for up to 72 hours post-dose in each period. Safety data included the results of physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, an electrocardiogram, and adverse events. For both amlodipine and olmesartan, the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean ratios of AUClast and time to peak plasma concentration fell within the bioequivalence acceptance criteria. The two fixed-dose combinations showed similar safety profiles. Amlodipine orotate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg was bioequivalent to amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg. Keywords: amlodipine orotate, amlodipine besylate, olmesartan medoxomil, fixed-dose combination, bioequivalence

  10. Nucleotide Sequence and Analysis of an orotate transporter-containing plasmid isolated from the Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strain DB0410

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defoor, Els Marie Celine; Martinussen, Jan

    A new lactococcal plasmid, pDBORO, was isolated from the Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strain DB0410 responsible for the sensitivity of DB0410 towards the pyrimidine-analog 5´-fluoroorotate. The plasmid pDBORO amounts to 16404 bp and its complete nucleotide sequence has been...... molecular cloning, we identified the open reading frames on pDBORO necessary for the utilization of orotate as the sole pyrimidine source. Surprisingly, homologs are found on the Lactococcus lactis IL1403 and MG1363 chromosomes despite the fact that they are resistant towards fluoroorotate....

  11. Studies of the binding of the magnesium-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate complex to orotate phosphoribosyltransferase from yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both C14- and 13C-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate molecules, labeled at the C'-1 position, were synthesized biochemically with bacterial ribokinase and PRibPP synthetase activities. A flow dialysis experiment characterized the dissociation constant (33 μM) for the OPRTase-C14PRibPP-Mg(II) complexation and defined 2 PRibPP binding sites per enzyme dimer. Moreover, labeled-PRibPP was observed to elute with a 50 μg sample of OPRTase through Sephadex Superfine G-25, suggesting that one form of the label is bound more tightly to the enzyme then the value of Kd would suggest. Samples of 13C-PRibPP, were characterized with 13C-NMR. A doublet appeared in the proton-decoupled PRibPP spectrum. The addition of a saturating level of Mg(II) to PRibPP resulted in a 0.1 ppm upfield shift. The addition of 0.6 mM OPRTase to a sample containing 0.9 mM 13C-PRibPP and 4 mM Mg (II) resulted in a disappearance of the doublet. Upon further addition of 1 mM 13C-PRibPP, four resonances were observed and tentatively assigned as follows: beta-13C ribose 5' phosphate OPRTase bound-13C-PRibPP, alpha-13C-ribose 5' phosphate and a 13C-phosphoribosyl-OPRTase adduct. These assignments are consistent with the OPRTase ping pong kinetic mechanism, during which the pyrophosphate portion of PRibPP dissociates from the active site prior to orotate binding, and during which PRibPP undergoes hydrolysis within the time frame of the NMR experiment

  12. Acid-induced changes of brain protein buffering

    OpenAIRE

    Kraig, Richard P.; Wagner, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Excessive cellular acidosis is thought to enhance destruction of brain from ischemia. Protein denaturation may contribute to such injury although the behavior of brain proteins to acidosis is poorly defined. As a first approach to detect acid-induced changes in brain proteins and to characterize buffer content, homogenates were acidified for 20 min (as low as pH 3.1), returned to baseline pH (6.9), and then titrated. Titration curves show a significant (P < 0.0001) and permanent increase in b...

  13. Islam, Globalization, and Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sulastyawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is globab as well condition and situation, neither economically, politically, and socially. All countries that embrace open economic system have participated in the system of globalization. Today the world is under the influence of super power world. For instance, using dollar as the official currency for international transactions, so that dollar dominates in international transactions. As a result, the value of the debt of developing countries has increased due to the rising price of dollar. The increment of the debt value in developing countries led the government reduces subsidies for the community. Thus economic hardship perceived more and more for poor people. This resulted that poverty is hard to be alleviated. This article analyzes the various Islamic perspective and thoughts on the impact of globalization on poverty alleviation.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2123

  14. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Koichi [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Koizumi, Tomonobu, E-mail: tomonobu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakagawa, Rikimaru [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Obata, Toru [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of DNA Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  15. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  16. Synergistic effect of natural compounds on the fatty acid-induced autophagy of activated hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Wei; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Sie, Huei-Wun; Cheng, Ming-Fan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal pathway to maintain cellular homeostasis, is mediated via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathways. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), previously termed fat- or vitamin A-storing cells, can transdifferentiate into myofibroblast-like cells and are the most relevant cell type for overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) and development of liver fibrosis during injury. However, the role of autophagy in fat metabolism of HSCs remains unclear. This study investigates the regulatory effect of natural compounds on fatty acid-induced autophagy pathways of nonchemical-induced HSC (NHSC) and thioacetamide-induced HSC. Oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA) have shown a significant effect on cell proliferation with oil red O staining and Western blot confirming that OA and PA induce fat storage ability and autophagy protein expression in NHSC. Natural compounds rutin, curcumin, antroquinonol and benzyl cinnamate treatment have shown no effect on the autophagy protein expression. Nevertheless, cells pretreated with OA and PA then treated with rutin, curcumin, antroquinonol and benzyl cinnamate could significantly induce the light chain I/II (LC3 I/II) protein expression. In mTOR-dependent pathway, the PI3K-Class I, Akt, and p-mTOR proteins were decreased with PA treatment. However, there were no significant changes in PI3K-Class III and Beclin-1 protein expressions found to imply that this autophagy is unrelated to the mTOR-independent pathway. Taken together, the present study unveils rutin and curcumin as a possible effective stimulation for fatty acid-induced autophagy via mTOR-dependent pathways in NHSC. We further suggest the benefits of these natural compounds for alleviating liver fibrosis. PMID:24857031

  17. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  18. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products. PMID:25300299

  19. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  20. Clinical implications of thymidylate synthetase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase activity levels in colorectal carcinoma following radical resection and administration of adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have investigated whether the activity levels of enzymes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism are prognostic factors for survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Most reports have examined thymidylate synthetase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in unresectable or metastatic cases, therefore it is unclear whether the activity of these enzymes is of prognostic value in colorectal cancer patients treated with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU. This study examined fresh frozen specimens of colorectal carcinoma from 40 patients who had undergone curative operation and were orally administered adjuvant tegafur/uracil (UFT) chemotherapy. TS, DPD and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) activities were assayed in cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue and their association with clinicopathological variables was investigated. In addition, the relationships between TS, DPD and OPRT activities and patient survival were examined to determine whether any of these enzymes could be useful prognostic factors. While there was no clear relationship between pathological findings and TS or DPD activity, OPRT activity was significantly lower in tumors with lymph node metastasis than in tumors lacking lymph node metastasis. Postoperative survival was significantly better in the groups with low TS activity and/or high OPRT activity. TS and OPRT activity levels in tumor tissue may be important prognostic factors for survival in Dukes' B and C colorectal carcinoma with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT

  1. Nucleic acid labeling with [3H]orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of [3H]orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes

  2. Hereditary orotic aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum probed by herpes simplex virus: 125I-iododeoxycytidine incorporation as an assay for viral growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-Iododeoxycytidine (125IdC) incorporation into acid-insoluble material was a sensitive, rapid, and quantitative assay for the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in human fibroblasts. Cellular utilization of the isotope was 10 to 25% of the incorporation by infected cells and could be 80% inhibited by tetrahydrouridine (THU). Viral utilization was inhibited by acycloguanosine, thioguanine (TG), and cytosine arabinoside. Isotope was incorporated equally well by growing or quiescent infected cells. HSV-1 was used to probe the metabolic capabilities of three mutant human fibroblast strains. 125IdC incorporation quantitatively measured the ability of the virus to grow in these cells. Viral 125IdC incorporation was sensitive to TG in normal fibroblasts but showed a 8- to 10-fold greater resistance to TG in fibroblasts derived from patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LN). Similarly, the growth of ultraviolet irradiated HSV-1 in normal fibroblasts was 5-fold greater than in fibroblasts derived from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In fibroblasts derived from patients with hereditary orotic aciduria, viral 125IdC incorporation was sensitive to adenosine (AD) at concentrations which were slightly stimulatory in normal fibroblasts. This was a 2-fold difference in AD sensitivity, which the radioassay reliably and quantitatively documented. HSV-1 infected cells could be individually identified by their incorporated 125IdC; such cells had blackened nuclei in autoradiograms prepared 12 hr after infection. Normal cells infected in the presence of TG had many fewer labeled nuclei than LN cells similarly infected in the presence of the drug

  3. A unique insertion of low complexity amino acid sequence underlies protein-protein interaction in human malaria parasite orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waranya Imprasittichai; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Sudaratana R Krungkrai; Jerapan Krungkrai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the multienzyme complex formation of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum) orotate phosphoribosyltransferase(OPRT) and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase(OMPDC), the fifth and sixth enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.Previously, we have clearly established that the two enzymes in the malaria parasite exist physically as a heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 complex containing two subunits each ofOPRT andOMPDC, and that the complex have catalytic kinetic advantages over the monofunctional enzyme.Methods:Both enzymes were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins.The protein-protein interaction in the enzyme complex was identified using bifunctional chemical cross-linker, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis and homology modeling.Results:The unique insertions of low complexity region at the α2 and α5 helices of the parasiteOMPDC, characterized by single amino acid repeat sequence which was not found in homologous proteins from other organisms, was located on theOPRT-OMPDC interface.The structural models for the protein-protein interaction of the heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 multienzyme complex were proposed.Conclusions:Based on the proteomic data and structural modeling, it is surmised that the human malaria parasite low complexity region is responsible for theOPRT-OMPDC interaction.The structural complex of the parasite enzymes, thus, represents an efficient functional kinetic advantage, which in line with co-localization principles of evolutional origin, and allosteric control in protein-protein-interactions.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in rats with acetic acid - induced colitis and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, C C; Oktay, S; Yuksel, M; Akakin, D; Yarat, A; Kasimay Cakir, O

    2015-10-01

    Mucosal balance impairment, bacterial over-proliferation, cytokines, inflammatory mediators are known as responsible for inflammatory bowel disease. Besides known anorexigenic, neuroprotective, and anti-apoptotic effects, the major effect of nesfatin-1 on colitis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in acetic acid induced colitis model and potential underlying mechanisms. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal ketamine (100 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (0.75 mg/kg). For nesfatin-1 and antagonist applications some of the rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) cannulated. In colitis group, intrarectally (i.r.) 4% acetic acid solution (1 ml) and 10 minutes later i.c.v. nesfatin-1 (0.05 μg/5 μl) or vehicle (5 μl) were administered. Treatments continued for 3 days. In control group, physiological saline solution was used intrarectally. To identify the underlying effective mechanism of nesfatin-1, rats were divided into 3 subgroups, 5 minutes following colitis induction; i.c.v. atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist), SHU9119 (melanocortin receptor antagonist) or GHSR-1a antagonist (ghrelin receptor antagonist) were administered, 5 minutes later nesfatin-1 was administered for 3 days. On the fourth day, rats were decapitated, and colon tissues were sampled. Macroscopic and microscopic damage scores of distal colon, and colonic tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements were analysed. The increased myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores with colitis induction (P Atosiban and GHSR-1a administration alleviated the protective effect of nesfatin-1 from microscopic and oxidant damage parameters and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The results of the study suggest that nesfatin-1 had a

  5. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  6. poverty and poverty alleviation in globalised cities

    OpenAIRE

    Verena Ast

    2014-01-01

    In the light of increasing "division of the cities" and its underlying process of socio-spatial segregation researches focus more and more on the consequences of this process: the development of advantaged and disadvantaged districts within contemporary cities. Thereby especially poverty alleviation respectively poverty eradication in disadvantaged districts becomes an emerging and central field of intervention in social policies. This is due to the broad impact of poverty like higher risk of...

  7. Foveation-based Mechanisms Alleviate Adversarial Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yan; Boix, Xavier; Roig, Gemma; Poggio, Tomaso; Zhao, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We show that adversarial examples, i.e., the visually imperceptible perturbations that result in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) fail, can be alleviated with a mechanism based on foveations---applying the CNN in different image regions. To see this, first, we report results in ImageNet that lead to a revision of the hypothesis that adversarial perturbations are a consequence of CNNs acting as a linear classifier: CNNs act locally linearly to changes in the image regions with objects reco...

  8. The role of MAPK signalling pathways in acetic acid-induced cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Flávio Humberto Torres Dias Feio de

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Genética Molecular Mitogenic Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades are important signalling pathways that allow yeast cells to swiftly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Previous studies suggested that the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) MAPK pathway and ceramide production are involved in acetic-acid induced apoptosis in yeast. Evidence that changes in the levels of endogenous ceramides can affect yeast cell fate has also been put forth...

  9. Acid mediates a prolonged antinociception via substance P signaling in acid-induced chronic widespread pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Nan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance P is an important neuropeptide released from nociceptors to mediate pain signals. We recently revealed antinociceptive signaling by substance P in acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3)-expressing muscle nociceptors in a mouse model of acid-induced chronic widespread pain. However, methods to specifically trigger the substance P antinociception were still lacking. Results Here we show that acid could induce antinociceptive signaling via substance P release in muscle. We preve...

  10. Mefenamic acid-induced neutropenia and renal failure in elderly females with hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, S I; FREESTONE, S.

    1990-01-01

    We report mefenamic acid-induced non-oliguric renal failure and severe neutropenia occurring simultaneously in two elderly females. The neutropenia was due to maturation arrest of the myeloid series in one patient. Both patients were also hypothyroid, but it is not clear whether this was a predisposing factor to the development of these adverse reactions. However, it would seem prudent not to use mefenamic acid in hypothyroid patients until the hypothyroidism has been corrected.

  11. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism. PMID:26551768

  12. Effect of dietary fibers on cholic acid induced cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of C57BL/6J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been postulated that high fat diets promote tumorigenesis by increasing the level of secondary bile acids in the colonic lumen. Dietary fibers are thought to be protective perhaps through their interaction with bile acids. In the present study, animals were fed diets containing either 0%, 5%, or 10% cellulose (C), pectin (P), or wheat bran (WB). The diets were formulated to contain either 0% (control) or 0.2% cholic acid (test). After two weeks of dietary treatment the animals were injected with [3H]-thymidine and their colons were processed for autoradiography. The number of labeled cells (LC) in the colonic crypts was determined. Among the control diets, 10%P induced a two-fold increase in the LC. All the test groups had significantly higher LC than in their controls. However, the C group excited a higher LC than the P or WB groups (5.2 +/- 0.8 vs 3.9 +/- 0.8 or 3.9 +/- 0.6). These results were substantiated by metaphase arrest technique. The authors results show that nonfermentable fiber does not alleviate bile acid induced cell proliferative activity in the colon whereas fermentable fibers will counteract the promotional effect of a high fat diet

  13. Alleviating Media Bias Through Intelligent Agent Blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Aviles, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Consumers of mass media must have a comprehensive, balanced and plural selection of news to get an unbiased perspective; but achieving this goal can be very challenging, laborious and time consuming. News stories development over time, its (in)consistency, and different level of coverage across the media outlets are challenges that a conscientious reader has to overcome in order to alleviate bias. In this paper we present an intelligent agent framework currently facilitating analysis of the main sources of on-line news in El Salvador. We show how prior tools of text analysis and Web 2.0 technologies can be combined with minimal manual intervention to help individuals on their rational decision process, while holding media outlets accountable for their work.

  14. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  15. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend;

    -TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had an...... explanatory power of 39% in the analysis with high concentrations being most protective (p<0.001). In addition, a smaller peak retrieved later in the chromatograms also had a strong protective effect. Inclusion of this peak in the analysis increased the explanatory power of amylase on protective effect to 65...

  16. Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Izumi; Majima, Masataka

    1999-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws.Up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method.Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid.Treatment...

  17. DECREASED APOPTOSIS DURING CAR-MEDIATED HEPATOPROTECTION AGAINST LITHOCHOLIC ACID-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Beilke, Lisa D.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Olson, Erik R.; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR+/+ (WT) and CAR−/−...

  18. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced β-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Western blotting assays were also performed to a...

  19. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Iwao

    Full Text Available The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1 GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2 all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3 phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells.

  20. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  1. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L.; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1500-fold and 2800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  2. Structural remodeling of proteoglycans upon retinoic acid-induced differentiation of NCCIT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E; Nairn, Alison V; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1,500-fold and 2,800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  3. Curcumin-attenuated trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induces chronic colitis by inhibiting expression of cyclooxygenase-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Chang-Sheng Deng; Ming Zhang; Jian Xia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanisms of curcumin in rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid. METHODS: Rats with TNBS acid-induced colitis were treated with curcumin (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg per day ip). Changes of body weight and histological scores as well as survival rate were evaluated. Leukocyte infiltration was detected by myeloperoxidase (MPO)activity assay. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.Inflammation cytokines were determined by RT-PCR.Local concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon mucosa was determined by ELISA.RESULTS: Curcumin improved survival rate and histological image, decreased the macroscopic scores and MPO activity. Also curcumin reduced the expression of COX-2 and inflammation cytokines. In addition,treatment with curcumin increased the PGE2 level.CONCLUSION: Curcumin has therapeutic effects on TNBS acid-induced colitis, the mechanisms seem to be related to COX-2 inhibition and PGE2 improvement.

  4. Properties of acid-induced currents in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonul, Zuhal; Yang, Lei; Palmer, Lawrence G

    2016-05-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are cation channels that are activated by protons (H(+)). They are expressed in neurons throughout the nervous system and may play important roles in several neurologic disorders including inflammation, cerebral ischemia, seizures, neurodegeneration, anxiety, depression, and migraine. ASICs generally produce transient currents that desensitize in response to a decrease in extracellular pH Under certain conditions, the inactivation of ASICs can be incomplete and allow them to produce sustained currents. Here, we characterize the properties of both transient and sustained acid-induced currents in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. At pH levels between 7.3 and 7.1 they include "window currents" through ASICs. With stronger acid signals sustained currents are maintained in the absence of extracellular Na(+) or the presence of the ASIC blockers amiloride and Psalmotoxin-1(PcTx1). These sustained responses may have several different origins in these cells, including acid-induced stimulation of inward Cl(-) currents, block of outward K(+) currents, and augmentation of inward H(+) currents, properties that distinguish these novel sustained currents from the well-characterized transient currents. PMID:27173673

  5. Icariin, a major constituent from Epimedium brevicornum, attenuates ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Nan; Li, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jingshan; Jin, Feng; Gong, Qihai

    2016-10-15

    Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory. Oral administration of icariin at doses of 20 and 40mg/kg rescued behavioral performance and protected against neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus by suppressing ibotenic acid induced pro-apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blott of hippocampal specimens revealed that icariin up-regulated the expression of calbindin-D28k protein following ibotenic acid administration. Additionally, icariin inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, implicating the MAPK signaling and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the mechanism underlying icariin-mediated neuroprotection against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. These data suggested that icariin could be a potential agent for treatment of excitotoxicity-related diseases, including AD. PMID:27368415

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C on lithocholic acid-induced cholestatic liver injury in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Su Jong; Bae, Seyeon; Kang, Jae Seung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Lee, Wang Jae; Kim, Chung Yong; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2015-09-01

    Prevention and restoration of hepatic fibrosis from chronic liver injury is essential for the treatment of patients with chronic liver diseases. Vitamin C is known to have hepatoprotective effects, but their underlying mechanisms are unclear, especially those associated with hepatic fibrosis. Here, we analyzed the impact of vitamin C on bile acid induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced liver injury in vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, which cannot synthesize vitamin C similarly to humans. When Huh-BAT cells were treated with bile acid, apoptosis was induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress-related JNK activation but vitamin C attenuated bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. In our in vivo experiments, LCA feeding increased plasma marker of cholestasis and resulted in more extensive liver damage and hepatic fibrosis by more prominent apoptotic cell death and recruiting more intrahepatic inflammatory CD11b(+) cells in the liver of vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice which have minimal hepatic fibrosis. However, when vitamin C was supplemented to vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, hepatic fibrosis was significantly attenuated in the liver of vitamin C-sufficient Gulo(-/-) mice like in wild type mice and this hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C was thought to be associated with both decreased hepatic apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggested that vitamin C had hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury. PMID:26057690

  7. Acid-induced hyperalgesia and anxio-depressive comorbidity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shao, Yen-Wen; Yen, Chen-Tung; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-05-28

    Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain (CWP) and complex comorbid symptoms. A CWP model is developed through repeated unilateral intramuscular injections of acid saline resulting in bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether both anxious and depressive comorbidities exist in this acid-induced pain model, similarly to patients with CWP syndromes. The anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the open field and elevated plus maze tests, and depression-like behaviors were measured by the forced swimming, sucrose consumption, and sucrose preference tests. The pain group receiving acidic saline displayed significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds for 4weeks than animals in the vehicle group after repetitive intramuscular injections. The pain group showed a significantly shorter duration of exploring the central zone of the open field and the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared to the vehicle group. The pain group had a significantly lower preference for and consumption of the hedonic sucrose. Moreover, rats with chronic pain showed significantly longer immobility than the vehicle group in the forced swimming test. The results indicate that psychiatric behaviors are exacerbated in the CWP model. This study provides evidence for the validity of the acid-induced pain model analogous to patients with CWP syndromes. PMID:24726391

  8. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  9. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  10. Innovation of Tourism Poverty Alleviation Model: Stakeholder Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqing HUANG

    2015-01-01

    The research has included the stakeholder theory in regional tourism poverty alleviation study and emphasized the significance of community residents’ involvement in tourism managing process as a core stakeholder and their equal chance of the shared interests. In addition, to construct a new model of tourism poverty alleviation and clarify its mechanism through the comprehensive analysis of other stakeholders’ interest appeals. 

  11. An Online Alternative to Alleviate Communication Apprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyit Ahmet Çapan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an affective factor commonly associated with one’s overall performance in a foreign language. As a component of foreign language anxiety, communication apprehension specifically correlates with successful oral production. A plethora of research (Bailey, Onwuegbuzie & Daley, 2003; Foss & Reitzel, 1988 has indicated that high levels of communication apprehension negatively affects one’s L2 communication abilities. Thus, this study intends to remedy negative effects of communication apprehension on EFL learners by virtual meetings held through computer-mediated communication. The participants (N: 18 in this study were selected through purposive sampling. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative techniques. To analyze the data collected, a non-parametric test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, was utilized. The results indicated that computer-mediated communication via voice over IP tools made a significant contribution to alleviate communication apprehension levels in the participants with varying degrees of apprehension levels. The study yielded the most drastic reduction in the high apprehension group, since the participants in this group made a significant progress and ended up with moderate levels of communication apprehension. Also, the participants’ self-reports revealed that computer-mediated communication yielded remarkably positive changes in their attitudes towards communicating in the target language. Moreover, the study revealed that computer-mediated communication helped to increase their intercultural awareness. Finally, participants provided a bunch of practical suggestions as possible solutions for reducing communication apprehension.Keywords: apprehension, communication, computer-mediated, attitudes

  12. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  13. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan GU; Xiao-xiao SUN; Ji-ming YE; Li HE; Shou-sheng YAN; Hao-hao ZHANG; Li-hong HU; Jun-ying YUAN; Qiang YU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG),a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae),against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established.Cell viability was measured using MTT assay.PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression.Silencing of the CaMKKβ,LKB1,and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi).An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels.Results:ATG (2.5,5,and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L).ATG (1,5,and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p7OS6K signaling and eEF2 activity,which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi.ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration.Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress.Furthermore,ATG (2.5 and 5μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells.Conclusion:ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator,which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK,thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  14. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  15. Effect of Tanshitone on prevention and treatment of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-meng; LIU Yu-bo; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the prevention and therapeutic effects of tanshitone (TAN) on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in mice. Methods The mice osteoporosis was induced by given retinoic acid intragasttrically for two weeks. The histomorphological features of bone were observed and biochemical indexes in serum (Ca, P, ALP, TRAP, E2, BGP) were determined after mice were given TAN at the dose of 40, 80, 160 mg·kg-1 respectively. Results Tanshitone can induce high conversion of osteoporosis. The levels of P, ALP, TRAP and BGP in the TAN groups were lower than the model group, while the E2 level was higher than the model group. Conclusions Tanshitone can prevent the loss bone in the experimental mice. The mechanism may be that it improves the level of estrogenic hormone and inhibits the high bone turnover.

  16. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization: current clinical status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Stuart L.; Golub, Allyn L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization (ALA PDT) via endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis has been reported as efficacious, using topical formulations, in the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses. Application of ALA PDT to the detection and treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases of internal organs has recently been reported. Local internal application of ALA has been used for the detection, via PpIX fluorescence, of pathological conditions of the human urinary bladder and for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer and of colorectal cancer. This paper reviews the current clinical status of ALA PDT.

  17. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep-tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  18. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Rego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria.

  19. Effects of candesartan cilexetil and amlodipine orotate on receptor for advanced glycation end products expression in the aortic wall of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OETFF) type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Kyu; Chung, Woo-Baek; Hong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Ok-Ran; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Chang, Kiyuk; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2016-04-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the development of vascular inflammation and acceleration of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of candesartan cilexetil (CDRT) and amlodipine orotate (AMDP) on the expression of RAGE in the aortic walls of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and AGE-treated endothelial cells. Twenty five-week-old OLETF rats were randomized to 8 week treatments consisting of CDRT (n = 8), AMDP (n = 8) or saline (control, n = 8). Immunohistochemical and dihydroethidine staining revealed reduced RAGE and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signals in rats treated with CDRT or AMDP compared with control rats. Both CDRT and AMDP suppressed the expression of p22phox and p47phox NADPH oxidase subunits. However, only CDRT significantly reduced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 in the aortic wall of OLETF rats. In addition, both drugs reduced RAGE expression and total and mitochondrial ROS production in the AGE-treated endothelial cells. Both ARBs and CCBs reduced RAGE expression in the aortic walls of OLETF rats, which was attributed to decreased ROS production through inhibition of NADPH oxidase. In addition, only CDRT reduced aortic expression of RAGE via suppression of the ERK1/2 pathway unlike AMDP. PMID:26960737

  20. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 augments saturated fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and inhibits apoptosis in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Matsui

    Full Text Available Mismatch between the uptake and utilization of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium leads to abnormally high intracellular fatty acid concentration, which ultimately induces myocardial dysfunction. Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1 is a rate-limiting enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids (SFAs to monounsaturated fatty acids. Previous studies have shown that SCD1-deficinent mice are protected from insulin resistance and diet-induced obesity; however, the role of SCD1 in the heart remains to be determined. We examined the expression of SCD1 in obese rat hearts induced by a sucrose-rich diet for 3 months. We also examined the effect of SCD1 on myocardial energy metabolism and apoptotic cell death in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in the presence of SFAs. Here we showed that the expression of SCD1 increases 3.6-fold without measurable change in the expression of lipogenic genes in the heart of rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Forced SCD1 expression augmented palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation, but attenuated excess fatty acid oxidation and restored reduced glucose oxidation. Of importance, SCD1 substantially inhibited SFA-induced caspase 3 activation, ceramide synthesis, diacylglycerol synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Experiments using SCD1 siRNA confirmed these observations. Furthermore, we showed that exposure of cardiac myocytes to glucose and insulin induced SCD1 expression. Our results indicate that SCD1 is highly regulated by a metabolic syndrome component in the heart, and such induction of SCD1 serves to alleviate SFA-induced adverse fatty acid catabolism, and eventually to prevent SFAs-induced apoptosis.

  1. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  2. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

  3. How to alleviate perineal pain following an episiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-03-30

    Rationale and key points An episiotomy increases maternal morbidity in the postnatal period. Alleviating perineal pain is an important aspect of maternal health care. ▶ A combination of pain relief methods, systemic and localised, may be required to alleviate perineal pain associated with an episiotomy. ▶ It is important that midwives and doctors advise women on how to alleviate perineal pain, prevent infection and promote healing following an episiotomy. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The advice you would give to a woman who has recently given birth to alleviate perineal pain. 2. The short and long-term problems associated with perineal pain. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27027195

  4. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    OpenAIRE

    Fuwang Wang; Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals....

  5. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  6. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:26901778

  7. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  8. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  9. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21WAF1 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. ► Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. ► The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. ► Akt/p21WAF1 pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins – PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 – initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21WAF1 induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21WAF1 pathway by PERK inhibition.

  10. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  11. Hereditary orotic aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum probed by herpes simplex virus: /sup 125/I-iododeoxycytidine incorporation as an assay for viral growth. [Human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campisi, J.; Hafner, J.; Boorstein, R.; Pardee, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    /sup 125/I-Iododeoxycytidine (/sup 125/IdC) incorporation into acid-insoluble material was a sensitive, rapid, and quantitative assay for the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in human fibroblasts. Cellular utilization of the isotope was 10 to 25% of the incorporation by infected cells and could be 80% inhibited by tetrahydrouridine (THU). Viral utilization was inhibited by acycloguanosine, thioguanine (TG), and cytosine arabinoside. Isotope was incorporated equally well by growing or quiescent infected cells. HSV-1 was used to probe the metabolic capabilities of three mutant human fibroblast strains. /sup 125/IdC incorporation quantitatively measured the ability of the virus to grow in these cells. Viral /sup 125/IdC incorporation was sensitive to TG in normal fibroblasts but showed a 8- to 10-fold greater resistance to TG in fibroblasts derived from patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LN). Similarly, the growth of ultraviolet irradiated HSV-1 in normal fibroblasts was 5-fold greater than in fibroblasts derived from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In fibroblasts derived from patients with hereditary orotic aciduria, viral /sup 125/IdC incorporation was sensitive to adenosine (AD) at concentrations which were slightly stimulatory in normal fibroblasts. This was a 2-fold difference in AD sensitivity, which the radioassay reliably and quantitatively documented. HSV-1 infected cells could be individually identified by their incorporated /sup 125/IdC; such cells had blackened nuclei in autoradiograms prepared 12 hr after infection. Normal cells infected in the presence of TG had many fewer labeled nuclei than LN cells similarly infected in the presence of the drug. (JMT)

  12. Research Progress of Tourism-oriented Poverty Alleviation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Pengfei; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Through systematic summary of domestic research documents about China’s tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in recent 10 years,it is found that researches mainly focus on 5 aspects:effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation,model and development strategy,benefit of poverty stricken people,practice of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in specific region,and other related problems.At present,academic circle mainly has weak points of research content,method,object and region in tourism-oriented poverty alleviation.Finally,it points out key research interests:(1)Strengthening combination of qualitative and quantitative researches;(2)Expanding research fields and scope and promoting in-depth researches;(3)Analyzing benefiting mechanism of poverty-stricken people participating in tourism development in depth with poverty-stricken people as research objects;(4)Increasing scale development of perception research on effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation and research on measurement testing,to make subsequent research have reliability and comparability.

  13. Elevatated CO2 alleviates heat stress tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2014-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd Wolle...... crop performance under various climatic stresses.......Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  14. Synergistic action of famotidine and chlorpheniramine on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Qin; Chao Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the synergistic action of famotidine (FMD)and chlorpheniramine (CPA) on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats.METHODS: Chronic gastric lesions were induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by serosal application of the acetic acid. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n = 8), control group (n = 8), FMD group (n= 8), CPA group (n = 8), and FMD+CPA group (n = 8).Each group was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) 0.5 mL/100g distilled water, 9 g/L NaCl saline, 4 mg/kg FMD, 10mg/kg CPA, 4 mg/kg FMD+10 mg/kg CPA, respectively,daily for 10 d. On d 10, ulcer area was determined by planimetry. The level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the liver homogenation was determined by biochemical methods and the plasma levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1a)and IL-8 were determined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: The synergistic effects of FMD+CPA group on the lesion, IL-8, 6-keto-PGF1a and MPO were confirmed.The effect of FMlD+CPA group was significantly different as compared to the control and FMD groups. The lesion (mm2) was reduced from 40.18±2.6 in control group to 6.83±2.97 in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 32.9±3.27 in FMD group to 6.83±2.97 in pMlD+CPA group,P<0.01. The plasma levels of IL-8 decreased from 0.69±0.11 ng/L in control group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 0.51±0.08 ng/L in FMD group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The level of 6-keto-PGF1a increased from 7.55±1.65 ng/L in control group to 16.62±0.97 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01,and from 13.15±1.48 ng/L in FMD group to 16.62±0.97ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The levels of MPO in the liver homogenate decreased from 9.12±2.05 u/Lin control group to 4.33±0.95 u/L in PMD+CPA group,P<0.01, and from 8.3±1.29 u/L in FMD group to 4.33±0.95 u/L, P<0.01.CONCLUSION: The synergistic action of FMD and CPA on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats decreases the incidence of ulcer and also enhances the

  15. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  16. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194

  17. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  18. Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Olson, Erik R; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-07-10

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR(+/+) (WT) and CAR(-/-) (CAR-null) mice were pre-treated with compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with the CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (TC), as well as the non-CAR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbontrile (PCN), protected against LCA-induced liver injury in WT mice, whereas liver injury was more extensive without CAR (CAR-null). Unexpectedly, expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) was not increased in hepatoprotected mice. Compared to unprotected groups, apoptosis was decreased in hepatoprotected mice as evidenced by the absence of cleaved caspase 3 (cCasp3). In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization in the injured livers (LCA and oltipraz), Mcl-1 protein was localized in the nucleus of hepatoprotected livers to potentially promote cell survival. This study demonstrates that although apoptosis is reduced in hepatoprotected mice pre-treated with CAR and non-CAR activators; hepatoprotection is not directly a result of CAR-induced Mcl-1 expression. PMID:19433268

  19. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  20. A dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase protects against kainic acid-induced brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Marini, Herbert; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Calò, Margherita; Adamo, Elena Bianca; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2015-06-01

    Systemic administration of kainic acid causes inflammation and apoptosis in the brain, resulting in neuronal loss. Dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase (COX/5-LOX) inhibitors could represent a possible neuroprotective approach in preventing glutamate excitotoxicity. Consequently, we investigated the effects of a dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX following intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg) in rats. Animals were randomized to receive either the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX (flavocoxid, 20 mg/kg i.p.) or its vehicle (1 ml/kg i.p.) 30 min after KA administration. Sham brain injury rats were used as controls. We evaluated protein expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in the hippocampus. Animals were also observed for monitoring behavioral changes according to Racine Scale. Finally, histological analysis and brain edema evaluation were carried out. Treatment with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX decreased protein expression of p-ERK1/2 and TNF-α in hippocampus, markedly reduced MDA, LTB4 and PGE2 hippocampal levels, and also ameliorated brain edema. Histological analysis showed a reduction in cell damage in rats treated with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX, particularly in hippocampal subregion CA3c. Moreover, flavocoxid significantly improved behavioral signs following kainic acid administration. Our results suggest that dual inhibition of COX/5-LOX by flavocoxid has neuroprotective effects during kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity. PMID:25893744

  1. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  2. Experimental investigations on wake vortices and their alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaş, Ömer

    2005-05-01

    Recent wake vortex research in the laboratory has benefited considerably from concurrent analytical and numerical research on the instability of vortex systems. Tow tank, with dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry is the most effective combination for laboratory research. Passive and active wake alleviation schemes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The passive alleviation systems exploit the natural evolution of vortex instabilities while the active systems rely on hastening selected instabilities by forcing the vortices individually or as a system. Their practical applicability, however, will have to meet further criteria beyond those dictated by fluid dynamics. To cite this article: Ö. Savaş, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Gholamreza Asghari; Diana Taheri; Mozhgan Saeidi; Salar Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups...

  4. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ying; NAITO, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intest...

  5. Subchronic Treatment of Donepezil Rescues Impaired Social, Hyperactive, and Stereotypic Behavior in Valproic Acid-Induced Animal Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Woon Kim; Hana Seung; Kyung Ja Kwon; Mee Jung Ko; Eun Joo Lee; Hyun Ah Oh; Chang Soon Choi; Ki Chan Kim; Edson Luck Gonzales; Jueng Soo You; Dong-Hee Choi; Jongmin Lee; Seol-Heui Han; Sung Min Yang; Jae Hoon Cheong

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). W...

  6. Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally o...

  7. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  8. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; YANG, SU-GEUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. E...

  9. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. PMID:26769837

  10. Alleviation Effects of Rare Earth on Cd Stress to Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建军; 张淑侠; 朱京涛; 吴贺平

    2004-01-01

    Using rapes as test materials, the fastness expression and alleviation effect of rapes were studied under Cd stress condition, as the rapeseeds were dipped in the single element(La, Ce, Nd, Pr)and mixed rare earth(RE). The results indicate that, under Cd stress, the dry and fresh weight are increased by both the single element and mixed rare earth treatment, and the fastness of rape is improved.The single element of rare earth decreases the Cd content in rape roots and transmits Cd to the edible parts above the ground in which the alleviation effect of Ce is most significant.La treatment takes the second place, so that the poisonous effect of heavy metal Cd is eased.The mixed rare earth doesn't alleviate the assimilation of Cd in rape roots, but accelerates the transfer of Cd to the parts above the ground. The research puts forward that the alleviation of rare earth on Cd stress has connection with the decrease of Ca content.

  11. Urban agriculture and urban poverty alleviation: South African debates

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. Rogerson

    1998-01-01

    Growing international attention has focussed on the potential role of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. The aim in this paper is to analyse the existing challenge of urban poverty in South Africa and examine the potential role of urban agriculture as a component of a pro-poor urban development strategy.

  12. Alleviating Stress in Parents of High-Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Possible sources of stress for parents of preterm high-risk infants are reviewed from a research perspective. Stages of parental attachment to their premature baby are spelled out. Strategies for special education teachers to use in alleviating parental stress are described. (JDD)

  13. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation. PMID:24407144

  14. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  15. Effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng pedersen aqueous extract on healing acetic acid-induced ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Setim Freitas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity and the effect of the aqueous extract of the roots from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (Amaranthaceae (AEP on the prevention of acetic acid-induced ulcer and on the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The acute toxicity was evaluated in Swiss mice after oral administration of a single dose and the chronic gastric ulcer was induced with local application of acetic acid. The results showed that the LD50 of the extract was 684.6 mg.kg-1 for the intraperitoneal administration and higher than 10 mg.kg-1by the oral route. The administration of the AEP did not prevent ulcers formation. However, the AEP increased of the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The results suggest that AEP chronically administered promote an increase of tissue healing, after the damage induced by acetic acid and the extract seemed to be destituted of toxic effects in the mice by the oral route.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (Amaranthaceae, uma planta conhecida popularmente como "Ginseng Brasileiro" e "paratudo", é utilizada para tratar distúrbios gástricos e como cicatrizante. Em estudos anteriores, foi demonstrado que o extrato aquoso bruto da P. glomerata (AEP protegeu a mucosa gástrica contra úlceras induzidas por etanol e estresse e reduziu a secreção ácida gástrica basal e estimulada em ratos com ligadura de piloro. Além disso, a secreção gástrica de animais tratados com AEP apresentou níveis de nitrato e nitrito aumentados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o AEP previne o desenvolvimento de úlceras induzidas por ácido acético e o efeito desse extrato no processo de cicatrização em úlceras previamente formadas. A administração do AEP em diferentes doses produziu efeitos tóxicos baixos e não preveniu a formação de úlceras, porém aumentou o processo de cicatrização em úlceras já existentes, como evidenciado no estudo histopatológico. Em

  16. Protective role of miR-23b-3p in kainic acid-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lianbo; Yao, Yi; Fu, Huajun; Li, Zhenghui; Wang, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; He, Wencan; Zheng, Weihong; Zhang, Yunwu; Zheng, Honghua

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs has been proposed to contribute toward epilepsy. The miRNA miR-23b-3p has been found to protect against neuronal apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we assessed the potential role of miR-23b-3p in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure model. We found that miR-23b-3p levels were significantly decreased in the brain cortex of mice and in cultured mouse primary neurons treated with KA. Importantly, supplement of miR-23b-3p agomir by an intacerebroventricular injection alleviated seizure behaviors and abnormal cortical electroencephalogram recordings in KA-treated mice. Together, these results indicate that miR-23b-3p plays a crucial role in suppressing seizure formation in experimental models of epilepsy and that miR-23b-3p supplement may be a potential anabolic strategy for ameliorating seizure. PMID:27232518

  17. Gene expression in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects A cDNA mieroarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Long; Zhong Yang; Yi Zeng; Hongli Li; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2009-01-01

    the cranium and abnormal changes of the metencephalon and face.cDNA microarray analysis suggested that the changes in expression of seven different genes were similar on both days E10.5 and E11.5. These were downregulation of NekT, Igfbp5, Zw10,Csf3r, Psmc6 and Rbl, and upregulation of Apoa-4. This study also indicated that Cdk5 expression was downregulated in the retinoic acid group on day E11.5. The results of the cDNA microarray analysis were partly confirmed by Northern blotting.CONCLUSION: Cdk5, NekT, Igfbp5, ZwlO, Csf3r, Psmc6, Rb 1 and Apoa-4 may be key factors in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects.

  18. Effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution on oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Feng; LIU Ying-long; LIU Ai-jun; WANG Dong; WANG Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial dysfunction in lungs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. The beneficial effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution (LPD) have been reported in lung preservation, and LPD enables injured alveolar pneumocytes to recover. So we hypothesized that systemic administration of LPD may have benefits in treating acute lung injury. We investigated the effects of LPD on arterial blood gas and levels of some cytokines in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.Methods Oleic acid (0.1 ml/kg) was intrapulmonarily administered to healthy anesthetized juvenile piglets. Ten animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=5 each): oleic acid-induced group (control group) with intravenous infusion of 12.5 ml/kg of lactated Ringer's solution 30 minutes before administration of oleic acid and LPD group with systemic administration of LPD (12.5 ml/kg) 30 minutes before injecting oleic acid. Blood gas variables and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, endothelin 1 and interleukin 10 were measured before and every 1 hour for 6 hours after initial lung injury.Results Compared with control group, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure in LPD group were improved (P<0.05or 0.01). Six hours after lung injury, concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue was lower in LPD group than control group (P<0.05). Plasmic concentration of endothelin 1 showed lower in LPD group while plasmic concentration of interleukin 10 showed higher in LPD group (P<0.05).Conclusions Before lung injury, systemic administration of LPD can improve gas exchange, attenuate pulmonary hypertension, decrease plasmic levels of endothelin 1, increase interleukin 10 and decrease concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.

  19. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... applied without power loss for wind speeds above rated wind speed. In deterministic inflow, it is shown that the range of the steady-state blade load variations can be reduced by up to 70%. For turbulent inflows, it is shown that the potential blade fatigue load reductions depend on the turbulence level...

  20. The Role of Forests in Poverty Alleviation: Dealing with Multiple Millennium Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A.F.

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief summarises the present state of scientific understanding of the potential contribution of tropical forests to poverty alleviation and highlights the implications of this knowledge for forest-based poverty alleviation policies

  1. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  2. A Comprehensive Robust Adaptive Controller for Gust Load Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Capello; Giorgio Guglieri; Fulvia Quagliotti

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of an adaptive controller for aircraft gust load alleviation. The contribution of this paper is the design of a robust controller that guarantees the reduction of the gust loads, even when the nominal conditions change. Some preliminary results are presented, considering the symmetric aileron deflection as control device. The proposed approach is validated on subsonic transport aircraft for different mass and flight conditions. ...

  3. ANTIANGIOGENESIS STRATEGIES REVISITED: FROM STARVING TUMORS TO ALLEVIATING HYPOXIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Ten antiangiogenic drugs targeting VEGF or its receptors are approved for cancer treatment. However, these agents, intended to block tumors’ blood supply, may cause hypoxia, which may fuel tumor progression and treatment resistance. Emerging clinical data suggest that patients whose tumor perfusion or oxygenation increases in response to these agents may actually survive longer. Hence, strategies aimed at alleviating tumor hypoxia while improving perfusion may enhance the outcome of radiother...

  4. Hypoxic Preconditioning Alleviates Ethanol Neurotoxicity: the Involvement of Autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haiping; Bower, Kimberly A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and neurodegeneration is the most devastating consequence of developmental exposure to ethanol. A sublethal preconditioning has been proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against several central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative diseases. We have recently demonstrated that autophagy is a protective response to alleviate ethanol toxicity. A modest hypoxic preconditioning (1% oxygen) did not cause neurotoxicity but induced autophagy (Tzeng et al., 2010). We the...

  5. A reconceptualization of social value creation as social constraint alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkovics, Noemi; Rudolf R Sinkovics; Hoque, Samia; Czaban, Laszlo; Sinkovics, Noemi; Sinkovics, Rudolf R; Hoque, Samia; Czaban, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has two interconnected objectives. The first is to provide a reconceptualisation of social value creation as social constraint alleviation. The second is to respond to the call put forward by Giuliani and Macchi (2014) to produce synergies between bodies of literature exploring the development impact of businesses. The paper focuses on ideas from the global value chain/global production networks (GVC/GPN), business and human rights, corporate social responsibility (CSR), ...

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation Alleviates Parkinsonian Bradykinesia by Regularizing Pallidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dorval, Alan D.; Kuncel, Alexis M.; Birdno, Merrill J.; Turner, Dennis A.; Grill, Warren M.

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia can alleviate the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease although the therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that DBS relieves symptoms by minimizing pathologically disordered neuronal activity in the basal ganglia. In human participants with parkinsonism and clinically effective deep brain leads, regular (i.e., periodic) high-frequency stimulation was replaced with irregular (i.e., aperiodic) stimulation at the same mean frequency ...

  7. Active control landing gear for ground loads alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An active landing gear has been created by connecting the hydraulic piston in an oleo strut to a hydraulic supply. A controller modulates the pressure in the oleo to achieve the desired dynamic characteristics. Tests on ground rigs (documented by a film) have demonstrated the successful alleviation of induced structural ground loads and the next step will be a flight test using a fighter aircraft.

  8. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  9. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level. PMID:20590992

  10. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  11. EFFECTS OF SILICON ON ALLEVIATING ARSENIC TOXICITY IN MAIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airon José da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid highly toxic to plants and animals, causing reduced plant growth and various health problems for humans and animals. Silicon, however, has excelled in alleviating stress caused by toxic elements in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Si in alleviating As stress in maize plants grown in a nutrient solution and evaluate the potential of the spectral emission parameters and the red fluorescence (Fr and far-red fluorescence (FFr ratio obtained in analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in determination of this interaction. An experiment was carried out in a nutrient solution containing a toxic rate of As (68 μmol L-1 and six increasing rates of Si (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mmol L-1. Dry matter production and concentrations of As, Si, and photosynthetic pigments were then evaluated. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also measured throughout plant growth. Si has positive effects in alleviating As stress in maize plants, evidenced by the increase in photosynthetic pigments. Silicon application resulted in higher As levels in plant tissue; therefore, using Si for soil phytoremediation may be a promising choice. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis proved to be a sensitive tool, and it can be successfully used in the study of the ameliorating effects of Si in plant protection, with the Fr/FFr ratio as the variable recommended for identification of temporal changes in plants.

  12. Phenolic antioxidants attenuate hippocampal neuronal cell damage against kainic acid induced excitotoxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Parihar; Taruna Hemnani

    2003-02-01

    Increasing evidence supports the role of excitotoxicity in neuronal cell injury. Thus, it is extremely important to explore methods to retard or reverse excitotoxic neuronal injury. In this regard, certain dietary compounds are begining to receive increased attention, in particular those involving phytochemicals found in medicinal plants in alleviating neuronal injury. In the present study, we examined whether medicinal plant extracts protect neurons against excitotoxic lesions induced by kainic acid (KA) in female Swiss albino mice. Mice were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine (200 mg and 2 mg/kg body wt. respectively) and KA (0.25 g in a volume of 0.5 l) was administered to mice by intra hippocampal injections. The results showed an impairment of the hippocampus region of brain after KA injection. The lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were significantly ( < 0.05) increased in comparison to controls. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (EC 1.11.1.9) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content declined after appearance of excitotoxic lesions. As GPx and GSH represent a major pathway in the cell for metabolizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), their depletion would be expected to allow H2O2 to accumulate to toxic levels. Dried ethanolic plant extracts of Withania somnifera (WS), Convolvulus pleuricauas (CP) and Aloe vera (AV) dissolved in distilled water were tested for their total antioxidant activity. The diet was prepared in terms of total antioxidant activity of plant extracts. The iron (Fe3+) reducing activity of plant extracts was also tested and it was found that WS and AV were potent reductants of Fe3+ at pH 5.5. CP had lower Fe3+ reducing activity in comparison to WS and AV. Plant extracts given singly and in combination 3 weeks prior to KA injections resulted in a decrease in neurotoxicity. Measures of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl declined. GPx activity and GSH content were elevated in hippocampus supplemented with WS and combination of

  13. Mitochondrial genome depletion in human liver cells abolishes bile acid-induced apoptosis: role of the Akt/mTOR survival pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Jose J G; Hernandez, Alicia; Revuelta, Isabel E; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M; Perez, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    Acute accumulation of bile acids in hepatocytes may cause cell death. However, during long-term exposure due to prolonged cholestasis, hepatocytes may develop a certain degree of chemoresistance to these compounds. Because mitochondrial adaptation to persistent oxidative stress may be involved in this process, here we have investigated the effects of complete mitochondrial genome depletion on the response to bile acid-induced hepatocellular injury. A subline (Rho) of human hepatoma SK-Hep-1 cells totally depleted of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was obtained, and bile acid-induced concentration-dependent activation of apoptosis/necrosis and survival signaling pathways was studied. In the absence of changes in intracellular ATP content, Rho cells were highly resistant to bile acid-induced apoptosis and partially resistant to bile acid-induced necrosis. In Rho cells, both basal and bile acid-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, was decreased. Bile acid-induced proapoptotic signals were also decreased, as evidenced by a reduction in the expression ratios Bax-α/Bcl-2, Bcl-xS/Bcl-2, and Bcl-xS/Bcl-xL. This was mainly due to a downregulation of Bax-α and Bcl-xS. Moreover, in these cells the Akt/mTOR pathway was constitutively activated in a ROS-independent manner and remained similarly activated in the presence of bile acid treatment. In contrast, ERK1/2 activation was constitutively reduced and was not activated by incubation with bile acids. In conclusion, these results suggest that impaired mitochondrial function associated with mtDNA alterations, which may occur in liver cells during prolonged cholestasis, may activate mechanisms of cell survival accounting for an enhanced resistance of hepatocytes to bile acid-induced apoptosis. PMID:23597504

  14. Saturated Fatty Acid Induces Insulin Resistance Partially Through Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain 1 Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-jun Zhou; Yin-si Tang; Yu-ling Song; Ai Li; Hui Zhou; Yan Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), a component of the innate immune system, in mediating lipid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Methods Adipocytes from Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency mice were used for stimulation experiments. The effect of oleate/palmitate mixture on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was analyzed by reporter plasmid assay. The release of proinflammatory chemokine/cytokines production was determined by using real-time PCR. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was measured by 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake assay. Chemokine/cytokine expression and glucose uptake in adipocytes transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOD1 upon fatty acids treatment were analyzed. Results Oleate/palmitate mixture activated the NF-κB pathway and induced interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expressions in adipocytes from mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4, and these effects were blocked by siRNA targeting NOD1. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids decreased the ability of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, siRNA targeting NOD1 partially reversed saturated fatty acid-induced suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake. Conclusion NOD1 might play an important role in saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes, suggesting a mechanism by which reduced NOD1 activity confers beneficial effects on insulin action.

  15. Modulation of the retinoic acid-induced cell apoptosis and differentiation by the human TR4 orphan nuclear receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous studies, the TR4 orphan nuclear receptor (TR4) has been demonstrated to suppress retinoic acid (RA)-induced transactivation via a negative feedback control mechanism and in situ analysis showed that TR4 is extensively expressed in mouse brain, especially in regions where the cells are proliferating. To further study the potential roles of TR4 during cell differentiation, a tetracycline-inducible system with anti-sense TR4 in teratocarcinoma P19 cell lines was generated to analyze the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of these cells. The results indicated that the expression of TR4 reduced by doxycycline anti-sense TR4 would alter the retinoic acid-induced differentiation pathway that results in the changes of cell morphology and cell cycle profile. Unexpectedly, our data further indicated that the RA-induced apoptosis, judging by DNA fragmentation, could also be altered by the induction of anti-sense TR4. Together, these findings provide the first in vivo evidence that an orphan nuclear receptor, such as TR4, may play major roles in the RA-mediated apoptosis or differentiation in P19 cells

  16. A Comprehensive Robust Adaptive Controller for Gust Load Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Capello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of an adaptive controller for aircraft gust load alleviation. The contribution of this paper is the design of a robust controller that guarantees the reduction of the gust loads, even when the nominal conditions change. Some preliminary results are presented, considering the symmetric aileron deflection as control device. The proposed approach is validated on subsonic transport aircraft for different mass and flight conditions. Moreover, if the controller parameters are tuned for a specific gust model, even if the gust frequency changes, no parameter retuning is required.

  17. Restriction alleviation by bacteriophages lambda and lambda reverse.

    OpenAIRE

    Toothman, P

    1981-01-01

    Deletion analysis indicated that the phage lambda restriction alleviation gene(s) ral resides between the cIII and N genes. The Ral+ phenotype was expressed only when lambda ral+ carried a modification such that it was resistant to restriction by the host specificity system. Under these conditions, Ral function protected superinfecting unmodified phages from restriction by EcoK or EcoB but not from restriction by EcoP1. Ral-protected phage DNA was not concomitantly K and B modified, but rathe...

  18. Can housing wealth alleviate poverty among Britain's older population?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Hancock

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the scope for housing wealth to alleviate poverty among Britain’s older population by modelling the potential effect of equity-release schemes on the net incomes of older homeowners using data from the 1993-94 and 1994-95 Family Expenditure Surveys. We find that, for the older population in general, the potential impact of equity release on poverty is limited by the positive association between homeownership and income in later life. The scope for equity release to enh...

  19. Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  20. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27423629

  1. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  2. Inhibition of BET bromodomains alleviates inflammation in human RPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytti, M; Tokarz, P; Määttä, E; Piippo, N; Korhonen, E; Suuronen, T; Honkakoski, P; Kaarniranta, K; Lahtela-Kakkonen, M; Kauppinen, A

    2016-06-15

    Bromodomain-containing proteins are vital for controlling the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes. Consequently, compounds capable of inhibiting specific bromodomain-facilitated protein-protein interactions would be predicted to alleviate inflammation, making them valuable agents in the treatment of diseases caused by dysregulated inflammation, such as age-related macular degeneration. Here, we assessed the ability of known inhibitors JQ-1, PFI-1, and IBET-151 to protect from the inflammation and cell death caused by etoposide exposure in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19. The potential anti-inflammatory effects of the bromodomain inhibitors were assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) profiling. The involvement of NF-κB and SIRT1 in inflammatory signaling was monitored by ELISA and western blotting. Furthermore, SIRT1 was knocked down using a specific siRNA or inhibited by EX-527 to elucidate its role in the inflammatory reaction. The bromodomain inhibitors effectively decreased etoposide-induced release of IL-6 and IL-8. This anti-inflammatory effect was not related to SIRT1 activity, although all bromodomain inhibitors decreased the extent of acetylation of p53 at the SIRT1 deacetylation site. Overall, since bromodomain inhibitors display anti-inflammatory properties in human retinal pigment epithelial cells, these compounds may represent a new way of alleviating the inflammation underlying the onset of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27106081

  3. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-08-15

    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient. PMID:27209395

  4. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature. PMID:26602678

  5. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  6. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Abula, Kahaer; Inoue, Makiko; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration. PMID:25574420

  7. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  8. Music-reading training alleviates crowding with musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2016-06-01

    Crowding refers to the disrupted recognition of an object by nearby distractors. Prior work has shown that real-world music-reading experts experience reduced crowding specifically for musical stimuli. However, it is unclear whether music-reading training reduced the magnitude of crowding or whether individuals showing less crowding are more likely to learn and excel in music reading later. To examine the first possibility, we tested whether crowding can be alleviated by music-reading training in the laboratory. Intermediate-level music readers completed 8 hr of music-reading training within 2 weeks. Their threshold duration for reading musical notes dropped by 44.1% after training to a level comparable with that of extant expert music readers. Importantly, crowding was reduced with musical stimuli but not with the nonmusical stimuli Landolt Cs. In sum, the reduced crowding for musical stimuli in expert music readers can be explained by music-reading training. PMID:27322085

  9. Absence of functional alternative complement pathway alleviates lupus cerebritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jessy J; Jacob, Alexander; Vezina, Paul; Sekine, Hideharu; Gilkeson, Gary S; Quigg, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The complement inhibitor, Crry, which blocks both the classical and alternative pathways, alleviates CNS disease in the lupus model, MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) mice. To understand the role of the alternative pathway, we studied mice deficient in a key alternative pathway protein, complement factor B (fB). Immune deposits (IgG and C3) were reduced in the brains of MRL/lpr fB-deficient (fB-/-MRL/lpr) compared to fB-sufficient (MRL/lpr) mice, indicating reduced complement activation. Reduced neutrophil infiltration (22% of MRL/lpr mice) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity was reduced to 33% of MRL/lpr mice) in these mice indicates that the absence of the alternative pathway was neuroprotective. Furthermore, expression of phospho (p)-Akt (0.16+/-0.02 vs. 0.35+/-0.13, pcerebritis. PMID:17523212

  10. Herpes simplex virus infection is sensed by both Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene- like receptors, which synergize to induce type I interferon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Jensen, Søren B; Nielsen, C;

    2009-01-01

    The innate antiviral response is initiated by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here we show that retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs) in cooperation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is required for expression of type I...

  11. The BRPF2/BRD1-MOZ complex is involved in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye In; Kim, Min Seong; Jang, Yeun Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The scaffold protein BRPF2 (also called BRD1), a key component of histone acetyltransferase complexes, plays an important role in embryonic development, but its function in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether BRPF2 is involved in mouse ESC differentiation. BRPF2 depletion resulted in abnormal formation of embryoid bodies, downregulation of differentiation-associated genes, and persistent maintenance of alkaline phosphatase activity even after retinoic acid-induced differentiation, indicating impaired differentiation of BRPF2-depleted ESCs. We also found reduced global acetylation of histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) in BRPF2-depleted ESCs, irrespective of differentiation status. Further, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a physical association between BRPF2 and the histone acetyltransferase MOZ in differentiated ESCs, suggesting the role of BRPF2-MOZ complexes in ESC differentiation. Together, these results suggest that BRPF2-MOZ complexes play an important role in the differentiation of ESCs via H3K14 acetylation. PMID:27256846

  12. Antitussive Activity of the Water-Extracted Carbohydrate Polymer from Terminalia chebula on Citric Acid-Induced Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ray, Bimalendu

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a (1 → 3)-, (1 → 6)- and (1 → 3, 6)-linked β-D-Galp together with (1 → 5)- and (1 → 3)-linked α-L-Araf and nonreducing end units of α-L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50 mg kg−1 body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements. PMID:23878602

  13. Antitussive Activity of the Water-Extracted Carbohydrate Polymer from Terminalia chebula on Citric Acid-Induced Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nosalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a 1→3-, 1→6- and 1→3,6-linked β-D-Galp together with 1→5- and 1→3-linked α-L-Araf and nonreducing end units of α-L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50 mg kg−1 body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements.

  14. Inhibition of acid-induced apoptosis by targeting ASIC1a mRNA with short hairpin RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie-chuan WENG; Jian-quan ZHENG; Qing-e JIN; Xiao-yun MA

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the role of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) la in the cell death and apoptosis induced by extracellular acid in C6 glioma cells. Methods: The stable ASICla-silenced C6 cell line, built with RNA interference technology, were con-firmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The cell viability following acid exposure was analyzed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic cells dyed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide were measured with a flow cytometer, while the changes of cell cycle were also assayed. Results: The downregulation of ASIC 1 a proteins by stable transfection of short hairpin RNA decreased the cell death percentage and increased cell viability following acid exposure with LDH and the MTT assay. The rate of apoptosis was lower in the ASIC la-silenced cell line than that in the wild-type C6 cell line. The percentage of sub-G0 cells was lower in the ASICla-silenced C6 cells than that in the wild-type cells. Conclusion: Extracellular acid induced cell death and apoptosis viaASICla mechanisms in the C6 glioma cells.

  15. Possible protective role of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile in lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity through enhanced hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sotodate, Fumiaki; Mizuki, Tomohiro; Hori, Wataru; Nagayasu, Miho; Yokokawa, Shinya; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2010-06-25

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) feeding causes both liver parenchymal and cholestatic damages in experimental animals. Although pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-mediated protection against LCA-induced hepatocyte injury may be explained by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, the protection from the delayed cholestasis remains incompletely understood. Thus, the PCN-mediated protective mechanism has been studied from the point of modification of lipid metabolism. At an early stage of LCA feeding, an imbalance of biliary bile acid and phospholipid excretion was observed. Co-treatment with PCN reversed the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and hepatic hydrophobic bile acid levels. LCA feeding decreased hepatic mRNA levels of several fatty acid- and phospholipid-related genes before elevation of serum ALT and ALP activities. On the other hand, PCN co-treatment reversed the decrease in the mRNA levels and hepatic levels of phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids. PCN co-treatment also reversed the decrease in biliary phospholipid output in LCA-fed mice. Treatment with PCN alone increased hepatic phospholipid, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid and phosphatidylcholine synthetic activities increased in mice treated with PCN alone or PCN and LCA, compared to control mice, whereas these activities decreased in LCA-fed mice. These results suggest the possibility that PCN-mediated stimulation of lipogenesis contributes to the protection from lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:20359477

  16. TGF-β-SMAD3 signaling mediates hepatic bile acid and phospholipid metabolism following lithocholic acid-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Naoki; Sato, Misako; Kang, Dong Wook; Krausz, Kristopher W; Flanders, Kathleen C; Ikeda, Kazuo; Luecke, Hans; Wakefield, Lalage M; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2012-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is activated as a result of liver injury, such as cholestasis. However, its influence on endogenous metabolism is not known. This study demonstrated that TGFβ regulates hepatic phospholipid and bile acid homeostasis through MAD homolog 3 (SMAD3) activation as revealed by lithocholic acid-induced experimental intrahepatic cholestasis. Lithocholic acid (LCA) induced expression of TGFB1 and the receptors TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 in the liver. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed higher TGFβ expression around the portal vein after LCA exposure and diminished SMAD3 phosphorylation in hepatocytes from Smad3-null mice. Serum metabolomics indicated increased bile acids and decreased lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) after LCA exposure. Interestingly, in Smad3-null mice, the metabolic alteration was attenuated. LCA-induced lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 (LPCAT4) and organic solute transporter β (OSTβ) expression were markedly decreased in Smad3-null mice, whereas TGFβ induced LPCAT4 and OSTβ expression in primary mouse hepatocytes. In addition, introduction of SMAD3 enhanced the TGFβ-induced LPCAT4 and OSTβ expression in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. In conclusion, considering that Smad3-null mice showed attenuated serum ALP activity, a diagnostic indicator of cholangiocyte injury, these results strongly support the view that TGFβ-SMAD3 signaling mediates an alteration in phospholipid and bile acid metabolism following hepatic inflammation with the biliary injury. PMID:23034213

  17. Chromosomal localization of a novel retinoic acid induced gene RA28 and the protein distribution of its encoded protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gene RA28 is a retinoic acid induced novel gene isolated in our laboratory previously. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used to induce lung adenocarcinoma cell line GLC-82, and RA28 was obtained by subtractive hybridization. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has emerged as a unique tool for examining introcellular phenomena in living cells. GFP possesses an intrinsic fluorescence at 488 nm that does not require other co-factors. In this report, an eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP-C1-RA28 was constructed and transfected with parental cell line GLC-82 to analyze protein expression and its distribution in living cells. Moreover, radiation hybrid (RH) technique was used to localize RA28 to the chromosome. The results show that gene RA28 is mapped to the chromosome 19q13.1 region, its encoded protein is distributed on cell membrane. All the results further demonstrate that GFP and RH techniques are accurate, fast, repetitive, and will be powerful methods for investigating the gene and protein localization.

  18. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hag Dong [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Chang-Young [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jeong Min [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jeongwon, E-mail: biojs@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon, E-mail: joonkim@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  19. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is frequently performed for treatment of early gastric cancers. This procedure inevitably leads to ulcers and bleeding. Bleeding control is the major concern in endoscopic mucosectomy, and some endoscopic hemostatic agents are currently under clinical and preclinical studies. MRU was developed as a model for these induced ulcers and the evaluation of the healing process. The clinical relevancy of those models was compared with that of rat models. Progressive healing was observed for 7 days based on histology. Rabbit models demonstrate round, deep ulcers with clear margins and well-defined healing stages that were difficult to define in rat models. PMID:23825482

  20. Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera Attenuates Okadaic Acid Induced Memory Dysfunction in Rats: Effect on Nrf2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (memory enhancer and Melatonin (an antioxidant on nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway in Okadaic acid induced memory impaired rats. OKA (200 ng was administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV to induce memory impairment in rats. Bacopa monnieri (BM-40 and 80 mg/kg and Melatonin (20 mg/kg were administered 1 hr before OKA injection and continued daily up to day 13. Memory functions were assessed by Morris water maze test on days 13–15. Rats were sacrificed for biochemical estimations of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and molecular studies of Nrf2, HO1, and GCLC expressions in cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain regions. OKA caused a significant memory deficit with oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss which was concomitant with attenuated expression of Nrf2, HO1, and GCLC. Treatment with BM and Melatonin significantly improved memory dysfunction in OKA rats as shown by decreased latency time and path length. The treatments also restored Nrf2, HO1, and GCLC expressions and decreased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss. Thus strengthening the endogenous defense through Nrf2 modulation plays a key role in the protective effect of BM and Melatonin in OKA induced memory impairment in rats.

  1. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate ...

  2. Curcumin analog L3 alleviates diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Liu; Wen, Caixia; Huang, Xiuwang; Xu, Chenxia; Lee, Kuan-Han; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-03-15

    L3, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aims to explore the efficacy of L3 on diabetic atherosclerosis and the related mechanism. The effect of L3 was studied on glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, atherosclerosis-related indexes and pathological changes of main organs in the mice model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. The results showed that L3 treatment could meliorate dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, reduce oxidative stress, enhance the activity of antioxidases, increase the nitric oxide level in plasma and aortic arch, decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in pancreas and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortic arch, and meliorate the fatty and atherosclerotic degeneration in aortic arch, thereby preventing the development of diabetes and its complications. These results suggested that L3 can alleviate the diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects. This study provided scientific basis for the further research and clinical application of L3. PMID:26852952

  3. Sodium butyrate alleviates adipocyte inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xukai; He, Gang; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Weitian; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature of Type II diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension and other vascular diseases. Recent studies showed that obesity-induced inflammation may be critical for IR. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on obesity-induced inflammation, the db/db mice were intraperitoneally injected with NaB for 6 weeks. Glucose control was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Adipose tissue was harvested for gene expression analysis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Tnf-α to mimic the inflammatory state and gene expression was detected by realtime PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that NaB treatment improved glucose control in db/db mice as determined by GTT and ITT tests. Gene expression analysis showed that NaB inhibited cytokines and immunological markers including CD68, Interferon-γ and Mcp in adipose tissues in db/db mice. Moreover, NaB inhibited cytokine releasing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α. Further analysis of inflammation pathway showed that NLRP3 was activated in db/db mice, which was efficiently inhibited by NaB treatment. Our data suggest that inhibition of obesity-induced inflammation alleviates IR, and NaB might be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for obesity. PMID:26234821

  4. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Bo; Wu Zhigang; Yang Chao

    2016-01-01

    Gust load alleviation (GLA) tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and veri-fied. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compen-sating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude sat-urations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  5. Probucol alleviates atherosclerosis and improves high density lipoprotein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Jian-Kai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probucol is a unique hypolipidemic agent that decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. However, it is not definite that whether probucol hinders the progression of atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. Methods Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into the control, atherosclerosis and probucol groups. Control group were fed a regular diet; the atherosclerosis group received a high fat diet, and the probucol group received the high fat diet plus probucol. Hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages were isolated for [3H] labeled cholesterol efflux rates and expression of ABCA1 and SR-B1 at gene and protein levels; venous blood was collected for serum paraoxonase 1, myeloperoxidase activity and lipid analysis. Aorta were prepared for morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis after 12 weeks. Results Compared to the atherosclerosis group, the paraoxonase 1 activity, cholesterol efflux rates, expression of ABCA1 and SR-BI in hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and the level of ABCA1 and SR-BI in aortic lesions were remarkably improved in the probucol group, But the serum HDL cholesterol concentration, myeloperoxidase activity, the IMT and the percentage plaque area of aorta were significantly decreased. Conclusion Probucol alleviated atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. The mechanisms include accelerating the process of reverse cholesterol transport, improving the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions.

  6. Effectiveness of Zakah Targeting in Alleviating Poverty in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatina A Kasri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zakah is a unique Islamic institution targeted to eight groups of recipients with the aim to redistribute income, reduce poverty and achieve social welfare. However, the impacts and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty is rarely measured. This is the main objective of the study. To achieve it, a survey was conducted to collect primary data from zakah recipients in Greater Jakarta Indonesia. The data were subsequently analysed by using descriptive and poverty index analyses. The main results suggest that the incidence, depth and severity of poverty amongst the recipients have decreased due to the contributions from zakah organizations. There are also indications that zakah has been distributed to the most disadvantaged people such as the uneducated and unemployed. The findings provide empirical evidence regarding positive contribution and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty in Indonesia. Some policy implications of the findings are also highlighted to enrich discourses on the role of zakah in alleviating poverty in Muslim societies.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.3005

  7. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  8. 扶贫研究概述%On Poverty Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立新

    2011-01-01

    贫困是一个伴随着人类生存和发展的历史性问题;同时,贫困也是一个存在于发达国家和发展中国家的世界性问题。2011年起,我国对农村低收入人口全面实施扶贫政策,实行新的扶贫标准,新标准提高到人均1500元,扶贫对象覆盖9000万人左右,标志着我国扶贫开发进入一个新阶段。但这也意味着我国扶贫工作的长期性、艰巨性。为此,作者对贫困、扶贫的国内外研究现状进行梳理,以期为相关的研究和扶贫实践提供理论借鉴和实践借鉴。%Poverty is a historical problem that accompanied by survival and development of humankind.Meanwhile,poverty is also a world-wide problem that exists in developed and developing countries.Since 2011,China has carried out policies of poverty alleviation on

  9. Reduced expression of calsenilin/DREAM/KChIP3 in the brains of kainic acid-induced seizure and epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeon-Mi; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, So-Young; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2003-04-01

    Calsenilin is a neuronal calcium binding protein that may function in calcium signaling and cell death. Kainic acid, an analog of the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate, produced excitotoxic cell death and induced the pathophysiology of status epilepticus. The expression of calsenilin was investigated in the mouse brain after kainic acid-induced seizure and seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal cell culture system using immunostaining analysis. Calsenilin was markedly decreased not only in the damaged cortex and CA3 region of hippocampus at 24 h after kainic acid-induced seizure but also in a cell-culture model of seizure-like activity. In addition, immunoreactivity of calsenilin in the hippocampus derived from human epilepsy patient was significantly decreased compared with normal brain. These results demonstrate that the reduced expression of calsenilin may functionally be associated with the pathophysiology of status epilepticus. PMID:12648752

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  11. Priming by Hexanoic acid induce activation of mevalonic and linolenic pathways and promotes the emission of plant volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eLlorens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than two hundred molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by hexanoic acid. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of hexanoic acid this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  12. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application. PMID:27148319

  13. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woon Kim

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model. We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  14. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2016-06-01

    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice. PMID:27142741

  15. Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

  16. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  17. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, F Aura; Wells, Grace I; Langdale, Christopher L; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8(th). Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  18. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dev; Singla, Surinder K; Puri, Veena; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI), which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI). Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC) lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI. PMID:25559736

  19. Berberine reverses free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKKβ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of berberine on improving insulin resistance induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) in 3T3-LI adipocytes.METHODS:The model of insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was established by adding palmic acid (0.5 mmol/L) to the culture medium.Berberine treatment was performed at the same time.Glucose uptake rate was determined by the 2-deoxy-[3H]-Dglucose method.The levels of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ)Ser181 phosphorylation,insulin receptor substrate1(IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation,expression of IKKβ,IRS-1,nuclear transcription factor kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65),phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p85(PI-3K p85) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins were detected by Western blotting.The distribution of NF-κB p65 proteins inside the adipocytes was observed through confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM).RESULTS:After the intervention of palmic acid for 24 h,the insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was inhibited by 67%.Meanwhile,the expression of IRS-1 and PI-3K p85 protein was reduced,while the levels of IKKβ Ser181 and IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation,and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 protein were increased.However,the above indexes,which indicated the existence of insulin resistance,were reversed by berberine although the expression of GLUT4,IKKβ and total NF-κB p65 protein were not changed during this study.CONCLUSION:Insulin resistance induced by FFAs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes can be improved by berberine.Berberine reversed free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKKβ.

  20. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications. PMID:27300134

  1. Constitutive Androstane Receptor-Mediated Changes in Bile Acid Composition Contributes to Hepatoprotection from Lithocholic Acid-Induced Liver Injury in MiceS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Beilke, Lisa D.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Holland, Ricky D; Besselsen, David G; Beger, Rick D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were administered to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CAR knockout (CAR-null) mice ...

  2. TGF-β-SMAD3 signaling mediates hepatic bile acid and phospholipid metabolism following lithocholic acid-induced liver injury[S

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubara, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Naoki; Sato, Misako; Kang, Dong Wook; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Flanders, Kathleen C.; Ikeda, Kazuo; Luecke, Hans; Wakefield, Lalage M.; Frank J. Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is activated as a result of liver injury, such as cholestasis. However, its influence on endogenous metabolism is not known. This study demonstrated that TGFβ regulates hepatic phospholipid and bile acid homeostasis through MAD homolog 3 (SMAD3) activation as revealed by lithocholic acid-induced experimental intrahepatic cholestasis. Lithocholic acid (LCA) induced expression of TGFB1 and the receptors TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 in the liver. In addition, immunohisto...

  3. Stratification requirements for seed dormancy alleviation in a wetland weed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis G Boddy

    Full Text Available Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (Ψ and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base Ψ and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR, which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at Ψ = 0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that Ψ contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence.

  4. Towards a virtual observatory for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Cuesta, F.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions, which is commonly referred to as the establishment of a virtual observatory, is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. In this study, we present three natural resources management cases in the Andes and the Amazon basin, and investigate how "virtual observatory" technology can improve ecosystem management. Each of these case studies present scientific challenges in terms of model coupling, real-time data assimilation and visualisation for management purposes. The first project deals with water resources management in the Peruvian Andes. Using a rainfall-runoff model, novel visualisations are used to give farmers insight in the water production and regulation capacity of their catchments, which can then be linked to land management practices such as conservation agriculture, wetland protection and grazing density control. In a project in the Amazonian floodplains, optimal allocation of the nesting availability and quality of the giant freshwater turtle are determined using a combined hydraulic model and weather forecasts. Finally, in the rainforest of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, biodiversity models are used to

  5. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  6. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  7. INTRATHYMIC INOCULATION OF LIVER SPECIFIC ANTIGEN ALLEVIATES LIVER TRANSPLANT REJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长库; 郑树森; 朱有法

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of liver specific antigen (LSA) on liver allotransplantation rejection. Methods Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in this study. Group Ⅰ: syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ: acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar). Group Ⅲ: thymic inoculation of SD rat LSA day 7 before transplantation. The observation of general condition and survival time, rejection grades and the NF-κB activity of splenocytes were used to analyze severity of acute rejection and immune state of animals in different groups. Results The general condition of group Ⅰ was fair post transplantation with no sign of rejection. All recipients of group Ⅱ died within days 9 to 13 post transplantation with median survival time of 10.7 ±1.37 days. As for group Ⅲ, 5 out of 6 recipients survived for a long period with remarkably better general condition than that of group Ⅱ. Its rejection grades were significantly lower than group Ⅱ (P< 0.05).NF-κB activity was only detected in group Ⅰ between days 5 and 7 after transplantation, whereas high activity of NF-κB was detected at all points in group Ⅱ and low NF-κB activity was detected in group Ⅲ which was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). Conclusions LSA is an important transplantation antigen directly involved in the immunorejection of liver transplantation. Intrathymic inoculation of LSA can alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation,grafts survive for a period of time thereby, allowing a novel way to liver transplantation immunotolerance.

  8. Cellular Recycling of Proteins in Seed Dormancy Alleviation and Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Krystyna; Stawska, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well-documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant's photosynthetic tissues have been well-characterized since many years, but in non-photosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is discussed. Based on the

  9. The Approaches of Islamic and Conventional Microfinancing for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Livelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Bashar Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the main illness for sustainable livelihood because it destroyed human basic rights for surviving with minimum opportunities especially political, social stability and economic processes, literature and environment. The aims of this study are to discuss about existing approaches of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood. The study found throughout the discussion of the theoretical sources i.e., participatory approaches have determined as a good way of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood especially zakat based Islamic mode of financing and Qard-al-Hasan on the basis of spiritual values as an alternative model for poverty alleviation and ensuring sustainable livelihood."

  10. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  11. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions

  12. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improvements to aviation safety will be made by the development and validation of means to alleviate, alert, and inhibit loss of control associated with unfavorable...

  13. Predictive Gust Load Alleviation Control Using Leading Edge Stagnation Point Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc proposes an R&D effort to develop a Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) control system using a novel Leading Edge Stagnation Point (LESP) sensor...

  14. Alleviation of Severe Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Symptoms by Cigarette Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Oksenberg, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is in general considered an aggravating factor for restless legs syndrome (RLS). The author presents a case in which cigarette smoking has produced for many years a consistent and effective alleviation of RLS symptoms.

  15. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  16. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this project is to develop and validate means to alert, constrain and thereby alleviate loss of control (LOC) associated with unfavorable...

  17. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; WESTERA, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011, 20-21 October). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. Presentation at 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Athens, Greece.

  18. Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Tourism Development in Nepal: Marketing Strategy Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Kafle, Jagannath

    2011-01-01

    This research has been conducted through desk study as well as by field visit and collected the opinion of Finnish tour operators who have been operating tour in Nepal. It has aimed to study the role and importance of sustainable tourism marketing in alleviating poverty in Nepal. The research has been taken three major objectives. They are: to evaluate Nepal’s current tourism marketing strategy and to what extend it takes poverty alleviation through tourism into account; to evaluate whether t...

  19. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  20. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Fu

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  1. Neuronal acid-induced [Zn²⁺]i elevations calibrated using the low-affinity ratiometric probe FuraZin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowski, Lech

    2015-11-01

    The experiments were carried out on primary cultures of murine cortical neurons from cryopreserved preparations obtained from embryonic-day-16 fetuses. To calibrate acid-induced intracelluar [Zn(2+) ] ([Zn(2+) ]i ) elevations, a low affinity (Kd = 39 μM at pH 6.1) ratiometric Zn(2+) probe, FuraZin-1, was used. A pHi drop from 7.2 to 6.1 caused [Zn(2+) ]i elevations reaching 2 μM; when the thiol-reactive agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was subsequently applied, [Zn(2+) ]i increased further to 5.6 μM; analogous acid- and NEM-induced [Zn(2+) ]i elevations could also be detected but not calibrated, using the high affinity Zn(2+) probe FluoZin-3. The data indicate that NEM causes Zn(2+) release from ligands that chelate Zn(2+) at pH 6.1. ATP could also chelate Zn(2+) at pH 6.1 because its pKa is about 6.8. Therefore, it was tested whether an ATP depletion affects the acid-induced [Zn(2+) ]i elevations. The ATP depletion was induced by inhibiting mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production. Interestingly, an almost complete ATP depletion (confirmed using a luciferin/luciferase assay) failed to affect the acid-induced [Zn(2+) ]i increases. These data suggest that the total amount of Zn(2+) accumulated in intracellular ATP-dependent stores (Zn(2+) -ATP complexes and organelles that accumulate Zn(2+) in an ATP-dependent manner) is negligible compared to the amount of Zn(2+) accumulated in the acid-sensitive intracellular ligands. In vitro, upon acidification, Zn(2+) -cysteine complexes release Zn(2+) and ATP chelates the released Zn(2+) . However, in vivo (cultured neurons), an ATP depletion failed to enhance acid-induced [Zn(2+) ]i elevations. These [Zn(2+) ]i elevations were calibrated using a low affinity ratiometric probe FuraZin-1; they reached 2 µM levels and increased to 5 µM when a thiol-reactive agent, N-ethylmaleimide, compromised Zn(2+) binding by cysteines. PMID:26263185

  2. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; Yu Tao; Fan Song; Xi Yuan; Jian Wang; David Saffen

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5′-u...

  3. The role of amino acid-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) signaling in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy, and growth factors. Recent findings have placed the lysosome at the core of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulation by amino acids. Two parallel pathways, Rag GTPase-Ragulator and Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1), regulate mTOR activation on the lysosome. This review describes the recent advances in understanding amino acid-induced mTOR signaling with a particular focus on the role of mTOR in insulin resistance. PMID:27534530

  4. "Protective Effects of Some Azo Derivatives of 5-aminosalicylic Acid and Their Pegylated Prodrugs on Acetic Acid-induced Rat Colitis "

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Garjani; Soodabeh Davaran; Mohamadreza Rashidi; Nasrin Malek

    2004-01-01

    The protective and anti-inflammatory effects of azo and azo-linked polymeric prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on acetic acid induced colitis in rats were investigated. Three azo prodrugs; 4,4 -dihydroxy-azobenzene-3-carboxilic acid (azo compound I), 4-hydroxy-azobenzene-3,4-dicarboxilic acid (azo compound II), 4,4-dihydroxy-3-formyl-azobenzene-3-carboxylic acid (azo compound III) and their polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) derivatives were synthesized. Rats were pretreated orally (1 hou...

  5. Economic contribution of participatory agroforestry program to poverty alleviation: a case from Sal forests, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.K.Islam; Marjanke Hoogstra; M.O.Ullah; Noriko Sato

    2012-01-01

    In the Forest Department of Bangladesh,a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population.We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible for poverty alleviation.We used three poverty measurement methods:the Head Count Index,the Poverty Gap Index and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to determine the extent poverty reduction.We used a linear regression model to determine the possible differences among factors in poverty reduction.Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaires and face to face interviews within the study area.PAP proved effective at poverty alleviation,considerably improving the local situation.The linear regression model showed that PAP output explained the income differences in poverty reduction. Participants identified bureaucracy and illegal money demands by forest department officials,an uncontrolled market system,and underdeveloped road infrastructure as the main obstacles to reduction of poverty.Overall,PAP is quite successful in alleviating poverty.So this program might be of interest at other degraded forest areas as a tool to alleviate poverty.

  6. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. PMID:27262203

  7. Alpha-Linolenic Acid-Induced Increase in Neurogenesis is a Key Factor in the Improvement in the Passive Avoidance Task After Soman Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermartiri, Tetsade C B; Pan, Hongna; Chen, Jun; McDonough, John; Grunberg, Neil; Apland, James P; Marini, Ann M

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents such as soman inhibits the critical enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to excessive acetylcholine accumulation in synapses, resulting in cholinergic crisis, status epilepticus and brain damage in survivors. The hippocampus is profoundly damaged after soman exposure leading to long-term memory deficits. We have previously shown that treatment with three sequential doses of alpha-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, increases brain plasticity in naïve animals. However, the effects of this dosing schedule administered after a brain insult and the underlying molecular mechanisms in the hippocampus are unknown. We now show that injection of three sequential doses of alpha-linolenic acid after soman exposure increases the endogenous expression of mature BDNF, activates Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), increases neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, increases retention latency in the passive avoidance task and increases animal survival. In sharp contrast, while soman exposure also increases mature BDNF, this increase did not activate downstream signaling pathways or neurogenesis. Administration of the inhibitor of mTORC1, rapamycin, blocked the alpha-linolenic acid-induced neurogenesis and the enhanced retention latency but did not affect animal survival. Our results suggest that alpha-linolenic acid induces a long-lasting neurorestorative effect that involves activation of mTORC1 possibly via a BDNF-TrkB-mediated mechanism. PMID:25920465

  8. Protective effect of cavidine on acetic acid-induced murine colitis via regulating antioxidant, cytokine profile and NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Hailin; Li, Weifeng; Wang, Yu; Mu, Qingli; Wang, Xiumei; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by neutrophils infiltration, oxidative stress, upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Cavidine possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases but its effect on ulcerative colitis has not been previously explored. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of cavidine on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Colitis mice induced by intra-rectal acetic acid (5%, v/v) administration received cavidine (1, 5 and 10mg/kg, i.g) or sulfasalazine (500mg/kg, i.g) for seven consecutive days. After euthanized by cervical dislocation, colonic segments of mice were excised for clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. Results suggested treatment with cavidine significantly decreased mortality rate, body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), wet colon weight, macroscopic and histological score when compared with that of acetic acid-induced controls. In addition, administration of cavidine effectively modulated expressions of MPO, GSH, SOD and MDA. Furthermore cavidine inhibited the level of TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum and colon tissue in response to the regulation of p65 NF-κB protein expression. All these results indicated cavidine exerts marked protective effect in experimental colitis, possibly by regulating the expression of oxygen metabolites, NF-κB and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:26102009

  9. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  10. Do Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...... whether liberalizing economic institutions, a type of reform favoured by some economists, is likely to alleviate such loses. Estimating the effects of crises across European states 1975–2011 suggest that countries with relatively easy market regulations suffered smaller well-being losses....

  11. Halting angiogenesis by non-viral somatic gene therapy alleviates psoriasis and murine psoriasiform skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Schön, Margarete;

    2011-01-01

    epidermal expression of human TGF-ß1, we have demonstrated that antiangiogenic non-viral somatic gene therapy reduces the cutaneous microvasculature and alleviates chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Transient muscular expression of the recombinant disintegrin domain (RDD) of metargidin (also known as ADAM...... in all models. Thus, non-viral antiangiogenic gene therapy can alleviate psoriasis and may do so in other angiogenesis-related inflammatory skin disorders.......-15) by in vivo electroporation reduced cutaneous angiogenesis and vascularization in all 3 models. As demonstrated using red fluorescent protein-coupled RDD, the treatment resulted in muscular expression of the gene product and its deposition within the cutaneous hyperangiogenic connective tissue...

  12. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  13. Alleviating Effect of Phenol Compounds on Cucumber Fusarium Wilt and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; ZHANG Chun-lan; SHEN Qi-rong

    2003-01-01

    The amount of phenol compounds in the soil increased after adding organic material into the soil. It was found that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and frulic acid alleviated Fusarium wilt of cucumber, the alleviating effect of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was the best, followed by p-coumaric acid and frulic acid. The total amount of bacterial, actinomyces and fungus in high phenol compounds treatment decreased than that of control treatment, while the microorganisms' amount in low phenol compounds treatment increased. Phenol compounds inhibit the growth of pathogen.

  14. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24)...

  15. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element both on the surface of the Earth's crust and in soils, it has not yet been listed among the essential elements for higher plants. However, the beneficial role of Si in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively mitigate various abiotic stresses such as manganese, aluminum and heavy metal toxicities, and salinity, drought, chilling and freezing stresses. However, mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses remain poorly understood. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants include: (1) stimulation of antioxidant systems in plants, (2) complexation or co-precipitation of toxic metal ions with Si, (3) immobilization of toxic metal ions in growth media, (4) uptake processes, and (5) compartmentation of metal ions within plants. Future research needs for Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses are also discussed. - This review article overviews roles Si plays in alleviating abiotic stress in higher plants and discusses future research directions

  16. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Goats are a powerful tool in assistance to alleviate poverty and they are also a powerful tool to utilize scarce vegetation in areas not suitable for other forms of agricultural production. If goats are kept in a wrong place and not managed well they may, however, destroy the environment. Accordi...

  17. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  18. Foreign direct investment and poverty alleviation : the case of Bulyanhulu and Geita gold mines, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyankweli, Emmanuel M.

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis seeks to quantify the economic, social and environmental effects of the gold mining sector as a component of foreign direct investments in Tanzania and its contribution to poverty alleviation. In addition to highlighting the socio-economic gains and losses, by exploring the corporate

  19. Exogenous calcium alleviates low night temperature stress on the photosynthetic apparatus of tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxian Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous CaCl2 on photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII activities, cyclic electron flow (CEF, and proton motive force of tomato leaves under low night temperature (LNT was investigated. LNT stress decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II], and photochemical quenching (qP, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment improved Pn, Y(II, and qP under LNT stress. LNT stress significantly increased the non-regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation [Y(NO], whereas CaCl2 alleviated this increase. Exogenous Ca2+ enhanced stimulation of CEF by LNT stress. Inhibition of oxidized PQ pools caused by LNT stress was alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. LNT stress reduced zeaxanthin formation and ATPase activity, but CaCl2 pretreatment reversed both of these effects. LNT stress caused excess formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment decreased the said factor under LNT. Thus, our results showed that photoinhibition of LNT-stressed plants could be alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. Our findings further revealed that this alleviation was mediated in part by improvements in carbon fixation capacity, PQ pools, linear and cyclic electron transports, xanthophyll cycles, and ATPase activity.

  20. How to alleviate the electricity scarcity in Guangxi : an analysis of electricity pricing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the increase of the population, Guangxi, a province with abundant hydropower resource, is facing a severe electricity shortage problem. This situation forces Guangxi¡¯s decision makers, the local government, to seek methods to alleviate the problem of electricity scarcity, and among the measures the way of re-pricing electricity seems a proper one.

  1. Poverty alleviation as business strategy? : evaluating commitments of frontrunner Multinational Corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; R. van Tulder

    2006-01-01

    In the debate on how to combat poverty, the positive role of MNCs is frequently mentioned nowadays, although doubts and criticism remain. Facing this societal debate, MNCs feel pressure to formulate a position. This paper analyzes MNCs' policies on their poverty-alleviating potential. 'Frontrunner'

  2. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  3. Load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) in the INDUFLAP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Thanasis K.; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Thomsen, Kenneth; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    The load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) is verified on a full Design Load Base (DLB) setup using the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and by investigating a flap configuration for the NREL 5MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model. The performance of the CRTEF...

  4. Symptom monitoring, alleviation, and self-care among Mexican Americans during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108

  5. Natural Products for the Prevention and Alleviation of Risk Factors for Diabetes: Chromium and Cinnamon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products are widespread for the alleviation and prevention of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We have shown that glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c levels are all improved in people with type 2 diabetes following chromium supplementation in a double-b...

  6. Studies on possibility for alleviation of lifestyle diseases by low-dose irradiation or radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous studies showed the possibility that activation of the anti-oxidative function alleviates various oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. Results showed that, low-dose X-ray irradiation activated superoxide dismutase and inhibits oedema following ischaemia-reperfusion. To alleviate ischaemia-reperfusion injury with transplantation, the changes of the anti-oxidative function in liver graft using low-dose X-ray irradiation immediately after exenteration were examined. Results showed that liver grafts activate the anti-oxidative function as a result of irradiation. In addition, radon inhalation enhances the anti-oxidative function in some organs, and alleviates alcohol-induced oxidative damage of mouse liver. Moreover, in order to determine the most effective condition of radon inhalation, mice inhaled radon before or after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Results showed that radon inhalation alleviates CCl4-induced hepatopathy, especially prior inhalation. It is highly possible that adequate activation of anti-oxidative functions induced by low-dose irradiation can contribute to preventing or reducing oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. (authors)

  7. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; WESTERA, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. In D. Gouscos, & M. Meimaris (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning (pp. 613-619), Athens, Greece. 20-21 October 2011.

  8. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Cunha

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC50 values of 18 µM and Emax of 100% (N = 10 or 20 µM and Emax of 92% (N = 10, respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 ± 7.0, 43 ± 3.9 and 78 ± 5.6% in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively. Tetraethylammonium (100 µM, a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 µM, a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 ± 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 µM, at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 µM, a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N G-nitroarginine (100 µM, a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 µM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 µM or ODQ (1 µM, the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-P-Cl-Phe6,Leu17[VIP] (0.1 µM, a VIP receptor antagonist

  9. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  10. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Parasar, Devraj; Sagar, Amin; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Renu; Ashish; Khatri, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg)] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histo-pathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model. PMID:26426535

  11. Deoxycholic acid induces the overexpression of intestinal mucin, MUC2, via NF-kB signaling pathway in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucin alterations are a common feature of esophageal neoplasia, and alterations in MUC2 mucin have been associated with tumor progression in the esophagus. Bile acids have been linked to esophageal adenocarcinoma and mucin secretion, but their effects on mucin gene expression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells is unknown. Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells were treated 18 hours with 50–300 μM deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, or taurocholic acid. MUC2 transcription was assayed using a MUC2 promoter reporter luciferase construct and MUC2 protein was assayed by Western blot analysis. Transcription Nuclear factor-κB activity was measured using a Nuclear factor-κB reporter construct and confirmed by Western blot analysis for Nuclear factor-κB p65. MUC2 transcription and MUC2 protein expression were increased four to five fold by bile acids in a time and dose-dependent manner with no effect on cell viability. Nuclear factor-κB activity was also increased. Treatment with the putative chemopreventive agent aspirin, which decreased Nuclear factor-κB activity, also decreased MUC2 transcription. Nuclear factor-κB p65 siRNA decreased MUC2 transcription, confirming the significance of Nuclear factor-κB in MUC2 induction by deoxycholic acid. Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), greatly decreased bile acid induced MUC2 transcription and Nuclear factor-κB activity, whereas inhibitors of MAP kinase had no effect. Deoxycholic acid induced MUC2 overexpression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells by activation of Nuclear factor-κB transcription through a process involving PKC-dependent but not PKA, independent of activation of MAP kinase

  12. Chemometrics-assisted Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Two Co-administered Drugs of Major Interaction, Methotrexate and Aspirin, in Human Urine Following Acid-induced Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Hadir M; Ragab, Marwa A A; El-Kimary, Eman I

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mostly along with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most common of which is aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Since NSAIDs impair MTX clearance and increase its toxicity, it was necessary to develop a simple and reliable method for the monitoring of MTX levels in urine samples, when coadministered with ASA. The method was based on the spectrofluorimetric measurement of the acid-induced hydrolysis product of MTX, 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroic acid (AMP), along with the strongly fluorescent salicylic acid (SA), a product of acid-induced hydrolysis of aspirin and its metabolites in urine. The overlapping emission spectra were resolved using the derivative method (D method). In addition, the corresponding derivative emission spectra were convoluted using discrete Fourier functions, 8-points sin xi polynomials, (D/FF method) for better elimination of interferences. Validation of the developed methods was carried out according to the ICH guidelines. Moreover, the data obtained using derivative and convoluted derivative spectra were treated using the non-parametric Theil's method (NP), compared with the least-squares parametric regression method (LSP). The results treated with Theil's method were more accurate and precise compared with LSP since the former is less affected by the outliers. This work offers the potential of both derivative and convolution using discrete Fourier functions in addition to the effectiveness of using the NP regression analysis of data. The high sensitivity obtained by the proposed methods was promising for measuring low concentration levels of the two drugs in urine samples. These methods were efficiently used to measure the drugs in human urine samples following their co-administration. PMID:26234512

  13. Alleviating Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    Why do we find entrepreneurship within larger groups? This question has challenged the social sciences since Olson (1965) showed that it does not pay an individual to provide collective goods voluntarily, if the individual economic gain from doing this is negative. However, the fact that larger g...

  14. Novel controller design demonstration for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet; Nitzsche, Fred

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an advanced controller design methodology for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor sys- tems. Particularly, vibration alleviation in a forward ight regime where the rotor blades experience periodically varying aerodynamic loading was investigated. Controller synthesis was carried out under the time-periodic H2 and H∞ framework and the synthesis problem was solved based on both periodic Riccati and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulations. The closed-loop stability was analyzed using Floquet-Lyapunov theory, and the controller's performance was validated by closed-loop high-delity aeroelastic simulations. To validate the con- troller's performance an actively controlled trailing edge ap strategy was implemented. Computational cost was compared for both formulations.

  15. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26358119

  16. Study on vibration alleviating properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete through orthogonal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer concrete (PC), because of its good vibration alleviating properties, is a proper material for elementary machine parts in high-precision machine tools. Glass fiber was applied in PC to improve its mechanical properties, and the material obtained is called glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete (GFRPC). The best parameter to estimate the vibration alleviating property is damping ratio. Orthogonal tests were carried out to prepare GFRPC specimens with different component proportions. Damping ratio of the GFRPC specimens was measured. The effect of the factors considered in the experiments on damping ratio of GFRPC was studied. Results of the tests show that granite proportion plays the most important role in determining damping ratio of GFRPC, then flexibilizer dosage and glass fiber length, while epoxy resin dosage and glass fiber dosage play a comparatively less important part. Detailed descriptions were made about how the considered factors affect damping ratio of GFRPC in this paper

  17. Study on vibration alleviating properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete through orthogonal tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Wenfeng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)], E-mail: wfbai@yahoo.com.cn; Zhang Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)], E-mail: jhzhang@sdu.edu.cn; Yan Peng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China); Wang Xinli [Design Department, Shanghai Haima Automobile R and D Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201201 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Polymer concrete (PC), because of its good vibration alleviating properties, is a proper material for elementary machine parts in high-precision machine tools. Glass fiber was applied in PC to improve its mechanical properties, and the material obtained is called glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete (GFRPC). The best parameter to estimate the vibration alleviating property is damping ratio. Orthogonal tests were carried out to prepare GFRPC specimens with different component proportions. Damping ratio of the GFRPC specimens was measured. The effect of the factors considered in the experiments on damping ratio of GFRPC was studied. Results of the tests show that granite proportion plays the most important role in determining damping ratio of GFRPC, then flexibilizer dosage and glass fiber length, while epoxy resin dosage and glass fiber dosage play a comparatively less important part. Detailed descriptions were made about how the considered factors affect damping ratio of GFRPC in this paper.

  18. Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Teng; Fang Hong; Chenguang Zhang; Jiancheng He; Haiying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Compound Formula Rehmannia has been shown to be clinically effective in treating Parkin-son’s disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia;however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we established a model of Parkinson’s disease dyskinesia in rats, and treated these animals with Compound Formula Rehmannia. Compound Formula Rehmannia inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 1 and 2 and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter genes, and it inhibited the reduction in expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B1, an inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter gene, in the corpus striatum. In addition, Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviated dyskinesia symptoms in the Parkinson’s disease rats. These experimental findings indicate that Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviates levodo-pa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease by modulating neurotransmitter signaling in the corpus striatum.

  19. Extractive sector politics in Latin America and their impact on poverty alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    There is widespread recognition that extractive industries such as mining, oil and gas have the potential to alleviate poverty in rural and remote areas and contribute positively to national development efforts in the global South. The industry record in this regard is, however, uneven and very...... investment regimes. Within this context, only a handful of countries and regions in the global South appear to be managing their non-renewables in ways that would avoid the so called ‘resource curse’ and use it toward national development and poverty alleviation. In Latin America, Mexico, Chile and Peru are...... cases in point. What sets these countries and regions apart from the rest? Similarly, what sets some regions and countries apart when they question the introduction of industrial scale mining in their economic landscape? This paper will firstly review the rise of resource dependence in the global South...

  20. Alleviation Effect of Lanthanum on Cadmium Stress in Seedling Hydroponic Culture of Kidney Bean and Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    The seedling hydroponic culture experiment of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and corn (Zea mays) was conducted to investigate the alleviation effect of lanthanum on Cd stress.It is found that growth is seriously inhibited and metabolism is maladjusted in the two crops under 30 and 300 μmol·L-1 Cd2+ stress.Plant height, taproot length, leaf area, and fresh or dry weight of root, stem, and leaf are all obviously decreased.Further, chlorophyll content decreases, membrane permeability, malonydialdehyde (MDA) content, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increases under Cd stress, as compared with the control.The damage to these two crops becomes more conspicuous with the prolongation of Cd stress.It is suggested that lanthanum might help kidney bean and corn seedlings alleviate Cd stress by improving the photosynthetic capacity, reducing membrane permeability and MDA content, and maintaining the activities of CAT and POD of these two crops.

  1. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has...... to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D...... energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first algorithm features a linear quadratic regulator with periodic disturbance rejection, and controls the deflection of...

  2. Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unpro...

  3. Poverty Alleviation through Optimizing the Marketing of Garcinia kola and Irvingia gabonensis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agbelade, A. D.; Onyekwelu, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines poverty alleviation through optimizing the marketing of Garcinia kola and Irvingia gabonensis in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collected using structured questionnaire. Two categories of pretested structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents (farmers and the marketers of the species). Data analysis was done using descriptive analysis, and Student t-test was used to compare the income generated by the producers and the market...

  4. The role of tourism in poverty alleviation at Sedibeng District Municipality / Fusi Amelia Msibi.

    OpenAIRE

    Msibi, Fusi Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Local Authorities have a duty to promote the economic, social and environmental wellbeing of their communities. The study deals with the promotion of community involvement and other stakeholders by municipality in ensuring the tourism sustainability. The objectives of this research are to explain the theoretical analysis of the concepts: tourism and poverty alleviation; mechanisms and procedures to be used to encourage community participation in making tourism economically viable around Sedib...

  5. Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarlan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The development of a country usually determined by the human development index HDI. Per capita income education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 2011 year. The result of this research were a income per capita growth was not sign...

  6. Impact of micro-credit programmes on poverty alleviation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khatun, Mst Asma; Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Majumder, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    This present study examines the impact of micro-credit programmes of six government organisations (GO), non-government organisations (NGO) and micro-finance institutes (MFI) on poverty alleviation in Bangladesh using a purposive sample of 406 credit receivers. Alongside respondent’s perceived change in poverty situation this study devised an alternative measure of poverty change based on the change in household wealth and education of a household. Two-level binary logistic regression and mult...

  7. Role of Islamic Microfinance in Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan: An Empirical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Naveed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    After 2008 world economic crises, banks and other financial institutes move towards Islamic financing not only in Muslims countries but also in non-Muslim countries of the world. In view of this, some micro financial institutions also introduce Islamic micro financing products in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to analyze the role of Islamic microfinance to alleviate poverty in Pakistan its impacts, people satisfaction level and assess the future of it in Pakistan. An Empirical appr...

  8. HEALTHY AGRICULTURE (Agricultura saludable®) Agricultural conversion to alleviate hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Healthy agriculture: Agricultural conversion to alleviate hunger and poverty, is a concept, a Program and a brand, that Corporación Biotec and a group of institutions, companies and associations of producers are developing in Colombia, promoting a new culture of social, environmental and market competitiveness, in the production of food, mainly tropical fruits productive chains. Some world wide challenges, ask for biomass as raw material for different sectors: food security, energy supply and...

  9. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Haretsebe Manwa; Farai Manwa

    2014-01-01

    Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest rese...

  10. Alleviation of rural poverty in Malaysia: the role of Zakat, a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamod, Lukman Hakim

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors contributing to the lack of emphasis by the Kedah Department of Zakat (KDoZ), Malaysia on the alleviation of poverty among the rural poor through zakat capital assistance programmes and employment opportunities. In this study, seven research questions were outlined. A mixed-methods study was developed to answer research questions 1, 2, 3 and 4. Research questions 5, 6 and 7 were answered using qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected f...

  11. Development of township enterprise and alleviation of the employment problem in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhang Y.; John L Dillon; Wan, Guang H.

    1992-01-01

    In contrast to the situation in western countries at the time of their industrialization, it has been and still is impossible for rural labour in China to move to the urban sector for employment. For this and other reasons, including shortage of arable land and population growth, lack of employment opportunities continues to be a serious problem in rural China. This article discusses the development of township enterprise in rural areas and its role in the alleviation of China's rural employm...

  12. Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Bolan, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of these Technical Guidelines are to provide a focus on small-scale fisheries and their current and potential role in contributing to poverty alleviation and food security by expanding on the guidance on small-scale fisheries offered by the Code. The Guidelines are complementary to existing Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. Most small-scale fishers are in developing countries and many live in communities characterized by poverty and food insecurity. Small-scale f...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ONDANSETRON WITH LIGNOCAINE TO ALLEVIATE PAIN DURING INJECTION OF PROPOFOL

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant J .; Sonal A; Abhimanyu S; Ganesh K

    2014-01-01

    Propofol is commonly used newer induction agent of choice with smooth and rapid recovery from anaesthesia. It has one adverse effect which is restricting its use i.e. pain during injection. We in present study are comparing Ondansetron with Lignocaine to alleviate pain during injection of Propofol, as ondansetron is routinely used to prevent post-operative nausea and vomiting, so it can have both effects viz prevention of pain on injection of Propofol and prevention of pos...

  14. Solar Energy Utilization As A Tool For Poverty Alleviation In Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletable nature of conventional sources of energy (fossil fuel) and their affects on the environment are highlighted in this paper. The prospects and limitations of solar energy as an alternative source of energy to fossil fuels are also presented. The applications of solar energy and their effect in poverty alleviation are discussed. We conclude that investments in solar energy development be stepped up to save our depletable energy resources as well as preserve our environment

  15. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from ...

  16. AVRDC- The World Vegetables Center: Role of horticulture in poverty alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarik, A.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights the work of AVRDC- The World Vegetable Center, whose mission is to alleviate poverty and malnutrition in the developing world through increased production, marketing and consumption of safe vegetables. The presentation outlines the issue of poverty and nutrient deficiency in the world, and the economic and health benefits to producing vegetables in developing countries. It outlines the research currently being conducted at global stations, as well as achievements ...

  17. Ginsenoside Rh2 alleviates tumor-associated depression in a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Yueming; Dai, Chunxiao; Shang, Yushan; Xie, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported remarkable high incidence of depression in cancer patients compared with the general population. Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide and has been found to be one of the malignancies with the highest incidence of patient depression. Thus, strategies that may alleviate CRC-associated depression may significantly improve the patients’ life quality and outcome of the therapy. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has been reported to have thera...

  18. HEAT STRESS IN POULTRY. II. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR PREVENTION AND ALLEVIATION (review)

    OpenAIRE

    V.I. FISININ; A.Sh. KAVTARASHVILI

    2015-01-01

    An adverse effect of heat stress in poultry depends on both the external factors such as diet, water supply, rearing technology, birds’ population density, air humidity and flow rate, etc., and the internal factors, particularly, poultry species and breed specificity, physiological conditions, etc. Herein, the approaches to prevention and alleviation of heat stress in poultry are summarized and discussed. Different strategies were proposed for lowering of body heat production and for better h...

  19. Poverty Alleviation and Social Safety Net Schemes for Economies in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Paull

    1991-01-01

    Inspired by the current Polish economic restructuring program, this paper attempts to develop a general income support scheme that could serve as a model to alleviate poverty in developed economies in the transitional phase. The proposed scheme has the advantage that no part of the poor population is omitted from eligibility for support sufficient to remove them from poverty. The concept of the simplified model is protection against poverty through income maintenance that is conditional upon ...

  20. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was inc...

  1. Oral Methylphenidate Alleviates the Fine Motor Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Postnatal Manganese Exposure in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudin, Stéphane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Lasley, Stephen M.; Fornal, Casimir A.; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. R...

  2. Mobilizing Informal Workers for Urban Resilience: Linking Poverty Alleviation and Disaster Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Cleveland, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatives and associations of informal sector workers could become key players in global efforts to alleviate extreme poverty and enhance disaster resilience in urban slums and informal settlements. By engaging these worker-led organizations in community-based efforts to reduce disaster risk, the urban poor who live in informal settlements and work informal jobs can exert their collective power to overcome their social and economic marginalization. Such a strategy can build safer communiti...

  3. Optimal Participation Income and Negative Income Tax in Poverty Alleviation Programs.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Lanzi; F. Delbono

    2002-01-01

    We compare two different redistributive policies specifically designed to alleviate poverty. The first one is inspired to the idea of participation income, the second focused on the introduction of a negative income tax. Briefly characterizing an economy with workers and non-workers and using income as evaluation space for poverty, we determine optimality conditions of both measures under a flat rate labor income tax. Finally, we emphasize a necessary condition for these measures to mitigate ...

  4. Energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation: Is there a trade off?

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Tavoni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Energy poverty alleviation has become an important political issue in the most recent years. Several initiatives and policies have been proposed to deal with poor access to modern sources of energy in many developing countries. Given the large number of people lacking basic energy services, an important question is whether providing universal access to modern energy could significantly increase CO2 emissions. This paper provides one of the few formal assessments of this problem by means of a ...

  5. Poverty alleviation programs, FDI-led growth and child labour under agricultural dualism

    OpenAIRE

    Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2011-01-01

    The paper is aimed at providing a theoretical explanation why policies that affect only the supply side of the child labour problem may not be able to mitigate the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three-sector general equilibrium model with agricultural dualism and child labour. Although a poverty alleviation program like subsidization of backward agriculture exerts a downward pressure on the child labour incidence through the supply side by raising adult wage i...

  6. Combined Effect of Opioids and Corticosteroids for Alleviating Dyspnea in Terminal Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Dyspnea is a prognostic factor that affects the quality of life of terminal cancer patients, and many reports have described opioid treatment for dyspnea alleviation. Here, we retrospectively evaluated differences in the effects of various opioids administered concomitantly with corticosteroids on dyspnea in 20 terminal-stage cancer patients (13 men, 7 women; mean age [range]: 71 [49-94] years) who received opioids concomitantly with corticosteroids. Effectiveness was assessed throughout administration using the Support Team Assessment Schedule, Japanese version (STAS-J), particularly the subscale indicating how strongly a patient is affected by symptoms. The effectiveness of combined opioid and corticosteroid therapy against dyspnea and the opioid dose comprised the primary and secondary foci, respectively. Among concomitantly treated patients, STAS-J scores at initiation (mean ± SD: 3.1 ± 0.24) and lowest recorded STAS-J scores (1.4 ± 0.22) differed significantly (P = .0034) among those receiving morphine, but not among those receiving oxycodone (P = .068) or fentanyl (P = .18). Concomitant opioid and corticosteroid treatment was associated with a ≥2-point STAS-J score improvement in 14/20 patients (effectiveness: 70%). The opioid dose did not significantly affect dyspnea alleviation. We conclude that concomitant opioid and corticosteroid treatment can effectively alleviate dyspnea in terminal cancer patients. PMID:27093633

  7. Let there be light: A multi-actor approach to alleviating energy poverty in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy poverty is the primary energy security issue impacting almost 800 million people, particularly women and children, in the developing countries of Asia. Current trends indicate that should there be no change to existing policies, and the governance systems and institutions underpinning them, the absolute number of energy poor will barely shift. Most significantly, addressing energy poverty is critical to absolute poverty reduction, enhanced gender equality and political stability in the Asian region. We offer a solution to progress the energy poverty alleviation effort focused on encouraging sustainable, development-centred investment. This will involve multi-actor partnerships between developed and developing country governments, investors, and multilateral institutions. We propose that there may be spill over effects for investing firms, in the form of strengthened corporate reputation. Consequently, energy poverty alleviation efforts can create new opportunities for commerce, multilateral institutions, NGOs, and developing and developed countries. It is envisaged that the multi-actor approach put forward by this paper will facilitate the partnerships, programs and provisions needed to alleviate energy poverty in Asia. However, critical to the success of this collaborative approach is a genuine shift in sentiment from the key stakeholders involved in the effort

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services with Dual Goals of Environment and Poverty Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Crystal; Uchida, Emi; Rozelle, Scott; Xu, Jintao; Zhan, Jinyan

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this article is to understand strategies by which both the environmental and poverty alleviation objectives of PES programs can be achieved cost effectively. To meet this goal, we first create a conceptual framework to understand the implications of alternative targeting when policy makers have both environmental and poverty alleviation goals. We then use the Grain for Green program in China, the largest PES program in the developing world, as a case study. We also use a data set from a survey that we designed and implemented to evaluate the program. Using the data set we first evaluate what factors determined selection of program areas for the Grain for Green program. We then demonstrate the heterogeneity of parcels and households and examine the correlations across households and their parcels in terms of their potential environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participating, and the asset levels of households as an indicator of poverty. Finally, we compare five alternative targeting criteria and simulate their performance in terms of cost effectiveness in meeting both the environmental and poverty alleviation goals when given a fixed budget. Based on our simulations, we find that there is a substantial gain in the cost effectiveness of the program by targeting parcels based on the “gold standard,” i.e., targeting parcels with low opportunity cost and high environmental benefit managed by poorer households.

  9. Policy Review on Watershed Protection and Poverty Alleviation by the Grain for Green Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    The sustained growth of Chinese economy in the new century is a silver lining in the continuously depressed global economy. Meanwhile, the rapid development of Chinese economy is still confronted with constraints from deteriorating environment and rural poverty issues. It has become a significant policy option in maintaining high speed, efficiency and sound development of Chinese economy to rehabilitate forest resources, improve ecological conditions, increase farmers' income and get on a sustainable road featuring coordinated development of population, resources and environment. The Grain for Green Program, as a CDM activity of Chinese style, launched on trial in 1999 and implemented in 2002 across the country, is the biggest land use transition, watershed management and poverty alleviation program involving the largest population in Chinese history and across the globe. It covers 25 provinces/regions/cities and gets over 1600 counties, 15 million households and 60 million farmers were involved. Hence the Grain for Tree policy has a significant bearing on ecological protection and farmers' poverty alleviation in the soil and water erosion-prone region. A review and assessment of the background, essentials, effects, problems and trend of the Grain for Tree policy is of great significance for both China and the other developing countries in the world in their efforts to combat the deteriorating environment and alleviate poverty.

  10. Increased expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haybaeck J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Haybaeck,1 Magdalena Postruznik,1 Christine L Miller,2 Jeannette R Dulay,3 Ida C Llenos,3,4 Serge Weis3,4 1Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 3Laboratory of Brain Research and Neuropathology, Departments of Psychiatry and Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Laboratory of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, State Neuropsychiatric Hospital Wagner-Jauregg, Medical School, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria Background: Retinoids regulate gene expression in different cells and tissues at the transcriptional level. Retinoic acid transcriptionally regulates downstream regulatory molecules, including enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines, and cytokine receptors. Animal models indicate an involvement of retinoid signaling pathways in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and learning, especially in the hippocampus. Retinoic acid-inducible or induced gene 1 (RAI-1 is induced during neuronal differentiation, and was associated with the severity of the phenotype and response to medication in schizophrenic patients. Methods: In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of RAI-1 in 60 brains from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium (15 cases each from controls and from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Rating scores for density and intensity were determined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Results: All four groups showed high interindividual variation. RAI-1-positive cells were identified as neurons and astrocytes. Significantly increased intensities in cortical neurons were noted in all three major psychiatric groups compared with controls. The density of RAI-1-positive neurons was increased (P=0.06 in schizophrenia and bipolar

  11. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yu; Song, Fan; Yuan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Saffen, David

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5'-upstream region. Using genotype imputation, "R(2)-Δ(2)" analysis, and data from the RegulomeDB database, we identified SNPs rs4925102 and rs9907986 as possible regulatory variants, accounting for approximately 30-40% of the variance in RAI1 mRNA expression in both brain regions. Specifically, rs4925102 and rs9907986 are predicted to disrupt the binding of retinoic acid RXR-RAR receptors and the transcription factor DEAF1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1), respectively. Consistent with these predictions, we observed binding of RXRα and RARα to the predicted RAI1 target in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoic acid is crucial for early development of the central neural system, and DEAF1 is associated with intellectual disability. The observation that a significant portion of RAI1 mRNA expression is genetically controlled raises the possibility that common RAI1 5'-region regulatory variants contribute more generally to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26743651

  12. Alkali- or acid-induced changes in structure, moisture absorption ability and deacetylating reaction of β-chitin extracted from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-01-01

    Alkali- or acid-induced structural modifications in β-chitin from squid (Dosidicus gigas, d'Orbigny, 1835) pens and their moisture absorption ability (MAA) and deacetylating reaction were investigated and compared with α-chitin from shrimp shells. β-Chitin was converted into the α-form after 3h in 40% NaOH or 1-3 h in 40% HCl solution, and α-chitin obtained from NaOH treatment had higher MAA than had native α-chitin, due to polymorphic destructions. In contrast, induced α-chitin from acid treatment of β-chitin had few polymorphic modifications, showing no significant change (P>0.05) in MAA. β-Chitin was more susceptible to alkali deacetylation than was α-chitin, and required a lower concentration of NaOH and shorter reaction time. These results demonstrate that alkali- or acid-treated β-chitin retained high susceptibility toward solvents, which in turn resulted in good biological activity of β-chitosan for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substance or application as edible coatings and films for various food applications. PMID:24444948

  13. MicroRNA-31 negatively regulates peripherally derived regulatory T-cell generation by repressing retinoic acid-inducible protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyun; Ke, Fang; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Bai, Jing; Liu, Jinlin; Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Lou, Fangzhou; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Huiyuan; Sun, Yang; Cai, Wei; Gao, Yuanyuan; Li, Qun; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Qian, Youcun; Hua, Zichun; Deng, Jiong; Li, Qi-Jing; Wang, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally derived regulatory T (pT(reg)) cell generation requires T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling and the cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-2. Here we show that TCR signalling induces the microRNA miR-31, which negatively regulates pT(reg)-cell generation. miR-31 conditional deletion results in enhanced induction of pT(reg) cells, and decreased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Unexpectedly, we identify Gprc5a as a direct target of miR-31. Gprc5a is known as retinoic acid-inducible protein 3, and its deficiency leads to impaired pT(reg-)cell induction and increased EAE severity. By generating miR-31 and Gprc5a double knockout mice, we show that miR-31 promotes the development of EAE through inhibiting Gprc5a. Thus, our data identify miR-31 and its target Gprc5a as critical regulators for pT(reg)-cell generation, suggesting a previously unrecognized epigenetic mechanism for dysfunctional T(reg) cells in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26165721

  14. microRNA-34a-Upregulated Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I Promotes Apoptosis and Delays Cell Cycle Transition in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Le; Ma, Yu-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2016-06-01

    The function of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in viral replication is well documented, but its function in carcinogenesis and malignancies as well as relationship with microRNAs (miRNAs) remain poorly understood. miR-34a is an antioncogene in multiple tumors. In our study, RIG-I and miR-34a suppressed cell growth, proliferation, migration, and invasion in cervical cancer cells in vitro. miR-34a was validated as a new regulator of RIG-I by binding to its 3' untranslated region and upregulating its expression level. Furthermore, we revealed that RIG-I and miR-34a enhanced apoptosis, delayed the G1/S/G2 transition of the cell cycle, and inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process to modulate malignancies in cervical cancer cells. Phenotypic rescue experiments indicated that RIG-I mediates the effects of miR-34a in HeLa and C33A cells. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that underlie carcinogenesis and may provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of cervical cancer. PMID:26910120

  15. Social Enterprise Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development of Relative Poverty Groups in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianye Xing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative poverty groups in rural areas have become main target of China’s poverty alleviation andto explore a long-term effective alleviation mechanismis now a significant topic for research. After thorough research, this paper examines the status and role of this new social organization in rural development-oriented poverty alleviation with the example of the self-service agencies in Xiapu County and Fu’an City founded by the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation. These social enterprises could improve production and living conditions of relative poverty groups and plays an irreplaceable role in the new rural construction; therefore the government should support the development of social enterprises with proper policies and financial support.

  16. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions...

  17. Melatonin combined with exercise cannot alleviate cerebral injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seunghoon; Shin, Jinhee; Lee, Minkyung; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Sang-Kil; Lee, Youngjeon; Lkhagvasuren, Tserentogtokh; KIM Dong-Wook; Yang, Young-Ae; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minut...

  18. Alleviation of Boron Stress through Plant Derived Smoke Extracts in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500 were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

  19. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H2) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H2 in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H2 in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems

  20. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  1. Rapamycin-mediated CD36 translational suppression contributes to alleviation of hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Yan, Yong; Hu, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Chen, Yaxi; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2014-04-25

    Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-specific inhibitor, has the effect of anti-lipid deposition on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms with which rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis are not fully disclosed. CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contribute to NAFLD progression. Hepatic CD36 expression is closely associated with hepatic steatosis, while mTOR pathway is involved in CD36 translational control. This study was undertaken to investigate whether rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis via the inhibition of mTOR pathway-dependent CD36 translation. Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate and C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) to induce hepatic steatosis. Hepatic CD36 protein expression was significantly increased with lipid accumulation in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells or HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Rapamycin reduced hepatic steatosis and CD36 protein expression, but it had no influence on CD36 mRNA expression. Rapamycin had no effect on CD36 protein stability, but it significantly decreased CD36 translational efficiency. We further confirmed that rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). This study demonstrates that rapamycin inhibits hepatic CD36 translational efficiency through the mTOR pathway, resulting in reduction of CD36 protein expression and alleviation of hepatic steatosis. PMID:24685479

  2. Gust Alleviation of a Large Aircraft with a Passive Twist Wingtip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the gust response and wing structure load alleviation of a 200-seater aircraft by employing a passive twist wingtip (PTWT. The research was divided into three stages. The first stage was the design and analysis of the baseline aircraft, including aerodynamic analysis, structural design using the finite element (FE method and flutter analysis to meet the design requirements. Dynamic response analysis of the aircraft to discrete (one-cosin gust was also performed in a range of gust radiances specified in the airworthiness standards. In the second stage, a PTWT of a length of 1.13 m was designed with the key parameters determined based on design constraints and, in particular, the aeroelastic stability and gust response. Subsequent gust response analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the PTWT for gust alleviation. The results show that the PTWT produced a significant reduction of gust-induced wingtip deflection by 21% and the bending moment at the wing root by 14% in the most critical flight case. In the third stage, effort was made to study the interaction and influence of the PTWT on the symmetric and unsymmetrical manoeuvring of the aircraft when ailerons were in operation. The results show the that PTWT influence with a reduction of the aircraft normal velocity and heave motion by 1.7% and 3%, respectively, is negligible. However, the PTWT influence on the aircraft roll moment with a 20.5% reduction is significant. A locking system is therefore required in such a manoeuvring condition. The investigation has shown that the PTWT is an effective means for gust alleviation and, therefore, has potential for large aircraft application.

  3. ADAM12 alleviates the skeletal muscle pathology in mdx dystrophic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronqvist, Pauliina; Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Xu, Xiufeng; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Frohlich, Camilla; Engvall, Eva; Wewer, Ulla M

    2002-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is characterized by muscle degeneration and insufficient regeneration and replacement of muscle fibers by connective tissue. New therapeutic strategies directed toward various forms of muscular dystrophy are needed to preserve muscle mass and promote regeneration. In this study...... we examined the role of the transmembrane ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, which is normally associated with development and regeneration of skeletal muscle. We demonstrate that ADAM12 overexpression in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mice alleviated the muscle pathology in these animals, as...

  4. Reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on bone marrow stromal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henghui Wang; Weifeng Luo; Xiaoxia Wang; Xiaoling Qin; Shiyao Bao

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of reduced glutathione on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which shows a toxic effect on dopaminergic neurons.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with 6-OHDA decreased, while that of BMSCs treated with reduced glutathione increased.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with both 6-OHDA and reduced glutathione was significantly higher compared with that treated with 6-OHDA alone.These findings indicate that reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-OHDA on BMSCs.

  5. Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song YanXia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR in dendritic cells (DCs and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.

  6. Economic growth and poverty alleviation in Africa - linking hard and soft economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a quick glance at the dominant issues that have characterized the development economics debate during the past five decades. It is based on a review of a selection of literature that highlights the dominant perspectives in development economics. It draws a distinction between ...... soft and hard economics, arguing that economic growth must be converted into social change that benefits poor for it to be described as development-oriented. It provides a direction for future research into issues of economic growth and poverty alleviation in Sub-Sahara Africa...

  7. Dietary Modulation of Gut Microbiota Contributes to Alleviation of Both Genetic and Simple Obesity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Poorly managed diet and genetic mutations are the two primary driving forces behind the devastating epidemic of obesity-related diseases. Lack of understanding of the molecular chain of causation between the driving forces and the disease endpoints retards progress in prevention and treatment of the diseases. We found that children genetically obese with Prader–Willi syndrome shared a similar dysbiosis in their gut microbiota with those having diet-related obesity. A diet rich in non-digestible but fermentable carbohydrates significantly promoted beneficial groups of bacteria and reduced toxin-producers, which contributes to the alleviation of metabolic deteriorations in obesity regardless of the primary driving forces.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Bum; Seronello, Scott; Mayer, Wasima; Ojcius, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain) were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. PMID:27404108

  9. Identification of a retinoic acid-inducible gene I from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and expression analysis in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Guo, Songlin; Lin, Peng; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping; Zhang, Zaipeng; Yu, Lili

    2016-08-01

    RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene-I) is one of the key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for the recognition of cytosolic viral nucleic acids and the production of type I interferons (IFNs). The full-length cDNA sequence of RIG-I (AjRIG-I) in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was identified and characterized in this article. The full-length cDNA of AjRIG-I was 3468 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 52 bp, a 3'-UTR of 617 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 bp encoding a polypeptide of 933 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 106.2 kDa. NCBI CDD analysis showed that the AjRIG-I protein had the typical conserved domains, including two adjacent caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), a DEXDc domain, a HELICc domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed a broad expression for AjRIG-I in a wide range of tissues, with the predominant expression in liver, followed by the gills, spleen, kidney, intestine, skin, and the very low expression in muscle and heart. The AjRIG-I expressions in liver, spleen and kidney were significantly induced following injection with LPS, the viral mimic poly I:C, and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. In vitro, the AjRIG-I transcripts of Japanese eel liver cells were significantly enhanced by poly I:C and PGN stimulation, down-regulated with CpG-DNA treatment whereas no change of the expression level was found post LPS challenge. These results collectively suggested AjRIG-I transcripts expression possibly play an important role in fish defense against viral and bacterial infection. PMID:27238428

  10. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A prevents fatty acid-induced adipocyte dysfunction through suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefei; Li, Kuai; Hui, Xiaoyan; Kong, Xiangping; Sweeney, Gary; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Teng, Maikun; Liu, Pentao; Wu, Donghai

    2011-05-01

    The adipocyte is the principal cell type for fat storage. CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid β-oxidation, but the physiological role of CPT1 in adipocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we focused on the specific role of CPT1A in the normal functioning of adipocytes. Three 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell lines stably expressing hCPT1A (human CPT1A) cDNA, mouse CPT1A shRNA (short-hairpin RNA) or GFP (green fluorescent protein) were generated and the biological functions of these cell lines were characterized. Alteration in CPT1 activity, either by ectopic overexpression or pharmacological inhibition using etomoxir, did not affect adipocyte differentiation. However, overexpression of hCPT1A significantly reduced the content of intracellular NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) compared with the control cells when adipocytes were challenged with fatty acids. The changes were accompanied by an increase in fatty acid uptake and a decrease in fatty acid release. Interestingly, CPT1A protected against fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines such as TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6) in adipocytes. Further studies demonstrated that JNK (c-Jun N terminal kinase) activity was substantially suppressed upon CPT1A overexpression, whereas knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of CPT1 caused a significant enhancement of JNK activity. The specific inhibitor of JNK SP600125 largely abolished the changes caused by the shRNA- and etomoxir-mediated decrease in CPT1 activity. Moreover, C2C12 myocytes co-cultured with adipocytes pre-treated with fatty acids displayed altered insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our findings have identified a favourable role for CPT1A in adipocytes to attenuate fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance and inflammation via suppression of JNK. PMID:21348853

  11. Constitutive androstane receptor-mediated changes in bile acid composition contributes to hepatoprotection from lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Holland, Ricky D; Besselsen, David G; Beger, Rick D; Klaassen, Curtis D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were administered to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CAR knockout (CAR-null) mice before and during induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA). In LCA-treated WT and all the CAR-null groups (excluding controls), histology revealed severe multifocal necrosis. This pathology was absent in WT mice pretreated with PB and TCPOBOP, indicating CAR-dependent hepatoprotection. Decreases in total hepatic bile acids and hepatic monohydroxy, dihydroxy, and trihydroxy bile acids in PB- and TCPOBOP-pretreated WT mice correlated with hepatoprotection. In comparison, concentrations of monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated bile acids were increased in all the treated CAR-null mice compared with CO controls. Along with several other enzymes (Cyp7b1, Cyp27a1, Cyp39a1), Cyp8b1 expression was increased in hepatoprotected mice, which could be suggestive of a shift in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway toward the formation of less toxic bile acids. In CAR-null mice, these changes in gene expression were not different among treatment groups. These results suggest CAR mediates a shift in bile acid biosynthesis toward the formation of less toxic bile acids, as well as a decrease in hepatic bile acid concentrations. We propose that these combined CAR-mediated effects may contribute to the hepatoprotection observed during LCA-induced liver injury. PMID:19196849

  12. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca2+ on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca2+ pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca2+ entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca2+ mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca2+ concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca2+ entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca2+ entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca2+-dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  13. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  14. A comparative study of the antitussive activity of levodropropizine and dropropizine in the citric acid-induced cough model in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, G; Cordaro, C I; Vanasia, M; Balzarotti, C; Camusso, L; Caiazzo, G; Maghini, L; Mazzocchi, M; Zennaro, M

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the levo-rotatory (S)-enantiomer of dropropizine, a racemic non-opiate antitussive agent which has been used clinically for many years. Compared with the racemic drug, levodropropizine exhibits in animal models similar antitussive activity but considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. It is also less likely to cause sedation in treated patients. Since the comparative antitussive potency of the two drugs in clinical experimental models has not been evaluated, the authors performed a randomized, double blind, cross over investigation in which the effects of single oral doses (60 and 90 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine were assessed by using the citric acid-induced cough model in eight normal volunteers. Stimulation tests involved inhalation of individual cumulative doses of citric acid (6.3 to 53.3 mg) which at pre-study assessment had been found to induce reproducibly at least ten coughs over a 30 sec period. Each subject was studied by repeating the citric acid stimulation test four times (0 h, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h) on each of five different days separated by intervals of at least three days. In the absence of drug administration (control session), cough response to citric inhalation was remarkably reproducible throughout the 6 h period of observation. A marked and statistically significant reduction in cough response (to about one third--one sixth of the pre-drug values) was observed 1 h after intake for both compounds. At subsequent testing 2 h and 6 h after dosing, cough response was still depressed and did not differ significantly from that observed at 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1295724

  15. The Long-Term Effective Mechanism of Rural Poverty Alleviation in China from the Perspective of Ecological Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the ecological environmental situation of poverty-stricken areas in China and the domestic and foreign research results,the long-term effective mechanism of sustainable poverty alleviation in China is established(the ideological premise is ecological culture,the material base is ecological economy and the basic guarantee is ecological system) from the perspective of ecological management.To be specific,ecological culture,the ideological premise of rural sustainable poverty alleviation in China,includes two aspects:the first one is upholding the Marxism,passing on the Chinese traditional ecological wisdom and fostering ecological consciousness;the second one is mirroring the thought of western modern ecological ethics,emphasizing ecological criticism and redoubling the ecological education.As for ecological economy,the material guarantee for sustainable poverty alleviation in Chinese rural poverty-stricken areas,also contents two aspects.The first one is promoting the way of "clean production" and developing ecological industry;the second one is building ecological concept of consumption and establishing the ecological lifestyle.In addition,ecological system,the basic guarantee of sustainable poverty alleviation in Chinese rural poverty-stricken areas,covers three terms.The first one is implementing the ecological policies and stipulating ecological plan;the second one is establishing perfect ecological legislation and ecological system and intensifying their implementation;the third one is enforcing ecological management in the process of sustainable poverty alleviation.Through the establishment of the above mechanism,we look forward to realizing sustainability of economic development and poverty alleviation effects in the process of poverty alleviation in Chinese rural areas,as well as ecological management of the poverty-stricken areas.

  16. To compare methods used in our operating room for alleviating tourniquet pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of different methods used to alleviate tourniquet pain in operating rooms as well as assess their effect on post-operative pain. Methods: The study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from June to August 2010. All patients who came for elective orthopaedic surgery in whom a tourniquet application was planned were included in the study. Information was collected through a pre-designed data form. Qualitative data was expressed as mean standard deviation, while qualitative data was presented as frequency and percentage. Results: In the 106 patients studied, opioids were administered in 90 (85%) cases, paracetamol in 73 (69%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 11 (10.4%) cases. Efficacy was determined by means of the effect on the blood pressure and heart rate of the patient before and after the drug administration. Intravenous paracetamol was found to be the most effective in reducing both blood pressure and heart rate (p<0.001). The effect on post-operative pain was insignificant. Conclusions: Intravenous paracetamol is a cost-effective and safe analgesic, especially when combined with a multi-modal regimen, and has potential effect on the alleviation of tourniquet pain. (author)

  17. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25217281

  18. Melanocortin MC4 receptor agonists alleviate brain damage in abdominal compartment syndrome in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Hong-Guang; Zhao, Zi-Ai; Chang, Ming-Tao; Li, Yang; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lian-Yang

    2015-02-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is accompanied by high morbidity and mortality in surgical departments and ICUs. However, its specific pathophysiology is unclear. IAH not only leads to intra-abdominal tissue damage but also causes dysfunction in distal organs, such as the brain. In this study, we explore the protective effects of melanocortin 4 receptor agonists in IAH-induced brain injury. The IAH rat models were induced by hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (with the mean arterial pressure (MAP) maintained at 30 mm Hg for 90 min followed by the reinfusion of the withdrawn blood with lactated Ringer's solution). Then, air was injected into the peritoneal cavity of the rats to maintain an intra-abdominal pressure of 20 mm Hg for 4 h. The effects of the melanocortin 4 receptor agonist RO27-3225 in alleviating the rats' IAH brain injuries were observed, which indicated that RO27-3225 could reduce brain edema, the expressions of the IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory cytokines, the blood-brain barrier's permeability and the aquaporin4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) levels. Moreover, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist chlorisondamine and the selective melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist HS024 can negate the protective effects of the RO27-3225. The MC4R agonist can effectively reduce the intracerebral proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and alleviate the brain injury caused by blood-brain barrier damage following IAH. PMID:25616531

  19. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate liver fibrosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ning-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Chen, Si-Wen; Fan, Ke-Xing; Linghu, En-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in the treatment of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Cultured human UC-MSCs were isolated and transfused into rats with liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). The effects of UC-MSCs transfusion on liver fibrosis were then evaluated by histopathology; serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 levels were also measured. Furthermore, Kupffer cells (KCs) in fibrotic livers were isolated and cultured to analyze their phenotype. Moreover, UC-MSCs were co-cultured with KCs in vitro to assess the effects of UC-MSCs on KCs’ phenotype, and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were measured in cell culture supernatants. Finally, UC-MSCs and KCs were cultured in the presence of IL-4 antibodies to block the effects of this cytokine, followed by phenotypical analysis of KCs. RESULTS: UC-MSCs transfused into rats were recruited by the injured liver and alleviated liver fibrosis, increasing serum IL-4 and IL-10 levels. Interestingly, UC-MSCs promoted mobilization of KCs not only in fibrotic livers, but also in vitro. Co-culture of UC-MSCs with KCs resulted in increased production of IL-4 and IL-10. The addition of IL-4 antibodies into the co-culture system resulted in decreased KC mobilization. CONCLUSION: UC-MSCs could increase IL-4 and promote mobilization of KCs both in vitro and in vivo, subsequently alleviating the liver fibrosis induced by DMN.

  20. Cloning and Characterization of a Human Genomic Sequence that Alleviates Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Osamu; Ohyama, Takashi; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) are spontaneously amplified in transfected mammalian cells, and such amplification generates chromosomal homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) or extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs). This method provides a novel, efficient, and rapid way to establish cells that stably produce high levels of recombinant proteins. However, because IR/MAR plasmids are amplified as repeats, they are frequently targeted by repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS), which silences a variety of repeated sequences in transgenes and the genome. To address this problem, we developed a novel screening system using the IR/MAR plasmid to isolate human genome sequences that alleviate RIGS. The screen identified a 3,271 bp sequence (B-3-31) that elevated transgene expression without affecting the amplification process. Neither non-B structure (i.e., the inverted repeats or bending) nor known epigenetic modifier elements such as MARs, insulators, UCOEs, or STARs could explain the anti-silencing activity of B-3-31. Instead, the activity was distributed throughout the entire B-3-31 sequence, which was extremely A/T-rich and CpG-poor. Because B-3-31 effectively and reproducibly alleviated RIGS of repeated genes, it could be used to increase recombinant protein production. PMID:27078685

  1. Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone improves intestinal barrier function and alleviates bacterial translocation in stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁连安; 黎介寿; 李幼生; 刘放南; 谭力

    2004-01-01

    Background Damage to the gut barrier often occurs during critical illnesses. In such cases, it is very important to alleviate impairment of the intestinal barrier and protect intestinal barrier function. This study investigated the protective effect of growth hormone on intestinal barrier function in rats under stress.Methods This study consisted of prospective, randomized, and controlled animal experiments. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats served as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) models and were divided into three groups: TPN group, sepsis (Sep) group, and growth hormone (GH) group. Another 8 rats served as normal controls. Each group received different stress stimuli. Rats were fed for 7 days, and samples were taken for examination 24 hours after garaging with dual saccharides. Results The architecture of the small intestinal mucosa in the Sep group showed the most severe damage among all groups. Nitric oxide levels in blood plasma and immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal mucosa of the GH group were significantly lower than in the Sep group (P<0.02). There were no significant changes in CD3 counts and in the CD4/CD8 ratio between the four groups. Dual sugar tests and bacteriological examinations revealed that intestinal permeability and rate of bacterial translocation in the GH group were lower than in the Sep group (P<0.01, respectively).Conclusion Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone can alleviate damage to intestinal barrier function caused by trauma and endotoxemia in rats under stress.

  2. Engineering Strategies and Industrial Processing Capacity for Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo, I. O.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to identify, discuss and proffer solution to some of the engineering activities that might have contributed to the poverty problem. Engineering profession’s willingness to find some meaningful solutions to the nation’s poverty problem is understandable and laudable. The nature of businesses including public enterprises are increasingly technical and engineering profession is usually involved in their development and maintenance. These enterprises have a remarkable capacity to absorb labour and hence are fruitful sources of jobs and income. The dismay performance of them in recent times is undoubtedly a contributing factor to the current poverty problem in Nigeria. In this paper, it was observed that past approaches to poverty alleviation such as free education, adult education, rural electrification, operation feed the nation, etc has an impact, but they were not successful. In order for engineering to effectively contribute to poverty alleviation, the country does require long-term engineering solution through technological innovation, manufacturing sector, manufacturing Value Added and activities of Engineering professional bodies. Proposal are presented to enhance engineering vision through industries capacity for improve quality of life for the increasing population to survive the competitive international economy

  3. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  4. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Lan; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  5. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  6. Thymoquinone Alleviates the Experimental Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy by Modulation of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Li, Bing; Chen, Biqin; Shao, Yiye; Luo, Qiong; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammation plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This study investigated the effects of TQ on proliferation and apoptosis of Schwann cells exposed to high glucose conditions and electrophysiological and morphological changes of the sciatic nerve in a DPN rat model as well as relevant inflammatory mechanism. Cell proliferation and apoptosis of Schwann cells were measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry. DPN model was established in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nerve conduction velocity was measured before and after treatment. Morphologic changes were observed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy. COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and Caspase-3 expression was investigated by western blotting and Bio-Plex Pro(TM) Assays. Finally, TQ alleviated the inhibition of Schwann cell proliferation and protected against Schwann cell apoptosis. It improved nerve conduction velocity, and alleviated the DPN-induced morphological changes and demyelination of the sciatic nerve. COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and Caspase-3 expression in sciatic nerve or isolated cultured Schwann cells, were also decreased by TQ. These results indicate TQ has a protective effect on peripheral nerves in a DPN rat model. The mechanism may be mediated partly by the modulation of the inflammatory reaction. PMID:27545310

  7. Assessment of agricultural extension strategies for poverty alleviation in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Nnadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at identifying the various ways agricultural extension would enhance poverty reduction. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, identify agricultural extension strategies for poverty reduction among the respondents, identify the roles agricultural extension play in reducing poverty among the respondents and determine the effectiveness of the strategies. A structured questionnaire was administered to 78 contact farmers and 42 extension agents purposively selected in Imo State. Information obtained was analyzed using frequency distribution tables and percentages. The information obtained shows the major agricultural extension strategies for poverty alleviation. These include participatory extension service, community empowerment and formation of farmer associations amongst others. Several roles played by agricultural extension in alleviation poverty among the respondents in the study area include improved livelihood, education of farmers and increased production amongst others. Agricultural extension should be decentralized, while empowering communities as well as people in the same vein so as to effectively meet the needs of the people. Infrastructures and social amenities should be provided, that will boost production, raise income of farmers and gradually drive them out of poverty.

  8. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates Arsenic-induced Oxidative Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu Gang; GUO Shu Xia; DING Yu Song; NIU Qiang; XU Shang Zhi; PANG Li Juan; MA Ru Lin; JING Ming Xia; FENG Gang Ling; LIU Jia Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. Methods Sixty male Kunming mice received the following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control); arsenic trioxide (ATO; 4 mg/kg); GSPE (400 mg/kg); ATO+GSPE (100 mg/kg);ATO+GSPE (200 mg/kg) and ATO+GSPE (400 mg/kg). Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and the testis was examined for pathological changes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) expression in the testis was detected by real-time PCR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. Results ATO-treated mice showed a significantly decreased sperm count and testis somatic index and activity levels of SOD, GSH, and T-AOC than control group. Compared to the ATO-treated group, ATO+GSPE group showed recovery of the measured parameters. Mice treated with ATO+high-dose GSPE showed the highest level of mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO, NQO1, and GST. Conclusion GSPE alleviates oxidative stress damage in mouse testis by activating Nrf2 signaling, thus counteracting arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

  9. A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements. (paper)

  10. Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Alleviation in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper established that biodiversity conservation can aid the alleviation of poverty among the people of the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. The benefits derived from biodiversity were discussed and the ways through which biodiversity can be applied as a tool in the reduction of poverty were emphasized as including bio-regional management approach to biodiversity conservation, ecotourism, community participation in biodiversity management, advocacy of sericulture and drawing from the experiences, knowledge and ideas of conservation bodies all over the world. The paper also maintained that the extension services of government and non–governmental organizations (NGOS should not be left out in this process as they are equipped with the teaching, communication and human relationship and rural sociological skills to live up to the tasks in the process of poverty alleviation through biodiversity conservation. Besides, the knowledge and ideas of other professionals including ecologists, conservationists, geographers, zoologists, botanists, taxonomists, and soil scientists should be tapped as biodiversity conservation requires a multi-disciplinary approach.

  11. AN APPROACH TO ALLEVIATE THE FALSE ALARM IN BUILDING CHANGE DETECTION FROM URBAN VHR IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building change detection from very-high-resolution (VHR urban remote sensing image frequently encounter the challenge of serious false alarm caused by different illumination or viewing angles in bi-temporal images. An approach to alleviate the false alarm in urban building change detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, as shadows casted by urban buildings are of distinct spectral and shape feature, it adopts a supervised object-based classification technique to extract them in this paper. Secondly, on the opposite direction of sunlight illumination, a straight line is drawn along the principal orientation of building in every extracted shadow region. Starting from the straight line and moving toward the sunlight direction, a rectangular area is constructed to cover partial shadow and rooftop of each building. Thirdly, an algebra and geometry invariant based method is used to abstract the spatial topological relationship of the potential unchanged buildings from all central points of the rectangular area. Finally, based on an oriented texture curvature descriptor, an index is established to determine the actual false alarm in building change detection result. The experiment results validate that the proposed method can be used as an effective framework to alleviate the false alarm in building change detection from urban VHR image.

  12. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haretsebe Manwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest reserves for ecotourism. Data was collected through mixed methods involving in-depth interviews with government departments, traditional leaders, quasi-government organisations and the Hospitality and Tourism Association of Botswana. Focus group discussions were also held with village development committees, Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust (CECT and Kasane, Lesoma and Pandematenga Trust (KALEPA members, and a consultative national workshop of stakeholders was also held. The findings indicate that opening up forest reserves for ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty among the disadvantaged groups living adjacent to forest reserves through direct (employment, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, secondary (linkages/partnerships and dynamic effects (sustainable livelihoods. The study concludes by cautioning that whilst pro-poor tourism may yield short- and medium-term benefits, in keeping with sustainability objectives, participants in the programme need to be mindful of forestry encroachment and come up with strategies to ensure the sustainability of the Botswana forest reserves.

  13. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  14. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene found in the protective wax-like coating of the leaves and fruit of Olea europaea L., is a promising agent for the prevention of colon cancer. We have shown elsewhere that maslinic acid inhibits cell proliferation to a significant extent and activates mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In our latest work we have investigated further this compound's apoptotic molecular mechanism. We used HT29 adenocarcinoma cells. Changes genotoxicity were analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, changes in protein expression were examined by western blotting. Student's t-test was used for statistical comparison. HT29 cells treated with maslinic acid showed significant increases in genotoxicity and cell-cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours' treatment and an apoptotic sub-G0/G1 peak after 96 hours. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for this cytotoxic effect of maslinic acid has never been properly explored. We show here that the anti-tumoral activity of maslinic acid might proceed via p53-mediated apoptosis by acting upon the main signaling components that lead to an increase in p53 activity and the induction of the rest of the factors that participate in the apoptotic pathway. We found that in HT29 cells maslinic acid activated the expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inducing p53. Treatment of tumor cells with maslinic acid also resulted in an increase in the expression of Bid and Bax, repression of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome-c and an increase in the expression of caspases -9, -3, and -7. Moreover, maslinic acid produced belated caspase-8 activity, thus amplifying the initial mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. All these results suggest that maslinic acid induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon-cancer cells through the JNK-Bid-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the activation of p53. Thus we propose

  15. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingelhoeffer Christoph

    2012-05-01

    against oxidative stress mediated by ascorbic acid induced hydrogen peroxide production. The antioxidative enzyme catalase is important to protect cancer cells against cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide. Silenced catalase expression increased the susceptibility of the formerly resistant cancer cell line BT-20 to oxidative stress.

  16. Preventive effect of a pectic polysaccharide of the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey V Popov; Pavel A Markov; Ida R Nikitina; Sergey Petrishev; Vasily Smirnov; Yury S Ovodov

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study isolation and chemical characterization of pectin derived from the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (oxycoccusan OP) and the testing of its preventive effect on experimental colitis.METHODS: Mice were administrated orally with OP two days prior to a rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 h later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury and enhanced levels of myeloperoxidase activity measured spectrophotometrically with o-phenylene diamine as the substrate. The mucus contents of the colon were determined by the Alcian blue dye binding method. Vascular permeability was estimated using 4%Evans blue passage after i.p. injection of 0.05 mol/L acetic acid.RESULTS: In the mice treated with OP, colonic macroscopic scores (1.1 ± 0.4 vs 2.7, P < 0.01) and the total square area of damage (10 ± 2 vs 21 ± 7, P < 0.01)were significantly reduced when compared with the vehicle-treated colitis group. OP was shown to decrease the tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons (42 ± 11 vs 112 ± 40, P < 0.01) and enhance the amount of mucus of colitis mice (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 0.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.01). The level of colonic malondialdehyde was noted to decrease in OP-pretreated mice (3.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.01).OP was found to decrease the inflammatory status of mice as was determined by reduction of vascular permeability (161 ± 34 vs 241 ± 21, P < 0.01). Adhesion of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages was also shown to decrease after administration of OP (141 ± 50vs 235 ± 37, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Thus, a preventive effect of pectin from the common cranberry, namely oxycoccusan OP,on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected.A reduction of neutrophil infiltration and antioxidant action may be implicated in the protective effect of oxycoccusan.

  17. The design and research of poverty alleviation monitoring and evaluation system: a case study in the Jiangxi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hong-yuan; Wang, Ying-jie; Yu, Zhuo-yuan

    2009-07-01

    The Poverty Alleviation Monitoring and Evaluation System (PAMES) is introduced in this paper. The authors present environment platform selection, and details of system design and realization. Different with traditional research of poverty alleviation, this paper develops a new analytical geo-visualization approach to study the distribution and causes of poverty phenomena within Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on the most detailed poverty population data, the spatial location and population statistical indicators of poverty village in Jiangxi province, the distribution characteristics of poverty population are detailed. The research results can provide much poverty alleviation decision support from a spatial-temporal view. It should be better if the administrative unit of poverty-stricken area to be changed from county to village according to spatial distribution pattern of poverty.

  18. ADAM12 alleviates the skeletal muscle pathology in mdx dystrophic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronqvist, Pauliina; Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Albrechtsen, Reidar;

    2002-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is characterized by muscle degeneration and insufficient regeneration and replacement of muscle fibers by connective tissue. New therapeutic strategies directed toward various forms of muscular dystrophy are needed to preserve muscle mass and promote regeneration. In this study...... evidenced by less muscle cell necrosis and inflammation, lower levels of serum creatine kinase, and less uptake of Evans Blue dye into muscle fibers. These studies demonstrate that ADAM12 directly or indirectly contributes to muscle cell regeneration, stability, and survival....... we examined the role of the transmembrane ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, which is normally associated with development and regeneration of skeletal muscle. We demonstrate that ADAM12 overexpression in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mice alleviated the muscle pathology in these animals, as...

  19. Analytical study of a free-wing/free-trimmer concept. [for gust alleviation and high lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. F.; Hall, D. W.; Brown, J. H., Jr.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    The free-wing/free-trimmer is a NASA-Conceived extension of the free-wing concept intended to permit the use of high-lift flaps. Wing pitching moments are balanced by a smaller, external surface attached by a boom or equivalent structure. The external trimmer is, itself, a miniature free wing, and pitch control of the wing-trimmer assembly is effected through a trailing-edge control tab on the trimmer surface. The longitudinal behavior of representative small free-wing/free-trimmer aircraft was analyzed. Aft-mounted trimmer surfaces are found to be superior to forward trimmers, although the permissible trimmer moment arm is limited, in both cases, by adverse dynamic effects. Aft-trimmer configurations provide excellent gust alleviation and meet fundamental stick-fixed stability criteria while exceeding the lift capabilities of pure free-wing configurations.

  20. A progress report on the Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E.R.; Havens, J.S.

    1965-01-01

    At Malaga Bend on the Pecos River in Eddy County, New Mexico, a brine aquifer about 1950 feet below the stream channel has a pressure head about 10 feet above the river bed. This aquifer normally discharges about 430 tons of dissolved minerals daily into the river of which about 370 tons was sodium chloride. The Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1958, Public Law 85-333,is an attempt to determine if the salinity content of the Pecos River below Malaga Bend can be decreased by reducing the inflow of saline water into the river at Malaga Bend by pumping from the brine aquifer. Construction for the project was supervised by the Bureau of Reclamation, and the collection of data and its interpretation were the responsibility cooperatively of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Pecos River Commission.

  1. SNR Wall Effect Alleviation by Generalized Detector Employed in Cognitive Radio Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbat, Modar Safir; Tuzlukov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio (CR) networks, such as the energy detector (ED), matched filter (MF), and others, suffer from the noise uncertainty and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) wall phenomenon. These detectors cannot achieve the required signal detection performance regardless of the sensing time. In this paper, we explore a signal processing scheme, namely, the generalized detector (GD) constructed based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise, in spectrum sensing of CR network based on antenna array with the purpose to alleviate the SNR wall problem and improve the signal detection robustness under the low SNR. The simulation results confirm our theoretical issues and effectiveness of GD implementation in CR networks based on antenna array. PMID:26151216

  2. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  3. The potential role of nuclear power in alleviating the risks of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing awareness of environmental impacts from energy production and use is highlighted, and in particular the concerns regarding the risks for global climate change is pointed out. The different emissions, residuals and burdens arising from electricity generation chains are analysed with emphasis on greenhouse gas emissions. The potential role of nuclear power in alleviating the risks for global climate change is illustrated by comprehensive comparison of full energy chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from alternative electricity generation sources. It is shown that nuclear power is one of the most greenhouse benign energy sources with greenhouse gas emissions similar to wind and geothermal energy chains. The actual impact of nuclear power programmes on reducing air emissions from the electricity sector is illustrated by the correlation between time series of carbon dioxide emission and nuclear share of electricity generation in different countries. (author)

  4. The potential role of nuclear power in alleviating the risks of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of nuclear power in alleviating the risks for global climate change is illustrated by comprehensive comparison of full energy chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from alternative electricity generation sources. It is shown that nuclear power is one of the most greenhouse benign energy sources with greenhouse emissions similar to wind and geothermal energy chains, while other renewable chains, including hydropower, emit in the range of 2 to 5 times more greenhouse gases per unit of electricity produced, and fossil fuelled chains, emit some 50 times more. The prospects for nuclear power deployment are analyzed taking into account the barriers and limits to the implementation of nuclear power programmes. Medium term projections of nuclear electricity generation are given and a long term nuclear scenario aiming towards lowering carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity sector is presented and discussed. 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Fiscal Capacity and Poverty Alleviation: A Panel Data Analysis for Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Sriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the role of fiscal capacity in poverty alleviation in Yogyakarta for the period of 2006-2013. For this purpose, this study uses panel data approach to estimate the empirical model involving four regencies and a city. This research f ound that fixed effects model is the best model to explain the role of fiscal capacity to the poverty rate. Overall, the results present that all independent variables are good predictors for poverty rate model. Based on the complete fixed effects model, the research shows that public spending and fiscal transfer are significant predictors for poverty rate. In contrast, government own revenue has negative impact to poverty rate. These results indicate fiscal capacity in among regencies and city in Yogyakarta has well managed to improve social welfare. This study also reveals that local governments need to improve their public spending as well as to strengthen their frameworks on public services policies.

  6. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  7. The pathogenesis mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy and alleviation of simvastatin combined benazepril

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Jie Zhou; Bin Hu; Jian-Min Liu; Han-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pathogenesis mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy and alleviation of simvastatin combined benazepril.Methods: SD rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic group, SP00125 group and simvastatin combined benazepril group. The cardiac function and serum MDA, SOD, HLD and LDL were detected. The expression of JNK signaling pathway key proteins were analyzed by Western Blotting.Results:The content of HDL and SOD was decreased while MDA and LDL were increased in diabetic group. The expression of JNK and pJNK was also found increased in diabetic group. Simvastatin combined benazepril medication can normalize those abnormalities greatly.Conclusion:Over-activated JNK signaling pathway was involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy and simvastatin combined benazepril exert function by inhibiting JNK pathway.

  8. Naringin Alleviates Diabetic Kidney Disease through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenqin Chen

    Full Text Available Naringin, a flavanone glycoside extracted from Citrus grandis Osbeck, has a wide range of pharmacological effects. In the present study we aimed at demonstrating the protective effect of naringin against diabetic kidney disease (DKD and elucidating its possible molecular mechanism underlying. The beneficial effect of naringin was assessed in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes and high glucose-induced HBZY-1 cells. According to our results, first we found that naringin relieved kidney injury, improved renal function and inhibited collagen formation and renal interstitial fibrosis. Second, we confirmed that naringin restrained oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Moreover, the results suggested that naringin significantly resisted inflammatory reaction by inhibiting NF- κ B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that naringin effectively alleviates DKD, which provide theoretical basis for naringin clinically used to treatment of DKD.

  9. Low molecular weight fucoidan modulates P-selectin and alleviates diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Luo, Dali; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication that can lead to chronic and end-stage renal failure. It is understood that inflammation is associated with the onset and process of DN. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) isolated from Saccharina japonica has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of LMWF in DN model induced by streptozotocin. The biochemical indices levels showed LMWF reduced the DN diagnostic indices to protect renal function. The HE stained sections exhibited LMWF protected normal morphological structures and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidneys of DN rats. Furthermore, the levels of P-selectin and selectin-dependent inflammatory cytokines resulting from LMWF were obviously decreased at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Thus, our results found that LMWF protected the renal function in DN rats and alleviated inflammation through the modulation of P-selectin and inflammatory cytokines. LMWF may have therapeutic potential against DN. PMID:27234491

  10. Optimality study of a gust alleviation system for light wing-loading STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, M.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study was made of an optimal gust alleviation system that employs a vertical gust sensor mounted forward of an aircraft's center of gravity. Frequency domain optimization techniques were employed to synthesize the optimal filters that process the corrective signals to the flaps and elevator actuators. Special attention was given to evaluating the effectiveness of lead time, that is, the time by which relative wind sensor information should lead the actual encounter of the gust. The resulting filter is expressed as an implicit function of the prescribed control cost. A numerical example for a light wing loading STOL aircraft is included in which the optimal trade-off between performance and control cost is systematically studied.

  11. Electrical stimulation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis alleviates severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, L; Hendrickx, S; Raymaekers, S; Gabriëls, L; Nuttin, B

    2016-09-01

    In 1998, we proposed deep brain stimulation as a last-resort treatment option for patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, 24 OCD patients were included in a long-term follow-up study to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation in the anterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). We find that electrical stimulation in the ALIC/BST area is safe and significantly decreases obsessions, compulsions, and associated anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improves global functioning in a blinded crossover trial (n=17), after 4 years (n=18), and at last follow-up (up to 171 months, n=24). Moreover, our data indicate that BST may be a better stimulation target compared with ALIC to alleviate OCD symptoms. We conclude that electrical stimulation in BST is a promising therapeutic option for otherwise treatment-resistant OCD patients. PMID:26303665

  12. Money or mental health: the cost of alleviating psychological distress with monetary compensation versus psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2010-10-01

    AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth. PMID:19919728

  13. Nuclear power: An overview in the context of alleviating greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document gives a brief overview of the current development of nuclear power worldwide, covering essentially technical, economic and environmental aspects. Policy issues related to implementation instruments and potential barriers to nuclear power deployment are also touched upon. Views are given on the possible medium and long term development of nuclear power, as a means for alleviating greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector. Advanced technologies for the reactors and their associated fuel cycles are described, including advanced fission reactors and fusion energy. Direct cost and externalities are given for the present generation of nuclear power plants as well as for power plants to be commissioned in the coming decades. Environmental burdens and risks are analysed with emphasis on potential risks of accident, radioactive waste, and atmospheric emission in routine operation, focusing on greenhouse gases. 77 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Analysis on the Effect of Poverty Alleviation Based on Walnut Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Binbin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the poverty reduction effection of Lv-Ling model which based on walnut industry. The Walnut tree or Juglans is a plant genus of the family Juglandaceae; it is one of the famous nuts in the world and one of the important economic forest tree species in China. Because of development fastly, variety breeding can’t keep up with development needs, causing confusion species, affected the economic benefit seriously, some even did not play benefit into death, therefore, create excellent varieties, cultivated in the most suitable area and regionalization is an urgent problem of walnut production need to solve in Hebei province. This study uses a single case study method to research the model of the leading enterprises drives, which is choosing six countries as sample points and using questionnaire survey on 180 peasant households to interview, then using the semi-structured interview with company, base manager and technical director. Calm base than the standardized method, the year-on-year growth rate method is used to analyze the data. The results show that “Lv-ling company” by planting grass in the forest, breeding chicken in the grass, chicken manure input the fens, put the rubbish into the fields of "fruit, grass, livestock, marsh" "four in one" stereo ecological planting and breeding model and to popularize it, develop the walnut industry chain of circular economy. Farmer’s income, employment, green area increased significantly from 2008 to 2013, especially 2012. The local economic have promote, social and ecological benefits of coordinated development from Industry as a tool for poverty alleviation of Lv-Ling and can be used for reference for industrialization poverty alleviation in Taihang mountain area.

  15. Does going to an amusement park alleviate low back pain? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakakibara T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Toshihiko Sakakibara, Zhuo Wang, Yuichi KasaiDepartment of Spinal Surgery and Medical Engineering, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, JapanBackground: Low back pain is often called nonspecific pain. In this type of low back pain, various emotions and stress are known to strongly affect pain perception. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the degree of low back pain changes in people with chronic mild low back pain when they are inside and outside of an amusement park where people are supposed to have physical and psychological enjoyment.Methods: The subjects were 23 volunteers (13 males and 10 females aged 18 to 46 years old with a mean age of 24.0 years who had chronic low back pain. Visual analog scale (VAS scores of low back pain and salivary amylase levels (kIU/L of all subjects were measured at five time points: immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park; 10 minutes, 1 hour (immediately after boarding the roller coaster, and 3 hours (immediately after exiting the haunted house after arriving at the amusement park; and immediately before getting off the bus returning from the park.Results: The three VAS values in the amusement park (10 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after arriving at the amusement park measured were significantly lower (P < 0.05 when compared with the other two values measured immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park and immediately before getting off the return bus. In salivary amylase levels, there were no statistically significant differences among the values measured at the five time points.Conclusion: Low back pain was significantly alleviated when the subjects were in the amusement park, which demonstrated that enjoyable activities, though temporarily, alleviated their low back pain.Keywords: low back pain, emotion, salivary alpha-amylase activity, enjoyment activities, psychological stress

  16. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular Ca2+ influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca2+ overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca2+ and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases

  17. Response of barley genotypes to salinity stress as alleviated by seed priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study entitled Response of barley genotypes to salinity stresses as alleviated by seed priming was conducted at the Greenhouses of the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The response of twelve barely genotypes (Haide r-93, Soorab-96, Arabic Asward, NRB-37, Frontier-87, Jau-83, Balochistan-Local, NRB-31, KPK-Local, Sanober-96, Awarn-2002 and AZ-2006) at two seed conditions (seed priming with 30 mM NaCl and no seed priming) under four salinity levels (0 mM, 50 mM, 100 mM and 150 mM) was studied. The results revealed that seed priming and salinity had significantly (P = 0.05) affected all parameters under study. However, the effect of seed priming was non significant on shoot length (cm) and root length (cm). Maximum shoot length (40.79 cm), shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (10.15 g) and shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.81 g), was recorded in Balochistan-Local. Haider-93 produced highest root length (20.31 cm). Frontier-87 exhibited maximum shoot Na/sup +/K/sup +/ratio (1.49) and maximum shoot proline content of 144.31 mu g g/sup -1/ fresh weight was recorded from KPK-Local. Seed priming had distinctly enhanced all the above mentioned parameters except shoot Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ratio. It is concluded that salinity stresses had affected all parameters under study however; seed priming with NaCl had alleviated the adverse effects of salinity in barely genotypes. (author)

  18. Ginkgolide B functions as a determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fugen; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Guojun; Yao, Hongyi; Xu, Chengyun; Xiao, Weiqiang; Wu, Junsong; Wu, Ximei

    2016-07-01

    Ginkgolides are the major bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba extracts, however, the exact constituents of Ginkgolides contributing to their pharmacological effects remain unknown. Herein, we have determined the anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolides mixture (GM) at equivalent dosages against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. RAW 264.7 cell culture model and mouse model of LPS-induced lung injury were used to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of GB and GM, respectively. In RAW 264.7 cells, GB and GM at equivalent dosages exhibit an identical capacity to attenuate LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression and subsequent NO production. Likewise, GB and GM possess almost the same potency in attenuating LPS-induced expression and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (p65) and subsequent increases in tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels. In LPS-induced pulmonary injury, GB and GM at the equivalent dosages have equal efficiency in attenuating the accumulation of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and in improving the histological damage of lungs. Moreover, GB and GM at equivalent dosages decrease the exudation of plasma protein to the same degree, whereas GM is superior to GB in alleviating myeloperoxidase activities. Finally, though GB and GM at equivalent dosages appear to reduce LPS-induced IL-1β mRNA and protein levels and IL-10 protein levels to the same degree, GM is more potent than GB to attenuate the IL-10 mRNA levels. Taken together, this study demonstrates that GB functions as the determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:27261579

  19. Can the Green Deal be fair too? Exploring new possibilities for alleviating fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency and social programmes have failed to stem the dramatic increase in the number of fuel poor households in recent years. As the 2016 deadline for eradicating fuel poverty nears, energy efficiency and fuel poverty programmes are undergoing significant changes. The ambitions for Britain's Green Deal, the overhaul of supplier obligations alongside the winding down of Warm Front, and the introduction of an incentive for renewable heat combine to form a sea change in how energy efficiency and fuel poverty objectives are financed and delivered. Green Deal Finance (GDF) eliminates the up-front capital cost of energy efficiency measures to the household by linking repayments to energy savings and spreading them over many years. This paper asks whether and how GDF could be beneficial to fuel poor households. Using scenarios modelled on the English House Condition Survey, it explores the extent to which fuel poverty could be reduced, allowing for repayments incurred by GDF. It examines how much further fuel poverty could be alleviated were the capital cost subsidised or repayments supported, and concludes that a flexible design for GDF is necessary if it is to contribute to alleviating fuel poverty. - Highlights: ► The potential impact of Green Deal finance (GDF) on fuel poverty (FP) is explored. ► GDF based on actual energy use rather than notional need is better at reducing FP. ► Additional subsidy by energy companies improves the impact of GDF on FP. However, the resultant increases in energy bills would negate much of this effect. ► Government support for repayments could be fairer and go further.

  20. D-Aspartate drinking solution alleviates pain and cognitive impairment in neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Enza; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Marabese, Ida; Romano, Rosaria; Iannotta, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; D'Aniello, Antimo; Stella, Luigi; Marmo, Federica; Usiello, Alessandro; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Maione, Sabatino; de Novellis, Vito

    2016-07-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid detected in multiple brain regions and putative precursor of endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) acting as agonist at NMDA receptors. In this study, we investigated whether D-Asp (20 mM) in drinking solution for 1 month affects pain responses and pain-related emotional, and cognitive behaviour in a model of neuropathic pain induced by the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve in mice. SNI mice developed mechanical allodynia and motor coordination impairment 30 days after SNI surgery. SNI mice showed cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour, reduced sociability in the three chamber sociability paradigm, increased expression of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor and Homer 1a in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The expression of (post synaptic density) PSD-95 and Shank 1was instead unaffected in the mPFC of the SNI mice. Treatment with D-Asp drinking solution, started right after the SNI (day 0), alleviated mechanical allodynia, improved cognition and motor coordination and increased social interaction. D-Asp also restored the levels of extracellular D-Asp, Homer 1a and NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor to physiological levels and reduced Shank1 and PSD-95 protein levels in the mPFC. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant used also to alleviate neuropathic pain in humans, reverted mechanical allodynia and cognitive impairment, and unlike D-Asp, was effective in reducing depression and anxiety-like behaviour in the SNI mice and increased PSD protein level. Altogether these findings demonstrate that D-Asp improves sensorial, motor and cognitive-like symptoms related to chronic pain possibly through glutamate neurotransmission normalization in neuropathic mice. PMID:27115160

  1. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  2. Enhanced proteasome degradation extends Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and alleviates aggregation-related pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos Efstathios, S

    2014-10-01

    Collapse of proteostasis and accumulation of damaged macromolecules have been recognized as hallmarks of aging and age-related diseases. The proteasome is the major cellular protease responsible for intracellular protein degradation, having an impaired function during aging. We have previously shown that proteasome activation through overexpression of β5 proteasome subunit delays replicative senescence and confers resistance to oxidative stress in primary fibroblasts. Herein, we have investigated the impact of enhanced proteasome function on organismal longevity and aggregation-related pathologies by employing Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. We have found that overexpression of a core 20S proteasome subunit in wild type worms extends lifespan, healthspan and survival under proteotoxic conditions. The longevity prolonging effect of the proteasome subunit overexpression was found to depend on the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and was associated with its elevated transcriptional activity. We have also uncovered a major role of enhanced proteasome activity in aggregation-related pathologies underlying neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic activation of the proteasome minimized the detrimental effect of polyglutamine-induced toxicity mimicking Huntington's disease, whereas knock-down of the proteasome component exaggerated the disease phenotypes. Similar results were obtained by using a C.elegans model of Amyloid beta (Αβ) -induced toxicity mimicking Alzheimer's disease. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that enhanced proteasome function alleviates proteotoxicity and promotes longevity in synergy with other nodes of lifespan regulation in C.elegans. Understanding the mechanism by which preservation of proteostasis via enhancement of proteasome function, decelerates the aging process and alleviates age-related pathologies may assist in the rational design of therapeutic and anti-aging interventions. PMID:26461298

  3. Strategies to alleviate the incidence of ascites in broilers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Aftab

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascites is a complex problem caused by many interacting factors such as genetics, environment and management. Many nutritional, medicinal and management strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. Higher levels of dietary vitamin C and E along with selenium yeast might be beneficial, presumably because of their role in improving cellular integrity. Oils rich in n-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce pulmonary hypertension and, consequently, ascites incidence. The potential use of flax oil has already been demonstrated, whereas the effects of other oils rich in n-3 fatty acids (fish, linseed and canola oils remain to be investigated. The assessment of the effects of dietary electrolyte balance on ascites incidence seems to be a promising field of research in broiler nutrition. In general, reducing the dietary level of salt (NaCl and adding bicarbonates to the diet and drinking water have been proposed as potential "cost-effective" methods to reduce ascites incidence. The use of nutrients/drug agents that increase the vascular capacity of the lungs or decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance may help to alleviate the problem, but economic and local feed regulations might restrict such use. Diuretics have also shown positive effects, presumably because there is a reduction of sodium and fluid retention in the body; litter humidity however must be closely monitored if diuretics are continuously administered. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence. Under practical conditions, it might be interesting to test the additive effects of

  4. Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P

    2012-04-01

    Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately 22% forage NDF (fNDF), 28% total NDF, and 33% starch. Another diet included 25% CMP that replaced corn grain and soybean meal and contained 27% starch and 33% NDF. Two other diets included 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate and contained 19 and 17% fNDF, 31 and 32% total NDF, and 30 and 28% starch, respectively. Diets were fed to 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows in 4 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Milk fat percentage was low for the control diet (2.9%) but increased to 3.5% when cows were fed the diet with 25% CMP that replaced concentrate. Cows fed diets with 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate also had low milk fat percentages (3.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Intake was lowest for cows fed the control diet. Milk yield was reduced when CMP replaced only concentrate but because of the substantial increase in milk fat, the yield of energy-corrected milk was greater. Calculated energy use (maintenance+milk+body weight change) divided by dry matter intake was similar for the control and for the diet in which CMP replaced only concentrate, but it decreased linearly as increasing amounts of CMP replaced both forage and concentrate. A quadratic equation using the ratio of dietary starch to fNDF was the best predictor of milk fat percentage (ratios >1.4 were associated with reduced milk fat). Overall, CMP was effective at alleviating milk fat depression when it replaced corn grain but not when it replaced forage and concentrate. PMID:22459853

  5. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation

  6. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ruibing [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Lihui [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: ymylh@163.com [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  7. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.;

    2013-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  8. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40°C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glut...

  9. Improvement Of Rural Off-Farm Energy Use In Nigeria: A Prerequisite For Rural Development And Poverty Alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nigeria, agricultural production takes place predominantly in the rural areas. The development of those areas, therefore, is necessary for the much-coveted rise in agricultural production and poverty alleviation. Development is a natural ally of improved energy use, both on and off-farm. Energy use in rural Nigeria is rudimentary and unimpressive. This paper discusses the existing pattern of energy use in the off-farm sector of rural areas and suggests ways of improvement to alleviate poverty and propel rural development

  10. Diazoxide and dimethyl sulphoxide alleviate experimental cerebral hypoperfusion-induced white matter injury in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, E; Annahazi, A; Institoris, A; Mihaly, A; Luiten, PGM; Bari, F

    2005-01-01

    Aging and dementia are accompanied by cerebral white matter (WM) injury. which is considered to be of ischemic origin. A causal link between cerebral ischemia and WM damage has been demonstrated in rats: however. few attempts appear to have, been made to test potential drugs for the alleviation of i

  11. An Empirical Study on Alleviating Career English Writing Anxiety through Cooperative Learning in a Chinese Polytechnic Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on writing anxiety alleviation through a pre-test/post-test assessment. 120 EFL learners from a Chinese polytechnic institute were assigned into two groups: one experimental (cooperative writing) and the other comparison (solitary writing). Results revealed that cooperative learning…

  12. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  13. The effect of rural labor migration on poverty alleviation: a village-level study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chunyue; Lu Qi; Li Juan

    2008-01-01

    The construction of the new socialist countryside is being carried out in China nowadays. Although lots of successful experience has been gotten, different problems occur in various regions yet. To analyze the relationships among rural labor migration, poverty alleviation and characteristics of migrants is important in considering the effect of rural labor migration on the construction of the new socialist countryside. Available sampling and typical case study are adopted and 236 questionnaires are collected from[bur villages in northwest GuangxL China, Daxin Lixin, Longhe and Yongchang. We analyze the rural labor migration status, characteristics of migrants, remittance situation and income, household income and the ratio of remittance income to total household income. A bout 2/3 of the households have migrants in surveyed villages. And nearly half of the migration households have only one fam- ily member as migrants in the four villages. The migrants mainly comprise male and the younger, with the education level of junior middte school and higher More than half of the migrants are employed in Guangdong Province. But the characteristics of migrants in Yongchang are more diverse. The rural labor migration in the village is extremely active and extensive. And over 60% of the household with family members as migrants have remittance income. The rate in Yongchang is extremely high (80%). And the income of households with migrants getting remittance income significantly higher than their counterparts. More than half of their income comes from remittance as far as the former kind of household is concerned And in Yongchang, the rate is nearly 80%. The conclusion is that rural labor migration is popular and extensive in lots of villages. And the migration and remittance play an important role in rural household income, especially in some poor villages. For this kind of village, the rural labor migration may be some "compulsory course" in rural development. And the rural

  14. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection Alleviates the Transient Worsening Caused by Steroids Pulse Therapy in Treating Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yan Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the treatment effect and side effect of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI on alleviating transient worsening of myasthenia gravis (MG symptoms caused by high-dose steroids pulse therapy. Methods. Sixty-six consecutive patients with MG were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group treated with SFI and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT and the control group treated with MPT alone. The severity of MG before, during, and after MPT and the duration of transient worsening (TW were evaluated and compared with the clinical absolute scoring (AS and relative scoring (RS system. Results. Twenty-nine patients experienced TW in each group. At TW, the AS was significantly increased (P<0.000 in both groups compared with baseline data, with the AS increase in the treatment group (16.8 ± 2 significantly smaller (P<0.05 than in the control group (24.9 ± 2.5. At the end of the treatment course, the AS for the treatment group was significantly decreased (7.5 ± 0.9 compared with at TW, although no significant difference compared with the control (9.7 ± 1.1. The TW lasted 1–6 days (mean 3.7 for the treatment group, significantly shorter (P<0.05 than 2–12 days (mean 7.8 for the control. The RS for the treatment group at the end of treatment was 43.8%–100% (mean 76.8% ± 2.6%, significantly better than the control group: 33.3%–100% (mean 67.2 ± 3.6%. Slight side effects (18.75% included maldigestion and rash in the treatment group. Conclusion. SFI has a better treatment effect and few side effects and can alleviate the severity and shorten the duration of the transient worsening of MG during steroids pulse therapy.

  15. Can Aidi injection alleviate the toxicity and improve the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy in lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zheng; Liang, Rui; Wang, Cheng-qiong; Xu, Shaofeng; Li, Nana; He, Yuejuan; Tang, Fushan; Chen, Ling; Ma, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background/Introduction: Aidi injection plus radiotherapy is widely used for lung cancer in China. Can Aidi injection alleviate the toxicity and improve the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy in lung cancer? Has Aidi injection the attenuation and synergistic efficacy to radiotherapy? There is lack of strong evidence to prove it. Objectives: To reveal its real attenuation and synergistic efficacy to radiotherapy and provide sufficient evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy strategies to lung cancer, we systematically evaluated all related studies. Data Sources: We collected all studies about Aidi injection plus radiotherapy for lung cancer in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, China national knowledge infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese scientific journals full-text database (VIP), Wanfang database, China biological medicine database (CBM) (established to June 2015), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (June 2015), evaluated their quality according to the Cochrane evaluation handbook of randomized controlled trials (5.1.0), extracted data following the PICO principles and synthesized the data by Meta analysis. Results: Sixteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 1192 lung cancer patients were included, with general methodological quality in most trials. The merged relative risk (RR) values and their 95% CI of meta-analysis for objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and quality of life (QOL) were as follows: 1.54, (1.39,1.70), 1.10 (1.02, 1.19), and 2.13 (1.68, 2.68). The merged RR values and their 95% CI of meta-analysis for myelosuppression and neutropenia, radiation pneumonitis, and radiation esophagitis were as follows: 0.51 (0.38, 0.69), 0.53 (0.42, 0.65), 0.52 (0.41, 0.67), and 0.52 (0.40, 0.68). All were statistically significant. The possibility of publication bias was small which objectively reported the results. Conclusions: The evidence available indicates that Aidi injection plus radiotherapy can significantly

  16. Improvement of cellulose catabolism in Clostridium cellulolyticum by sporulation abolishment and carbon alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Xu, Tao [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium cellulolyticum can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and ferment the soluble sugars to produce valuable chemicals such as lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. However, the cellulose utilization efficiency of C. cellulolyticum still remains very low, impeding its application in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. In this study, two metabolic engineering strategies were exploited to improve cellulose utilization efficiency, including sporulation abolishment and carbon overload alleviation. Results The spo0A gene at locus Ccel_1894, which encodes a master sporulation regulator was inactivated. The spo0A mutant abolished the sporulation ability. In a high concentration of cellulose (50 g/l), the performance of the spo0A mutant increased dramatically in terms of maximum growth, final concentrations of three major metabolic products, and cellulose catabolism. The microarray and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways were up-regulated in the spo0A mutant. Based on this information, a partial isobutanol producing pathway modified from valine biosynthesis was introduced into C. cellulolyticum strains to further increase cellulose consumption by alleviating excessive carbon load. The introduction of this synthetic pathway to the wild-type strain improved cellulose consumption from 17.6 g/l to 28.7 g/l with a production of 0.42 g/l isobutanol in the 50 g/l cellulose medium. However, the spo0A mutant strain did not appreciably benefit from introduction of this synthetic pathway and the cellulose utilization efficiency did not further increase. A technical highlight in this study was that an in vivo promoter strength evaluation protocol was developed using anaerobic fluorescent protein and flow cytometry for C. cellulolyticum. Conclusions In this study, we inactivated the spo0A gene and introduced a heterologous synthetic pathway to manipulate the stress

  17. Prepubertal exposure to genistein alleviates di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular oxidative stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Dong; Li, He-Cheng; Chong, Tie; Gao, Ming; Yin, Jian; Fu, De-Lai; Deng, Qian; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN) is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22) to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day (G), DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450) and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450). On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient), testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:25530965

  18. Donor liver natural killer cells alleviate liver allograft acute rejection in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Dong Yu; Tian-Zhu Long; Guo-Lin Li; Li-Hong Lv; Hao-Ming Lin; Yong-Heng Huang; Ya-Jin Chen; Yun-Le Wan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver enriched natural killer (NK) cells are of high immune activity. However, the function of donor liver NK cells in allogeneic liver transplantation (LTx) remains unclear. METHODS: Ten Gy of whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) from a 60Co source at 0.6 Gy/min was used for depleting donor-derived leukocytes, and transfusion of purified liver NK cells isolated from the same type rat as donor (donor type liver NK cells, dtlNKs) through portal vein was performed immediately after grafting the irradiated liver. Post-transplant survival observation on recipients and histopathological detection of liver grafts were adoptive to evaluate the biological impact of donor liver NK cells on recipients' survival in rat LTx. RESULTS: Transfusion of dtlNKs did not shorten the survival time among the recipients of spontaneous tolerance model (BN to LEW rat) after rat LTx, but prolonged the liver graft survival among the recipients depleted of donor-derived leukocytes in the acute rejection model (LEW to BN rat). Compared to the recipients in the groups which received the graft depleted of donor-derived leukocytes, better survival and less damage in the allografts were also found among the recipients in the two different strain combinations of liver allograft due to transfusion of dtlNKs. CONCLUSIONS: Donor liver NK cells alone do not exacerbate liver allograft acute rejection. Conversely, they can alleviate it, and improve the recipients' survival.

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Wheat Seed Germination and Alleviates Oxidative Damage against Copper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhang; Lan-Ying Hu; Kang-Di Hu; Yun-Dong He; Song-Hua Wang; Jian-Ping Luo

    2008-01-01

    With the enhancement of copper (Cu) stress, the germination percentage of wheat seeds decreased gradually. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cu stress in a dose-dependent manner; whereas little visible symptom was observed in germinating seeds and radicle tips cultured in NaHs solutions. It was verified that H2S or HS- rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHs attribute to the potential role in promoting seed germination against Cu stress. Further studies showed that NaHS could promote amylase and esterase activities, reduce Cu-induced disturbance of plasma membrane integrity in the radicle tips, and sustain lower levels of malondialdehyde and H2O2 in germinating seeds. Furthermore, NaHs pretreatment increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreased that of lipoxygenase, but showed no significant effect on ascorbate peroxidase. Alternatively, NaHs prevented uptake of Cu and promoted the accumulation of free amino acids in seeds exposed to Cu. In addition, a rapid accumulation of endogenous H2S in seeds was observed at the early stags of germination, and higher level of H2S in NaHS-pretreated seeds. These data indicated that H2S was involved in the mechanism of germinating seeds' responses to Cu stress.

  20. Nimodipine alleviates apoptosis-mediated impairments through the mitochondrial pathway after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei CAI; Rui FAN; Tianmiao HUA; Huiling LIU; Jing LI

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains an unsolved human health challenge. To alleviate the impairments of SCI, we studied the therapeutic effect of nimodipine (an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist) on functional recovery from SCI using Nystrom's method in a mouse model. Eighty-four mice were divided into three groups: control group in which only vertebral plates were cut off without causing any spinal injuries; SCI; and SCI with nimodipine treatment. We assessed the histopathology, apoptosis detection, cell cycle, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, bcl-2/bax and caspase-3 levels of tissue 8 h, 1 d, 3 d and 4 d after trauma to evaluate rehabilitation. Behavioral performances were also assessed before and after nimodipine treatment. Results from inclined plane tests, motor score assessment and histological observations indicated that mice in the nimodipine-treated group rehabilitated better than those in the SCI group. The ratio of apoptosis, caspase-3 and bax expression in the nimodipine-treated group were significantly lower than those in the SCI group. The mitochondrial membrane potential and bcl-2 expression were up-regulated in the nimodipine-treated group. Taken together, our results indicate that the inhibition of calcium flux by nimodipine could reduce apoptosis processes and tissue damage through a mitochondrial pathway after spinal cord trauma [Current Zoology 57 (3): 340-349, 2011].

  1. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. PMID:25311769

  2. Using a Transdisciplinary Interpretive Lens to Broaden Reflections on Alleviating Poverty and Promoting Decent Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Maree, Jacobus G.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to broaden current reflections on definitions of decent work and poverty using a transdisciplinary interpretive lens comprising philosophical, juridical, economic, sociological, and psychological understandings. We (the authors) undertook an adapted systematic qualitative review to gather data on different perspectives on decent work and poverty. The article summarizes and compares reflections on the two constructs and proposes an enhancement of the current definition of decent work. The aim is to facilitate the identification and development of new research and intervention projects that can be implemented to promote fair and sustainable economic development, the provision of decent work, and the reduction of poverty globally. We believe that challenges should be dealt with pro-actively rather than reactively and that intervening at the level of primary prevention should lie at the heart of any strategy to promote decent work and alleviate poverty. Radical intervention is needed to ensure that future generations not only survive but develop, grow, and express themselves meaningfully through decent work PMID:27148115

  3. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model

  4. Active control law design for flutter suppression and gust alleviation of a panel with piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an active optimal integral/feedforward control for a supersonic panel under gust disturbance effects with piezoelectric actuators. Classical laminate theory with induced strain actuation and a generalized form of Hamilton's principle are used to formulate the governing equations of motion. The total charge developed on the sensor layer is calculated from the direct piezoelectric equation. The piezoelectric sensor distributed output is also integrated, since the output voltage is dependent on the integrated strain rates over the sensor area. Aerodynamic modeling is accomplished by first-order piston theory with gust velocity effects. The model reduction is performed to the state space system of equations for the control design and the time domain simulation. Moreover, the disturbance dynamics are modeled through the addition to the equations of motion for various conditions. The optimal control problem is set up to minimize the panel deflection using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR). Using an integral control model as a part of the feedback loop, together with a feedforward of the disturbances, greatly enhances the transient response, and the steady state error characteristics of this system are observed. Also, parametric studies for three piezoelectric actuator configurations are demonstrated. Simulation results show that the controller model is effective for flutter suppression and gust alleviation for various piezo configurations

  5. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifumi Iseki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson’s disease (PD. The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before, Hamilton’s rating scales for depression (HAM-D score was 9 (18, before, timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before, and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS Part 1 score was 13 (21, before. Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.

  6. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  7. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2′-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  8. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  9. Vulnerability, climate change and livestock – research opportunities and challenges for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Thornton

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in developing countries are characterised by rapid change, driven by factors such as population growth, increases in the demand for livestock products as incomes rise, and urbanisation. Climate change is adding to the considerable development challenges posed by these drivers of change. How can livestock keepers take advantage of the increasing demand for livestock products, where this is feasible, and how can the livestock assets of the poor be protected in the face of changing and increasingly variable climates? Given the complexity of livestock and crop-livestock systems, a mix of technological, policy and institutional innovations will inevitably be required. Here we outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems, and discuss some of the resultant priority livestock development issues: water and feeds, livestock genetics and breeding, and animal health. We highlight livestock's role in alleviating poverty and helping households to deal with climate variability. However, there are considerable gaps in our knowledge of how climate change and increasing climate variability will affect livestock systems and the livelihoods of the people who depend on them. We highlight the need for detailed assessment of localised impacts, and the importance of identifying appropriate options that can help livestock keepers adapt to climate change.

  10. Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarlan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of a country usually determined by the human development index HDI. Per capita income education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 2011 year. The result of this research were a income per capita growth was not significant effected to poverty headcount poverty gap dan poverty severity b income per capita has a negative effect and statiscally significant on poverty headcount poverty gap and poverty severity c inflation has positive effect and statistically significant on poverty headcount but did not have any effect on poverty gap and poverty severity d education has a positive effect on poverty headcount poverty gap and poverty severity and e health only has a positive effect on poverty severity but did not have any effect on poverty headcount and poverty gap.

  11. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2'-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  12. Silencing of Id2 Alleviates Chronic Neuropathic Pain Following Chronic Constriction Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liuming; Wu, Qun; Yang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2 (Id2) belongs to a helix-loop-helix family of proteins. Recent studies have showed that Id2 plays a pivotal role in neuronal survival and neuroprotection. However, under neuropathic pain conditions, the role of Id2 is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Id2 on neuropathic pain in a rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Our results demonstrated that Id2 was upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a CCI rat in a time-dependent manner. Intrathecal short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Id2 attenuates mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats, and inhibits the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the DRG in CCI rats. Furthermore, knockdown of Id2 reduces the expression of NF-κB p65 in the DRG of CCI rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that knockdown of Id2 may alleviate neuropathic pain by inhibiting the NF-κB activation to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Therefore, Id2 may provide an important target of neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:26768262

  13. Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Sustainability through Improved Regimes of Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Bosselmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the Millennium Development Goals, international technology transfer can play a major role for poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability. At present, there are economic, social and legal (rather than technical barriers preventing the transfer of environmentally sound technology (EST from a wider use in international regimes. Removing these barriers requires greater political and regulatory efforts both domestically and internationally. To enable EST transfer, developed States need to improve domestic market conditions such as removal of negative subsidies and barriers to foreign investment, targeted fiscal incentives and law reforms favouring sustainable production and use of energy. There is no realistic perspective for international EST transfer as long as it is disadvantaged domestically. A coherent EST transfer regime is only possible through greater governmental intervention at the national and international level, including environmental regulations, national systems of innovation, and creating an enabling environment for EST. Such intervention should include effective public-private partnerships, both within and between States. Partnerships, if guided by law, could ensure EST innovation more efficiently than purely State-driven or market-driven EST transfers. In search for a model, the EST transfer regime under the Vienna Ozone Layer Convention and the Montreal Protocol deserves recognition. For example, the clean development mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol allows for considerable scope for EST transfer. The potential of EST transfer for climate change and for meeting the Millennium Development Goals has yet to be realized.

  14. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  15. Biochar alleviates combined stress of ammonium and acids by firstly enriching Methanosaeta and then Methanosarcina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; Luo, Chenghao; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of biochar of different particle sizes in alleviating ammonium (NH4(+)) inhibition (up to 7 g-N/L) during anaerobic digestion of 6 g/L glucose. Compared to the control treatment without biochar addition, treatments that included biochar particles 2-5 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 75-150 μm in size reduced the methanization lag phase by 23.9%, 23.8% and 5.9%, respectively, and increased the maximum methane production rate by 47.1%, 23.5% and 44.1%, respectively. These results confirmed that biochar accelerated the initiation of methanization during anaerobic digestion under double inhibition risk from both ammonium and acids. Furthermore, fine biochar significantly promoted the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Comparative analysis on the archaeal and bacterial diversity at the early and later stages of digestion, and in the suspended, biochar loosely bound, and biochar tightly bound fractions suggested that, in suspended fractions, hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium was actively resistant to ammonium. However, acetoclastic Methanosaeta can survive at VFAs concentrations up to 60-80 mmol-C/L by improved affinity to conductive biochar, resulting in the accelerated initiation of acetate degradation. Improved methanogenesis was followed by the colonization of the biochar tightly bound fractions by Methanosarcina. The selection of appropriate biochar particles sizes was important in facilitating the initial colonization of microbial cells. PMID:26724437

  16. Improving DNS cache to alleviate the impact of DNS DDoS attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-min LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, adversaries have been launching distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks aimed at DNS (Domain Name System servers in various levels, and since the DNS is a most critical fundamental service of the Internet that provides mapping between domain names and IP addresses and a prerequisite for many other services, DDoS attacks successfully causing the unavailability of DNS could bring huge losses. In this paper, we present an easily implemented and practical scheme that can significantly alleviate the impact of the DNS DDoS attacks. Firstly, we propose interactive communications among DNS servers to obtain status information of others and with the premise we support that nameservers should not clean-up TTL-expired domain-name records in the cache when they detected that relevant nameservers are unavailable. Secondly, an evaluation based on the data of 511,781,146 DNS queries collected from four different DNS servers on the Internet shows that the DNS could still works well in the duration of a DDoS attack by applying our approach. And further, a long term DNS analysis of about 173 days proves the prerequisite for the validity of our project on the Internet today.

  17. Optogenetic Silencing of Nav1.8-Positive Afferents Alleviates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ihab; Beaudry, Hélène; Ase, Ariel R; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Séguéla, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel transgenic mouse model in which the terminals of peripheral nociceptors can be silenced optogenetically with high spatiotemporal precision, leading to the alleviation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inhibitory archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) proton pumps were delivered to Nav1.8(+) primary afferents using the Nav1.8-Cre driver line. Arch expression covered both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic nociceptors and yellow light stimulation reliably blocked electrically induced action potentials in DRG neurons. Acute transdermal illumination of the hindpaws of Nav1.8-Arch(+) mice significantly reduced mechanical allodynia under inflammatory conditions, while basal mechanical sensitivity was not affected by the optical stimulation. Arch-driven hyperpolarization of nociceptive terminals was sufficient to prevent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in double-transgenic Nav1.8-ChR2(+)-Arch(+) mice. Furthermore, prolonged optical silencing of peripheral afferents in anesthetized Nav1.8-Arch(+) mice led to poststimulation analgesia with a significant decrease in mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity under inflammatory and neuropathic conditions. These findings highlight the role of peripheral neuronal inputs in the onset and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity, demonstrate the plasticity of pain pathways even after sensitization has occurred, and support the involvement of Nav1.8(+) afferents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Together, we present a selective analgesic approach in which genetically identified subsets of peripheral sensory fibers can be remotely and optically inhibited with high temporal resolution, overcoming the compensatory limitations of genetic ablations. PMID:27022626

  18. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-09-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents.

  19. Pain during mammography: Possible risk factors and ways to alleviate pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the literature surrounding the issue of pain experienced during mammography. This is an important topic since many women may refuse screening mammograms due to the possibility of a painful examination. It is a difficult area to research since the experience of pain is by nature subjective and the manner by which data have been collected has varied with many different pain assessment instruments being utilised. Accordingly there is wide variation in the degree of pain felt from only slight pain to some women finding it acutely painful. To discover why some women find it so painful certain risk factors that have been associated with painful mammography are explored. There are many of these risk factors but this article concentrates on three main areas: biological, psychological and staff-related. Once the reasons why some women experience such acute pain, ways to ease this may be found. Methods to alleviate painful mammography are suggested and discussed. The article concludes that there is a wide variance in the data collection techniques which could account for the wide variance in the reported pain. More research is required using a validated pain measurement to establish the extent of pain and to establish the effect of this on future compliance

  20. Aerodynamic shape optimization for alleviating dynamic stall characteristics of helicopter rotor airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to alleviate the dynamic stall effects in helicopter rotor, the sequential quadratic programming (SQP method is employed to optimize the characteristics of airfoil under dynamic stall conditions based on the SC1095 airfoil. The geometry of airfoil is parameterized by the class-shape-transformation (CST method, and the C-topology body-fitted mesh is then automatically generated around the airfoil by solving the Poisson equations. Based on the grid generation technology, the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations are chosen as the governing equations for predicting airfoil flow field and the highly-efficient implicit scheme of lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS is adopted for temporal discretization. To capture the dynamic stall phenomenon of the rotor more accurately, the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model is employed to close the RANS equations. The optimized airfoil with a larger leading edge radius and camber is obtained. The leading edge vortex and trailing edge separation of the optimized airfoil under unsteady conditions are obviously weakened, and the dynamic stall characteristics of optimized airfoil at different Mach numbers, reduced frequencies and angles of attack are also obviously improved compared with the baseline SC1095 airfoil. It is demonstrated that the optimized method is effective and the optimized airfoil is suitable as the helicopter rotor airfoil.

  1. Recombinant human endostatin improves tumor vasculature and alleviates hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate whether recombinant human endostatin can create a time window of vascular normalization prior to vascular pruning to alleviate hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Methods: Kinetic changes in morphology of tumor vasculature in response to recombinant human endostatin were detected under a confocal microscope with immunofluorescent staining in Lewis lung carcinomas in mice. The hypoxic cell fraction of different time was assessed with immunohistochemical staining . Effects on tumor growth were monitored as indicated in the growth curve of tumors . Results: Compared with the control group vascularity of the tumors was reduced over time by recombinant human endostatin treatment and significantly regressed for 9 days. During the treatment, pericyte coverage increased at day 3, increased markedly at day 5, and fell again at day 7. The vascular basement membrane was thin and closely associated with endothelial cells after recombinant human endostatin treatment, but appeared thickened, loosely associated with endothelial cells in control tumors. The decrease in hypoxic cell fraction at day 5 after treatment was also found. Tumor growth was not accelerated 5 days after recombinant human endostatin treatment. Conclusions: Recombinant human endostatin can normalize tumor vasculature within day 3 to 7, leading to improved tumor oxygenation. The results provide important experimental basis for combining recombinant human endostatin with radiation therapy in human tumors. (authors)

  2. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  3. Short-term alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity by urea application in acid soils from south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-ru, Zeng; Bo-han, Liao; Li-tian, Zhang; Xi-hong, Zhou; Hong-xiao, Tang

    2006-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study effects of urea fertilizer on the chemical composition of soil solutions over time, and to determine Al toxicity as a function of rates of urea application. The experiment revealed that addition of urea fertilizer to soils caused drastic changes in soil pH during the hydrolysis and nitrification stages of urea transformation in the experiment. These pH changes, depending on the N rate of urea application and time courses, had variable effects on soil exchangeable Al, extracted with artificial solutions containing 1 mol l(-1) KCl. The Al mobilization rate could be resolved into two phases: A declining phase for Al was attributed to the urea-induced hydrolysis while a second rising phase was dependent with the nitrification of added N fertilizer. The decreases in exchangeable Al reached the greatest in 4-7 days after fertilization, consistent with soil pH increase. Decreased Al availability had been observed as a consequence of increasing urea addition and soil pH when using Root elongation of maize seedlings as the estimators. Results from the present study demonstrate that urea fertilizer to the surface of soils may lead to a temporary immobilization of Al and, therefore, alleviated Al toxicity to plant seedlings. PMID:16169044

  4. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yamaura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1, with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1% for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1% and betamethasone (0.01% significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.

  5. Inhibition of inflammation by astaxanthin alleviates cognition deficits in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fang; Hu, Xiaotong; Chen, Jing; Wen, Xiangru; Sun, Ying; Liu, Yonghai; Tang, Renxian; Zheng, Kuiyang; Song, Yuanjian

    2015-11-01

    Neurons in the hippocampal and cortical functional regions are more susceptible to damage induced by hyperglycemia, which can result in severe spatial learning and memory impairment. Neuroprotection ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by hyperglycemia in diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Astaxanthin has been widely studied in diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications due to its hypoglycemic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. However, whether astaxanthin can alleviate cognition deficits induced by DE and its precise mechanisms remain undetermined. In this study, DE was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 150 mg/kg) in ICR mice. We observed the effect of astaxanthin on cognition and investigated its potential mechanisms in DE mice. Results showed that astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the latency and enhanced the distance and time spent in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, neuronal survival was significantly increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the frontal cortex following treatment with astaxanthin. Meanwhile, immunoblotting was used to observe the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The results indicated that astaxanthin could inhibit NF-κB nuclear translocation and downregulate TNF-α expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall, the present study implied that astaxanthin could improve cognition by protecting neurons against inflammation injury potentially through inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and down-regulating TNF-α. PMID:26272354

  6. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  7. Strawberry consumption alleviates doxorubicin-induced toxicity by suppressing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Afrin, Sadia; Bompadre, Stefano; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Astolfi, Paola; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; González-Paramás, Ana M; Quiles, Josè L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), one of the most used chemotherapeutic agents, is known to generate oxidative stress and block DNA synthesis, which result in severe dose-limiting toxicity. A strategy to protect against Dox toxic effects could be to use dietary antioxidants of which fruits and vegetable are a rich source. In this context, strawberry consumption is associated with the maintenance of good health and the prevention of several diseases, thanks to the antioxidant capacities of its bioactive compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of strawberry consumption against oxidative stress induced by Dox in rats. Animals were fed with strawberry enriched diet (15% of the total calories) for two months and Dox (10 mg/kg; i.p.) was injected at the end of the experimental period. Strawberry consumption significantly inhibited ROS production and oxidative damage biomarkers accumulation in plasma and liver tissue and alleviated histopathological changes in rat livers treated with Dox. The reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities was significantly mitigated after strawberry consumption. In addition, strawberry enriched diet ameliorated liver mitochondrial antioxidant levels and functionality. In conclusion, strawberry intake protects against Dox-induced toxicity, at plasma, liver and mitochondrial levels thanks to its high contents of bioactive compounds. PMID:27286747

  8. Antioxidant properties of the mung bean flavonoids on alleviating heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is a widespread belief in Asian countries that mung bean soup (MBS may afford a protective effect against heat stress. Lack of evidence supports MBS conferring a benefit in addition to water. RESULTS: Here we show that vitexin and isovitexin are the major antioxidant components in mungbean (more than 96% of them existing in the bean seed coat, and both of them could be absorbed via gavage into rat plasma. In the plasma of rats fed with mungbean coat extract before or after exposure to heat stress, the levels of malonaldehyde and activities of lactate dehydrogenase and nitric oxide synthase were remarkably reduced; the levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (a quantitative assessment of oxidative stress were significantly enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that MBS can play additional roles to prevent heat stress injury. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying mungbean beneficial effects should help in the design of diet therapy strategies to alleviate heat stress, as well as provide reference for searching natural medicines against oxidative stress induced diseases.

  9. Programmed acute electrical stimulation of ventral tegmental area alleviates depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alexander; Frankel, Michael; Flaumenhaft, Yakov; Merenlender, Avia; Pinhasov, Albert; Feder, Yuval; Taler, Michal; Gil-Ad, Irit; Abeles, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2009-03-01

    Depressive disorders affect approximately 5% of the population in any given year. Antidepressants may require several weeks to produce their clinical effects. Despite progress being made in this area there is still room and a need to explore additional therapeutic modes to increase treatment effectiveness and responsiveness. Herein, we examined a new method for intervention in depressive states based on deep brain stimulation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a source of incentive motivation and hedonia, in comparison to chemical antidepressants. The pattern of stimulation was fashioned to mimic the firing pattern of VTA neurons in the normal rat. Behavioral manifestations of depression were then monitored weekly using a battery of behavioral tests. The results suggest that treatment with programmed acute electrical stimulation of the VTA substantially alleviates depressive behavior, as compared to chemical antidepressants or electroconvulsive therapy, both in onset time and longitudinal effect. These results were also highly correlated with increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:18843267

  10. Mechanisms involved in alleviation of intestinal inflammation by bifidobacterium breve soluble factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Heuvelin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Soluble factors released by Bifidobacterium breve C50 (Bb alleviate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells, but their effect on intestinal epithelium remains elusive. To decipher the mechanisms accounting for the cross-talk between bacteria/soluble factors and intestinal epithelium, we measured the capacity of the bacteria, its conditioned medium (Bb-CM and other Gram(+ commensal bacteria to dampen inflammatory chemokine secretion. METHODS: TNFalpha-induced chemokine (CXCL8 secretion and alteration of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signalling pathways by Bb were studied by EMSA, confocal microscopy and western blotting. Anti-inflammatory capacity was also tested in vivo in a model of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. RESULTS: Bb and Bb-CM, but not other commensal bacteria, induced a time and dose-dependent inhibition of CXCL8 secretion by epithelial cells driven by both AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription pathways and implying decreased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and IkappaB-alpha molecules. In TNBS-induced colitis in mice, Bb-CM decreased the colitis score and inflammatory cytokine expression, an effect reproduced by dendritic cell conditioning with Bb-CM. CONCLUSIONS: Bb and secreted soluble factors contribute positively to intestinal homeostasis by attenuating chemokine production. The results indicate that Bb down regulate inflammation at the epithelial level by inhibiting phosphorylations involved in inflammatory processes and by protective conditioning of dendritic cells.

  11. Trends and Future Potential of Payment for Ecosystem Services to Alleviate Rural Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J. Scherr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Payment for ecosystem services (PES is a market-based approach to environmental management that compensates land stewards for ecosystem conservation and restoration. Because low-income households and communities control much of the ecologically sensitive land in developing countries, they potentially stand to gain from PES, as environmentally responsible stewardship is assigned a value by various actors in society. To date, however, instances of PES benefiting the poor have been limited mainly to specific localities, small-scale projects, and a handful of broader government programs. We analyze the size, characteristics, and trends of PES to evaluate its future potential to benefit low-income land stewards in developing countries. We estimate that by the year 2030, markets for biodiversity conservation could benefit 10–15 million low-income households in developing countries, carbon markets could benefit 25–50 million, markets for watershed protection could benefit 80–100 million, and markets for landscape beauty and recreation could benefit 5–8 million. If payments and markets reach these potentials, they could provide a non-negligible contribution to poverty alleviation at the global level.

  12. Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls. The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF and nucleus pulposus (NP. Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

  13. Two cases of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis alleviated with hange-shashin-to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) can result in a superior treatment response and survival outcome compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and it has become the standard of care for locally advanced disease and organ preservation. However, the major limitation to radiotherapy or CCRT is locoregional treatment-related toxicities, particularly oral mucositis (OM). We experienced two cases of pain-uncontrolled OM in which the Traditional Oriental Medicine Hange-shashin-to (TJ-14) was effective. A 44-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and neck metastases underwent CCRT and suffered from OM of grade 3 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects (CTCAE). His pain was uncontrolled with a variety of analgesics, so we prescribed TJ-14 for him as a gargle. Even during CCRT, the pain significantly diminished and OM was improved to grade 1. TJ-14 contributed to completion of CCRT and improvement of the patient's nutrition status. A 67-year-old man with unknown primary and neck metastases underwent neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy. During adjuvant radiotherapy, he had OM of grade 3 and was unable to eat, so he was hospitalized and was started to have TJ-14. Although his OM remained grade 3 during the therapy, his pain was alleviated, leading to completion of the treatment. TJ-14 can be an effective supportive therapy for OM caused by radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, M Rajesh; Dian, S Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things. PMID:26495430

  15. Nitric oxide alleviates salt stress inhibited photosynthetic response by interacting with sulfur assimilation in mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehar eFatma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nitric oxide (NO and/or sulfur (S on stomatal and photosynthetic responses was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L. in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 µM NO (as sodium nitroprusside and 200 mg S kg-1 soil (excess-S more prominently influenced stomatal behaviour, photosynthetic and growth responses in the absence of salt stress and alleviated salt stress effects on photosynthesis. Plants receiving combined treatment of NO plus excess-S showed well-developed thylakoid membrane and properly stacked grana lamellae under salt stress, while the chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized thylakoids. Moreover, the leaves from the NO and excess-S treated plants exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress, induced activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys and glutathione (GSH reduced. These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation.The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic responses of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received excess-S. Thus, excess-S conditions may be adopted for higher impact of NO in the reversal of salt stress effects on photosynthesis.

  16. Is Zakah Effective to Alleviate Poverty in a Muslim Society?: A Case of Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam, Onagun Isiaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kwara State is one of the Muslim-dominated states in Nigeria, where Islamic economic instrument of zakah is expected to play vital role in alleviating the problem of poverty in the society. One of the objectives of zakah is to economically circulate the wealth and resources from the rich to the poor and eventually realize fair distribution of those wealth and resources in a Muslim society. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of zakah in the poverty reduction of the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria, particularly, the poor Muslim women. The study employs mixed method of data collection whereby the primary data are explored using the questionnaire and interview designed for the potential respondents during the on-going academic research programme 2013/2014 academic session of 360 sample size. Similarly, verses from Holy Qu’ran and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh are used in the study. For the secondary data, existing literature and studies on zakah are also used. Data gathered are analysed using frequencies, percentages and inferential statistics via SPSS 20.0. The findings show that zakah and its institution are not significantly related to and effective in reducing poverty among the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria. However, recommendations are made towards introduction of standard institution of zakah in the State in order to assist in poverty reduction among the poor Muslims.

  17. Using a Transdisciplinary Interpretive Lens to Broaden Reflections on Alleviating Poverty and Promoting Decent Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Maree, Jacobus G

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to broaden current reflections on definitions of decent work and poverty using a transdisciplinary interpretive lens comprising philosophical, juridical, economic, sociological, and psychological understandings. We (the authors) undertook an adapted systematic qualitative review to gather data on different perspectives on decent work and poverty. The article summarizes and compares reflections on the two constructs and proposes an enhancement of the current definition of decent work. The aim is to facilitate the identification and development of new research and intervention projects that can be implemented to promote fair and sustainable economic development, the provision of decent work, and the reduction of poverty globally. We believe that challenges should be dealt with pro-actively rather than reactively and that intervening at the level of primary prevention should lie at the heart of any strategy to promote decent work and alleviate poverty. Radical intervention is needed to ensure that future generations not only survive but develop, grow, and express themselves meaningfully through decent work. PMID:27148115

  18. Using a Transdisciplinary Interpretive Lens to Broaden Reflections on Alleviating Poverty and Promoting Decent Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to broaden current reflections on definitions of decent work and poverty using a transdisciplinary interpretive lens comprising philosophical, juridical, economic, sociological, and psychological understandings. We (the authors undertook an adapted systematic qualitative review to gather data on different perspectives on decent work and poverty. The article summarizes and compares reflections on the two constructs and proposes an enhancement of the current definition of decent work. The aim is to facilitate the identification and development of new research and intervention projects that can be implemented to promote fair and sustainable economic development, the provision of decent work, and the reduction of poverty globally. We believe that challenges should be dealt with pro-actively rather than reactively and that intervening at the level of primary prevention should lie at the heart of any strategy to promote decent work and alleviate poverty. Radical intervention is needed to ensure that future generations not only survive but develop, grow, and express themselves meaningfully through decent work

  19. A novel method to alleviate flash-line defects in coining process

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jiangping

    2013-04-01

    We employ a finite element framework based on a dynamic explicit algorithm to predict the flash-line defects in the coining process. The distribution of the flash-line is obtained by building a radial friction work model at the element level. The elasto-plastic behavior of porous materials undergoing large deformations is considered where the constitutive level updates are the result of a local variational minimization problem. We study the material flow at different strokes of the die across the entire coining process and observe that the change in the flow direction of the material in the rim region may contribute to the flash lines. Our proposed framework shows that a part of the rim region in which the flash-line defects appear is consistent with the reported experimental results. We also propose a novel method of redesigning the rim geometry of the workpiece to alleviate the flash-line defects which also shows good agreement with experiments. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  1. Plant species coexistence alleviates the impacts of lead on Zea mays L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruyi Yang; Ling Liu; Shuting Zan; Jianjun Tang; Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Whether plant coexistence can reduce the impacts of lead(Pb)on crops in agroecosystems has not been well understood.We conducted a factorial experiment to investigate the effects of weeds coexisting with maize(Zea mays L.)on Pb accumulation in maize and soil microbes at two Pb levels(ambient and 300 mg/kg).Elevated Pb tended to increase the Pb concentration in maize and decreased soil microbial activity(indicated by the average well color development,AWCD),functional group diversity,as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)colonization and vesicle number of maize.Compared to the monoculture,weeds coexisting with maize reduced the Pb concentrations in the root,leaf,sheath and stem of maize at both seedling and mature stages.In maize-weed mixtures,soil microbial activity and functional group diversity tended to increase for both Pb treatments relative to the monoculture.Furthermore,principal component analysis revealed that the soil microbial community structure changed with the introduction of weeds.The highest Pb accumulation in weeds occurred for the elevated Pb treatment in a three species mixture.The results suggest that multiple plant species coexistence could reduce lead accumulation in crop plants and alleviate the negative impacts on soil microbes in polluted land,thereby highlighting the significance of plant diversity in agroecosystems.

  2. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particul...... distribution grid congestion from EV charging. The case study results show that the concept is successful in a number of situations, most notably a system over-load of 155% can be successfully alleviated on the test distribution network....... charging schedules with respect to the predicted day-ahead prices and the published DTs, thereby avoiding congestion while still minimizing the charging cost. A Danish 400V distribution network is used to carry out case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed concept for the prevention of...... the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV...

  3. Huperzine A Alleviates Mechanical Allodynia but Not Spontaneous Pain via Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Xing Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health issue and most patients suffer from spontaneous pain. Previous studies suggest that Huperzine A (Hup A, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent analgesic with few side effects. However, whether it alleviates spontaneous pain is unclear. We evaluated the effects of Hup A on spontaneous pain in mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP behavioral assay and found that application of Hup A attenuated the mechanical allodynia induced by peripheral nerve injury or inflammation. This effect was blocked by atropine. However, clonidine but not Hup A induced preference for the drug-paired chamber in CPP. The same effects occurred when Hup A was infused into the anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, ambenonium chloride, a competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, also increased the paw-withdrawal threshold but failed to induce place preference in CPP. Therefore, our data suggest that acetylcholinesterase in both the peripheral and central nervous systems is involved in the regulation of mechanical allodynia but not the spontaneous pain.

  4. The Root Extract of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Alleviates Cardiac Apoptosis in Lupus Prone Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available The roots of the perennial herb Gentiana macrophylla Pall. (GM are known as Qinjiao, which has been used for centuries to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, little is known about the effects of GM on cholesterol-aggravated cardiac abnormalities in SLE, and the mechanisms thereof. This study investigates whether GM exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, focusing on the left ventricle (LV of NZB/W F1 mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The morphology and apoptotic status of ventricular tissues were determined by microscopy and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Levels of apoptotic biomarkers were determined by immunoblotting. The results thus obtained revealed that GM significantly reduced the cholesterol-aggravated apoptosis of LV in NZB/W F1 mice by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Additionally, GM significantly increased the cardiac insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 survival signaling and anti-apoptotic proteins in LV tissues. Accordingly, GM is considered to be beneficial in alleviating cholesterol-aggravated cardiac damage in SLE, and therefore constitute an alternative treatment for SLE patients with cardiac abnormalities.

  5. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    hippocampal pyramidal layer thickness and live neurons in IBO induced rats, with slight pathological changes in the entorhinal cortex (EC of rat brain, which was prevented on RSV administration. Our study thus concludes that RSV administration significantly ameliorated the deleterious effects in the IBO lesioned rat model for AD by alleviating cholinergic pathways, reducing oxidative stress and thereby improving spatial memory.

  6. Intrahippocampal Administration of Ibotenic Acid Induced Cholinergic Dysfunction via NR2A/NR2B Expression: Implications of Resveratrol against Alzheimer Disease Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, Chennakesavan; Periyasamy, Sabapathy; Jayachandran, Kesavan S; Anusuyadevi, Muthuswamy

    2016-01-01

    pyramidal layer thickness and live neurons in IBO induced rats, with slight pathological changes in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of rat brain, which was prevented on RSV administration. Our study thus concludes that RSV administration significantly ameliorated the deleterious effects in the IBO lesioned rat model for AD by alleviating cholinergic pathways, reducing oxidative stress and thereby improving spatial memory. PMID:27199654

  7. Neu1 sialidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 cross-talk regulates nucleic acid-induced endosomal TOLL-like receptor-7 and -9 activation, cellular signaling and pro-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkhalek, Samar; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2013-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) by which intracellular TOLL-like receptors (TLRs) become activated by their ligands remains unclear. Here, we report a molecular organizational G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling platform to potentiate a novel mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in alliance with neuromedin B GPCR, all of which form a tripartite complex with TLR-7 and -9. siRNA silencing Neu1, MMP-9 and neuromedin-B GPCR in RAW-blue macrophage cells significantly reduced TLR7 imiquimod- and TLR9 ODN1826-induced NF-κB (NF-κB-pSer(536)) activity. Tamiflu, specific MMP-9 inhibitor, neuromedin B receptor specific antagonist BIM23127, and the selective inhibitor of whole heterotrimeric G-protein complex BIM-46174 significantly block nucleic acid-induced TLR-7 and -9 MyD88 recruitment, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory TNFα and MCP-1 cytokine responses. For the first time, Neu1 clearly plays a central role in mediating nucleic acid-induced intracellular TLR activation, and the interactions involving NMBR-MMP9-Neu1 cross-talk constitute a novel intracellular TLR signaling platform that is essential for NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:23827939

  8. Therapeutic Effect of Oridonin Tablet on Acetic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice%冬凌草甲素片对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧凯宏; 杜丽东; 刘晓梅; 马骏; 任远

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察冬凌草甲素片口服给药对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎的治疗作用.方法 醋酸诱导的溃疡性结肠炎小鼠分别给予不同剂量的冬凌草甲素片灌胃给药,给药7d后,考察冬凌草甲素片对溃疡性结肠炎小鼠病变活动(体质量、便潜血及粪便性状)的影响,以及对结肠病理组织学变化,结肠髓过氧化物酶活性及胸腺和脾脏指数的影响.结果 冬凌草甲素片口服给药可剂量依赖性的降低结肠炎小鼠的病变活动、减轻结肠炎症、降低髓过氧化物酶活性,改善免疫器官脏器指数,以冬凌草甲素片高剂量给药组的作用更为显著.结论 高剂量冬凌草甲素片口服给药对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎具有治疗作用,其机制可能与冬凌草甲素的抗炎和免疫调节作用有关.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the therapeutic effect of Oridonin tablet on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.METHODS Oridonin tablets at different dosages were administered orally to acetic acid-induced colitis mice.After 7 days of treatment,the effects of Oridonin tablet on disease activity (i.e.body weight,stool blood,and stool consistency),colonic macroscopic and histological score,myleoperoxidase activity,and thymic and splenic indexes were evaluated in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.RESULTS Oridonin tablet treatment dose-dependently reduced the disease activity,attenuated colonic inflammation and myleoperoxidase activity,and improved the thymic and splenic indexes in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice,especially in high dose of Oridonin tablet treated group.CONCLUSION High dose of Oridonin tablet treatment shows therapeutic effect on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice,the underlying mechanism may have close correlation with its anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects.

  9. Optogenetic Silencing of Nav1.8-Positive Afferents Alleviates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ihab; Beaudry, Hélène; Ase, Ariel R.; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a novel transgenic mouse model in which the terminals of peripheral nociceptors can be silenced optogenetically with high spatiotemporal precision, leading to the alleviation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inhibitory archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) proton pumps were delivered to Nav1.8+ primary afferents using the Nav1.8-Cre driver line. Arch expression covered both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic nociceptors and yellow light stimulation reliably blocked electrically induced action potentials in DRG neurons. Acute transdermal illumination of the hindpaws of Nav1.8-Arch+ mice significantly reduced mechanical allodynia under inflammatory conditions, while basal mechanical sensitivity was not affected by the optical stimulation. Arch-driven hyperpolarization of nociceptive terminals was sufficient to prevent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in double-transgenic Nav1.8-ChR2+-Arch+mice. Furthermore, prolonged optical silencing of peripheral afferents in anesthetized Nav1.8-Arch+ mice led to poststimulation analgesia with a significant decrease in mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity under inflammatory and neuropathic conditions. These findings highlight the role of peripheral neuronal inputs in the onset and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity, demonstrate the plasticity of pain pathways even after sensitization has occurred, and support the involvement of Nav1.8+ afferents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Together, we present a selective analgesic approach in which genetically identified subsets of peripheral sensory fibers can be remotely and optically inhibited with high temporal resolution, overcoming the compensatory limitations of genetic ablations. PMID:27022626

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate oxidative stress induced by ADOR and enhance antioxidant responses of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Palma, José Manuel; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2014-03-15

    The behaviour of tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi grown in the presence of aqueous extracts from dry olive residue (ADOR) was studied in order to understand how this symbiotic relationship helps plants to cope with oxidative stress caused by ADOR. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant growth and other physiological parameters was also studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae and were grown in the presence of ADOR bioremediated and non-bioremediated by Coriolopsis floccosa and Penicillium chrysogenum-10. The antioxidant response as well as parameters of oxidative damage were examined in roots and leaves. The data showed a significant increase in the biomass of AM plant growth in the presence of ADOR, regardless of whether it was bioremediated. The establishment and development of the symbiosis were negatively affected after plants were exposed to ADOR. No differences were observed in the relative water content (RWC) or PS II efficiency between non-AM and AM plants. The increase in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) were simultaneous to the reduction of MDA levels and H2O2 content in AM root growth in the presence of ADOR. Similar H2O2 levels were observed among non-AM and AM plants, although only AM plants showed reduced lipid peroxidation content, probably due to the involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The results highlight how the application of both bioremediated ADOR and AM fungi can alleviate the oxidative stress conditions, improving the growth and development of tomato plants. PMID:24594394

  11. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response. PMID:26416125

  12. Deletion of circadian gene Per1 alleviates acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The severity of ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Core circadian clock is known to mediate antioxidative enzyme activity and lipid metabolism. However, the link between circadian clock and ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that extents of acute ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice exhibit circadian variations consistent with hepatic expression of Period (Per) genes. Mice lacking clock gene Per1 displayed less susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury, as evidenced by lower serum transaminase activity and less severe histopathological changes. Ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation was alleviated in Per1−/− mice. However, Per1 deletion had no effect on antioxidants depletion caused by ethanol administration. Ethanol-induced triglycerides (TG) accumulation in the serum and liver was significantly decreased in Per1−/− mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Analysis of gene expression in the liver revealed peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and its target genes related to TG synthesis are remarkably down-regulated in Per1−/− mice. HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol at 150 mM for 3 days. Per1 overexpression augmented lipid accumulation after treatment with ethanol in HepG2 cells, but had no effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Expression of genes related to lipogenesis, including PPARγ and its target genes, was up-regulated in cells overexpressing Per1. In conclusion, these results indicated that circadian rhythms of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are controlled by clock gene Per1, and deletion of Per1 protected mice from ethanol-induced liver injury by decreasing hepatic lipid accumulation

  13. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates alleviation of cadmium toxicity induced by calcium in rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; Zhen Chen; Cheng Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on rice seedling growth under cadmium chloride (CdCl2) stress,as well as the possible role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in this process,was studied.The growth of rice seedlings was seriously inhibited by CdCl2,and the inhibition was significantly mitigated by CaCl2.However,hemoglobin (Hb) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) weakened the promotion effect of CaCl2.The resuhs of NO fluorescence localization suggest that growth accelerated by CaCl2 might be associated with elevated NO levels.The content of Cd,protein thiols (PBT),and nonprotein thiols (NPT) in cell walls,cell organelles,and soluble fractions,respectively,of rice seedlings decreased considerably in the presence of CaCl2,whereas the content of pectin,hemicellulose 1 (HC1),and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) increased significantly.Elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment could promote the transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions and increase the content of NPT and PBT in leaves.In addition,transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions was retarded in roots,the content of NPT increased,and the content of PBT decreased.With elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment,the content of pectin,HC 1,and HC2 decreased significantly.Thus,Ca may alleviate Cd toxicity via endogenous NO with variation in the levels of NPT,PBT,and matrix polysaccharides.

  14. Berberine alleviates postoperative cognitive dysfunction by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Fayin; An, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant cause of morbidity after surgery, especially for the elderly. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of POCD. Thus, we hypothesized that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effects, could improve surgery-induced cognitive impairment. Twenty-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to mimic the clinical human abdominal surgery. For the interventional studies, mice received berberine (10mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally. For the in vitro study, we examined the effects of berberine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators by cultured BV2 cells. Behavioral tests, expressions of IBA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were performed at the indicated time points. In the present study, we showed that surgery impaired the contextual fear memory, as evidenced by the significantly decreased freezing time to the context. This behavioral change coincided with marked increases in IBA1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus only at 24h but not 7 d after surgery. In BV2 cells, LPS induced significantly increased TNF-α and IL-1β expressions. Notably, berberine treatment rescued surgery-induced cognitive impairment and inhibited the release of IBA1, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the hippocampus. In line with the in vivo study, berberine treatment suppressed LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-1β in BV2 cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that berberine could alleviate POCD by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice. PMID:27376853

  15. Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy. Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By studying the bioenergetic status we could show that the development of tumor hypoxia is accompanied, apart from myriad other biologically relevant effects, by a substantial accumulation of adenosine (ADO). ADO has been shown to act as a strong immunosuppressive agent in tumors by modulating the innate and adaptive immune system. In contrast to ADO, standard radiotherapy (RT) can either stimulate or abrogate antitumor immune responses. Herein, we present ADO-mediated mechanisms that may thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. An overview of the generation, accumulation, and ADO-related multifaceted inhibition of immune functions, contrasted with the antitumor immune effects of RT, is provided. Upon hypoxic stress, cancer cells release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides are converted into ADO by hypoxia-sensitive, membrane-bound ectoenzymes (CD39/CD73). ADO actions are mediated upon binding to surface receptors, mainly A2A receptors on tumor and immune cells. Receptor activation leads to a broad spectrum of strong immunosuppressive properties facilitating tumor escape from immune control. Mechanisms include (1) impaired activity of CD4 + T and CD8 + T, NK cells and dendritic cells (DC), decreased production of immuno-stimulatory lymphokines, and (2) activation of Treg cells, expansion of MDSCs, promotion of M2 macrophages, and increased activity of major immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, ADO can directly stimulate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. ADO mechanisms described can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. Therapeutic strategies alleviating tumor-promoting activities of ADO include respiratory hyperoxia or mild hyperthermia, inhibition of CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes or blockade of A2A receptors, and inhibition of ATP-release channels or ADO transporters. (orig.)

  16. 1-Deoxynojirimycin Alleviates Liver Injury and Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpu Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ on liver injury and hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice. Mice were divided into five groups: normal control, db/db control, DNJ-20 (DNJ 20 mg·kg−1·day−1, DNJ-40 (DNJ 40 mg·kg−1·day−1 and DNJ-80 (DNJ 80 mg·kg−1·day−1. All doses were treated intravenously by tail vein for four weeks. DNJ was observed to significantly reduce the levels of serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and liver TG, as well as activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate transaminase (AST; DNJ also alleviated macrovesicular steatosis and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in liver tissue. Furthermore, DNJ treatment significantly increased hepatic glycogen content, the activities of hexokinase (HK, pyruvate kinase (PK in liver tissue, and decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glycogen phosphorylase (GP, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Moreover, DNJ increased the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K on p85, protein kinase B (PKB on Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β on Ser9, and inhibited phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS on Ser645 in liver tissue of db/db mice. These results demonstrate that DNJ can increase hepatic insulin sensitivity via strengthening of the insulin-stimulated PKB/GSK-3β signal pathway and by modulating glucose metabolic enzymes in db/db mice. Moreover, DNJ also can improve lipid homeostasis and attenuate hepatic steatosis in db/db mice.

  17. Oxidative stress-related lung dysfunction by chromium(VI): alleviation by Citrus aurantium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudani, Nejla; Rafrafi, Moez; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Hakim, Ahmed; Troudi, Afef; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Ben Salah, Hichem; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2013-06-01

    Chromium(VI), a very strong oxidant, causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress in tissue systems. Our study investigated the potential ability of ethanolic Citrus aurantium L., family Rutaceae extract, used as a nutritional supplement, to alleviate lung oxidative damage induced by Cr(VI). A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in C. aurantium L. Six flavonoids were identified, as (1) poncirin, (2) naringin, (3) naringenin, (4) quercetin, (5) isosinensetin, and (6) tetramethyl-o-isoscutellarein. Adult Wistar rats, used in this study, were divided into six groups of six animals each: group I served as controls which received standard diet, group II received via drinking water K2Cr2O7 alone (700 ppm), groups III and IV were pretreated for 10 days with ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and then K2Cr2O7 was administrated during 3 weeks, and groups V and VI received during 10 days only C. aurantium L. ethanol extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. was administered orally. Rats exposed to Cr(VI) showed in lung an increase in malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and a decrease in sulflydryl content, glutathione, nonprotein thiol, and vitamins C and E levels. Decreases in enzyme activities such as in Na(+)K(+) ATPase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were noted. Pretreatment with C. aurantium L. of chromium-treated rats ameliorated all biochemical parameters. Lung histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of C. aurantium L. PMID:22972417

  18. Sodium nitrate alleviates functional muscle ischaemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael D; Rosenberry, Ryan; Barresi, Rita; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Mason, O'Neil; Schwartz, Avery; Stabler, Thomas; Shidban, Sarah; Mobaligh, Neigena; Hogan, Shomari; Elashoff, Robert; Allen, Jason D; Victor, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. BMD is caused by in-frame mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu (nNOSμ), which requires specific spectrin-like repeats (SR16/17) in dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin for sarcolemmal targeting. When healthy skeletal muscle is exercised, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived nitric oxide (NO) attenuates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction, thus optimizing perfusion. In the mdx mouse model of dystrophinopathy, this protective mechanism (functional sympatholysis) is defective, resulting in functional muscle ischaemia. Treatment with a NO-donating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alleviates this ischaemia and improves the murine dystrophic phenotype. In the present study, we report that, in 13 men with BMD, sympatholysis is defective mainly in patients whose mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ, with the vasoconstrictor response measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) to reflex sympathetic activation. Then, in a single-arm, open-label trial in 11 BMD patients and a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in six patients, we show that acute treatment with oral sodium nitrate, an inorganic NO donor without a NSIAD moiety, restores sympatholysis and improves post-exercise hyperaemia (Doppler ultrasound). By contrast, sodium nitrate improves neither sympatholysis, nor hyperaemia in healthy controls. Thus, a simple NO donor recapitulates the vasoregulatory actions of sarcolemmal nNOS in BMD patients, and constitutes a putative novel therapy for this disease. PMID:26437761

  19. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress. PMID:25308099

  20. Co-treatment of chlorpyrifos and lead induce serum lipid disorders in rats: Alleviation by taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo G; Aliu, Yusuf O; Ambali, Suleiman F; Ayo, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine (TA) on serum lipid profiles following chronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CP) and lead acetate (Pb) in male Wistar rats. Fifty rats randomly distributed into five groups served as subjects. Distilled water (DW) was given to DW group, while soya oil (SO; 1 mL kg(-1)) was given to SO group. The TA group was treated with TA (50 mg kg(-1)). The CP + Pb group was administered sequentially with CP (4.25 mg kg(-1); 1/20th median lethal dose (LD50)) and Pb at 233.25 mg kg(-1) (1/20th LD50), while the TA + CP + Pb group received TA (50 mg kg(-1)), CP (4.25 mg kg(-1)), and Pb (233.25 mg kg(-1)) sequentially. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanised, and the blood samples were collected at the termination of the study. Sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and malondialdehyde, and also the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were analyzed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index were calculated. The results showed that CP and Pb induced alterations in the serum lipid profiles and evoked oxidative stress. TA alleviated the disruptions in the serum lipid profiles of the rats partially by mitigating oxidative stress. It was concluded that TA may be used for prophylaxis against serum lipid disorders in animals that were constantly co-exposed to CP and Pb in the environment. PMID:25537622

  1. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  2. Phytoplankton calcification as an effective mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M. N.; Ramos, J. Barcelos e.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Kaźmierczak, J.; Gallo, F.; Mackinder, L.; Li, Y.; Nesterenko, P. N.; Trull, T. W.; Hallegraeff, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Marine phytoplankton have developed the remarkable ability to tightly regulate the concentration of free calcium ions in the intracellular cytosol at a level of ~ 0.1 μmol L-1 in the presence of seawater Ca2+ concentrations of 10 mmol L-1. The low cytosolic calcium ion concentration is of utmost importance for proper cell signalling function. While the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the tight control of intracellular Ca2+ concentration are not completely understood, phytoplankton taxonomic groups appear to have evolved different strategies, which may affect their ability to cope with changes in seawater Ca2+ concentrations in their environment on geological timescales. For example, the Cretaceous (145 to 66 Ma), an era known for the high abundance of coccolithophores and the production of enormous calcium carbonate deposits, exhibited seawater calcium concentrations up to 4 times present-day levels. We show that calcifying coccolithophore species (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus braarudii) are able to maintain their relative fitness (in terms of growth rate and photosynthesis) at simulated Cretaceous seawater calcium concentrations, whereas these rates are severely reduced under these conditions in some non-calcareous phytoplankton species (Chaetoceros sp., Ceratoneis closterium and Heterosigma akashiwo). Most notably, this also applies to a non-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi which displays a calcium sensitivity similar to the non-calcareous species. We hypothesize that the process of calcification in coccolithophores provides an efficient mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning and thereby offered a potential key evolutionary advantage, responsible for the proliferation of coccolithophores during times of high seawater calcium concentrations. The exact function of calcification and the reason behind the highly ornate physical structures of coccoliths remain elusive.

  3. Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutay Goktug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Injection pain after propofol administration is common and maydisturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous(iv nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand orantecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain.METHOD: There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic adminis-tered. Metoprolol (n = 31, Group M, lidocaine (n = 32, Group L and nitroglycerin (n = 29, GroupN were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evalu-ated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 --- light pain, 2 --- mild pain, 3 --- severe pain in 5, 10, 15and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathwaysfor injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score.RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p = 0.981.There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level,location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol(p = 0.015 and nitroglycerin (p = 0.001 among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metopro-lol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein(p > 0.05, nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lowerpain scores (p = 0.001.CONCLUSION: We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofolrelated pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations.

  4. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faramarzi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990–2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  5. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faramarzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990–2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  6. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, M.; Yang, H.; Mousavi, J.; Schulin, R.; Binder, C. R.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2010-08-01

    Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP) and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990-2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  7. Interception of Vapor Flow near Soil Surface for Water Conservation and Drought Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid and vapor flow of water in soil and the eventual vaporization of all waters near the soil surface are mechanisms controlling the near-surface evaporation. Interception and prevention of the vapor form of flow is critical for soil water conservation and drought alleviation in the arid and semiarid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China and the central California of USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived and tested based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of a plant is characterized by the plant's water retention curves. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic water movements from the soil surface to ten meters below the surface in an attempt to quantify the maximum depths of water extraction due to different vegetation types and mulching measures at the surface. Results show that condensation is usually formed on soil surface membranes during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The soil temperature becomes stable at 13 Degree Celsius below the 4-meter depth in the Loess Plateau of China thus vapor flow is not likely deriving from deeper layers. However, the liquid flow may move in and out depending on water potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity of the layers. The near-surface vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by various mulching measures including gravel-and-sand cover, plant residue and plastic membranes. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  8. Alleviative effects from boswellic acid on acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Che; Hu, Li-Hong; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2016-06-01

    Protective effects of boswellic acid (BA) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/ cA mice were examined. BA, at 0.05 or 0.1%, was supplied for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by APAP treatment. Results showed that BA intake increased hepatic BA bioavailability. APAP treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production; and lowered activity and protein expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in liver. BA intake at both doses alleviated subsequent APAP-induced oxidative stress by retaining GSH content, decreasing ROS and GSSG formations, reserving activity and expression of GR and HO-1 in liver, and lowering hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 activity and expression. APAP treatment enhanced hepatic levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BA pre-intake diminished APAP-induced release of those inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. APAP upregulated hepatic protein expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-4, MyD88, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50, NF-κB p65 and JNK. BA pre-intake at both doses suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-JNK, and only at 0.1% down-regulated hepatic TLR-3, TLR-4 and MyD88 expression. APAP led to obvious foci of inflammatory cell infiltration in liver, determined by H&E stain. BA intake at both doses attenuated hepatic inflammatory infiltration. These findings support that boswellic acid is a potent hepatoprotective agent. PMID:27161000

  9. Female labour force integration and the alleviation of urban poverty: a case study of Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J

    1995-01-01

    The author posits that female labor force integration in Jamaica accomplishes little in alleviating poverty and making maximum use of human resources. Women are forced into employment in a labor market that limits their productivity. Women have greater needs to increase their economic activity due to price inflation and cuts in government spending. During the 1980s and early 1990s the country experienced stabilization and structural adjustment resulting in raised interest rates, reduced public sector employment, and deflated public expenditures. Urban population is particularly sensitive to monetary shifts due to dependency on social welfare benefits and lack of assets. Current strategies favor low wage creation in a supply-side export-oriented economy. These strategies were a by-product of import-substitution industrialization policies during the post-war period and greater control by multilateral financial institutions in Washington, D.C. The World Bank and US President Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative stressed export-oriented development. During the 1980s, Jamaican government failed to control fiscal policy, built up a huge external debt, and limited the ability of private businessmen to obtain money for investment in export-based production. Over the decade, uncompetitive production declined and light manufacturing increased. Although under 10% of new investment was in textile and apparel manufacturing, almost 50% of job creation occurred in this sector and 80% of all apparel workers were low-paid women. Devaluation occurred both in the exchange rate and in workers' job security, fringe benefits, union representation, and returns on skills. During 1977-89 women increased employment in the informal sector, which could not remain competitive under devaluation. Women's stratification in the labor market, high dependency burdens, and declining urban infrastructure create conditions of vulnerability for women in Jamaica. PMID:12291611

  10. Biofortification: High zinc wheat programme – The potential agricultural options for alleviating malnutrition in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Bux Baloch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of micronutrients (zinc, iron, iodine and vitamin A is persistently afflicting millions of people living across Africa, Southern Americas, Asia and Pakistan. Among these, the zinc deficiency syndrome is occurring by 47.6, 41.3, and 39.2% in pregnant, non-pregnant and children under 5 years, respectively in Pakistan. The reason being that majority of the people subsists on cereal-based diets, i.e., wheat. The commercially grown wheat varieties contain zinc about 25 mg/g, whereas about 40 mg/g zinc is required in daily diet.The potential risk of zinc deficiency could be mitigated through certain interventions i.e., mineral drugs, food supplements, diversity in diets, production of fortified foods, and genetic biofortification of staple food crops. Among these, quantum increase in zinc content in wheat grains through genetic manipulation would be basics to alleviate zinc deficiency in the malnourished communities. The objective of the programme is to enhance the concentration of zinc nutrient from 25 to 40 mg/g in wheat grains through conventional plant breeding techniques.Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad in collaboration with Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR and International Maize & Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT and HarvestPlus, Pakistan started R&D works to develop biofortified high zinc wheat varieties containing around 40 mg/g in the year 2009. The biofortified wheat crop is developed through conventional plant breeding techniques. The germplasm inherited with high zinc nutrient are crossed with high yielding and adopted to ecological conditions. The varieties are high yielding, and inheriting zinc around 40 mg/g in the grains under both irrigated and rainfed production environments. The Government of Punjab has also given high priority to develop and consume biofortified high zinc wheat in its multi-sectoral Nutrition Strategy Plan 2015, as potential agricultural option to

  11. Electroacupuncture alleviates stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity through an opioid system in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Yuan Zhou; Natalie J Wanner; Ying Xiao; Xuan-Zheng Shi; Xing-Hong Jiang; Jian-Guo Gu; Guang-Yin Xu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity could be alleviated by electroacupuncture (EA) and whether EA effect was mediated by endogenous opiates.METHODS:Six to nine week-old male SpragueDawley rats were used in this study.Visceral hypersensitivity was induced by a 9-d heterotypic intermittent stress (HIS) protocol composed of 3 randomly stressors,which included cold restraint stress at 4 ℃ for 45 min,water avoidance stress for 60 min,and forced swimming stress for 20 min,in adult male rats.The extent of visceral hypersensitivity was quantified by electromyography or by abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores of colorectal distension at different distention pressures (20 mmHg,40 mmHg,60 mmHg and 80 mmHg).AWR scores either 0,1,2,3 or 4 were obtained by a blinded observer.EA or sham EA was performed at classical acupoint ST-36 (Zu-San-Li) or BL-43 (Gao-Huang) in both hindlimbs of rats for 30 min.Naloxone (NLX) or NLX methiodide (m-NLX) was administered intraperitoneally to HIS rats in some experiments.RESULTS:HIS rats displayed an increased sensitivity to colorectal distention,which started from 6 h (the first measurement),maintained for 24 h,and AWR scores returned to basal levels at 48 h and 7 d after HIS compared to pre-HIS baseline at different distention pressures.The AWR scores before HIS were 0.6 ± 0.2,1.3 ± 0.2,1.9 ± 0.2 and 2.3 ± 0.2 for 20 mmHg,40 mmHg,60 mmHg and 80 mmHg distention pressures,respectively.Six hours after termination of the last stressor,the AWR scores were 2.0 ± 0.1,2.5 ± 0.1,2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.2 for 20 mmHg,40 mmHg,60 mmHg and 80 mmHg distention pressures,respectively.EA given at classical acupoint ST-36 in both hindlimbs for 30 min significantly attenuated the hypersensitive responses to colorectal distention in HIS rats compared with sham EA treatment [AWRs at 20 mmHg:2.0 ± 0.2 vs 0.7 ± 0.1,P =4.23 711 E-4; AWRs at 40 mmHg:2.6 ± 0.2 vs 1.5 ± 0.2,P =0.00 163; AWRs at 60 mmHg:3.1 ± 0.2 vs 1.9

  12. Alleviation and prevention of severe allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis following long-term lemon juice use: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vazouras, Konstantinos GI; Partheniou, Jota; Dimoliatis, Ioannis DK

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (often coexisting with allergic conjunctivitis) is a highly prevalent, chronic, inflammatory disease. Most cases are not extraordinary; however, they may result in significant impairment in quality of life of patients, as well as in economical damage for both health-care system and patients. This case report describes the experiences of a middle-aged woman with the illness, who managed to completely alleviate and prevent her symptoms, in terms of intensity and chronicity, by...

  13. The Long-Term Effective Mechanism of Rural Poverty Alleviation in China from the Perspective of Ecological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jun-Si

    2010-01-01

    Based on the ecological environmental situation of poverty-stricken areas in China and the domestic and foreign research results, the long-term effective mechanism of sustainable poverty alleviation in China is established(the ideological premise is ecological culture, the material base is ecological economy and the basic guarantee is ecological system ) from the perspective of ecological management. To be specific, ecological culture, the ideological premise of rural sustainable poverty alle...

  14. Towards Reducing Common Ergonomic Hazards and Alleviating Techno-Stress Associated with the Adoption of Information and Communication Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji Akinlolu Agboola

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how to alleviate ergonomic hazard and techno-stress associated with the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The University of Botswana was used as a case study. Personal observation and interviews were used to elicit information from the staff and students of the University. The rate of adoption of ICT was very high in the University. Most daily routines of academic and administrative duties were done through the Webct and network connection to mopip...

  15. The role of clothing manufacturing co-operatives in job creation and poverty alleviation in Sharpeville / Mmapula Brendah Sekatane

    OpenAIRE

    Sekatane, Mmapula Brendah

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of clothing manufacturing co-operatives in job creation and poverty alleviation in Sharpeville. Ttie study focuses on three areas, namely, the theories of unemployment, poverty and clothing manufacturing, the state of unemployment and poverty in Sharpeville and clothing manufacturing co-operatives as one of the contributors to the solution to unemployment and poverty. Unemployment is identified, among others, as a major determinant of poverty; therefore, the...

  16. Aromatherapy Massage on the Abdomen for Alleviating Menstrual Pain in High School Girls: A Preliminary Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Haeng Hur; Myeong Soo Lee; Ka-Yeon Seong; Mi-Kyoung Lee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of aromatherapy massage and acetaminophen on menstrual pain in Korean high school girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: the aromatherapy massage (treatment) group ( = 3 2 ) and the acetaminophen (control) group ( = 2 3 ). Aromatherapy massage was performed on subjects in the treatment group. The abdomen was massaged once using clary sage, marjoram, cinnamon, ginger, and geranium in a base of almond oil. The level of menstrual pain wa...

  17. An external evaluation of the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Laura M. Lamberti; Sunita Taneja; Sarmila Mazumder; Amnesty LeFevre; Robert E. Black; Fischer Walker, Christa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program was carried out from 2011–2013 in Gujarat and from 2011–2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. Methods We conducted cross–sectional household surveys in program districts a...

  18. Role of salicylic acid in alleviating oxidative damage in rice roots (Oryza sativa) subjected to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-dependent changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were investigated in roots of rice (Oryza sativa) grown hydroponically with Cd, with or without pretreatment of salicylic acid (SA). Exposure to 50 μM Cd significantly decreased root growth, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but increased the concentrations of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and non-protein thiols (NPT). However, pretreatment with 10 μM SA enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants, but lowered the concentrations of H2O2 and MDA in the Cd-stressed rice compared with the Cd treatment alone. Pretreatment with SA alleviated the Cd-induced inhibition of root growth. The results showed that pretreatment with SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd-stressed rice, thus alleviating Cd-induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance. The possible mechanism of SA-induced H2O2 signaling in mediating Cd tolerance was discussed. - Pretreatment with SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd-stressed rice, thus alleviating Cd-induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance

  19. Infusion of nonmyeloablative bone marrow alleviates acute rejection reaction in liver allotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hai-yang; HUANG Dong-sheng; JIA Chang-ku; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect and implication of nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow (DSBM) infusion on the immunoreaction of liver allotransplantation. Methods: Orthotopic liver transplantation model was used in this study. Groups were set as follows: Group Ⅰ, syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ, acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar); Group Ⅲ, acute rejection treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) by intramuscular injection (SD-to-Wistar+CsA); Group Ⅳ, bone marrow infusion at 7 d pretransplantation followed by short-term CsA treatment (SD-to-Wistar+DSBM); Another group of short-term CsA treatment preoperatively without bone marrow infusion was also set as control. General characteristics and survival time were observed.Histological grades of rejection were determined by pathological examination. IL-2 and IFN-γ level in peripheral blood and donor liver were detected respectively by Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Chimerism of donor cells was measured by PCR for a male-specific marker (Y-chromosome-specific sequence, Sry). Results: No signs of rejection were found in Group Ⅰ. Acute rejection occurred in both Group Ⅱ and the short-term CsA treated group. All the recipients died at (9~15)d posttransplantation with a median survival time of (10.7±0.5) d and (11.2±2.4) d, respectively. Only mild rejection could be seen in Group Ⅲ. In Group Ⅳ, 4 out of 6 recipients had long-term survival (>100 d), the histological grade of rejection was significantly lower than that of Group Ⅱ, so did the expression level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in both peripheral blood and grafted liver.Y-chromosome-specific sequence (Sry) of male SD rats could be detected in the bone marrow, spleen and thymus of female recipients at 15 d after bone marrow infusion. Conclusion: Mild preconditioning nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow infusion can enhance chimerism formation in recipients, alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation

  20. Ligustrazine alleviates acute lung injury in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang

    2006-01-01

     aggravated signiifcantly in the P group. Histopathological scores were higher in the P group than in the C group throughout the experimental course. Histopathological scores in the T group were lower than those in the P group at 6 and 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS:Microcirculatory disorder is an important factor of lung injury in ANP. Ligustrazine can ameliorate microcirculatory disorder and alleviate the damage to the lung.

  1. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  2. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-06-01

    YC increased TAP concentration only during HS period (p<0.01). It is concluded that both VE and YC are useful in alleviating HS of dairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS. PMID:26954167

  3. Blocking macrophage migration inhibitory factor activity alleviates mouse acute otitis media in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Min; Zheng, Qingyin; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weijun; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

    2014-11-01

    This study was to investigate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in mouse acute otitis media (AOM), we hypothesize that blocking MIF activity will relieve mouse AOM. A mouse AOM model was constructed by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the middle ear of C57BL/6 mice through the tympanic membrane (TM). MIF levels were measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and ELISA after LPS application. Normal or AOM mice were given PBS or ISO-1 (MIF antagonist) every day for 10 days and the hearing levels were determined by measuring auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold. After the ABR test finished, H&E staining was conducted and the inflammation was also measured by detecting interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels with RT-PCR and ELISA. TLR-4 expression was determined by western blotting and NF-κB activation was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Compared with the normal control, MIF levels in the middle ear of LPS-induced AOM mice were significant increased. The ABR results showed that mean ABR thresholds in ISO-1 treated AOM mice were significantly reduced compared with PBS treated AOM mice since day 7, indicating that ISO-1 treatment potentially improved the hearing levels of AOM mice. H&E staining showed that ISO-1 treatment could reduce the mucosal thickness of AOM mice. In ISO-1 treated mice, TLR-4 expression and levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and VEGF were significantly lower compared with PBS treated AOM mice. ISO-1 treatment also significantly inhibited NF-κB activation in AOM mice compared with PBS treated AOM mice. These results suggested that blocking the activity of MIF by ISO-1 could reduce the inflammation in AOM mice in which process TLR-4 and NF-κB were involved. The reduction in MIF activity is conducive to alleviate mouse AOM, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AOM. PMID:25108100

  4. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats’ rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats’ endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (pstressed dairy goats’ absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats’ superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats’ malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The addition of YC increased TAP concentration only during HS period (p<0.01). It is concluded that both VE and YC are useful in alleviating HS of dairy goats by

  5. Coinfection with HIV-1 alleviates iron accumulation in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    Full Text Available Most chronically-infected hepatitis C virus (HCV patients have increased levels of iron in the liver. Iron overload reduces sustained responses to antiviral therapy, leading to more rapid progression to liver cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it is still unclear how HIV-1 infection affects iron status in patients chronically infected with HCV. The present study recruited 227 patients from a village in central China. These patients were either monoinfected with HCV (n = 129 or coinfected with HCV/HIV-1 (n = 98. Healthy controls (n = 84 were also recruited from the same village. Indicators of iron status, such as serum levels of iron, ferritin, and transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC, transferrin saturation (Tfs, and hepcidin, were analyzed and compared across the three groups. The results showed that serum levels of iron (p = 0.001 and ferritin (p = 0.009 and the Tfs (p = 0.002 were significantly higher in HCV-monoinfected patients than in the healthy controls; however, there were no differences in iron levels and Tfs between HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients and healthy controls. Additionally, although serum hepcidin levels in HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients were lower (p<0.001 than those in health controls, the levels in coinfected patients were higher (p = 0.025 than those in HCV-monoinfected patients. Serum iron and ferritin levels in HCV-monoinfected patients were positively correlated with serum ALT/AST. Serum transferrin levels were negatively correlated with ALT/AST levels. The levels of iron in the serum of coinfected patients with a CD4+T-cell count <500/µl were lower than those in patients with a CD4+T-cell count ≥500/µl, whereas serum hepcidin levels showed the opposite trend. Taken together, these results suggest that coinfection with HIV-1 alleviates iron accumulation caused by chronic HCV infection. Our study indicated that determining the

  6. Targeting Bone Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Osteopenic Mice and Modulates Cartilage Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Lin, Hilène; Hay, Eric; Ah Kioon, Marie-Dominique; Schiltz, Corinne; Hannouche, Didier; Nizard, Rémy; Lioté, Frédéric; Orcel, Philippe; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Cohen-Solal, Martine Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objective Subchondral bone modifications occur early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). The level of bone resorption might impact cartilage remodeling. We therefore assessed the in vivo and in vitro effects of targeting bone resorption in OA and cartilage metabolism. Methods OA was induced by meniscectomy (MNX) in ovariectomized osteopenic mice (OP) treated with estradiol (E2), pamidronate (PAM), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 6 weeks. We assessed the subchondral bone and cartilage structure and the expression of cartilage matrix proteases. To assess the involvement of bone soluble factors in cartilage metabolism, supernatant of human bone explants pre-treated with E2 or PAM were transferred to cartilage explants to assess proteoglycan release and aggrecan cleavage. OPG/RANKL mRNA expression was assessed in bone explants by real-time quantitative PCR. The role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the bone-cartilage crosstalk was tested using an OPG neutralizing antibody. Results Bone mineral density of OP mice and osteoclast number were restored by E2 and PAM (p<0.05). In OP mice, E2 and PAM decreased ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression, while only PAM markedly reduced OA compared to PBS (2.0±0.63 vs 5.2±0.95; p<0.05). OPG/RANKL mRNA was increased in human bone explants treated with both drugs (2.2–3.7-fold). Moreover, supernatants from bone explants cultured with E2 or PAM reduced aggrecan cleavage and cartilage proteoglycan release (73±8.0% and 80±22% of control, respectively, p<0.05). This effect was reversed with osteoprotegerin blockade. Conclusion The inhibition of bone resorption by pamidronate in osteopenic mice alleviates the histological OA score with a reduction in the expression of aggrecanases. Bone soluble factors, such as osteoprotegerin, impact the cartilage response to catabolic factors. This study further highlights the importance of subchondral bone in the regulation of joint cartilage damage in OA. PMID:22432033

  7. Mineral derivatives in alleviating oral mucositis during cancer therapy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Oral mucositis (mouth ulcers is a cancer therapy side effect. Costly treatment interventions are often neglected in favor of cost-effective agents. This review assessed the general efficacy of mineral derivatives (a cost-effective agent in alleviating oral mucositis (OM during cancer therapy compared to the standard care, or placebo—including a decision tree to aide healthcare workers. Data Sources. Electronic searches of MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CANCERLIT via PubMed, and CINAHL via EBSCO (year 2000 to 11 September 2014 were undertaken for randomised controlled trials. A meta-search strategy extracted content from aggregate online databases. Review Methods. Randomized controlled trials were assessed (participants, intervention, outcome, results, and risk of bias for inclusion. The author abstracted binary and continuous data synthesised to Hedges’ g in a random effects model. The primary outcome measures were severity (incidence of peak oral mucositis, duration of oral mucositis, and time to onset; secondary outcome measures were the incidence of pain, and analgesic use. Serum mineral levels, total parenteral nutrition, and adverse events were discussed. The decision tree was mapped using sensitivity, specificity, pre-test and post-test Bayesian probability. Results. 1027 citations were identified and 16 studies were included (n = 1120; mean age 49 years. Cancer therapies consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Outcome mineral derivatives were zinc (n = 549, calcium phosphate (n = 227, povidone-iodine (n = 228, or selenium (n = 116. Severity was measured across variable OM grading systems: In 13 studies, individuals in treatment groups (n = 958 experienced peak OM less than controls (g = −0.47, 95% CI −0.7 to −0.2, p = 0.0006; time to OM onset was significantly delayed in treatment than controls (g = −0.51, 95% CI−0.8 to −0.2, p = 0.0002; five

  8. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination. PMID:26785556

  9. Regular exercise alleviates renovascular hypertension-induced cardiac/endothelial dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Z N O; Sener, G; Ozgur, S; Koc, M; Suleymanoglu, S; Hurdag, C; Yegen, B C

    2016-02-01

    alterations in echocardiographic and oxidative parameters. Regular exercise commenced after RVH surgery alleviated renovascular hypertension-induced oxidative injury, by modulating oxidant-antioxidant balance via the involvement of the endothelial NO system. PMID:27010894

  10. Topical effects of N-acetyl-L-hydroxyproline on ceramide synthesis and alleviation of pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashizume E

    2013-02-01

    forearm. Pruritus intensity declined in the AHYP-treated forearms between 0 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05, but there was no change in the control-treated forearms.Conclusion: AHYP increased ceramide synthesis by upregulating SPTLC1 in a three-dimensional cultured skin model, and it prevented TEWL increase and alleviated pruritus in human subjects with slight atopic dermatitis.Keywords: skin barrier, ceramide, pruritus, N-acetyl-l-hydroxyproline, amino acids

  11. Accelerated development and flight evaluation of active controls concepts for subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Load alleviation/extended span development and flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Active wing load alleviation to extend the wing span by 5.8 percent, giving a 3 percent reduction in cruise drag is covered. The active wing load alleviation used symmetric motions of the outboard ailerons for maneuver load control (MLC) and elastic mode suppression (EMS), and stabilizer motions for gust load alleviation (GLA). Slow maneuvers verified the MLC, and open and closed-loop flight frequency response tests verified the aircraft dynamic response to symmetric aileron and stabilizer drives as well as the active system performance. Flight tests in turbulence verified the effectiveness of the active controls in reducing gust-induced wing loads. It is concluded that active wing load alleviation/extended span is proven in the L-1011 and is ready for application to airline service; it is a very practical way to obtain the increased efficiency of a higher aspect ratio wing with minimum structural impact.

  12. Palmitic Acid Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-6, Interleukin-1β, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α via a NF-κB-Dependent Mechanism in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-rong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether palmitic acid can be responsible for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with palmitic acid at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations. Secretion levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB activation, Stat3 phosphorylation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as the cell proliferation ability were measured at the end of the treatment and after 24 hours of recovery. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a selective chemical inhibitor of NF-κB and goat anti-human IL-6 polyclonal neutralizing antibody were used to inhibit NF-κB activation and IL-6 production, respectively. Our results showed that palmitic acid induced an upregulation of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β secretions, accompanied by NF-κB nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, the effect of palmitic acid was accompanied by PPARα activation and Stat3 phosphorylation. Palmitic acid-induced IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β productions were attenuated by NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. Palmitic acid was administered in amounts able to elicit significant hyperproliferation and can be attenuated by IL-6 blockage. These data demonstrate for the first time that palmitic acid can stimulate IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β productions in HaCaT keratinocytes and cell proliferation, thereby potentially contributing to acne inflammation and pilosebaceous duct hyperkeratinization.

  13. 基于文献研究法的精准扶贫综述%Summary of Precise Poverty Alleviation Based on Literature Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜林; 王雨林; 庄天慧

    2015-01-01

    随着扶贫工作的深入推进,精准扶贫逐渐成为理论界研究的热点问题。运用文献研究法进行梳理后发现,目前理论界针对精准扶贫研究的重点放在问题及其原因、瞄准方法、路径与对策、个案分析等方面。本文从上述方面对国内外相关文献的代表性观点进行了概述,并从精准扶贫内涵的界定、精准扶贫对象的识别、明确精准帮扶的措施、实现贫困的“进退有序”、与各类扶贫工作相协调等方面对未来研究方向进行了展望。%Abstar ct:With the deep advance of poverty alleviation work , the precise poverty alleviation has gradually become a hot issue . Literature analysis found that the current academic studies of precise poverty alleviation mainly focused on the following aspects :problems and their causes , targeting methods , paths and countermeasures , case analysis , etc.This paper summarized the represent-ative views about precise poverty alleviation of relevant literatures at home and abroad from the above aspects , and prospected the re-search directions of this field from the following aspects:the definition of precise poverty alleviation connotation , the recognition of precise poverty alleviation objects , the measures of precise supporting , the program of realizing precise poverty alleviation , and the coordination with other various poverty alleviation works .

  14. Single mothers empowerment through small business development projects in Gweru, Zimbabwe : the case of the GWAPA Poverty Alleviation Programme / Maxwell Constantine Chando Musingafi

    OpenAIRE

    Musingafi, Maxwell

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the GWAPA Single Mothers Poverty alleviation Programme. The study hypothesized that women in Gweru are among the most vulnerable to poverty and disease and GWAPA project may be an effective source to their poverty alleviation. Main objectives of the study were to explain selected development concepts, to explore the relationship between gender and poverty, to investigate the effectiveness of the GWAPA Programme, to outline the challenges face...

  15. Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 2: A Centerline Supported Fullspan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This is part 2 of a two part document. Part 1 is titled: "Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 1: A Sidewall Supported Semispan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation and Flutter Suppression." A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Boeing, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, flexible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a full-span, aeroelastically scaled, wind tunnel model of a joined wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to acquire a basic aerodynamic data set. In the second and third tests, the same wind tunnel model was mated to a new, two degree of freedom, beam mount. This mount allowed the full-span model to translate vertically and pitch. Trimmed flight at10 percent static margin and gust load alleviation were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees of freedom required that the model be flown in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free-flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort. The balance and free flying wind tunnel tests will be summarized. The design of the trim and gust load alleviation control laws along with the associated results will also be discussed.

  16. Inhibition of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response by acetylcholine alleviated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Bi, Xueyuan; He, Xi; Yu, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Ming; Zang, Weijin

    2016-05-18

    The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) is involved in numerous diseases that have the common feature of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, its pathophysiological relevance in the context of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in endothelial cells remains elusive. Previous studies have demonstrated that acetylcholine (ACh) protects against cardiomyocyte injury by suppressing generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). This study aimed to explore the role of UPR(mt) in endothelial cells during H/R and to clarify the beneficial effects of ACh. Our results demonstrated that H/R triggered UPR(mt) in endothelial cells, as evidenced by the elevation of heat shock protein 60 and LON protease 1 protein levels, and resulted in release of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins, including cytochrome C, Omi/high temperature requirement protein A 2 and second mitochondrial activator of caspases/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low PI, from the mitochondria to cytosol. ACh administration markedly decreased UPR(mt) by inhibiting mtROS and alleviating the mitonuclear protein imbalance. Consequently, ACh alleviated the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and restored mitochondrial ultrastructure and function, thereby reducing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Intriguingly, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, a type-3 muscarinic ACh receptor (M3AChR) inhibitor, abolished the ACh-elicited attenuation of UPR(mt) and TUNEL positive cells, indicating that the salutary effects of ACh were likely mediated by M3AChR in endothelial cells. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that UPR(mt) might be essential for triggering the mitochondrion-associated apoptotic pathway during H/R. ACh markedly suppressed UPR(mt) by inhibiting mtROS and alleviating the mitonuclear protein imbalance, presumably through M3AChR. PMID:27111378

  17. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  18. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model.This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days.The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis.Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  19. The alleviative effect of xanthan gum on pain%黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵华荣; 韩冠英; 凌沛学; 赵丽娟; 张天民

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the alleviative effect of xanthan gum(XG)on pain. Methods Pain models were induced through the mice intraperitoneal injected with acetic acid and the left knees of the rats intra-articularly injected with monosodium iodoacetate ( MIA ), respectively. The alleviative effect of XG on pain was evaluated through pain related behaviors tests. Results XG significantly prolonged the initial appearance of writhing response,and meanwhile it reduced the times of writhing response within 15 min after exposure of the mice to acetic acid. Intra-articular injection of XG significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold and weight bearing of the MIA-treated limbs. Conclusion XG had obvious alleviative effect on pain.%目的 研究黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用.方法 分别采用小鼠腹腔注射醋酸及大鼠左后肢关节腔注射碘乙酸钠诱导疼痛模型,前者以小鼠扭体反应潜伏期和扭体次数为指标,后者以大鼠左后肢机械缩足阈值和承重分布为指标,评价黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用.结果 与生理盐水组相比,黄原胶可明显延长小鼠扭体反应的潜伏期并减少扭体次数,显著抑制碘乙酸钠诱导的大鼠左后肢机械缩足阈值及承重分布的降低.结论 黄原胶可显著缓解疼痛.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants - A soil microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. PMID:26761602

  1. The effect of new cooperative medical scheme on health outcomes and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure in China: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Chinese government launched a new rural health financing policy to provide health insurance (New Cooperative Medical Scheme, NCMS for its rural population. NCMS, jointly financed by governments and individual households, aims to protect households from impoverishment due to catastrophic health expenditure. In 2011, NCMS covered more than 96% of the rural population. We have systematically searched and reviewed available evidence to estimate the effects of NCMS on health outcomes and on alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, CMCI, CNKI, and VIP were searched. We also obtained literature from colleague communications. Quasi-experimental studies regarding the effect of NCMS on health outcomes and catastrophic health expenditure were included. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality. RESULTS: Fifteen studies out of the 6123 studies in the literature fulfilled criteria and were included in this review. Twelve studies identified the relationship between NCMS and health outcomes, among which six studies measured sickness or injury in the past four weeks, four measured sickness or injury in the past two weeks, and five measured self-reported health status. Four studies focused on the relationship between NCMS and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. However, the results from these studies were in conflict: individual studies indicated that NCMS had positive, negative, or no effect on health outcomes and/or the incidence of catastrophic health payments, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We still have no clear evidence that NCMS improves the health outcomes and decreases the alleviating catastrophic health expenditure of the China's rural population. In addition, the heterogeneity among individual studies reminds us that provider payment method reforms, benefit package

  2. Microfinance and its Impact in Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Case Study of some Microfinance Banks in Edo State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Imoisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the relationship microfinance and poverty alleviation in Nigeria, to understand the effectiveness of micro credit within the context of its current practice in Edo State in particular, and the nation as a whole as a tool for wealth creation and capital accumulation among the poverty stricken populace and low income earners. The study made use of primary data obtained through field survey from the selected microfinance banks in Edo State and utilized quantitative tools to analyze these data so as to bring out any existing relationship between microfinance and poverty alleviation. The results obtained showed that microfinance has the potential of alleviating poverty by ensuring wealth creation and its attendant self-sufficiency. From our result, about 70% of the sampled population agreed that there is a positive relationship between microfinance and improved standard of living of the recipients of these micro credits; 78% attested that they obtained some sort of credit from microfinance banks to set up their small scale businesses, without which it would be impossible to do so; about 67% said they have used loan collected to expand their business while 24% said they used the loan collected to invest on new technology for their business and the remaining 9% of the respondents obtained loans to facilitate the export of their products. Focus of microfinance programmes in poor communities for it to be meaningful; a massive educational drive on the importance of microfinance in fighting widespread poverty should be launched in the country; etc were some of the recommendations made in this study

  3. The utilisation of the right of children to shelter to alleviate poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jansen van Rensburg

    2004-06-01

    their duty or the children are removed from their care. This does not in the least mean that the state has no responsibilities to children living with their parents. The state must still provide the framework in which parents can facilitate the realisation of their children's rights. The state can fulfil this obligation by taking reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to realise everyone's right of access to adequate housing progressively. Therefore, it is submitted that the measures taken to realise section 26 also indirectly ensures the realisation of children's right to basic shelter (section 28(1(c.It has been largely accepted by the courts and academics alike that all fundamental human rights are indivisible and interrelated. Clearly then, the state's obligations in terms of section 28(1(c cannot be properly interpreted without referring to the interpretation of those obligations conferred upon it by section 26(2 and the other socio-economic rights in the Constitution. Hence, section 28(1(c must be seen in the context of the Constitution as a whole. Put simply, the state must take reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to realise children's right to basic housing/shelter progressively.This article will focus on the utilisation of the right to shelter of the child to alleviate poverty. Essential to this discussion is an effective understanding of the right to basic shelter as entrenched by section 28 of the Constitution in conjunction with the right of access to adequate housing conferred on everyone by virtue of section 26. This will be achieved by studying the general working of such rights including their limitations and enforcement.

  4. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels compared to the related serum control values. The radiation effect was extended to Subgroup 2 that revealed apparent infertility. Moreover, Aspirin oral daily administration caused a remarkable reduction in both FSH and LH hormones alongside with elevated progesterone and PRL levels with no noted E2 level changes (Group 3). However the same treatment accelerated both the fertility and re productivity rates of Subgroup 3. However, the results of the present study revealed the potency of the anti-inflammatory drug Aspirin when administered post radiation exposure (Group 4) in ameliorating the abrupt irradiation induced hormonal imbalance and the significant elevation in serum MDA in addition to its ability in alleviating the radiation induced reproductive disorders (Subgroup 4). In conclusion, oxidative stress caused by radiation exposure of cycling female rats induced marked disturbance in their hormonal balance leading to negative fertility outcomes that has been ameliorated by Aspirin therapy.

  5. Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy. Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupel, Peter [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Multhoff, Gabriele [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Experimental Immune Biology, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    By studying the bioenergetic status we could show that the development of tumor hypoxia is accompanied, apart from myriad other biologically relevant effects, by a substantial accumulation of adenosine (ADO). ADO has been shown to act as a strong immunosuppressive agent in tumors by modulating the innate and adaptive immune system. In contrast to ADO, standard radiotherapy (RT) can either stimulate or abrogate antitumor immune responses. Herein, we present ADO-mediated mechanisms that may thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. An overview of the generation, accumulation, and ADO-related multifaceted inhibition of immune functions, contrasted with the antitumor immune effects of RT, is provided. Upon hypoxic stress, cancer cells release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides are converted into ADO by hypoxia-sensitive, membrane-bound ectoenzymes (CD39/CD73). ADO actions are mediated upon binding to surface receptors, mainly A2A receptors on tumor and immune cells. Receptor activation leads to a broad spectrum of strong immunosuppressive properties facilitating tumor escape from immune control. Mechanisms include (1) impaired activity of CD4 + T and CD8 + T, NK cells and dendritic cells (DC), decreased production of immuno-stimulatory lymphokines, and (2) activation of Treg cells, expansion of MDSCs, promotion of M2 macrophages, and increased activity of major immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, ADO can directly stimulate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. ADO mechanisms described can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. Therapeutic strategies alleviating tumor-promoting activities of ADO include respiratory hyperoxia or mild hyperthermia, inhibition of CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes or blockade of A2A receptors, and inhibition of ATP-release channels or ADO transporters. (orig.) [German] Untersuchungen des bioenergetischen Status ergaben, dass Tumorhypoxie neben vielen anderen bedeutsamen biologischen Effekten zu einem starken

  6. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghareib SA

    2015-11-01

    -gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.3–10 µM alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially attributed to its ability to increase the production of NO and stimulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Keywords: diabetes, 6-gingerol, vasorelaxant, nitric oxide, advanced glycation end products, vascular complications

  7. [Iron chelation therapy and its influence on the alleviation of EPO resistance in MDS patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Chao; Gu, Shu-Cheng; Chang, Chun-Kang

    2014-08-01

    in some patients was decreased. It is concluded that iron chelation therapy can improve the efficacy of EPO to alleviate EPO resistance in patients wtih anemic MDS, decrease the pathological level of EPO, enhance Hb levels and reduce the dependency on blood transfusion. PMID:25130822

  8. Efficiency and safety evaluation of Baimaiointment for alleviating hypermyotonia following cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Baimai ointment has Shujin and Huoluo efficiency. It has been confirmed by basic pharmacodynamic experiments that Baimai ointment has some therapeutic effects on stroke. However, the detailed evaluations of Baimai ointment on clinically treating stroke patients for function recovery are still insufficient with little reports.OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficiency and safety of Baimai ointment on alleviating hyperrnyotonia following cerebral infarction DESIGN: A randomized, parallel and controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Beijing Aerospace General Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 patients with acute front-cycle cerebral infarction were selected from Department of Neurology, Beijing Aerospace General Hospital from July to December 2006 and met the diagnosis criteria modified by Forth National Seminar on Cerebrovascular Disease. The experiment had got confirmed consent from local ethic committee. All 120 patients with cerebral infarction were randomly divided into experimental group (n =80; 32 in the acute phase, 32 in the recovery phase and 16 in the sequela phase) and control group (n =40; 16 in the acute phase, 16 in the recovery phase and 8 in the sequela phase).METHODS: Within 4 weeks after the patients were enrolled in this study, no other traditional Chinese medicines containing similar components were adopted besides routine supporting therapy. The Baimai ointment being consisted of Jianghuang, Roudoukou, Gansong, Yangqishi, Gancao, She, shannai,Zanghuixiang, Zangchangpu, Huajiao and Jianhua was used by trial group (20 g/ampoule, Tibet Lingzhiqizheng Tibetan Drug Factory; batch number: 050403), 2 3 times per day, the ointment was moderately coated traveling parts of Baimai.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The evaluation of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS),Modified Rankin Scale and Modified Ashworth Scale were performed before administration, 2 and 4 weeks after administration.RESULTS: All 120 patients with acute front

  9. Comparing the performance of the EQ-5D and SF-6D when measuring the benefits of alleviating knee pain

    OpenAIRE

    Avery Anthony J; Sach Tracey H; Barton Garry R; Doherty Michael; Jenkinson Claire; Muir Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the practicality, validity and responsiveness of using each of two utility measures (the EQ-5D and SF-6D) to measure the benefits of alleviating knee pain. Methods Participants in a randomised controlled trial, which was designed to compare four different interventions for people with self-reported knee pain, were asked to complete the EQ-5D, SF-6D, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) at both pre- and post-intervention. For b...

  10. A smart rotor configuration with linear quadratic control of adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a smart rotor configuration where adaptive trailing edge flaps (ATEFs) are employed for active alleviation of the aerodynamic loads on the blades of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The flaps extend for 20% of the blade length and are controlled by a linear quadratic (LQ...... effects of active flap control are assessed with aeroelastic simulations of the turbine in normal operation conditions, as prescribed by the International Electrotechnical Commission standard. The turbine lifetime fatigue damage equivalent loads provide a convenient summary of the results achieved with...

  11. The mechanism underlying alpinetin-mediated alleviation of pancreatitis-associated lung injury through upregulating aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xingsi; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Biao; Li, Bo; Wei, Yangchao; Zhai, Run; Liang, Zhiqing; He, Songqing; Tang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by its acute onset, critical condition, poor prognosis, and high mortality rate, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause multiple organ failure at its early stage, particularly acute lung injury (ALI). The pathogenesis of ALI is diffuse alveolar damage, including an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, a decrease in compliance, and invasion of many inflammatory cells. Corticosteroids are the main treatment method for ALI; however, the associated high toxicity and side effects induce pain in patients. Recent studies show that the effective components in many traditional Chinese medicines can effectively inhibit inflammation with few side effects, which can decrease the complications caused by steroid consumption. Based on these observations, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of alpinetin, which is a flavonoid extracted from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, on treating lung injury induced by SAP and to explore the mechanism underlying the alpinetin-mediated decrease in the extent of ALI. In this study, we have shown through in vitro experiments that a therapeutic dose of alpinetin can promote human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. We have also shown via in vitro and in vivo experiments that alpinetin upregulates aquaporin-1 and, thereby, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α expression as well as reduces the degree of lung injury. Overall, our study shows that alpinetin alleviates SAP-induced ALI. The likely molecular mechanism includes upregulated aquaporin expression, which inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and, thus, alleviates SAP-induced ALI. PMID:26966354

  12. A high affinity kidney targeting by chitobionic acid-conjugated polysorbitol gene transporter alleviates unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kim, Sanghwa; Firdous, Jannatul; Lee, Ah-Young; Hong, Seong-Ho; Seo, Min Kyeong; Park, Tae-Eun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Chae, Chanhee; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-01

    Aside from kidney transplantation - a procedure which is exceedingly dependent on donor-match and availability leading to excessive costs - there are currently no permanent treatments available which reverse kidney injury and failure. However, kidney-specific targeted gene therapy has outstanding potential to treat kidney-related dysfunction. Herein we report a novel kidney-specific targeted gene delivery system developed through the conjugation of chitobionic acid (CBA) to a polysorbitol gene transporter (PSGT) synthesized from sorbitol diacrylate and low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) carrying hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene to alleviate unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. CBA-PSGT performed exceptionally well for targeted delivery of HGF to kidney tissues compared to its non-targeted counterparts (P type I and II), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and the expressions of ICAM-1, TIMP-1 and α-SMA which play a critical role in obstructive kidney functions. Therefore, CBA-PSGT should be further investigated because of its potential to alleviate UUO and kidney-related diseases using high affinity kidney targeting. PMID:27318934

  13. In vitro precultivation alleviates post-implantation inflammation and enhances development of tissue-engineered tubular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Xusong; Zhou Guangdong; Liu Wei; Zhang Wenjie; Cui Lei; Cao Yilin [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Cen Lian, E-mail: guangdongzhou@126.co, E-mail: yilincao@yahoo.co [National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Tissue-engineered tubular cartilage is a promising graft for tracheal reconstruction. But polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid (PLA/PGA) fibers, the frequently used scaffolds for cartilage engineering, often elicit an obvious inflammation response following implantation into immunocompetent animals. We propose that the inflammation could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation. In this study, after in vitro culture for either 2 days (direct implantation group (DI)) or for 2 weeks (precultivation implantation group (PI)), autologous tubular chondrocyte-PLA/PGA constructs were subcutaneously implanted into rabbits. In the PI group, after 2 weeks of precultivation, most of the fibers were found to be completely embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by the chondrocytes. Importantly, no obvious inflammatory reaction was observed after in vivo implantation and homogeneous cartilage-like tissue was formed with biomechanical properties close to native tracheal cartilage at 4 weeks post-implantation. In the DI group, however, an obvious inflammatory reaction was observed within and around the cell-scaffold constructs at 1 week implantation and only sporadic cartilage islands separated by fibrous tissue were observed at 4 weeks. These results demonstrated that the post-implantation inflammatory reaction could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation, which contributes to the formation of satisfactory tubular cartilage for tracheal reconstruction.

  14. Key Molecular Mechanisms of Chaiqinchengqi Decoction in Alleviating the Pulmonary Albumin Leakage Caused by Endotoxemia in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Luo, Ruijie; Lin, Ziqi; Xia, Qing

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the key molecular mechanisms of Chaiqinchengqi decoction (CQCQD) in alleviating the pulmonary albumin leakage caused by endotoxemia in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats. Rats models of SAP endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury were established, the studies in vivo provided the important evidences that the therapy of CQCQD significantly ameliorated the increases in plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCd14, and Lbp, the elevation of serum amylase level, the enhancements of systemic and pulmonary albumin leakage, and the depravation of airways indicators, thus improving respiratory dysfunction and also pancreatic and pulmonary histopathological changes. According to the analyses of rats pulmonary tissue microarray and protein-protein interaction network, c-Fos, c-Src, and p85α were predicted as the target proteins for CQCQD in alleviating pulmonary albumin leakage. To confirm these predictions, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were employed in in vitro studies, which provide the evidences that (1) LPS-induced paracellular leakage and proinflammatory cytokines release were suppressed by pretreatment with inhibitors of c-Src (PP1) or PI3K (LY294002) or by transfection with siRNAs of c-Fos; (2) fortunately, CQCQD imitated the actions of these selective inhibitions agents to inhibit LPS-induced high expressions of p-Src, p-p85α, and c-Fos, therefore attenuating paracellular leakage and proinflammatory cytokines release.

  15. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  16. Glucose alleviates cadmium toxicity by increasing cadmium fixation in root cell wall and sequestration into vacuole in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Zhi Shi; Xiao-Fang Zhu; Jiang-Xue Wan; Gui-Xin Li; Shao-Jian Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Glucose (Glu) is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental events but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we found that the exogenous Glu improved root and shoot growth, reduced shoot cadmium (Cd) concentration, and rescued Cd-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype, Col-0) under Cd stressed conditions. Glucose increased Cd retained in the roots, thus reducing its translocation from root to shoot significantly. The most Cd retained in the roots was found in the hemicellulose 1. Glucose combined with Cd (Glu þ Cd) treatment did not affect the content of pectin and its binding capacity of Cd while it increased the content of hemicelluloses 1 and the amount of Cd retained in it significantly. Furthermore, Leadmium Green staining indicated that more Cd was compartmented into vacuoles in Glu þ Cd treatment compared with Cd treatment alone, which was in accordance with the significant upregulation of the expression of tonoplast-localized metal transporter genes, suggesting that com-partmentation of Cd into vacuoles also contributes to the Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity. Taken together, we demonstrated that Glu-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through increas-ing Cd fixation in the root cell wall and sequestration into the vacuoles.

  17. In vitro precultivation alleviates post-implantation inflammation and enhances development of tissue-engineered tubular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue-engineered tubular cartilage is a promising graft for tracheal reconstruction. But polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid (PLA/PGA) fibers, the frequently used scaffolds for cartilage engineering, often elicit an obvious inflammation response following implantation into immunocompetent animals. We propose that the inflammation could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation. In this study, after in vitro culture for either 2 days (direct implantation group (DI)) or for 2 weeks (precultivation implantation group (PI)), autologous tubular chondrocyte-PLA/PGA constructs were subcutaneously implanted into rabbits. In the PI group, after 2 weeks of precultivation, most of the fibers were found to be completely embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by the chondrocytes. Importantly, no obvious inflammatory reaction was observed after in vivo implantation and homogeneous cartilage-like tissue was formed with biomechanical properties close to native tracheal cartilage at 4 weeks post-implantation. In the DI group, however, an obvious inflammatory reaction was observed within and around the cell-scaffold constructs at 1 week implantation and only sporadic cartilage islands separated by fibrous tissue were observed at 4 weeks. These results demonstrated that the post-implantation inflammatory reaction could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation, which contributes to the formation of satisfactory tubular cartilage for tracheal reconstruction.

  18. Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurobehavioral impairments and neuroinflammation in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Qi, Fangfang; Yao, Zhibin

    2016-08-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is routinely administered to human neonates worldwide. BCG has recently been identified as a neuroprotective immune mediator in several neuropathological conditions, exerting neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease and slowing the progression of clinically isolated syndrome in patients with multiple sclerosis. The immune system is significantly involved in brain development, and several types of neonatal immune activations exert influences on the brain and behavior following a secondary immune challenge in adulthood. However, whether the neonatal BCG vaccination affects the brain in adulthood remains to be elucidated. In the present study, newborn C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously with BCG (105 colony forming units) or phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS). A total of 12 weeks later, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with 330 µg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PBS. The present study reported that the neonatal BCG vaccination alleviated sickness, anxiety and depression‑like behavior, lessened the impairments in hippocampal cell proliferation and downregulated the proinflammatory responses in the serum and brain that were induced by the adult LPS challenge. However, BCG vaccination alone had no evident influence on the brain and behavior in adulthood. In conclusion, the neonatal BCG vaccination alleviated the neurobehavioral impairments and neuroinflammation induced by LPS exposure in adult mice, suggesting a potential neuroprotective role of the neonatal BCG vaccination in adulthood. PMID:27357155

  19. Alleviation of ischemia/reperfusion injury in ob/ob mice by inhibiting UCP-2 expression in fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Dan Wan; Chun-You Wang; Tao Liu; Rui Cheng; Hong-Bo Wang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of target suppression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) on ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in fatty liver in ob/ob mice.METHODS: Plasmids suppressing UCP-2 expression were constructed, and transfected into fatty liver cells cultured in vitro and the ob/ob mouse I/R injury model. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, UCP-2 mRNA expression, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in ob/ob mice were tested, and the pathological changes in fatty liver were observed in experimental and control groups.RESULTS: In ob/ob mouse I/R models, serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher than in normal controls. After the plasmids were transfected into the cultured cells and animal models, expression of UCP-2 mRNA was significantly reduced as compared with that in the control group (2156±015 vs 2"0-45±0-15, P < 0.05). In ob/ob mouse models, in which expression of UCP-2 was suppressed, serum ALT levels were significantly lower than those of other groups, and pathological analysis revealed that injury of liver tissues was significantly alleviated.CONCLUSION: The target suppression of UCP-2 expression in fatty liver can alleviate the I/R injury in the ob/ob mice.

  20. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  1. Melatonin combined with exercise cannot alleviate cerebral injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seunghoon Lee; Kyu-Tae Chang; Yonggeun Hong; Jinhee Shin; Minkyung Lee; Yunkyung Hong; Sang-Kil Lee; Youngjeon Lee; Tserentogtokh Lkhagvasuren; Dong-Wook Kim; Young-Ae Yang

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minutes per day for 6 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, each rat received melatonin combined with exercise, melatonin or exercise alone equally for 7 days until sacrifice. Interestingly, rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise exhibited more severe neurological deficits than those receiving melatonin or exercise alone. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA in the brain tissue was upregulated in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. Similarly, microtubule associated protein-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rats receiving melatonin alone. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2) mRNA expression was significantly decreased in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise as well as in rats receiving exercise alone. Furthermore, neural cell loss in the primary motor cortex was significantly reduced in rats receiving melatonin or exercise alone, but the change was not observed in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. These findings suggest that excessive intervention with melatonin, exercise or their combination may lead to negative effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage.

  2. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and alleviation of in vivo oxidation injury by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We clarified that adequate oxygen stress induced by low dose radiation activates not only chemical biological protective function, such as induction of the synthesis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), but also the biomembrane function, such as enhanced membrane fluidity and ATPase activity. It is possible that activation of these mechanisms alleviates in vivo oxidation injuries resulting in alleviation of pathologic condition, such as ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe3+-NTA) or CCl4-induced liver damage, 1-methyl-4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-induced brain damage and diabetes mellitus. Namely, in contrast to the toxic effects of high dose irradiation, adequate activation of the functions of the living body by low dose radiation or inhalation of an appropriate amount of radon can contribute to suppressing aging and to preventing or reducing active oxygen species related diseases which are thought to involve peroxidation and have been regarded as the diseases for which radon spring water is an effective treatment. In future, clarification in detail of the mechanisms of these phenomena is required to understand the effects of low dose radiation on the functions of the living body, including adaptive response. (author)

  3. AMPKα1 overexpression alleviates the hepatocyte model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via inactivating p38MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Ai; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Yan-Feng

    2016-05-27

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a wide spectrum of liver damage with a worldwide prevalence of almost 20%. AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) is an energy sensor that plays a key role in regulating lipid metabolism of the liver. This study explores the role of AMPKα1 overexpression in a steatotic hepatocyte model. The results displayed that the AMPKα1 overexpression suppressed lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm, decreased triglyceride levels, maintained the survival of steatotic hepatocyte model with decreased cell apoptosis and increased survival rate. Besides, AMPKα1 overexpression promoted the expression of lipid catabolism-related genes, reduced the level of anabolism-related genes, alleviated the inflammatory response by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, AMPKα1 overexpression could inhibit the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Finally, Anisomycin, a frequently-used activator of p38MAPK, reversed the inhibitory effect of pc-AMPKα1 on the expression of p-p38MAPK, suggesting that AMPKα1 overexpression alleviates inflammatory response through the inactivation of p38MAPK. These results indicated that AMPKα1 may serve as a novel target for treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27109475

  4. Silicon alleviates cadmium toxicity in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. seedlings in relation to root anatomy and radial oxygen loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The inhibition of growth of Avicennia marina due to Cd was alleviated by Si. • Si prompted the development of the apoplastic barrier in the roots. • Si increased the amount of ROL and the degree of Mn plaque. -- Abstract: The effects of Si on growth, the anatomy of the roots, radial oxygen loss (ROL) and Fe/Mn plaque on the root surface were investigated in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. seedlings under Cd stress. Si prompted the growth of seedlings and reduced the Cd concentration in the root, stem and leaf of A. marina. Si prompted the development of the apoplastic barrier in the roots, which may be related to the reduction of Cd uptake. The higher amount of ROL and Mn plaque on the root surface due to Si were also related to the promotion of Cd tolerance in A. marina seedlings. Therefore, it is concluded that the alteration of the anatomy of the roots, the increase of ROL and Mn plaque of A. marina seedlings play an important role in alleviation of Cd toxicity due to Si

  5. Short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity ameliorates the suppressed expression of key β-cell factors under diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Naoki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Takebe, Satomi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Kaneto, Hideaki; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-11-27

    Alleviation of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia improves pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how the expression alterations of key β-cell factors are altered by the short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity or lipotoxicity. We treated db/db mice for one week with empagliflozin and/or bezafibrate to alleviate glucotoxicity and/or liptotoxicity, respectively. The gene expression levels of Pdx1 and Mafa, and their potential targets, insulin 1, Slc2a2, and Glp1r, were higher in the islets of empagliflozin-treated mice, and levels of insulin 2 were higher in mice treated with both reagents, than in untreated mice. Moreover, compared to the pretreatment levels, Mafa and insulin 1 expression increased in empagliflozin-treated mice, and Slc2a2 increased in combination-treated mice. In addition, empagliflozin treatment enhanced β-cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Our date clearly demonstrated that the one-week selective alleviation of glucotoxicity led to the better expression levels of the key β-cell factors critical for β-cell function over pretreatment levels, and that the alleviation of lipotoxicity along with glucotoxicity augmented the favorable effects under diabetic conditions. PMID:26471305

  6. Use of single crystal and soft piezoceramics for alleviation of flow separation induced vibration in a smart helicopter rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Dipali; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2006-04-01

    Dynamic stall and flow separation induced vibration alleviation is investigated using single crystal and soft piezoceramic-induced shear actuation. PZT-5H performs well to reduce vibration at cruise speed (about 50%) but fails to achieve a substantial vibration reduction (about 20%) at high speed forward flight because dynamic stall and flow separation require a larger stroke for vibration reduction. {\\mathrm {PZN\\mbox {-}8%PT}}\\langle 111\\rangle -induced shear actuation is found to generate a larger stroke and eventually a higher vibration reduction (about 60-70%) at both cruise and high speed flight. It is observed that the controller performs satisfactorily up to a noise level of 20% in the sensed data. Optimum placement of actuators along the span, as well as the eventualities of actuator failure and degradation are also addressed.

  7. Selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate both first-order and second-order social dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Pengbi

    2014-01-01

    Punishment, especially selfish punishment, has recently been identified as a potent promoter in sustaining or even enhancing the cooperation among unrelated individuals. However, without other key mechanisms, the first-order social dilemma and second-order social dilemma are still two enduring conundrums in biology and the social sciences even with the presence of punishment. In the present study, we investigate a spatial evolutionary four-strategy prisoner's dilemma game model with avoiding mechanism, where the four strategies are cooperation, defection, altruistic and selfish punishment. By introducing the low level of random mutation of strategies, we demonstrate that the presence of selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate the two kinds of social dilemmas for various parametrizations. In addition, we propose an extended pair approximation method, whose solutions can essentially estimate the dynamical behaviors and final evolutionary frequencies of the four strategies. At last, considering ...

  8. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee, E-mail: seokheelee@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 169-148 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  9. Reg-2, A Downstream Signaling Protein in the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Survival Pathway, Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Tian, Ke-Wei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Beibei; Han, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), originally described as a neurocytokine that could support the survival of neurons, has been recently found to alleviate demyelination, prevent axon loss, and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, poor penetration into the brain parenchyma and unfavorable side effects limit the utility of CNTF. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of a protein downstream of CNTF, regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2). Using multiple morphological, molecular biology, and electrophysiological methods to assess neuroinflammation, axonal loss, demyelination, and functional impairment, we observed that Reg-2 and CNTF exert similar effects in the acute phase of EAE. Both treatments attenuated axonal loss and demyelination, improved neuronal survival, and produced functional improvement. With a smaller molecular weight and improved penetration into the brain parenchyma, Reg-2 may be a useful substitute for CNTF therapy in EAE and multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27242448

  10. Reg-2, A Downstream Signaling Protein in the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Survival Pathway, Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Tian, Ke-Wei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Beibei; Han, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), originally described as a neurocytokine that could support the survival of neurons, has been recently found to alleviate demyelination, prevent axon loss, and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, poor penetration into the brain parenchyma and unfavorable side effects limit the utility of CNTF. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of a protein downstream of CNTF, regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2). Using multiple morphological, molecular biology, and electrophysiological methods to assess neuroinflammation, axonal loss, demyelination, and functional impairment, we observed that Reg-2 and CNTF exert similar effects in the acute phase of EAE. Both treatments attenuated axonal loss and demyelination, improved neuronal survival, and produced functional improvement. With a smaller molecular weight and improved penetration into the brain parenchyma, Reg-2 may be a useful substitute for CNTF therapy in EAE and multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27242448

  11. Thrombomodulin alleviates murine GVHD in association with an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, T; Yang, J; Nishioka, C; Yokoyama, A

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM), a potent anticoagulant, has been used for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation in Japan since 2008. Interestingly, rTM possesses anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions. This study examined whether rTM alleviates GVHD in a murine hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) model. Use of rTM significantly improved the survival of mice on day 28 of transplantation (survival rate 70% in rTM - treated mice vs 35% in control, PGVL and engraftment of hematopoietic cells. Taken together, the use of rTM may prevent GVHD and serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to improve clinical outcomes in individuals who receive HSCT. PMID:25243628

  12. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Kevin; Tao, Shan-Shan; Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Yu-Sang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, He-Bin; Cong, Ren-Huai; Ma, Fang-Li; Wan, Chu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain, or sometimes referred to as persistent pain, reduces the life quality of patients who are suffering from chronic diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer and diabetes. Hence, herbal medicines draw many attentions and have been shown effective in the treatment or relief of pain. Methods and Results Here in this study, we used the CFA-injected rats as a sustainable pain model to test the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of nutmeg oil, a spice flavor additive to beverages and baked goods produced from the seed of Myristica fragrans tree. Conclusions We have demonstrated that nutmeg oil could potentially alleviate the CFA-injection induced joint swelling, mechanical allodynia and heat hyperanalgesia of rats through inhibition of COX-2 expression and blood substance P level, which made it possible for nutmeg oil to be a potential chronic pain reliever. PMID:27121041

  13. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642

  16. Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: Comparison with celecoxib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Hebatallah A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany.arab@pharma.cu.edu.eg [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Abdelsalam, Rania M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt)

    2014-09-01

    Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21 days starting 1 h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50 mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib. - Highlights: • Chrysin and celecoxib alleviated testicular suppression in adjuvant arthritis. • They attenuated histopathological damage and preserved spermatogenesis

  17. Preconditioning with associated blocking of Ca2+ inflow alleviates hypoxia-induced damage to pancreatic β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuheng Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Beta cells of pancreatic islets are susceptible to functional deficits and damage by hypoxia. Here we aimed to characterize such effects and to test for and pharmacological means to alleviate a negative impact of hypoxia. METHODS AND DESIGN: Rat and human pancreatic islets were subjected to 5.5 h of hypoxia after which functional and viability parameters were measured subsequent to the hypoxic period and/or following a 22 h re-oxygenation period. Preconditioning with diazoxide or other agents was usually done during a 22 h period prior to hypoxia. RESULTS: Insulin contents decreased by 23% after 5.5 h of hypoxia and by 61% after a re-oxygenation period. Preconditioning with diazoxide time-dependently alleviated these hypoxia effects in rat and human islets. Hypoxia reduced proinsulin biosynthesis ((3H-leucine incorporation into proinsulin by 35%. Preconditioning counteracted this decrease by 91%. Preconditioning reduced hypoxia-induced necrosis by 40%, attenuated lowering of proteins of mitochondrial complexes I-IV and enhanced stimulation of HIF-1-alpha and phosphorylated AMPK proteins. Preconditioning by diazoxide was abolished by co-exposure to tolbutamide or elevated potassium (i.e. conditions which increase Ca(2+ inflow. Preconditioning with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, partly reproduced effects of diazoxide. Both diazoxide and nifedipine moderately reduced basal glucose oxidation whereas glucose-induced oxygen consumption (tested with diazoxide was unaffected. Preconditioning with diaxoxide enhanced insulin contents in transplants of rat islets to non-diabetic rats and lowered hyperglycemia vs. non-preconditioned islets in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Preconditioning of human islet transplants lowered hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Prior blocking of Ca(2+ inflow associates with lesser hypoxia-induced damage, 2 preconditioning affects basal mitochondrial metabolism and accelerates

  18. Cell-penetrable mouse forkhead box protein 3 alleviates experimental arthritis in mice by up-regulating regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Ji, Baoju; Sun, Mengyi; Wu, Weijiang; Huang, Lili; Sun, Aihua; Zong, Yangyong; Xia, Sheng; Shi, Liyun; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong; Shao, Qixiang

    2015-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have potential applications in clinical disease therapy, such as autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. However, their numbers are limited. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) is a key transcription factor that controls T(reg) development and function. Here, we generated a cell-permeable fusion protein, protein transduction domain (PTD)-conjugated mouse FoxP3 protein (PTD-mFoxP3), and evaluated whether PTD-mFoxp3 can alleviate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. As expected, PTD-mFoxP3 was transduced into cells effectively, and inhibited T cell activation and attenuated the cell proliferation. It decreased interleukin (IL) 2 and interferon (IFN)-γ expression, and increased IL-10 expression in activated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. PTD-mFoxP3-transduced CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells attenuated proliferation of activated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. In addition, PTD-mFoxP3 blocked the Th17 differentiation programme in vitro and down-regulated IL-17 production from T cells by modulating induction and levels of retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt). Intra-articular delivery of PTD-mFoxP3 delayed disease incidence remarkably and alleviated autoimmune symptoms of CIA mice. Moreover, protective effects of PTD-mFoxP3 were associated with regulating the balance of T helper type 17 (Th17) and T(regs). These results suggest that PTD-mFoxP3 may be a candidate for RA therapy. PMID:25809415

  19. The Role of Apelin on the Alleviative Effect of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction-Induced Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Nishida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apelin is a selective endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, which genetically has closest identity to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT-1. The effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis still remain unclear. Methods: We examined the effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis during AT-1 blockade in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model. Results: We obtained the following results: (1 At UUO day 7, mRNA expressions of apelin/APJ and phosphorylations of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the UUO kidney were increased compared to those in the nonobstructed kidney. (2 AT-1 blockade by the treatment with losartan resulted in a further increase of apelin mRNA as well as phosphorylations of Akt/eNOS proteins, and this was accompanied by alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased myofibroblast accumulation, and a decreased number of interstitial macrophages. (3 Blockade of the APJ receptor by the treatment with F13A during losartan administration completely abrogated the effects of losartan in the activation of the Akt/eNOS pathway and the amelioration of renal fibrosis. (4 Inhibition of NOS by the treatment with L-NAME also resulted in a further increase in renal fibrosis compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that increased nitric oxide production through the apelin/APJ/Akt/eNOS pathway may, at least in part, contribute to the alleviative effect of losartan in UUO-induced renal fibrosis.

  20. Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dutschke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB, CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E, CarbonFix Standard (CFS, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, Global Conservation Standard (GCS, ISO 14064:2006, Plan Vivo Standard, Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC, SOCIALCARBON Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS. We developed a framework for evaluation of these standards relative to each other using four substantive criteria: (1 poverty alleviation, (2 sustainable management of forests (SMF, (3 biodiversity protection, (4 quantification and assessment of net greenhouse gas (GHG benefits; and two procedural criteria: (5 monitoring and reporting, and (6 certification procedures. REDD programs require assessment of GHG benefits, monitoring, reporting and certification. Our analysis shows that only the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS treats these three criteria comprehensively. No standard provides comprehensive coverage of the social and other environmental criteria. FSC, PEFC and CarbonFix provide comprehensive assessments of the sustainable forest management criterion. CCBA REDD+ S&E, CCB, and GCS provide comprehensive coverage of the biodiversity and poverty alleviation criteria. Experience in using these standards in pilot projects shows that projects are currently combining several standards as part of their strategy to improve their ability to attract investment, but costs of implementing several certification schemes is a concern. We conclude that voluntary certification provides useful practical experience that should feed into the design of the international REDD+ regime.