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Sample records for alleviate orotic acid-induced

  1. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC) extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA) to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG) level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH) were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c) were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver. PMID:22569330

  2. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  3. Comparative Analysis of EPA/DHA-PL Forage and Liposomes in Orotic Acid-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Rats and Their Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mengru; Zhang, Tiantian; Han, Xiuqing; Tang, Qingjuan; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate the possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1% of total diets, respectively. The results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55.6% and 34.2%, respectively (p DHA could also significantly suppress hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by enhancement of hepatic lipolysis and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, DHA-PL played a certain role in inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and accelerating cholesterol efflux. The results obtained in this work might contribute to the understanding of the biological activities of EPA/DHA-PL and liposomes and further investigation on its potential application values for food supplements.

  4. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  6. Effects of Fatty Liver Induced by Excess Orotic Acid on B-Group Vitamin Concentrations of Liver, Blood, and Urine in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Morita, Nobuya; Kawamura, Tomoyo; Tsuji, Ai; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Fatty liver is caused when rats are given orotic acid of the pyrimidine base in large quantities. The lack of B-group vitamins suppresses the biosynthesis of fatty acids. We investigated how orotic acid-induced fatty liver affects the concentrations of liver, blood, and urine B-group vitamins in rats. The vitamin B6 and B12 concentrations of liver, blood, and urine were not affected by orotic acid-induced fatty liver. Vitamin B2 was measured only in the urine, but was unchanged. The liver, blood, and urine concentrations of niacin and its metabolites fell dramatically. Niacin and its metabolites in the liver, blood, and urine were affected as expected. Although the concentrations of vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin in liver and blood were decreased by orotic acid-induced fatty liver, these urinary excretion amounts showed a specific pattern toward increase. Generally, as for the typical urinary excretion of B-group vitamins, these are excreted when the body is saturated. However, the ability to sustain vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin decreased in fatty liver, which is hypothesized as a specific phenomenon. This metabolic response might occur to prevent an abnormally increased biosynthesis of fatty acids by orotic acid.

  7. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of apitoxin in alleviating propionic acid-induced neurobehavioral impairments in rat pups: The expression pattern of Reelin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghestani, Maha H; Selim, Manar E; Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; Said, Enas N; El-Hameed, Noura E Abd; Khalil, Samah R; El-Tawil, Osama S

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed. PPA treatment induced several behavioral alterations, as reduced exploratory activity and social behaviors, increased repetitive/stereotypic behaviors, and hyperactivity. In addition, a marked decline of neurotransmitters and down-regulation of Reelin mRNA expression were observed. BV exhibited high efficiency in ameliorating the PPA-induced neurobehavioral alterations, particularly when applied both before and after PPA administration. Overall, the results implied that BV has merit as a candidate therapeutic treatment to alleviate PPA-induced neurobehavioral disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Alleviation of Kainic Acid-Induced Brain Barrier Dysfunction by 4-O-Methylhonokiol in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

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    Jin-Yi Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to investigate whether 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH, a principal ingredient of Magnolia (M. officinalis bark, alleviated acute intraperitoneal (i.p. kainic acid- (KA- induced brain blood barrier dysfunction (BBBD via pathological examination and cytological analyses of the brain tissues of mice. KA (10–30 mg/kg time- and dose-dependently increased the water content of brain tissues and induced edema and encephalopathy. However, pretreatment with MH (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced the water content of the brain compared to that observed in the KA control group. Furthermore, MH significantly and dose-dependently reversed the remarkable variations in evan’s blue dye (EBD staining and malondialdehyde (MDA levels that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.. MH also decreased the elevated seizure scores that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p. in mice in a manner similar to scavengers such as DMTU and trolox. Additionally, MH significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and Ca2+ within hippocampal cells. The tight junction seals mediated by claudin (Cld-5 were also found to be modulated by MH. MH efficiently reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (IC50, 52.4 mM and •OH with an electron spin resonance (ESR signal rate constant of 4×109 M-1·S-1, which is close to the reactivity of the vitamin E analog trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that MH may enhance radical scavenging in lipid and hydrophobic environments, which may be important for the physiological activity of the barrier.

  10. The urinary excretion of orotic acid and orotidine, measured by an isotope dilution assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tax, W.J.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Schretlen, E.D.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Unknown concentrations of orotic acid can be measured by competition with a known amount of [carboxyl- 14 C]orotic acid for reaction with a limiting amount of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate in the presence of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase. The dilution of the specific radioactivity in the product 14 CO 2 is a sensitive and accurate measure of the amount of orotic acid present in the sample. Orotidine can also be determined after hydrolytic cleavage to orotic acid. The method was used to measure orotic acid and orotidine in urine samples from newborns, healthy controls and patients with gout or deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase receiving allopurinol. Urinary excretion of orotic acid and orotidine in newborns was similar whether the infants were breast-fed or received milk powder. The excretion of orotidine was increased in all patients receiving allopurinol. After allopurinol administration orotic acid excretion was increased in gouty patients but close to normal values in patients with deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanism by which allopurinol inhibits pyrimidine metabolism. (Auth.)

  11. The orotate transporter oroP from Lactococcus lactis is required for orotate uptake and can be used both as a food-grade selection and counter-selection marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defoor, Els Marie Celine; Martinussen, Jan

    The plasmid pDBORO conferred sensitivity of Lactococcus lactis towards 5´-Fluoroorotate. Moreover, by transformation, this plasmid was found to be essential for orotate dependent growth in a pyrimidine requiring strain. A single gene on pDBORO was required for growth on orotate, and was termed oro......P. Since the corresponding open reading frame, OroP showed the features of a membrane protein, OroP most likely is an orotate transporter. A number of strains like L. lactis and Bacillus subtilus have been shown to be unable to metabolize orotate. If the oroP gene was introduced into these strains......, they acquired the ability to utilize orotate. If the strains had a pyrimidine requirement, the oroP gene could function as a selectable marker when growing in the presence of orotate as sole pyrimidine source. In an otherwise resistant strain, oroP was shown to sensitize the strain towards the analog 5...

  12. Early effects of dietary orotic acid upon liver lipid synthesis and bile cholesterol secretion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokmakjian, S.D.; Haines, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Dietary orotic acid is known to cause impaired fatty acid synthesis and increased cholesterol synthesis in rats. The authors found that the impaired fatty acid synthesis occurs during the first day of orotic acid feeding and, in studies with albumin-bound [1- 14 C]palmitic acid, an associated decrease in the rate of esterification of this fatty acid into triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester was observed. These changes may result from the known decreases in liver levels of adenine nucleotides or, as reported here, from decreased liver CoASH levels in orotic acid-fed rats. The increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis occurred during the second day of orotic acid feeding. It was detected by increased incorporation of [1,2- 14 C]acetate into cholesterol by liver slices and by a 7-fold increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity. At the same time the biliary output of cholesterol was increased 2-fold and studies using 3 H 2 O revealed that the output of newly synthesized cholesterol in bile was increased 5-fold. The content of cholesteryl ester in hepatic microsomes decreased during orotic acid feeding but free cholesterol was unchanged. The findings are interpreted to suggest that the increased bile cholesterol secretion caused by orotic acid is a result of impaired hepatic cholesterol esterification and that the increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity is a result of diminished negative feedback due to the depleted content of cholesteryl ester in the hepatic microsomes

  13. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  14. Use orotic acid in the treatment of pathological conditions associated with hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ivanov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia - a condition characterized by elevated relative to normal ranges, levels of uric acid in the blood. Among the diseases caused by hyperuricemia, most noteworthy are gout, urate nephropathy, and urolithiasis. The topic of this article is devoted to the comparative characteristics of drugs used to correct hyperuricemia. The main part of the article is an analysis of pharmacodynamics, efficacy, safety and expediency of using orotic acid agents.

  15. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  16. Determination of molar enthalpy of sublimation in case of orotic acid as obtained from experimental and computational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochkin, Ilya I.; Altova, Ekaterina P.; Chilingarov, Norbert S.; Vilkova, Anna L.; Shishkov, Igor F.

    2018-03-01

    Saturated vapor pressure, ln(p/Pa) = (-21316 ± 511)/(T/K)+(41.64 ± 0.11), and enthalpy of sublimation of orotic acid, Δsub Hm0 (Tm) = 177 ± 4 kJ/mol, were determined by means of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature range of 423÷493 K. The computational approaches supported the experimental results reported. The theoretical estimation of the gas-phase enthalpy of formation for orotic acid was done with different working reactions used.

  17. Kinetics of the reaction of 5-substituted orotic acids with diazodiphenylmethane

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    ALEKSANDAR D. MARINKOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Rate konstants for the reaction of eight 5-substituted orotic acids with diazodiphenylmethane (DDM in dimethylformamide (DMF were determined at 30 ºC by the known spectrophotometric method. The determined rate constants were correlated with the equations: log k2 = as1 + bsR + h log k2 = as1 + bsR + yn + h to detect the presence and investigate the influence of both electrical and steric substituent effects. The obtained results show that the electrical effect (the localized – field and delocalized – resonance is predominant and that the steric effect, althought present, is releatively small in this reaction.

  18. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum orotate phosphoribosyltransferase with autologous inhibitory protein–protein interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiva; Krishnamoorthy, Kalyanaraman; Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

    2015-01-01

    P. falciparum orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, a potential target for antimalarial drugs and a conduit for prodrugs, crystallized as a structure with eight molecules per asymmetric unit that included some unique parasite-specific auto-inhibitory interactions between catalytic dimers. The most severe form of malaria is caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) is the fifth enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine-synthesis pathway in the parasite, which lacks salvage pathways. Among all of the malaria de novo pyrimidine-biosynthesis enzymes, the structure of P. falciparum OPRTase (PfOPRTase) was the only one unavailable until now. PfOPRTase that could be crystallized was obtained after some low-complexity sequences were removed. Four catalytic dimers were seen in the asymmetic unit (a total of eight polypeptides). In addition to revealing unique amino acids in the PfOPRTase active sites, asymmetric dimers in the larger structure pointed to novel parasite-specific protein–protein interactions that occlude the catalytic active sites. The latter could potentially modulate PfOPRTase activity in parasites and possibly provide new insights for blocking PfOPRTase functions

  19. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum orotate phosphoribosyltransferase with autologous inhibitory protein–protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shiva; Krishnamoorthy, Kalyanaraman; Mudeppa, Devaraja G.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K., E-mail: rathod@chem.washington.edu [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    P. falciparum orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, a potential target for antimalarial drugs and a conduit for prodrugs, crystallized as a structure with eight molecules per asymmetric unit that included some unique parasite-specific auto-inhibitory interactions between catalytic dimers. The most severe form of malaria is caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) is the fifth enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine-synthesis pathway in the parasite, which lacks salvage pathways. Among all of the malaria de novo pyrimidine-biosynthesis enzymes, the structure of P. falciparum OPRTase (PfOPRTase) was the only one unavailable until now. PfOPRTase that could be crystallized was obtained after some low-complexity sequences were removed. Four catalytic dimers were seen in the asymmetic unit (a total of eight polypeptides). In addition to revealing unique amino acids in the PfOPRTase active sites, asymmetric dimers in the larger structure pointed to novel parasite-specific protein–protein interactions that occlude the catalytic active sites. The latter could potentially modulate PfOPRTase activity in parasites and possibly provide new insights for blocking PfOPRTase functions.

  20. Di-, tri-, tetranuclear clusters and polymeric cadmium compounds: Syntheses, structures and fluorescent properties with various linking fashions and high stability of orotates under the condition of strong bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xing; Bing Yue; Zha Meiqin; Wang Dongjie; Han Lei; Cao Rong

    2011-01-01

    Assembly reactions of orotic acid (H 3 dtpc ) and CdCl 2 .2.5H 2 O or CdSO 4 .8H 2 O yielded four new cadmium compounds {[Cd(H 2 dtpc)(phen)(H 2 O) 2 ].(H 2 dtpc).4H 2 O} 2 (1: solution reaction, pH=4-5, in addition of phen), [Cd 3 (dtpc) 2 (phen) 5 ].13H 2 O (2: hydrothermal reaction, initial pH=14, final pH=7.5), [Cd(Hdtpc)(H 2 O) 3 ] 4 (3: solution reaction, initial pH=6.5, final pH=6.0), {[Cd(Hdtpc)(phen)(H 2 O)].H 2 O} n (4: hydrothermal reaction, initial pH=8; final pH=6.5), respectively. Compounds 1-4 have been characterized by IR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), photoluminescence analyses, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is a binuclear, 2 is a trinuclear, 3 is a tetranuclear structure, and 4 possesses one-dimensional chain framework, respectively, in which the orotate ligands show seven different linking fashions in 1-4. The orotate ligands as trivalence anions are observed in the formation of orotate-compounds, in which the orotates show high stability under the extreme condition of strong basic solution, high temperature and pressure. - Graphical abstract: Assembly of orotic acid and Cd(II) salts result in four new compounds under different reaction conditions, the compounds possess strong photoluminescence emissions and high thermal stability. Highlights: → Four Cd-compounds were prepared from orotic acid under different crystallization systems. → The orotates as trivalence anions displayed high stability under extremely conditions. → The orotates displayed various connection modes in the compounds. → The strong photoluminescence emissions have been observed in the compounds.

  1. The orotate transporter oroP from Lactococcus lactis can be used both as a very efficient, food-grade selection and counter-selection marker for strain construction in many different organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defoor, Els Marie Celine; Martinussen, Jan

    frame oroP on pDBORO necessary for the uptake of orotate was identified. A number of industrial important strains like Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilus, and Bacillus licheniformis have been shown to be unable to metabolize orotate. If the oroP gene was introduced into these strains they acquired...... the ability to utilize orotate. If the strains had a pyrimidine requirement, the oroP gene could function as a selectable marker when growing in the presence of orotate as sole pyrimidine source. In an otherwise resistant strain, oroP was shown to sensitize the strain towards the analog 5-Fluoroorotate....... It was shown that strains who have lost the oroP gene could easily be selected in the presence of 5-Fluoroorotate, thus being an efficient counter-selection marker. pyrimidine-requiring strain (pyr B, C or D) orotate negative Counter-selection marker: wild-type strain! Fluoro-orotate resistant Functional...

  2. A global outer-rise/outer-trench-slope (OR/OTS) earthquake study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, J. M.; Kita, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Choy, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    Using improved seismic, bathymetric, satellite gravity and other geophysical data, we investigated the seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in oceanic lithosphere off the trenches of the world that are large enough to be well recorded at teleseismic distances. A number of prominent trends are apparent, some of which have been previously recognized based on more limited data [1], and some of which are largely new [2-5]: (1) The largest events and the highest seismicity rates tend to occur where Mesozoic incoming plates are subducting at high rates (e.g., those in the western Pacific and the Banda segment of Indonesia). The largest events are predominantly shallow normal faulting (SNF) earthquakes. Less common are reverse-faulting (RF) events that tend to be deeper and to be present along with SNF events where nearby seamounts, seamount chains and other volcanic features are subducting [Seno and Yamanaka, 1996]. Blooms of SNF OR/OTS events usually occur just after and seaward of great interplate thrust (IPT) earthquakes but are far less common after smaller IPT events. (2) Plates subducting at slow rates (Chile, the Ninety East Ridge in Sumatra, and the D’Entrecastaux Ridge in Vanuatu).

  3. Urinary orotic acid-to-creatinine ratios in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSteenhouse, J L; Dimski, D S; Swenson, D H; Taboada, J

    1999-06-01

    To determine urinary orotic acid (OA) concentration and evaluate the urinary OA-to-creatinine ratio (OACR) in cats with hepatic lipidosis (HL). 20 cats with HL and 20 clinically normal cats. Hepatic lipidosis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, results of serum biochemical analyses, exclusion of other concurrent illness, and cytologic or histologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens. Urine samples were collected from each cat and frozen at -20 C until assayed. Urine creatinine concentrations were determined, using an alkaline picrate method followed by spectrophotometric assay. Urine OA concentration was determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Minimum amount of detectable OA in feline urine was 1 microg/ml. Because of small interfering peaks near the base of the OA peak, the minimum quantifiable concentration of OA was determined to be 5 microg/ml. Urinary OACR was compared in both groups of cats. Differences in urinary OACR were not detected between clinically normal cats and cats with HL. Peaks were not detected for urinary OA in any of the 20 clinically normal cats. Of the 20 HL cats, 14 did not have detectable peaks for urinary OA. Of the 6 HL cats that had detectable urinary OA peaks, 3 had values of <5 microg/ml. Apparently, OACR does not increase significantly in cats with HL. Urinary OACR is not a useful diagnostic test for HL in cats.

  4. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  5. Nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations and urinary orotic acid excretion during long-term fasting in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Groff, J M; Fisher, C; Bee, D; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the changes in nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations, urinary orotic acid excretion and body weight during long-term fasting in adult obese cats. Results from eight cats that fasted rather than eat an unpalatable diet are reported. After 5 to 6 wk of weight loss, six of the eight cats developed signs of hepatic lipidosis, and the livers of all cats were severely infiltrated with lipids. Cats lost (mean +/- SE) 33.2 +/- 1.4% of their pre-fasting body weight. Mean nitrogen balance (+/- SE) was -547 +/- 54 mg.d-1.kg-2/3 for the first week, and then the net nitrogen losses decreased to a plateau (-303 +/- 52 mg.d-1.kg-2/3) after 4 wk. Fasting was associated with a decrease in plasma concentration of essential amino acids. When plasma amino acid concentrations were considered individually, concentrations of alanine, methionine, taurine, citrulline, arginine and tryptophan decreased the most (> or = 50%), whereas concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and ornithine significantly increased. Orotic acid was not detected in the urine during the fast. After 1 wk of fasting, obese cats had reduced nitrogen excretion, but not to the same extent as has been shown in obese humans or obese rats. It is suggested that the availability of several amino acids may become limiting for liver protein synthesis during fasting and that these deficiencies may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis. Orotic acid was not linked to hepatic lipidosis caused by fasting in cats.

  6. Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Phosphorylase and Orotate Phosphoribosyl Transferase Levels as Predictive Factors of Chemotherapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiuchi, Yosuke; Maruoka, Yasubumi; Ando, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Makio; Ogiuchi, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a clinicopathologic study on protein and mRNA levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) using biopsy tissue specimens before treatment. The mRNA levels have been measured in tumor cells microdissected from paraffin-embedded specimens (Danenberg Tumor Profile method: DTP method). We studied the mRNA and protein expression as effect predictive factors in chemotherapy. The subjects consisted of 20 cases of untreated oral squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone chemotherapy with TS-1 (16 males and 4 females, tongue in 8 cases, upper gingiva in 3 cases, lower gingiva in 3 cases, buccal mucosa in 5 cases and floor of the mouth in 1 case). TS gene expressions of the responders were lower than those for the nonresponders. Furthermore, regarding males who were less than 70 years of age, stage I and II, well differentiated type and tongue, TS mRNA expression of the responders were lower than that for the nonresponders. The mRNA expression of OPRT for the male responders was lower than that for the nonresponders. No remarkable difference was observed by immunohistochemistry. In this study, the measurement of the TS levels using the DTP method may potentially act as a predictive factor of antitumor effectiveness

  7. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  8. Gallic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Lin; Chiu, Ying-Ming; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsieh, Chin-Tung; Shieh, Dong-Chen; Lee, Yi-Ju; Tsay, Gregory J; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate worldwide. Current treatment of gastric cancer includes surgery and chemotherapy as the main modalities, but the potentially severe side-effects of chemotherapy present a considerable challenge. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found to exert an anticancer effect against a variety of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-cancer activity of Galla chinensis and its main component gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. MTT assay and cell death ELISA were used to determine the apoptotic effect of Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. To determine the pathway and relevant components by which gallic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated through, cells were transfected with siRNA (Fas, FasL, DR5, p53) using Lipofectamine 2000. Reults: Gallic Chinensis and gallic acid induced apoptosis of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Gallic acid induced up-regulation of Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression in AGS cells. Transfection of cells with Fas, FasL, or DR5 siRNA reduced gallic acid-induced cell death. In addition, p53 was shown to be involved in gallic acid-mediated Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression as well as cell apoptosis in AGS cells. These results suggest that gallic acid has a potential role in the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Acid-induced autophagy protects human lung cancer cells from apoptosis by activating ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Yue; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Li, Qi; Chen, Ling-Xiu; Ran, Dan-Hua

    2015-12-10

    An acidic tumor microenvironment exists widely in solid tumors. However, the detailed mechanism of cell survival under acidic stress remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify whether acid-induced autophagy exists and to determine the function and mechanism of autophagy in lung cancer cells. We have found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy by increasing LC3-positive punctate vesicles, increasing LC3 II expression levels and reducing p62 protein levels. Additionally, autophagy was inhibited by the addition of Baf or knockdown of Beclin 1, and cell apoptosis was increased markedly. In mouse tumors, the expression of cleaved caspase3 and p62 was enhanced by oral treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which can raise the intratumoral pH. Furthermore, the protein levels of ER stress markers, including p-PERK, p-eIF2α, CHOP, XBP-1s and GRP78, were also increased in response to acidic pH. The antioxidant NAC, which reduces ROS accumulation, alleviated acid-mediated ER stress and autophagy, and knocking down GRP78 reduced autophagy activation under acidic conditions, which suggests that autophagy was induced by acidic pH through ER stress. Taken together, these results indicate that the acidic microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer cells promotes autophagy by increasing ROS-ER stress, which serves as a survival adaption in this setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The possible mechanisms of protocatechuic acid-induced central analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Arslan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed to investigate the central antinociceptive effect of protocatechuic acid and the involvement of stimulation of opioidergic, serotonin 5-HT2A/2C, α2-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in protocatechuic acid-induced central analgesia in mice. Time-dependent antinociceptive effects of protocatechuic acid at the oral doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg were tested in hot-plate (integrated supraspinal response and tail-immersion (spinal reflex tests in mice. To investigate the mechanisms of action; the mice administered 300 mg/kg protocatechuic acid (p.o. were pre-treated with non-specific opioid antagonist naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p., serotonin 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.p., α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p. and non-specific muscarinic antagonist atropine (5 mg/kg, i.p., respectively. The antinociceptive effect of protocatechuic acid was observed at the doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg in tail-immersion test, at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in hot-plate test at different time interval. The enhancement in the latency of protocatechuic acid-induced response to thermal stimuli was antagonized by yohimbine, naloxone and atropine in tail-immersion test, while it was antagonized only by yohimbine and naloxone pretreatments in hot-plate test. These results indicated that protocatechuic acid has the central antinociceptive action that is probably organized by spinal mediated cholinergic and opiodiergic, also spinal and supraspinal mediated noradrenergic modulation. However, further studies are required to understand how protocatechuic acid organizes the interactions of these modulatory systems. As a whole, these findings reinforce that protocatechuic acid is a potential agent that might be used for pain relief. Additionally, the clarification of the effect and mechanisms of action of protocatechuic acid will contribute to new therapeutic approaches and provide guidance for new drug

  11. Caffeic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer Cells Through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chang

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Caffeic acid induces apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity, leading to release of cytochrome c and subsequent activation of caspase-3, indicating that caffeic acid induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This also suggests that caffeic acid has a strong anti-tumor effect and may be a promising chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent.

  12. Granisetron ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Rahimian, Reza; Daneshmand, Ali; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, of which the definite etiology remains ambiguous. Considering the adverse effects and incomplete efficacy of currently administered drugs, it is indispensable to explore new candidates with more desirable therapeutic profiles. 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to investigate granisetron, a 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonist, in acetic acid-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors. Colitis was rendered by instillation of 1 mL of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) and after 1 hour, granisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT( 3) receptor agonist, or granisetron + mCPBG was given intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours following colitis induction, animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6). Granisetron or dexamethasone significantly (p granisetron were reversed by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of granisetron in acetic acid colitis could be mediated by 5-HT(3) receptors.

  13. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  14. Nucleic acid labeling with [3H]orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, B.; el Hag, I.A.; Andersson, M.; Christensson, P.I.; Stenram, U.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of [3H]orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes

  15. Clinical implications of thymidylate synthetase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase activity levels in colorectal carcinoma following radical resection and administration of adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi; Miyauchi, Takayuki; Kashiwagi, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated whether the activity levels of enzymes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism are prognostic factors for survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Most reports have examined thymidylate synthetase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in unresectable or metastatic cases, therefore it is unclear whether the activity of these enzymes is of prognostic value in colorectal cancer patients treated with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU. This study examined fresh frozen specimens of colorectal carcinoma from 40 patients who had undergone curative operation and were orally administered adjuvant tegafur/uracil (UFT) chemotherapy. TS, DPD and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) activities were assayed in cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue and their association with clinicopathological variables was investigated. In addition, the relationships between TS, DPD and OPRT activities and patient survival were examined to determine whether any of these enzymes could be useful prognostic factors. While there was no clear relationship between pathological findings and TS or DPD activity, OPRT activity was significantly lower in tumors with lymph node metastasis than in tumors lacking lymph node metastasis. Postoperative survival was significantly better in the groups with low TS activity and/or high OPRT activity. TS and OPRT activity levels in tumor tissue may be important prognostic factors for survival in Dukes' B and C colorectal carcinoma with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT

  16. Apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif1) mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2017-03-01

    Anacardic acid is a medicinal phytochemical that inhibits proliferation of fungal as well as several types of cancer cells. It induces apoptotic cell death in various cell types, but very little is known about the mechanism involved in the process. Here, we used budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to study the involvement of some key elements of apoptosis in the anacardic acid-induced cell death. Plasma membrane constriction, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) indicated that anacardic acid induces apoptotic cell death in S. cerevisiae. However, the exogenous addition of broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK or deletion of the yeast caspase Yca1 showed that the anacardic acid-induced cell death is caspase independent. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF1) deletion mutant was resistant to the anacardic acid-induced cell death, suggesting a key role of Aif1. Overexpression of Aif1 made cells highly susceptible to anacardic acid, further confirming that Aif1 mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, instead of the increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normally observed during apoptosis, anacardic acid caused a decrease in the intracellular ROS levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed downregulation of the BIR1 survivin mRNA expression during the anacardic acid-induced apoptosis.

  17. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  18. Radioautographic visualization of differences in the pattern of [3H]uridine and [3H]orotic acid incorporation into the RNA of migrating columnar cells in the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.; Altmann, G.G.; Leblond, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The epithelium of rat small intestine was radioautographed to examine whether RNA is synthesized by the salvage pathway as shown after [ 3 H]uridine injection or by the de novo pathway as shown after [ 3 H]orotic acid injection. The two modes of RNA synthesis were thus investigated during the migration of columnar cells from crypt base to villus top, and the rate of synthesis was assessed by counting silver grains over the nucleolus and nucleoplasm at six levels along the duodenal epithelium - that is, in the base, mid, and top regions of the crypts and in the base, mid, and top regions of the villi. Concomitant biochemical analyses established that, after injection of either [5- 3 H]uridine or [5- 3 H]orotic acid: (a) buffered glutaraldehyde fixative was as effective as perchloric acid or trichloroacetic acid in insolubilizing the nucleic acids of rat small intestine; (b) a major fraction of the nucleic acid label was in RNA, that is, 91% after [ 3 H]uridine and 72% after [ 3 H]orotic acid, with the rest in DNA; and (c) a substantial fraction of the RNA label was in poly A + RNA (presumed to be messenger RNA). In radioautographs of duodenum prepared after [ 3 H]uridine injection, the count of silver grains was high over nucleolus and nucleoplasm in crypt base cells and gradually decreased at the upper levels up to the villus base. In the rest of the villus, the grain count over the nucleolus was negligible, while over the nucleoplasm it was low but significant

  19. Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria: Reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In it, we have argued that past poverty alleviation policies and programmes have been elitist and non-participatory, especially by the target population. In most cases the designs for poverty alleviations are characterized by improper conceptualization, grandiosity and lack of social justice even in implementation. Based on ...

  20. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  1. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing is mediated by activation of epidermal langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benyó, Zoltán; Gille, Andreas; Bennett, Clare L.; Clausen, Björn E.; Offermanns, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) has been used for decades. One of the major problems of the therapeutical use of nicotinic acid is a strong cutaneous vasodilation called flushing, which develops in almost every patient taking nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing has been

  2. Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Comparative Assessment of Asa and Ilorin West Local ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 4 (2009) > ... and worst hit income inequality group with about 84percent of total

  3. Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. ... African Health Sciences ... Currently, physical activity is an important lifestyle factor that has the potential to modify inflammatory ...

  4. NETUPITANT, A POTENT AND HIGHLY SELECTIVE NK1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, ALLEVIATES ACETIC ACID-INDUCED BLADDER OVERACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED GUINEA-PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe. Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060 were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA. Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of acetic acid (AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v. or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v. were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24 of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM. L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the micturition reflex circuit and therefore may be useful clinically in treating bladder overactivity symptoms.

  5. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  6. Effect of amiloride on experimental acid-induced heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsiewicz, William J; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Hansen, Mark B; Pruitt, Amy; Orlando, Roy C

    2013-07-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are esophageal nociceptors that are candidates to mediate heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Amiloride, a diuretic, is known to inhibit ASICs. For this reason, we sought a role for ASICs in mediating heartburn by determining whether amiloride could block heartburn in NERD induced by esophageal acid perfusion. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, we perfused the esophagus with amiloride or (saline) placebo prior to eliciting acid-induced heartburn in patients with a history of proton pump inhibitor-responsive NERD. Those with NERD and positive modified Bernstein test were randomized to perfusion with amiloride, 1 mmol/l, or placebo for 5 min, followed by repeat acid-perfusion. Heartburn severity and time to onset was measured and the process repeated following crossover to the alternative agent. 14 subjects completed the study. Amiloride did not reduce the frequency (100 vs. 100 %) or severity of acid-induced heartburn (Mean 2.50 ± SEM 0.33 vs. 2.64 ± 0.45), respectively. There was a trend towards longer time to onset of heartburn for amiloride versus placebo (Mean 2.93 ± SEM 0.3 vs. 2.36 ± 0.29 min, respectively), though these differences did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Amiloride had no significant effect on acid-induced heartburn frequency or severity in NERD, although there was a trend towards prolonged time to onset of symptoms.

  7. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...

  8. Inhibition of acid-induced lung injury by hyperosmolar sucrose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Zeenat; Yiming, Maimiti; Grunig, Gabriele; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2005-10-15

    Acid aspiration causes acute lung injury (ALI). Recently, we showed that a brief intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose, given concurrently with airway acid instillation, effectively blocks the ensuing ALI. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose might protect against acid-induced ALI when given either before or after acid instillation. Our studies were conducted in anesthetized rats and in isolated, blood-perfused rat lungs. We instilled HCl through the airway, and we quantified lung injury in terms of the extravascular lung water (EVLW) content, filtration coefficient (Kfc), and cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. We infused hyperosmolar sucrose via the femoral vein. In anesthetized rats, airway HCl instillation induced ALI as indicated by a 52% increase of EVLW and a threefold increase in Kfc. However, a 15-min intravenous infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose given up to 1 h before or 30 min after acid instillation markedly blunted the increases in EVLW, as well as the increases in cell count, and in protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Hyperosmolar pretreatment also blocked the acid-induced increase of Kfc. Studies in isolated perfused lungs indicated that the protective effect of hyperosmolar sucrose was leukocyte independent. We conclude that a brief period of vascular hyperosmolarity protects against acid-induced ALI when the infusion is administered shortly before, or shortly after, acid instillation in the airway. The potential applicability of hyperosmolar sucrose in therapy for ALI requires consideration.

  9. Alleviating gizzard erosion with Hepasan ® - Provisional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Alleviating gizzard erosion with Hepasan® - Provisional Communication. K Boa-Amponsem, A Osei-Somuah. Full Text:.

  10. Alleviating Poverty Through Vocational Education: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes that well-articulated vocational education policy and programmes will assist in employment generations and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Keywords: Alleviating Poverty, Vocational Education, Nigerian Experience Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 10 (2) 2005: pp. 10-14 ...

  11. Chinese herbal medicine alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women hence Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been chosen by many clinicians and patients as alternative treatment for PCOS. The present study was to explore the effects of CHM in alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...

  12. GLP-1 nanomedicine alleviates gut inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Thaqi, Mentor; Priyamvada, Shubha; Jayawardena, Dulari; Kumar, Anoop; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Chatterjee, Ishita; Mugarza, Edurne; Saksena, Seema; Onyuksel, Hayat; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2017-02-01

    The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED.

  14. Bioactive chromone constituents from Vitex negundo alleviate pain and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ajmal Khan,1,2 Sadia Naz,1 Umar Farooq,1 Muhammad Shahid,3 Irfan Ullah,4 Iftikhar Ali,5 Abdur Rauf,6 Yahia Nasser Mabkhot7 1Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan; 2University of Nizwa Chair of Oman’s Medicinal Plants and Marine Natural Products, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman; 3Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, 4Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, 5Department of Chemistry, Karakoram International University, Gilgit-Baltistan, 6Department of Chemistry, University of Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 7Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Vitex negundo L. has been widely studied for its beneficial effect in inflammatory and pain conditions. The present study describes the isolation of two new bioactive chromone constituents from V. negundo and their in vivo evaluation for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Methods: Two new chromone derivatives, namely, methyl 3-(2-(5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-ylethylbenzoate (1 and 3-(1-hydroxy-2-(5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-ylethylbenzoic acid (2 were isolated from V. negundo and their structures were determined through various spectroscopic techniques including mass spectrometry, UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and two-dimensional-NMR like correlation spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation techniques. The isolated compounds (1–2 were tested for their prospective antinociceptive activity in acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction assay and anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in mice. Results: Significant attenuation (P<0.001 of tonic visceral nociception was demonstrated by compound 1 and 2 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. At similar doses, these compounds (1–2 also showed potent amelioration (P<0.001 of carrageenan-induced paw swelling

  15. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  16. Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic acids derived from viral pathogens are typical pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In mammals, the recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs), induces the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs) through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7 pathways, triggering the host antiviral state. However, whether nucleic acids can induce similar antiviral immunity in invertebrates remains ambiguous. Several studies have reported that nucleic acid mimics, especially dsRNA mimic poly(I:C), can strongly induce non-specific antiviral immune responses in insects, shrimp, and oyster. This behavior shows multiple similarities to the hallmarks of mammalian IFN responses. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in invertebrates. We also discuss the potential recognition and regulatory mechanisms that confer non-specific antiviral immunity on invertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uric Acid Induces Renal Inflammation via Activating Tubular NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Fang, Li; Jiang, Lei; Wen, Ping; Cao, Hongdi; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun; Yang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathologic feature of hyperuricemia in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, infiltration of T cells and macrophages were significantly increased in hyperuricemia mice kidneys. This infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by an up-regulation of TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Further, infiltration was largely located in tubular interstitial spaces, suggesting a role for tubular cells in hyperuricemia-induced inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), uric acid, probably transported via urate transporter, induced TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA as well as RANTES protein expression. Culture media of NRK-52E cells incubated with uric acid showed a chemo-attractive ability to recruit macrophage. Moreover uric acid activated NF-κB signaling. The uric acid-induced up-regulation of RANTES was blocked by SN 50, a specific NF-κB inhibitor. Activation of NF-κB signaling was also observed in tubule of hyperuricemia mice. These results suggest that uric acid induces renal inflammation via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:22761883

  18. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  19. Poverty alleviation in Uganda: the case for a viable optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation is a long and painstaking process. It involves knowing what poverty is, its causes and means of alleviating it. Poverty is one of the scourges including disease and ignorance a combination of which deprives humanity of the basic needs for living. Among the strategies to alleviate poverty is effective ...

  20. Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of rural tourism and community development has been made in general terms with less focus on poverty alleviation and more emphasis on economic modernisation. Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation has been emphasised in the contemporary tourism and poverty alleviation literature.

  1. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  3. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  4. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Ayurvedic drug, Ksheerabala, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathy, S S; Indira, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress. There is hardly any cure for neurotoxicity in modern medicine, whereas many drugs in Ayurveda possess neuroprotective effects; however, there is no scientific validation for these drugs. Ksheerabala is an ayurvedic drug which is used to treat central nervous system disorders, arthritis, and insomnia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Ksheerabala on quinolinic acid-induced toxicity in rat brain. The optimal dose of Ksheerabala was found from a dose escalation study, wherein it was found that Ksheerabala showed maximum protection against quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity at a dose of 15 microL/100 g body weight/day, which was selected for further experiments. Four groups of female albino rats were maintained for 21 days as follows: 1. Control group, 2. Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight), 3. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight), 4. Ksheerabala (15 microL/100 g body weight) + Quinolinic acid (55 microg/100 g body weight). At the end of the experimental period, levels of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and activities of scavenging enzymes were analyzed. The results revealed that quinolinic acid intake caused enhanced lipid and protein peroxidation as evidenced by increased levels of peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide, conjugated dienes, and protein carbonyls. On the other hand, the activities of scavenging enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as the concentration of glutathione were reduced. On coadminstration of Ksheerabala along with quinolinic acid, the levels of all the biochemical parameters were restored to near-normal levels, indicating the protective effect of the drug. These results were reinforced by histopathological studies.

  6. Microdroplet fusion mass spectrometry: accelerated kinetics of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    Kinetics of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation was recorded in microdroplets by fusing a stream of microdroplets containing 40 µM chlorophyll a or b dissolved in methanol with a stream of aqueous microdroplets containing 35 mM hydrochloric acid (pH = 1·46). The kinetics of the demetallation of chlorophyll in the fused microdroplets (14 ± 6 µm diameter; 84 ± 18 m s-1 velocity) was recorded by controlling the traveling distance of the fused microdroplets between the fusion region and the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The rate of acid-induced chlorophyll demetallation was about 960 ± 120 times faster in the charged microdroplets compared with that reported in bulk solution. If no voltage was applied to the sprayed microdroplets, then the acceleration factor was about 580 ± 90, suggesting that the applied voltage is not a major factor determining the acceleration. Chlorophyll a was more rapidly demetallated than chlorophyll b by a factor of ~26 in bulk solution and ~5 in charged microdroplets. The demetallation kinetics was second order in the H+ concentration, but the acceleration factor of microdroplets compared with bulk solution appeared to be unchanged in going from pH = 1·3 to 7·0. The water:methanol ratio of the fused microdroplets was varied from 7:3 to 3:7 causing an increase in the reaction rate of chlorophyll a demetallation by 20%. This observation demonstrates that the solvent composition, which has different evaporation rates, does not significantly affect the acceleration. We believe that a major portion of the acceleration can be attributed to confinement effects involving surface reactions rather than either to evaporation of solvents or to the introduction of charges to the microdroplets.

  7. Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  8. Evidence connecting old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Martin L; Brønden, Andreas; Sonne, David P

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are amphipathic water-soluble steroid-based molecules best known for their important lipid-solubilizing role in the assimilation of fat. Recently, bile acids have emerged as metabolic integrators with glucose-lowering potential. Among a variety of gluco-metabolic effects, bile acids have...... current evidence connecting established glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion and discusses whether bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion may constitute a new basis for understanding how metformin, inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile acids transporter, and bile acid...... sequestrants - old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs - improve glucose metabolism....

  9. Gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers by accelerating EGFR turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boas; Rho, Jin Kyung; Shin, Dong-Myung; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-10-01

    Gallic acid is a common botanic phenolic compound, which is present in plants and foods worldwide. Gallic acid is implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Indeed, gallic acid has been shown to induce apoptosis in many cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of gallic acid-induced apoptosis in cancer, particularly lung cancer, are still unclear. Here, we report that gallic acid induces apoptosis in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in EGFR-WT NSCLC cells. Treatment with gallic acid resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation and induction of apoptosis, only in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. Interestingly, treatment with gallic acid led to a robust decrease in EGFR levels, which is critical for NSCLC survival. Treatment with gallic acid had no significant effect on transcription, but induced EGFR turnover. Indeed, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor dramatically reversed gallic acid-induced EGFR downregulation. Moreover, treatment with gallic acid induced EGFR turnover leading to apoptosis in EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines, which are dependent on EGFR signaling for survival. Thus, these studies suggest that gallic acid can induce apoptosis in EGFR-dependent lung cancers that are dependent on EGFR for growth and survival via acceleration of EGFR turnover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  11. Rainwater harvesting for drought disaster alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, B.; Prinzand, D.; Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Too little water and too much water can be as devastating as well. Drought usually does not show up instantly like flood, but it creeps slowly. Drought that is less popular than flood has impact more serious than flood. It is difficult to be identified when it comes and when it goes away. However, it is suddenly understood when water becomes scare, or no more water is available in wells, rivers and reservoirs. Managing flood and drought has to be at an integrated basis. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) combined with water conservation methods can be developed to alleviate drought disaster as well as flood disaster in the same time. RWH and water conservation must be an integral part of integrated water resources management. Preventing drought could be automatically reducing the extent of flood that means preventing people and the environment from the disasters. (author)

  12. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  13. Corosolic Acid Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death through Generation of Lipid Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Min Woo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Corosolic acid is one of the pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciose and has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in various cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of corosolic acid in cancer cell death. Corosolic acid induces a decrease of cell viability and an increase of cell cytotoxicity in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. Corosolic acid-induced cell death is not inhibited by apoptosis inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, necroptosis inhibitor (necrostatin-1, or ferroptosis inhibitors (ferrostatin-1 and deferoxamine (DFO. Furthermore, corosolic acid significantly induces reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, but antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC and trolox do not inhibit corosolic acid-induced cell death. Interestingly, corosolic acid induces lipid oxidation, and α-tocopherol markedly prevents corosolic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death. Anti-chemotherapeutic effects of α-tocopherol are dependent on inhibition of lipid oxidation rather than inhibition of ROS production. In addition, corosolic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death in other renal cancer (ACHN and A498, breast cancer (MDA-MB231, and hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-Hep1 and Huh7 cells, and α-tocopherol markedly inhibits corosolic acid-induced cell death. Therefore, our results suggest that corosolic acid induces non-apoptotic cell death in cancer cells through the increase of lipid peroxidation.

  14. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  15. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  16. Antinociceptive Effect of Ondansetron in Albino Mice Using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Purohit

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Pain is a protective mechanism. Pain occurs whenever any tissues are being damaged, and it causes the individual to react and to remove the pain stimulus. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ondansetron in comparison with the standard diclofenac. Material and Methods: The antinociceptive effect was tested by using the acetic acid induced writhing model in Swiss Albino mice. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. Animals were received distilled water (control, diclofenac (standard, ondansetron 0.5mg/kg (test I and ondansetron 1mg/kg (test II. After 30 minutes of drug administration, 0.1 ml of 1% acetic acid was injected. Mice were placed individually into glass beakers and five minutes were allowed to elapse. They were then observed for a period of ten minutes and the numbers of writhes were recorded in each animal. The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA with post-test was used for statistical calculation. Results: The numbers of writhes were 1.33±0.494 for diclofenac; 6.33±1.872 and 9.33±1.706 for ondansetron 0.5 and 1mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: Ondansetron demonstrated statistical significant antinociceptive activity at both doses (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg and statistically similar effect as diclofenac

  17. Mapping and reconstruction of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, J R; Nowocin, K J; Switzer, R C; Trusk, T C; Ramsdell, J S

    2005-01-01

    Domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin and glutamate analog produced by certain species of the marine diatom Pseudonitzschia, is responsible for several human and wildlife intoxication events. The toxin characteristically damages the hippocampus in exposed humans, rodents, and marine mammals. Histochemical studies have identified this, and other regions of neurodegeneration, though none have sought to map all brain regions affected by domoic acid. In this study, mice exposed (i.p.) to 4 mg/kg domoic acid for 72 h exhibited behavioral and pathological signs of neurotoxicity. Brains were fixed by intracardial perfusion and processed for histochemical analysis. Serial coronal sections (50 microm) were stained using the degeneration-sensitive cupric silver staining method of DeOlmos. Degenerated axons, terminals, and cell bodies, which stained black, were identified and the areas of degeneration were mapped onto Paxinos mouse atlas brain plates using Adobe Illustrator CS. The plates were then combined to reconstruct a 3-dimensional image of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration using Amira 3.1 software. Affected regions included the olfactory bulb, septal area, and limbic system. These findings are consistent with behavioral and pathological studies demonstrating the effects of domoic acid on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in rodents.

  18. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  19. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  20. Impact of government poverty alleviation programmes on the socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite these programmes, poverty still exists among Nigerians especially the youth. This study therefore examines the impact of government poverty alleviation programmes on the youth. The population of the study comprised of all youths who have benefited from government poverty alleviation programmes. The Random ...

  1. Sensor comparison study for load alleviating wind turbine pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As the size of wind turbines increases, the load alleviating capabilities of the turbine controller are becoming increasingly important. Load alleviating control schemes have traditionally been based on feedback from load sensor; however, recent developments of measurement technologies have enabled...... control on the basis of preview measurements of the inflow acquired using, e.g., light detection and ranging. The potential of alleviating load variations that are caused by mean wind speed changes through feed-forward control have been demonstrated through both experiments and simulations in several...... studies, whereas the potential of preview control for alleviating the load variations caused by azimuth dependent inflow variations is less described. Individual or cyclic pitch is required to alleviate azimuth dependent load variations and is traditionally applied through feedback control of the blade...

  2. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Ambuj D.

    2005-01-01

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  4. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J

    2001-01-01

    and were killed six days later. Morphological damage to the hippocampal field CA1-CA3 was seen after kainic acid treatment. Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were prominent in kainic acid-injected normal mice hippocampus, and clear signs of increased oxidative stress were evident. Thus......The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mice......, and caused a significant mortality (62%) only in the latter mice, indicating that interleukin-6 deficiency increased the susceptibility to kainic acid-induced brain damage. To compare the histopathological damage caused to the brain, control and interleukin-6 null mice were administered 8.75mg/kg kainic acid...

  5. The Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Reduces Acid-Induced Heartburn Symptoms in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Okada, Hiroki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin production, on induction of esophageal sensation by acid perfusion in healthy men. We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, cross-over study over 3 visits in 12 healthy men. Diclofenac was given 6 hours and 2 hours before an acid perfusion test. During the test, hydrochloric acid (0.15 mol/L) was perfused into the lower esophagus for 30 minutes; we evaluated upper gastrointestinal symptoms using a validated categoric rating scale. Then, we calculated and assessed the acid perfusion sensitivity score (APSS). Biopsy specimens were collected by endoscopy of the distal esophagus before and after acid perfusion; levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (pg/mg) were measured in the samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with placebo, diclofenac significantly reduced the APSS for heartburn (82.2 ± 12.2 for placebo and 47.5 ± 8.9 for diclofenac; P heartburn was reduced significantly by diclofenac. Compared with placebo, diclofenac reduced the overproduction of PGE2 by esophageal tissues after acid perfusion (23.3 ± 5.2 for placebo and 11.4 ± 3.5 for diclofenac; P heartburn and esophageal levels of PGE2 (r = 0.53; P heartburn vs PGE2). Diclofenac attenuated acid-induced heartburn by inhibiting PGE2 overproduction in the esophagus. Esophageal PGE2 might be involved in producing heartburn symptoms. Clinical Trials Registry no: UMIN000014595. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  7. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  8. Cape Gooseberry [Physalis peruviana L.] Calyces Ameliorate TNBS Acid-induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jenny; Ocampo, Yanet; Franco, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Physalis peruviana [cape gooseberry] is highly appreciated for its commercial value. The Colombian ecotype is in great demand in the international market, particularly for the unique morphological characteristics of the calyx, which has extended use as a traditional herbal remedy in Colombia because of its anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, the anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethereal extract of Physalis peruviana calyces was evaluated in preventive and therapeutic protocols in a TNBS acid-induced colitis rat model. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of TNBS. An evaluation of macroscopic and histopathological parameters in colonic tissue was performed, along with the determination of myeloperoxidase enzyme activity, cytokine levels and gene expression. Additionally, effects on nitric oxide release by lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS free radicals were determined. The treatment with the Physalis peruviana extract produced a significant improvement in the colonic tissue at both macroscopic and histological levels. IL-1β and TNF-α production was reduced by the extract in both experimental approaches. The groups treated with Physalis peruviana showed a tendency to MUC2 up-regulation and down-regulation of COX-2, iNOS, NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 expression. Nitric oxide release in RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited. The Physalis peruviana extract showed intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in the TNBS-induced colitis model, placing this species' calyx, a natural derivative, as a promising source of metabolites that could be used in treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Roles of oxygen radicals and elastase in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea-pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Y -L; Chiou, W -Y; Lu, F J; Chiang, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidants attenuate noncholinergic airway constriction. To further investigate the relationship between tachykinin-mediated airway constriction and oxygen radicals, we explored citric acid-induced bronchial constriction in 48 young Hartley strain guinea-pigs, divided into six groups: control; citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes+citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes+phosphoramidon+citric acid; dimethylthiourea (DMTU)+citric acid; and DMTU+phosphoramidon+citric acid. Hexa(sulphobutyl...

  10. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  11. Safety and efficacy of intravenous administration for tranexamic acid-induced emesis in dogs with accidental ingestion of foreign substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, Kensuke; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Ogawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2017-12-22

    A prospective observational study was performed in canine clinical medicine to evaluate the emetic action and adverse effects of tranexamic acid. Veterinarians treated 137 dogs with a single dose of tranexamic acid (50 mg/kg, IV) after accidental ingestion of foreign substances. If needed, a second (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 20-50 mg/kg, IV) or third dose (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 25-50 mg/kg, IV) was administered. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in 116 of 137 (84.7%) dogs. Median time to onset of emesis was 116.5 sec (range, 26-370 sec), median duration of emesis was 151.5 sec (range, 30-780 sec), and median number of emesis episodes was 2 (range, 1-8). Second and third administrations of tranexamic acid induced emesis in 64.7 and 66.7% of dogs, respectively. In total, IV administration of tranexamic acid successfully induced emesis in 129 of 137 (94.2%) dogs. Adverse effects included a tonic-clonic convulsion and hemostatic disorder in two different dogs, both of which recovered after receiving medical care. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in most dogs following a single-dose. When a single dose was not sufficient, an additional dosage effectively induced emesis. Overall, adverse effects were considered low and self-limiting.

  12. Why may allopregnanolone help alleviate loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, S; Cacioppo, J T

    2015-12-01

    Impaired biosynthesis of Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a brain endogenous neurosteroid, has been associated with numerous behavioral dysfunctions, which range from anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors to aggressive behavior and changes in responses to contextual fear conditioning in rodent models of emotional dysfunction. Recent animal research also demonstrates a critical role of ALLO in social isolation. Although there are likely aspects of perceived social isolation that are uniquely human, there is also continuity across species. Both human and animal research show that perceived social isolation (which can be defined behaviorally in animals and humans) has detrimental effects on physical health, such as increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and increased depressive behavior. The similarities between animal and human research suggest that perceived social isolation (loneliness) may also be associated with a reduction in the synthesis of ALLO, potentially by reducing BDNF regulation and increasing HPA activity through the hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), especially during social threat processing. Accordingly, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursor, such as pregnenolone), in humans may help alleviate loneliness. Congruent with our hypothesis, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursors) in humans has been shown to improve various stress-related disorders that show similarities between animals and humans i.e., post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic brain injuries. Because a growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of ALLO in socially isolated animals, we believe our ALLO hypothesis can be applied to loneliness in humans, as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  14. Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dae-Hyuk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A tannic acid-inducible and mycoviral-regulated laccase3 (lac3 from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been identified, but further characterization was hampered because of the precipitation of protein products by tannic acid supplementation. The present study investigated the heterologous expression of the functional laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Laccase activity in the culture broth of transformants measured using a laccase-specific substrate suggested that the lac3 gene was successfully expressed and the corresponding protein product secreted into the culture media. In addition, activity staining and Western blot analysis of a native gel revealed that the enzyme activity co-existed with the protein product specific to anti-laccase3 antibody, confirming that the cloned lac3 gene is responsible for the laccase activity. When transformants were grown on plates containing tannic acid-supplemented media, brown coloration was observed around transformed cells, indicating the oxidation of tannic acid. However, the enzymatic activity was measurable only in the selective ura- media and was negligible in nonselective nutrient-rich culture conditions. This was in part because of the increased plasmid instability in the nonselective media. Moreover, the protein product of lac3 appears to be sensitive to the cultured nonselective nutrient-rich broth, because a rapid decline in enzymatic activity was observed when the cultured broth of ura- media was mixed with that of nonselective nutrient-rich broth. In addition, constitutive expression of the lac3 gene resulted in a reduced cell number of the lac3 transformants compared to that of vector-only transformed control. However, the presence of recombinant vector without lac3 induction did not affect the growth of transformants. Conclusions The results suggest that expression of the lac3 gene has an inhibitory effect on the growth of

  15. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

  16. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  17. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdarrifa calyx alleviates anemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdarrifa calyx alleviates anemia and organ damage in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. IA Umar, E Daikwo, NG Maryoms, A Gidado, LB Buratai, FS Saka, MA Ibrahim ...

  18. Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of pepper seedling. ... It consequently affects plant growth and yield and ameliorates the deleterious effects of salt stress. The objective of the study ... from 32 Countries: Algeria (5) ...

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Chromium in Alleviating Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yinan; Clark, Suzanne; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular anomalies and is a major health problem approaching global epidemic proportions. Insulin resistance, a prediabetic condition, precedes the onset of frank type 2 diabetes and offers potential avenues for early intervention to treat the disease. Although lifestyle modifications and exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, compliance has proved to be difficult, warranting pharmacological interventions. However, most of the currently available drugs that improve insulin sensitivity have adverse effects. Therefore, attractive strategies to alleviate insulin resistance include dietary supplements. One such supplement is chromium, which has been shown reduce insulin resistance in some, but not all, studies. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance remain elusive. This review examines emerging reports on the effect of chromium, as well as molecular and cellular mechanisms by which chromium may provide beneficial effects in alleviating insulin resistance. PMID:22423897

  20. Strategic plant choices can alleviate climate change impacts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Erin K; Kettenring, Karin M

    2018-06-01

    Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) uses biodiversity and ecosystem services to reduce climate change impacts to local communities. Because plants can alleviate the abiotic and biotic stresses of climate change, purposeful plant choices could improve adaptation. However, there has been no systematic review of how plants can be applied to alleviate effects of climate change. Here we describe how plants can modify climate change effects by altering biological and physical processes. Plant effects range from increasing soil stabilization to reducing the impact of flooding and storm surges. Given the global scale of plant-related activities such as farming, landscaping, forestry, conservation, and restoration, plants can be selected strategically-i.e., planting and maintaining particular species with desired impacts-to simultaneously restore degraded ecosystems, conserve ecosystem function, and help alleviate effects of climate change. Plants are a tool for EbA that should be more broadly and strategically utilized. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuwang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8 of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG signals. Performances of the two algorithms (θ+α/(α+β and θ/β are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8 using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving.

  2. Olodaterol Attenuates Citric Acid-Induced Cough in Naïve and Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known. PMID:25781609

  3. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  4. 283 Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    poverty alleviation on the inhabitants of Nigeria with special reference to. Asa and Ilorin West Local ... poverty is defined as a state of deprivation in terms of both economic and social indicators such as income ..... Source Book. The World Bank ...

  5. Role of Zakah and Awqaf in poverty Alleviation (Occasional Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Habib

    2004-01-01

    The occasional paper studies the role of zakat and awqaf in mitigating poverty in Muslim communities. The study addresses the issue by studying the institutional set-up and mechanisms of using zakat and awqaf for poverty alleviation. It discusses how these institutions can be implemented successfully to achieve the results in contemporary times using theoretical arguments and empirical support.

  6. Youth Empowerment and Poverty Alleviation: The Experience in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It will help the planners and the policy makers to determine the best methods to tackle poverty in order to alleviate youth employment. The study made use of descriptive research design for the investigation. All the local government in Ogun State constitutes the population for the study. Out of these, two local governments ...

  7. Urban agriculture and urban poverty alleviation: South African debates

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerson, Christian M.

    1998-01-01

    Growing international attention has focussed on the potential role of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. The aim in this paper is to analyse the existing challenge of urban poverty in South Africa and examine the potential role of urban agriculture as a component of a pro-poor urban development strategy.

  8. Alleviating poverty and hunger in Nigeria: Lessons from the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is facing serious poverty and hunger despite her enormous resources. Recent statistics reveal that poverty and hunger are increasing despite successive governments and non–governmental organizations alleviation programmes. Unless, these twin problems are tacked urgently, they are likely to undermine the ...

  9. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J; Haider, L Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-05-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to "push" the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges.

  10. Contribution of food security projects on poverty alleviation to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite South Africa's economic growth having been accelerated considerably in the country, poverty levels have not decreased as one would have experienced. Food Security Projects initiated by the government of South Africa in order to help alleviate poverty within Limpopo Province have proved unsustainable and ...

  11. Wealth Creation and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: The Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the Role of Information Technology (IT) in thecreation of wealth and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. The design of the studywas a descriptive survey, carried out at Nwafor Orizu College of Education,Nsugbe in Anambra State of Nigeria. One hundred and ninety three (193)respondents formed the ...

  12. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J.; Haider, L. Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to “push” the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges. PMID:28508077

  13. Enabling Bio-Innovation for Poverty Alleviation in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At first glance, Asia seems to have all the organizations, skills, policies and facilities essential for bio-innovation. However, these are not generally put to the service of the millions of poor who lack access to technology. This project aims to stimulate research on bio-innovation for poverty alleviation, sustainable employment ...

  14. Poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prospects and challenges of this strategy in the context of the Nigerian situation are articulated and the conclusion of the paper is that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria requires both economic policy and educational reforms. To enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, the priorities for educational ...

  15. Causes and Alleviation of Occupational Stress in Child Care Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenburger, Karola

    2004-01-01

    Occupational stress in not a new phenomenon in the working population. However, in the helping professions it has only recently attracted attention. The survey reported here was carried out in order to assess the extent of occupational stress, identify its causes, and suggest ways in which occupational stress can be alleviated. Field social…

  16. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... misalignment is assessed. The study is performed through simulations of a reference turbine. The study shows that optimal yaw misalignment angles for minimizing the blade load variations can be identified for both deterministic and turbulent inflows. It is shown that the optimal yaw misalignment angles can...

  17. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major cause of poverty is law enforcements that do not support fishermen and overfishing. While Lamongan more due to low fish prices and capital problems. While in Tuban fishermen due to limited infrastructure and lazy and extravagant lifestyle of the fishermen. These differences lead to different coping strategies so that later can form a concept model of poverty alleviation North Coast fishermen in East Java.

  18. Islamic Microfinance: an Interest free Microfinance Model for Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chakrabarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper deals with Islamic microfinance and its rationality in Indian context as a panacea of Muslim poverty. Conventional microfinance system is very effective to alleviate poverty of developing countries. But it could not touch all community of people because of ‘interest’ component in debt and high degree of interest. Muslims dislike that microfinance which is based on ‘interest’ as it is strictly prohibited in Islam. Therefore the motto of financial inclusion is out of reach through conventional microfinance. An alternative interest free microfinance model has been developed in some part of world to include all Muslim poor people within the banking system. India is yet to adopt Islamic microfinance though 20% of total population is Muslim. The author strongly opines that India should adopt Islamic microfinance as a tool for poverty alleviation of Muslims as well as other communities.

  19. Elevatated CO2 alleviates heat stress tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd...... Wollenweber4 1Department of Bioenergy, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. 2Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Kirstinebjergvej 10, 5792 Årslev, Denmark 3Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Hojbakkegaard Allé 9, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark 4......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  20. The Role of Forests in Poverty Alleviation: Dealing with Multiple Millennium Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A.F.

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief summarises the present state of scientific understanding of the potential contribution of tropical forests to poverty alleviation and highlights the implications of this knowledge for forest-based poverty alleviation policies

  1. Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Amjad; A.R. Kemal

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides a consistent time-series of poverty estimates for the period 1963- 64 to 1992-93 for both the rural as well as the urban areas, examines the influence of macroeconomic policies on the poverty levels, analyses the impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on the levels of poverty, and suggests a strategy for poverty alleviation in Pakistan. The paper explores in particular the influence on poverty of such factors as economic growth, agricultural growth, terms of trade for t...

  2. Effectiveness of microcredit for poverty alleviation: evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, Frithjof; Ardisa, Alvin

    2016-01-01

    Debate persists about the effectiveness of microcredit for poverty alleviation. We argue that much of this debate is due to discipline-specific research approaches and methodological complexities obscuring fundamental issues. Microfinance organisations do not operate in a vacuum: other forms of collateral-free lending must be taken into account. We illustrate our argument with a study of formal and informal collateral-free lending in the Yogyakarta region of Indonesia. Focused on the fundame...

  3. Olodaterol attenuates citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR, have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.01. Formoterol and salmeterol showed a trend towards reducing cough. On the contrary, indacaterol demonstrated pro-tussive properties as it significantly increased the number of coughs, both in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized animals (p < 0.001. In conclusion, olodaterol, at doses eliciting bronchodilation, showed antitussive properties in a model of citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve

  4. A study of helicopter gust response alleviation by automatic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two control schemes designed to alleviate gust-induced vibration are analytically investigated for a helicopter with four articulated blades. One is an individual blade pitch control scheme. The other is an adaptive blade pitch control algorithm based on linear optimal control theory. In both controllers, control inputs to alleviate gust response are superimposed on the conventional control inputs required to maintain the trim condition. A sinusoidal vertical gust model and a step gust model are used. The individual blade pitch control, in this research, is composed of sensors and a pitch control actuator for each blade. Each sensor can detect flapwise (or lead-lag or torsionwise) deflection of the respective blade. The acturator controls the blade pitch angle for gust alleviation. Theoretical calculations to predict the performance of this feedback system have been conducted by means of the harmonic method. The adaptive blade pitch control system is composed of a set of measurements (oscillatory hub forces and moments), an identification system using a Kalman filter, and a control system based on the minimization of the quadratic performance function.

  5. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  6. EFFECTS OF SILICON ON ALLEVIATING ARSENIC TOXICITY IN MAIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airon José da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid highly toxic to plants and animals, causing reduced plant growth and various health problems for humans and animals. Silicon, however, has excelled in alleviating stress caused by toxic elements in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Si in alleviating As stress in maize plants grown in a nutrient solution and evaluate the potential of the spectral emission parameters and the red fluorescence (Fr and far-red fluorescence (FFr ratio obtained in analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in determination of this interaction. An experiment was carried out in a nutrient solution containing a toxic rate of As (68 μmol L-1 and six increasing rates of Si (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mmol L-1. Dry matter production and concentrations of As, Si, and photosynthetic pigments were then evaluated. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also measured throughout plant growth. Si has positive effects in alleviating As stress in maize plants, evidenced by the increase in photosynthetic pigments. Silicon application resulted in higher As levels in plant tissue; therefore, using Si for soil phytoremediation may be a promising choice. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis proved to be a sensitive tool, and it can be successfully used in the study of the ameliorating effects of Si in plant protection, with the Fr/FFr ratio as the variable recommended for identification of temporal changes in plants.

  7. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  8. Poverty alleviation programmes in India: a social audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Yesudian, C A

    2007-10-01

    The review highlights the poverty alleviation programmes of the government in the post-economic reform era to evaluate the contribution of these programmes towards reducing poverty in the country. The poverty alleviation programmes are classified into (i) self-employment programmes; (ii) wage employment programmes; (iii) food security programmes; (iv) social security programmes; and (v) urban poverty alleviation programmes. The parameter used for evaluation included utilization of allocated funds, change in poverty level, employment generation and number or proportion of beneficiaries. The paper attempts to go beyond the economic benefit of the programmes and analyzes the social impact of these programmes on the communities where the poor live, and concludes that too much of government involvement is actually an impediment. On the other hand, involvement of the community, especially the poor has led to better achievement of the goals of the programmes. Such endeavours not only reduced poverty but also empowered the poor to find their own solutions to their economic problems. There is a need for decentralization of the programmes by strengthening the panchayat raj institutions as poverty is not merely economic deprivation but also social marginalization that affects the poor most.

  9. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  10. Foods provoking and alleviating symptoms in gastroparesis: patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytiaz, Victoria; Homko, Carol; Duffy, Frank; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional counseling for gastroparesis focuses on reduction of meal size, fiber, and fat to control symptoms. The tolerance of gastroparesis patients for particular foods is largely anecdotal. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize foods provoking or alleviating gastroparesis symptoms. Gastroparesis patients completed: (1) Demographic Questionnaire; (2) Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms; (3) Food Toleration and Aversion survey asking patients about experiences when eating certain foods utilizing a scale from -3 (greatly worsening symptoms) to +3 (greatly improving symptoms). Descriptive qualities (acidic, fatty, spicy, roughage-based, bitter, salty, bland, and sweet) were assigned to foods. Forty-five gastroparesis patients participated (39 idiopathic gastroparesis). Foods worsening symptoms included: orange juice, fried chicken, cabbage, oranges, sausage, pizza, peppers, onions, tomato juice, lettuce, coffee, salsa, broccoli, bacon, and roast beef. Saltine crackers, jello, and graham crackers moderately improved symptoms. Twelve additional foods were tolerated by patients (not provoking symptoms): ginger ale, gluten-free foods, tea, sweet potatoes, pretzels, white fish, clear soup, salmon, potatoes, white rice, popsicles, and applesauce. Foods provoking symptoms were generally fatty, acidic, spicy, and roughage-based. The foods shown to be tolerable were generally bland, sweet, salty, and starchy. This study identified specific foods that worsen as well as foods that may help alleviate symptoms of gastroparesis. Foods that provoked symptoms differed in quality from foods that alleviated symptoms or were tolerable. The results of this study illustrate specific examples of foods that aggravate or improve symptoms and provide suggestions for a gastroparesis diet.

  11. Effect of Quercetin on Bone Mineral Status and Markers of Bone Turnover in Retinoic Acid-Induced Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oršolić Nada

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis (RBM is one of the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis. This study tested the anti-osteoporetic effect of quercetin in RBM-induced bone loss model (RBM. After 14-day supplementation of 13cRA to induce RBM, rats were administered with quercetin (100 mg/kg or alendronate (40 mg/kg. We analysed changes in body and uterine weight of animals, femoral geometric characteristics, calcium and phosphorus content, bone weight index, bone hystology, bone mineral density (BMD, markers of bone turnover, lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels and SOD, CAT activity of liver, kidney spleen, and ovary as well as biochemical and haematological variables. In comparison to the control RBM rats, the treatment with quercetin increased bone weight index, BMD, osteocalcin level, femoral geometric characteristics, calcium and phosphorus content in the 13cRA-induced bone loss model. Histological results showed its protective action through promotion of bone formation. According to the results, quercetin could be an effective substitution for alendronate in 13cRA-induced osteoporosis. Good therapeutic potential of quercetin on rat skeletal system is based partly on its antioxidant capacity and estrogenic activity.

  12. Citric acid induced promoted dispersion of Pt on the support and enhanced catalytic activities for a Pt-based catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianqiong; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Suning; Cui, Yajuan; Zhang, Hailong; Yan, Shuang; Yuan, Shandong; Chen, Yaoqiang

    2017-12-01

    Citric acid (CA), as the chelating agent, was introduced to obtain the enhanced Pt dispersion and catalytic activities for the Pt-based catalysts supported on oxygen-storage material. The role and content of CA were investigated systematically. It was found that the citric acid-assisted catalysts showed better Pt dispersion and smaller nanoparticle size of Pt. Thus, the catalyst had lower reduction temperature, preferable thermostability and possessed more oxidation state of Pt species under the oxidation atmosphere. The citric acid-induced fresh catalysts were excellent to convert CO and the corresponding aged ones exhibited higher activities for the elimination of all the target pollutants. Among the aged catalysts, P2-a (the mole ratio of Pt/CA is 2:1) presented the best performance. Particularly, compared with the reference sample (Pc-a), the light-off temperatures (T50) of NO, HC and CO for P2-a decreased by 39 °C, 42 °C and 72 °C, respectively, and the full-conversion temperatures (T90) of NO, HC and CO for P2-a decreased by 44 °C, 44 °C and 48 °C, respectively. Therefore, this work provides a facile and valid method to manufacture advanced catalysts for purification of the vehicle exhaust in the future.

  13. The Effect of Gallic Acid on Histopathologic Evaluation of Cerebellum in Valproic Acid-Induced Autism Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Samimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is counted as a worldwide public health problem. The possible causes of ASD are reactive oxygen species and free radicals. So, this study is aimed to evaluate the effects of Gallic acid, as an effective antioxidant, on histopathologic disorder of the cerebellum in valproic acid-induced autism animal models. 30 pregnant female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including: control, autism (or VAP and experimental 1, 2 and 3. Using a gavage needle, Gallic acid administered orally until about2 months of age. After the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized with ether and their cerebellar tissues were removed for histopathologic studies. A significant decrease in the number of Purkinje and granular cells was observed in this study in VAP group compared to the control group (P≤0.05. A trend toward improvement was observed in the groups received 100 and 200 mg/kg of Gallic acid (P≤0.05. The results of this research revealed that Gallic acid reduces the side effects caused by valproic acid on cerebellar tissue of autistic rats. So, it should be considered for therapeutic goals.

  14. Role of duodenal mucosal nerve endings in the acid-induced duodenogastric sensorimotor reflex: effect of benzocaine in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, T; Karamanolis, G; Vos, R; Van Oudenhove, L; Farré, R; Tack, J

    2013-05-01

    Duodenal acid exposure induces a duodenogastric reflex resulting in gastric relaxation, inhibition of antral motility, and sensitization of the proximal stomach to distension. Duodenal hypersensitivity to acid has been identified as a potential pathogenic mechanism in functional dyspepsia. The nature and localization of the duodenal acid-sensitive receptors are still elusive. We hypothesize that acid directly activates superficial afferent nerve endings in the duodenal mucosa, triggering the duodenogastric reflex. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in 13 healthy volunteers, benzocaine, a local anesthetic, vs saline was perfused in the duodenum 15 min before duodenal acid perfusion. Gastric responses were monitored by a barostat. Stepwise isobaric gastric distensions were performed before and during acid perfusion. Symptoms were evaluated by visual analogue scales for six dyspeptic symptoms and an overall perception score. Benzocaine perfusion caused a relaxation of the stomach prior to duodenal acidification, indicating the existence of an excitatory duodenogastric tone. Pretreatment of the duodenum with benzocaine reduced the acid-induced gastric relaxation by 50% and abolished the inhibition of phasic motility of the proximal stomach. Finally, sensitization to distension was more pronounced in the benzocaine condition because of higher proximal gastric volumes. These findings support a model in which different neuronal subpopulations are responsible for the motor and sensory limb of the acid-sensitive duodenogastric reflex, making benzocaine an unsuitable drug to treat duodenal hypersensitivity to acid. These data provide more insight in the contribution of duodenal neuronal input to gastric physiology in the fasting state. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Parallel Mitogenome Sequencing Alleviates Random Rooting Effect in Phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirase, Shotaro; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-04-28

    Reliably rooted phylogenetic trees play irreplaceable roles in clarifying diversification in the patterns of species and populations. However, such trees are often unavailable in phylogeographic studies, particularly when the focus is on rapidly expanded populations that exhibit star-like trees. A fundamental bottleneck is known as the random rooting effect, where a distant outgroup tends to root an unrooted tree "randomly." We investigated whether parallel mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing alleviates this effect in phylogeography using a case study on the Sea of Japan lineage of the intertidal goby Chaenogobius annularis Eighty-three C. annularis individuals were collected and their mitogenomes were determined by high-throughput and low-cost parallel sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these mitogenome sequences was conducted to root the Sea of Japan lineage, which has a star-like phylogeny and had not been reliably rooted. The topologies of the bootstrap trees were investigated to determine whether the use of mitogenomes alleviated the random rooting effect. The mitogenome data successfully rooted the Sea of Japan lineage by alleviating the effect, which hindered phylogenetic analysis that used specific gene sequences. The reliable rooting of the lineage led to the discovery of a novel, northern lineage that expanded during an interglacial period with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, the finding of this lineage suggested the existence of additional glacial refugia and provided a new recent calibration point that revised the divergence time estimation between the Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean lineages. This study illustrates the effectiveness of parallel mitogenome sequencing for solving the random rooting problem in phylogeographic studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Methylphenidate alleviates manganese-induced impulsivity but not distractibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Uribe, Walter; Ysais, Lauren; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure in a rodent model can cause lasting impairments in fine motor control and attention, and that oral methylphenidate (MPH) treatment can effectively treat the dysfunction in fine motor control. However, it is unknown whether MPH treatment can alleviate the impairments in attention produced by Mn exposure. Here we used a rodent model of postnatal Mn exposure to determine whether (1) oral MPH alleviates attention and impulse control deficits caused by postnatal Mn exposure, using attention tasks that are variants of the 5-choice serial reaction time task, and (2) whether these treatments affected neuronal dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed orally to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/d throughout life starting on PND 1, and tested as young adults (PND 107 – 115) on an attention task that specifically tapped selective attention and impulse control. Animals were treated with oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/d) throughout testing on the attention task. Our findings show that lifelong postnatal Mn exposure impaired impulse control and selective attention in young adulthood, and that a therapeutically relevant oral MPH regimen alleviated the Mn-induced dysfunction in impulse control, but not selective attention, and actually impaired focused attention in the Mn group. In addition, the effect of MPH was qualitatively different for the Mn-exposed versus control animals across a range of behavioral measures of inhibitory control and attention, as well as dendritic spine density in the mPFC, suggesting that postnatal Mn exposure alters catecholaminergic systems modulating these behaviors. Collectively these findings suggest that MPH may hold promise for treating the behavioral dysfunction caused by developmental Mn exposure, although further research is needed with multiple MPH doses to determine whether a dose can be identified that

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis symptoms alleviated by renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2011-01-01

    are limited. Anecdotal reports have shown partial or complete resolution of NSF following successful renal transplantation early in the course of NSF. In this report, we describe alleviation of NSF symptoms in two women following successful renal transplantation more than 3 years after onset of NSF.......Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a rare, serious, and life-threatening disease of patients with severe renal impairment. Gadolinium-containing contrast agents have been shown to be the crucial trigger. There is no proven medical cure for the disease, and symptomatic treatment options...

  18. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg -1 h -1 for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg -1 h -1 of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg -1 h -1 . Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (p<0.05), whereas in the EPHS group it remained unchanged. Lung compliance decreased significantly only in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Lung edema was greater in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Histological damage proved similar in both groups (p=0.4). In this experimental model of early lung injury, lung edema progression was attenuated by preemptively restricting the administration of fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Priming by Hexanoic acid induce activation of mevalonic and linolenic pathways and promotes the emission of plant volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eLlorens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than two hundred molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by hexanoic acid. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of hexanoic acid this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  20. The Healing Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum on Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Tanideh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Anti-inflammatory effect of Hypericum have long been considered. Ulcerative Colitis (UC is a form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. In this study, the effects of Hypericum perforatum on histopathological changes and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA level of colonic tissue in rats with induced UC were evaluated. Materials & Methods: 70 rats were divided into seven equal groups. Colitis was induced by acetic acid.. Groups I and II received 1 mL of 600 and 300 mg/kg H. perforatum extract orally per day respectively; groups III and IV received 1 mL of 20% and 10% intra-colonic gel form of H. perforatum extract daily respectively; group V, as positive control, received 1 mL of intra-colonic Asacol; group VI received 1 mL of normal saline as negative control; group VII received just intra-colonic gel base. All the animals were evaluated for histological changes and tissue MDA level of colon seven days after the treatment. Results: H. perforatum extract in the two forms of trans-rectal and oral administration could result in a more healing effect on acetic acid-induced damaged colonic tissue with a reduction in the MDA activity. In trans-rectal administration, the 20% gel had a better healing response than the 10% gel. In oral administration, the 600 mg/kg dosage had a better healing response than the 300 mg/kg. Conclusions: Therefor, H. perforatum can be considered as a treatment of choice for UC especially in trans-rectal gel form.

  1. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  2. Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, M.H.; Khalil, J.; Zahid, M.; Ansari, N.

    2011-01-01

    Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

  3. In vivo evaluation of acid-induced changes in oesophageal mucosa integrity and sensitivity in non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Philip; Al-Zinaty, Mohannad; Yazaki, Etsuro; Sifrim, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) have impaired oesophageal mucosal integrity (dilated intercellular spaces). Oesophageal mucosal integrity reflects the balance between repeated reflux damage and mucosal recovery. The relationship between mucosal integrity and acid sensitivity is unclear. Oesophageal impedance may be used for in vivo mucosal integrity measurement. We studied acid-induced changes in oesophageal mucosal integrity and acid perception in patients with heartburn. 50 patients with heartburn whithout oesophagitis underwent impedance monitoring before, during and after 10 min oesophageal perfusion with neutral (pH 6.5) and acid solutions (pH 1). Symptoms and impedance were recorded during perfusion. Impedance recovery was assessed for 2 h post-perfusion in ambulatory conditions followed by 24-h impedance-pH study. Reflux monitoring discriminated 20 NERD and 30 functional heartburn (FH) patients. Neutral perfusion caused impedance fall that recovered within 10 min. Acid perfusion caused impedance fall with slow recovery: 6.5 Ω/min (IQR 3.3-12.0 Ω/min). Patients with slow recovery (acid sensitivity (10/12 vs. 4/12, p = 0.04) than those with fast (> 75th percentile) recovery. Patients with NERD had lower baseline impedance (1669 ± 182 Ω vs. 2384 ± 211 Ω, p = 0.02) and slower impedance recovery (6.0 ± 0.9 Ω/min vs. 10.7 ± 1.6 Ω/min, p = 0.03) than patients with FH. Impaired mucosal integrity might be the consequence of repeated reflux episodes with slow recovery. Mucosal integrity, recovery capacity and symptom perception are linked. Low basal impedance and slow recovery after acid challenge are associated with increased acid sensitivity.

  4. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  6. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  7. Alleviating cancer patients' suffering: whose responsibility is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    In medicine, we have historically been better at learning about the body and disease than we have at understanding the human beings who come to us with the ailments. We have acted to relieve pain, consoling patients and families as a complement, but done little to understand and alleviate suffering as a fundamental part of our practice. In fact, only in more recent decades has "suffering" been conceptualized as something apart from pain, associated with distress and its causes. It was Eric T. Cassell, in his ground-breaking work in the 1980s, who posed the need to consider alleviation of suffering and treatment of illness as twin-and equally important-obligations of the medical profession. Suffering is defined as a negative, complex emotional and cognitive state, characterized by feeling under constant threat and powerless to confront it, having drained the physical and psycho-social resources that might have made resistance possible. This unique depletion of personal resources is key to understanding suffering.

  8. Puerarin alleviates neuropathic pain by inhibiting neuroinflammation in spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Liao, Kaijun; Yu, Changxi; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI) and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4-100 nM) for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  9. Methylphenidate alleviates manganese-induced impulsivity but not distractibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Uribe, Walter; Ysais, Lauren; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure in a rodent model can cause lasting impairments in fine motor control and attention, and that oral methylphenidate (MPH) treatment can effectively treat the dysfunction in fine motor control. However, it is unknown whether MPH treatment can alleviate the impairments in attention produced by Mn exposure. Here we used a rodent model of postnatal Mn exposure to determine whether (1) oral MPH alleviates attention and impulse control deficits caused by postnatal Mn exposure, using attention tasks that are variants of the 5-choice serial reaction time task, and (2) whether these treatments affected neuronal dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed orally to 0 or 50Mn/kg/d throughout life starting on PND 1, and tested as young adults (PND 107-115) on an attention task that specifically tapped selective attention and impulse control. Animals were treated with oral MPH (2.5mg/kg/d) throughout testing on the attention task. Our findings show that lifelong postnatal Mn exposure impaired impulse control and selective attention in young adulthood, and that a therapeutically relevant oral MPH regimen alleviated the Mn-induced dysfunction in impulse control, but not selective attention, and actually impaired focused attention in the Mn group. In addition, the effect of MPH was qualitatively different for the Mn-exposed versus control animals across a range of behavioral measures of inhibitory control and attention, as well as dendritic spine density in the mPFC, suggesting that postnatal Mn exposure alters catecholaminergic systems modulating these behaviors. Collectively these findings suggest that MPH may hold promise for treating the behavioral dysfunction caused by developmental Mn exposure, although further research is needed with multiple MPH doses to determine whether a dose can be identified that ameliorates the

  10. Engineering an efficient and tight D-amino acid-inducible gene expression system in Rhodosporidium/Rhodotorula species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbin; Koh, Chong Mei John; Ngoh, Si Te; Ji, Lianghui

    2015-10-26

    mutant makes an efficient and tight D-amino acid-inducible gene expression system in Rhodosporidium and Rhodotorula genera. The system will be a valuable tool for metabolic engineering and enzyme expression in these yeast hosts.

  11. Kainic Acid-Induced Post-Status Epilepticus Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Diverging Seizure Phenotype and Neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bertoglio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of epilepsy models is to investigate disease ontogenesis and therapeutic interventions in a consistent and prospective manner. The kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE rat model is a widely used, well-validated model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. As we noted significant variability within the model between labs potentially related to the rat strain used, we aimed to describe two variants of this model with diverging seizure phenotype and neuropathology. In addition, we evaluated two different protocols to induce status epilepticus (SE. Wistar Han (Charles River, France and Sprague-Dawley (Harlan, The Netherlands rats were subjected to KASE using the Hellier kainic acid (KA and a modified injection scheme. Duration of SE and latent phase were characterized by video-electroencephalography (vEEG in a subgroup of animals, while animals were sacrificed 1 week (subacute phase and 12 weeks (chronic phase post-SE. In the 12 weeks post-SE groups, seizures were monitored with vEEG. Neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei, microglial activation (OX-42 and translocator protein, and neurodegeneration (Fluorojade C were assessed. First, the Hellier protocol caused very high mortality in WH/CR rats compared to SD/H animals. The modified protocol resulted in a similar SE severity for WH/CR and SD/H rats, but effectively improved survival rates. The latent phase was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001 in SD/H (median 8.3 days animals compared to WH/CR (median 15.4 days. During the chronic phase, SD/H rats had more seizures/day compared to WH/CR animals (p < 0.01. However, neuronal degeneration and cell loss were overall more extensive in WH/CR than in SD/H rats; microglia activation was similar between the two strains 1 week post-SE, but higher in WH/CR rats 12 weeks post-SE. These neuropathological differences may be more related to the distinct neurotoxic effects of KA in the two rat strains than being the outcome of seizure

  12. Kainic Acid-Induced Post-Status Epilepticus Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Diverging Seizure Phenotype and Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglio, Daniele; Amhaoul, Halima; Van Eetveldt, Annemie; Houbrechts, Ruben; Van De Vijver, Sebastiaan; Ali, Idrish; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of epilepsy models is to investigate disease ontogenesis and therapeutic interventions in a consistent and prospective manner. The kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) rat model is a widely used, well-validated model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). As we noted significant variability within the model between labs potentially related to the rat strain used, we aimed to describe two variants of this model with diverging seizure phenotype and neuropathology. In addition, we evaluated two different protocols to induce status epilepticus (SE). Wistar Han (Charles River, France) and Sprague-Dawley (Harlan, The Netherlands) rats were subjected to KASE using the Hellier kainic acid (KA) and a modified injection scheme. Duration of SE and latent phase were characterized by video-electroencephalography (vEEG) in a subgroup of animals, while animals were sacrificed 1 week (subacute phase) and 12 weeks (chronic phase) post-SE. In the 12 weeks post-SE groups, seizures were monitored with vEEG. Neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei), microglial activation (OX-42 and translocator protein), and neurodegeneration (Fluorojade C) were assessed. First, the Hellier protocol caused very high mortality in WH/CR rats compared to SD/H animals. The modified protocol resulted in a similar SE severity for WH/CR and SD/H rats, but effectively improved survival rates. The latent phase was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001) in SD/H (median 8.3 days) animals compared to WH/CR (median 15.4 days). During the chronic phase, SD/H rats had more seizures/day compared to WH/CR animals (p < 0.01). However, neuronal degeneration and cell loss were overall more extensive in WH/CR than in SD/H rats; microglia activation was similar between the two strains 1 week post-SE, but higher in WH/CR rats 12 weeks post-SE. These neuropathological differences may be more related to the distinct neurotoxic effects of KA in the two rat strains than being the outcome of seizure burden

  13. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  14. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration.

  15. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  16. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  17. Aliskiren targets multiple systems to alleviate cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyi; Guo, Dunwei; Wang, Qiang; You, Song; Qiao, Zhongpeng; Liu, Yong; Dai, Hang; Tang, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of aliskiren, a small-molecule renin inhibitor, on cancer cachexia and to explore the underlying mechanisms. A cancer cachexia model was established by subcutaneously injecting C26 mouse colon carcinoma cells into isogenic BALB/c mice. Aliskiren was administered intragastrically [10 mg/kg body weight (BW)] on day 5 (as a preventive strategy, AP group) or on day 12 (as a therapeutic strategy, AT group) after C26 injection. Mice that received no C26 injection (healthy controls, HC group) or only C26 injection but not aliskiren (cancer, CA group) were used as controls. BW, tumor growth, whole body functions, and survival were monitored daily in half of the mice in each group, whereas serum, tumors, and gastrocnemius muscles were harvested from the other mice after sacrifice on day 20 for further analysis. Aliskiren significantly alleviated multiple cachexia‑associated symptoms, including BW loss, tumor burden, muscle wasting, muscular dysfunction, and shortened survival. On the molecular level, aliskiren antagonized cachexia‑induced activation of the renin‑angiotensin system (RAS), systematic and muscular inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy‑lysosome as well as ubiquitin‑proteasome stimulation. In addition, early administration of aliskiren before cachexia development (AP group) resulted in more robust effects in alleviating cachexia or targeting underlying mechanisms than administration after cachexia development (AT group). Aliskiren exhibited potent anti‑cachexia activities. These activities were achieved through the targeting of at least four mechanisms underlying cachexia development: RAS activation, increase in systematic inflammation, upregulation of oxidative stress, and stimulation of autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP).

  18. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC extract on acetic acid - Induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. from Asteraceae family is an endemic plant growing wild in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of H. oligocephalum hydroalcoholic extract (HOHE on ulcerative colitis (UC induced by acetic acid (AA in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were grouped (n = 6 and fasted for 24 h before colitis induction. Treatments were started 2 h before the induction of colitis and continued for two consecutive days with different doses of HOHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg orally (p.o. and intraperitoneally (i.p.. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Results: Among the examined doses of HOHE, 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose that reduced the extent of UC lesions and resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an index of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished in the treatment group administered HOHE at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the results showed correlation with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that HOHE (100 mg/kg administered either p.o. or i.p. was effective in diminishing inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis in a non-dose-related manner. Conclusions: H. oligocephalum could be considered as a suitable anticolitis alternative; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting.

  20. The Na+/H+ exchanger controls deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by a H+-activated, Na+-dependent ionic shift in esophageal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Goldman

    Full Text Available Apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of cancer cells. Typically, bile acids induce apoptosis. However during gastrointestinal (GI tumorigenesis the cancer cells develop resistance to bile acid-induced cell death. To understand how bile acids induce apoptosis resistance we first need to identify the molecular pathways that initiate apoptosis in response to bile acid exposure. In this study we examined the mechanism of deoxycholic acid (DCA-induced apoptosis, specifically the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE and Na(+ influx in esophageal cells. In vitro studies revealed that the exposure of esophageal cells (JH-EsoAd1, CP-A to DCA (0.2 mM-0.5 mM caused lysosomal membrane perturbation and transient cytoplasmic acidification. Fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrophotometry demonstrated that this effect on lysosomes correlated with influx of Na(+, subsequent loss of intracellular K(+, an increase of Ca(2+ and apoptosis. However, ethylisopropyl-amiloride (EIPA, a selective inhibitor of NHE, prevented Na(+, K(+ and Ca(2+ changes and caspase 3/7 activation induced by DCA. Ouabain and amphotericin B, two drugs that increase intracellular Na(+ levels, induced similar changes as DCA (ion imbalance, caspase3/7 activation. On the contrary, DCA-induced cell death was inhibited by medium with low a Na(+ concentrations. In the same experiments, we exposed rat ileum ex-vivo to DCA with or without EIPA. Severe tissue damage and caspase-3 activation was observed after DCA treatment, but EIPA almost fully prevented this response. In summary, NHE-mediated Na(+ influx is a critical step leading to DCA-induced apoptosis. Cells tolerate acidification but evade DCA-induced apoptosis if NHE is inhibited. Our data suggests that suppression of NHE by endogenous or exogenous inhibitors may lead to apoptosis resistance during GI tumorigenesis.

  1. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats:Role of antioxidants, free radicals and myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghatule RR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the healing effects of extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Neem tree is known as ‘arishtha ’ in Sanskrit, meaning ‘reliever of sicknesses ’. Methods: 50% ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves was administered orally, once daily for 14 days in rats after the induction of colitis with acetic acid and 500 mg/kg dose of extract was found to have an optimal effect against acetic acid-induced colonic damage score, weight and adhesions (Macroscopic. Effect of Azadirachta indica extract was then further studied on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes, colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (microscopic, antibacterial and biochemical parameters viz. i antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and ii free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (acute inflammatory marker activities in acetic acid-induced colitis. Results: Azadirachta indica extract decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic, mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight. Azadirachta indica extract showed intestinal antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities. Acute toxicity study indicated no mortality or other ANS or CNS related adverse effects even with 5.0 g/kg dose (10 times of effective dose indicating its safety. Conclusions: Azadirachta indica seemed to be safe and effective in colitis by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decreasing intestinal bacterial load, free radicals and myeloperoxidase responsible for tissue damage and delayed healing.

  2. Zurampic Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from High Uric Acid Induced-Damage by Inhibiting URAT1 and Inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Zurampic is a US FDA approved drug for treatment of gout. However, the influence of Zurampic on pancreatic β-cells remains unclear. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zurampic on high uric acid-induced damage of pancreatic β-cells and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: INS-1 cells and primary rat islets were stimulated with Zurampic and the mRNA expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1 was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic, and cell viability, apoptosis and ROS release were measured by MTT and flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of active Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK. Finally, cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic at low/high level of glucose (2.8/16.7 mM glucose, and the insulin release was assessed by ELISA. Results: mRNA expression of URAT1 was decreased by Zurampic in a dose-dependent manner. Uric acid decreased cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis and induced ROS release. Uric acid-induced alterations could be reversed by Zurampic. Activation of Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK were enhanced by uric acid, and the enhancements were reversed by Zurampic. Decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK, induced by Zurampic, was further reduced by adding inhibitor of AMPK or ERK. Besides, uric acid inhibited high glucose-induced insulin secretion and the inhibition was rescued by Zurampic. Conclusions: Zurampic has a protective effect on pancreatic β-cells against uric acid induced-damage by inhibiting URAT1 and inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK pathway.

  3. Genetic variation in toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene I and outcome of hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, L N; Ladelund, S; Weis, N

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLR), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and their signalling pathways on spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) resolution. We screened 95 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 22 genes. SNPs significantly associated...... with resolution in the discovery cohort were genotyped in a validation cohort. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for sex, hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV infection and the interleukin-28B rs12979860 SNP was performed in the combined cohort. Haplotype reconstruction and linkage disequilibrium analysis...

  4. Herpes simplex virus infection is sensed by both Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene- like receptors, which synergize to induce type I interferon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon B; Jensen, Søren B; Nielsen, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    The innate antiviral response is initiated by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here we show that retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs) in cooperation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is required for expression of type I...... interferons (IFNs) after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Our work also identified RNase L as a critical component in IFN induction. Moreover, we found that TLR9 and RLRs activate distinct, as well as overlapping, intracellular signalling pathways. Thus, RLRs are important for recognition of HSV...

  5. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate ...

  6. A Study on the efficient alleviation of domestic oil price at international oil crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ku [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    For alleviating domestic oil price when the international oil crisis happens, the government has been reacted directly such as using stored oil or alleviation fund. Although the release of stored oil works for short-term depending on the type of crisis, concerning that most of oil crisis had been resulted in temporary supply reduction rather than long-term supply suspension, utilizing the domestic alleviation fund is regarded more economical than storing oil. However, it has been suggested to compare efficiencies of alleviation fund and a futures market regarding the perspectives that using alleviation fund is more inefficient than utilizing a futures market. Moreover, the direct management by government is less efficient than indirect management. As an efficient way to alleviate domestic oil price at international oil crisis, this study presents an effective utilization of trading in futures of crude oil. There is a high probability of occurrence of this kind of oil crisis by judging from the world political situation and the trend of oil market. In such a case, the government as a crude oil importer should minimize the stored oil and utilize a futures market effectively. The subject of alleviating oil price by trading in futures is an oil supplier, such as oil refining companies or oil importers not the government as a prerequisite. Furthermore, the government should approve to include appropriate cost for preparing oil price alleviation in the oil price and it is required that such a government policy should be consistent. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 15 Tabs.

  7. Water Extract of Deer Bones Activates Macrophages and Alleviates Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α. Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

  8. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the factors having the most significance on the probability of the adopters of microfinance moving out of poverty in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents indeed had improved their probabilities to move out of poverty. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor. 

  9. Icam-1 targeted nanogels loaded with dexamethasone alleviate pulmonary inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carme Coll Ferrer

    Full Text Available Lysozyme dextran nanogels (NG have great potential in vitro as a drug delivery platform, combining simple chemistry with rapid uptake and cargo release in target cells with "stealth" properties and low toxicity. In this work, we study for the first time the potential of targeted NG as a drug delivery platform in vivo to alleviate acute pulmonary inflammation in animal model of LPS-induced lung injury. NG are targeted to the endothelium via conjugation with an antibody (Ab directed to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-NG, whereas IgG conjugated NG (IgG-NG are used for control formulations. The amount of Ab conjugated to the NG and distribution in the body after intravenous (IV injection have been quantitatively analyzed using a tracer isotope-labeled [125I]IgG. As a proof of concept, Ab-NG are loaded with dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory therapeutic, and the drug uptake and release kinetics are measured by HPLC. In vivo studies in mice showed that: i ICAM-NG accumulates in mouse lungs (∼120% ID/g vs ∼15% ID/g of IgG-NG; and, ii DEX encapsulated in ICAM-NG, but not in IgG-NG practically blocks LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cell adhesion molecules including ICAM-1 in the pulmonary inflammation.

  10. Botulinum toxin alleviates dysphagia of patients with inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aleksi; Airas, Laura; Jokela, Manu; Pulkkinen, Jaakko

    2017-09-15

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a disabling and undertreated symptom that often occurs in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). In this study, we examined the effect of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections to the cricopharyngeus muscle (CPM) of patients with s-IBM and dysphagia. A single-center retrospective study involving 40 biopsy-proven s-IBM-patients treated in the District of Southwest Finland from 2000 to 2013. The incidence of dysphagia, rate of aspirations, rate of aspiration pneumonias and treatment results of dysphagia were analyzed. Patients treated for dysphagia were evaluated before and after surgery by video-fluoroscopy and/or using a questionnaire. Twenty-five of the 40 s-IBM patients (62.5%) experienced dysphagia. BoNT-A was injected a median of 2 times (range 1-7) in 12 patients with dysphagia. Before the injections 7 patients reported aspiration, none afterwards. The corresponding figures for aspiration pneumonia were 3 and 0. All of these patients had normal swallowing function 12months (median, range 2-60) after the last injection. BoNT-A injections to the CPM alleviate the dysphagia of s-IBM patients reversibly and appear to reduce the rate of aspiration effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alleviating bias leads to accurate and personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Recommendation bias towards objects has been found to have an impact on personalized recommendation, since objects present heterogeneous characteristics in some network-based recommender systems. In this article, based on a biased heat conduction recommendation algorithm (BHC) which considers the heterogeneity of the target objects, we propose a heterogeneous heat conduction algorithm (HHC), by further taking the heterogeneity of the source objects into account. Tested on three real datasets, the Netflix, RYM and MovieLens, the HHC algorithm is found to present better recommendation in both the accuracy and diversity than two benchmark algorithms, i.e., the original BHC and a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), while not requiring any other accessorial information or parameter. Moreover, the HHC algorithm also elevates the recommendation accuracy on cold objects, referring to the so-called cold-start problem. Eigenvalue analyses show that, the HHC algorithm effectively alleviates the recommendation bias towards objects with different level of popularity, which is beneficial to solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma.

  12. Edaravone alleviates Alzheimer's disease-type pathologies and cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Fan; Lu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Chi; Shen, Lin-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Ye-Ran; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Parikh, Ankit; Chen, Jia; Liang, Chun-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Bu, Xian-Le; Deng, Juan; Li, Jing; Xu, Juan; Zeng, Yue-Qin; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Hai-Wei; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-04-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of most devastating diseases affecting elderly people. Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and the downstream pathological events such as oxidative stress play critical roles in pathogenesis of AD. Lessons from failures of current clinical trials suggest that targeting multiple key pathways of the AD pathogenesis is necessary to halt the disease progression. Here we show that Edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is marketed for acute ischemic stroke, has a potent capacity of inhibiting Aβ aggregation and attenuating Aβ-induced oxidation in vitro. When given before or after the onset of Aβ deposition via i.p. injection, Edaravone substantially reduces Aβ deposition, alleviates oxidative stress, attenuates the downstream pathologies including Tau hyperphosphorylation, glial activation, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and rescues the behavioral deficits of APPswe/PS1 mice. Oral administration of Edaravone also ameliorates the AD-like pathologies and memory deficits of the mice. These findings suggest that Edaravone holds a promise as a therapeutic agent for AD by targeting multiple key pathways of the disease pathogenesis.

  13. Curcumin analog L3 alleviates diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Liu; Wen, Caixia; Huang, Xiuwang; Xu, Chenxia; Lee, Kuan-Han; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-03-15

    L3, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aims to explore the efficacy of L3 on diabetic atherosclerosis and the related mechanism. The effect of L3 was studied on glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, atherosclerosis-related indexes and pathological changes of main organs in the mice model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. The results showed that L3 treatment could meliorate dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, reduce oxidative stress, enhance the activity of antioxidases, increase the nitric oxide level in plasma and aortic arch, decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in pancreas and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortic arch, and meliorate the fatty and atherosclerotic degeneration in aortic arch, thereby preventing the development of diabetes and its complications. These results suggested that L3 can alleviate the diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects. This study provided scientific basis for the further research and clinical application of L3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cells derived from young bone marrow alleviate renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

  15. [The catalase inhibitor aminotriazole alleviates acute alcoholic liver injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qing; Ge, Pu; Dai, Jie; Liang, Tian-Cai; Yang, Qing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the effects of catalase (CAT) inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) on alcohol-induced acute liver injury were investigated to explore the potential roles of CAT in alcoholic liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and various doses of ATZ (100-400 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally at 30 min before alcohol exposure. After 24 h of alcohol exposure, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma were determined. The degree of hepatic histopathological abnormality was observed by HE staining. The activity of hepatic CAT, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver tissue were measured by corresponding kits. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that treatment with ATZ dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of ALT, AST and LDH levels induced by alcohol exposure, and that ATZ alleviated alcohol-induced histopathological alterations. Furthermore, ATZ inhibited the activity of CAT, reduced hepatic levels of H₂O₂and MDA in alcohol exposed rats. ATZ also decreased the levels of plasma TNF-α and IL-6 in rats with alcohol exposure. These results indicated that ATZ attenuated alcohol-induced acute liver injury in rats, suggesting that CAT might play important pathological roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury.

  16. Gust alleviation of highly flexible UAVs with artificial hair sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Reich, Gregory W.

    2015-04-01

    Artificial hair sensors (AHS) have been recently developed in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using carbon nanotube (CNT). The deformation of CNT in air flow causes voltage and current changes in the circuit, which can be used to quantify the dynamic pressure and aerodynamic load along the wing surface. AFRL has done a lot of essential work in design, manufacturing, and measurement of AHSs. The work in this paper is to bridge the current AFRL's work on AHSs and their feasible applications in flight dynamics and control (e.g., the gust alleviation) of highly flexible aircraft. A highly flexible vehicle is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with finite-state inflow aerodynamics. A feedback control algorithm for the rejection of gust perturbations will be developed. A simplified Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller will be implemented based on the state-space representation of the linearized system. All AHS measurements will be used as the control input, i.e., wing sectional aerodynamic loads will be defined as the control output for designing the feedback gain. Once the controller is designed, closed-loop aeroelastic simulations will be performed to evaluate the performance of different controllers with the force feedback and be compared to traditional controller designs with the state feedback. From the study, the feasibility of AHSs in flight control will be assessed. The whole study will facilitate in building a fly-by-feel simulation environment for autonomous vehicles.

  17. Dopamine alleviates nutrient deficiency-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bowen; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Changqing; Wei, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Huang, Dong; Chen, Qi; Li, Chao; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-10-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, root system architecture, nutrient uptake, and responses to nutrient deficiencies in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Under a nutrient deficiency, plants showed significant reductions in growth, chlorophyll concentrations, and net photosynthesis, along with disruptions in nutrient uptake, transport, and distribution. However, pretreatment with 100 μM dopamine markedly alleviated such inhibitions. Supplementation with that compound enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity and development of the root system while promoting the uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, altering the way in which those nutrients were partitioned throughout the plant. The addition of dopamine up-regulated genes for antioxidant enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (MdcAPX, MdcGR, MdMDHAR, MdDHAR-1, and MdDHAR-2) but down-regulated genes for senescence (SAG12, PAO, and MdHXK). These results indicate that exogenous dopamine has an important antioxidant and anti-senescence effect that might be helpful for improving nutrient uptake. Our findings demonstrate that dopamine offers new opportunities for its use in agriculture, especially when addressing the problem of nutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical Apigenin Alleviates Cutaneous Inflammation in Murine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Qiang Man

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been used in preventing and treating skin disorders for centuries. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration of chrysanthemum extract exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether topical applications of apigenin, a constituent of chrysanthemum extract, influence cutaneous inflammation is still unclear. In the present study, we first tested whether topical applications of apigenin alleviate cutaneous inflammation in murine models of acute dermatitis. The murine models of acute allergic contact dermatitis and acute irritant contact dermatitis were established by topical application of oxazolone and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA, respectively. Inflammation was assessed in both dermatitis models by measuring ear thickness. Additionally, the effect of apigenin on stratum corneum function in a murine subacute allergic contact dermatitis model was assessed with an MPA5 physiology monitor. Our results demonstrate that topical applications of apigenin exhibit therapeutic effects in both acute irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis models. Moreover, in comparison with the vehicle treatment, topical apigenin treatment significantly reduced transepidermal water loss, lowered skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration in a subacute murine allergic contact dermatitis model. Together, these results suggest that topical application of apigenin could provide an alternative regimen for the treatment of dermatitis.

  19. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  20. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pycnogenol may alleviate adverse effects in oncologic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Genovesi, D; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Stuard, S

    2008-09-01

    A large variety of adverse reactions are well known to frequently occur during chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncology. Specific medications exist to target individual side effects. The aim of this study was to explore in a pilot trial whether supplementation with French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol could alleviate side effects and improve patient's quality of life. Cancer patients who previously underwent surgery and who were in view of their pathology in relatively good condition, both physically and psychologically, were recruited for this study and divided into two groups. These patients received their first cycle of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, which lasted from 10 days up to 1 month. Then one group of patients received 150 mg Pycnogenol, the control group comparable placebo in a single-blinded fashion. The authors studied the occurrence of side effects and made attempts to judge their severity on a semi-quantitative visual analogue scale over a 2 months period starting after patients completed their first cycle of chemo- or radiotherapy, respectively. Twenty five radiotherapy patients receiving Pycnogenol showed a decreased frequency of essentially all investigated side-effects as compared to 21 patients receiving placebo, though in many categories the difference was limited. The most apparent improvements of acute side effects related to decreased soreness and ulceration in the mouth and throat as well as less dryness of the mouth and the eyes. A decreased incidence of nausea /vomiting, diarrhoea, edema and weakness was noticed, which was reflected by semi-quantitative evaluation suggesting that severity was only half or even less pronounced than in the control group. Only one case of deep vein thrombosis occurred in the Pycnogenol group whereas 2 cases of superficial vein thromboses and one case of deep vein thrombosis occurred in the control group (2.9% vs 10%). Thirty four chemotherapy patients were supplemented with Pycnogenol and another 30

  2. Intercessory prayer for the alleviation of ill health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leanne; Ahmed, Irshad; Hall, Steve; Davison, Andrew

    2009-04-15

    Prayer is amongst the oldest and most widespread interventions used with the intention of alleviating illness and promoting good health. Given the significance of this response to illness for a large proportion of the world's population, there has been considerable interest in recent years in measuring the efficacy of intercessory prayer for the alleviation of ill health in a scientifically rigorous fashion. The question of whether this may contribute towards proving or disproving the existence of God is a philosophical question lying outside the scope of this review of the effects of prayer. This revised version of the review has been prepared in response to feedback and to reflect new methods in the conduct and presentation of Cochrane reviews. To review the effects of intercessory prayer as an additional intervention for people with health problems already receiving routine health care. We systematically searched ten relevant databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE (June 2007). We included any randomised trial comparing personal, focused, committed and organised intercessory prayer with those interceding holding some belief that they are praying to God or a god versus any other intervention. This prayer could be offered on behalf of anyone with health problems. We extracted data independently and analysed it on an intention to treat basis, where possible. We calculated, for binary data, the fixed-effect relative risk (RR), their 95% confidence intervals (CI), and the number needed to treat or harm (NNT or NNH). Ten studies are included in this updated review (7646 patients). For the comparison of intercessory prayer plus standard care versus standard care alone, overall there was no clear effect of intercessory prayer on death, with the effect not reaching statistical significance and data being heterogeneous (6 RCTs, n=6784, random-effects RR 0.77 CI 0.51 to 1.16, I(2) 83%). For general clinical state there was also no significant difference between groups (5

  3. Towards a virtual observatory for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Cuesta, F.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions, which is commonly referred to as the establishment of a virtual observatory, is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. In this study, we present three natural resources management cases in the Andes and the Amazon basin, and investigate how "virtual observatory" technology can improve ecosystem management. Each of these case studies present scientific challenges in terms of model coupling, real-time data assimilation and visualisation for management purposes. The first project deals with water resources management in the Peruvian Andes. Using a rainfall-runoff model, novel visualisations are used to give farmers insight in the water production and regulation capacity of their catchments, which can then be linked to land management practices such as conservation agriculture, wetland protection and grazing density control. In a project in the Amazonian floodplains, optimal allocation of the nesting availability and quality of the giant freshwater turtle are determined using a combined hydraulic model and weather forecasts. Finally, in the rainforest of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, biodiversity models are used to

  4. Tadalafil alleviates muscle ischemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Barresi, Rita; Byrne, Barry J.; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I.; Scott, Bryan L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V.; Anene, Francine; Elashoff, Robert M.; Thomas, Gail D.; Victor, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the muscle sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), which requires certain spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin’s rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin to be targeted to the sarcolemma. When healthy skeletal muscle is subjected to exercise, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived nitric oxide (NO) attenuates local α-adrenergic vasoconstriction thereby optimizing perfusion of muscle. We found previously that this protective mechanism is defective—causing functional muscle ischemia—in dystrophin-deficient muscles of the mdx mouse (a model of DMD) and of children with DMD, in whom nNOSμ is mislocalized to the cytosol instead of the sarcolemma. Here, we report that this protective mechanism also is defective in men with BMD in whom the most common dystrophin mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ. In these men, the vasoconstrictor response, measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation, to reflex sympathetic activation is not appropriately attenuated during exercise of the dystrophic muscles. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, we show that functional muscle ischemia is alleviated and normal blood flow regulation fully restored in the muscles of men with BMD by boosting NO-cGMP signaling with a single dose of the drug tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase (PDE5A) inhibitor. These results further support an essential role for sarcolemmal nNOSμ in the normal modulation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising human skeletal muscle and implicate the NO-cGMP pathway as a putative new target for treating BMD. PMID:23197572

  5. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  6. Curcumin Alleviates the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders of Mice In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Wen-Hua; Sun, Wei; Sun, Yi; Guo, Zhi-Li; Yu, Xiao-Ling

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenol extracted from the turmeric rhizome, which has a wide range of biological activities, but until now the effects of curcumin on the gastrointestinal peristalsis have not been fully understood. In vivo study, we observed the effects of curcumin on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates of mice in normal state and in delayed state by atropine (ATR) or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (L-Arg). An in vitro study explored the direct effects of curcumin on the intestinal contractility, but were studied through measuring spontaneous contraction of isolated jejunum of mice. Our results showed that intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 10-20 days significantly improved gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates of mice delayed by ATR. Moreover, intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days also significantly improved mice gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates delayed by L-Arg. There was no significant effect on normal gastrointestinal propulsion of mice after intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 1-20 days. When normal isolated jejunum of mice were incubated with curcumin in vitro, the amplitude of the spontaneous contractile waves of jejunum was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, curcumin reduced the amplitude of the contractile waves of jejunum in both contracted and relaxed state induced by acetylcholine or ATR individually. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin has quite different effects on gastrointestinal peristalsis in vivo and in vitro. Moderate dose of curcumin by intragastric administration for more than 10 days can alleviate the functional gastrointestinal disorders of mice, but cannot affect normal gastrointestinal propulsion.

  7. Cellular recycling of proteins in seed dormancy alleviation and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Oracz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant’s photosynthetic tissues have been well characterized since many years, but in nonphotosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is

  8. PARP-1 inhibition alleviates diabetic cardiac complications in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Esraa M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F; Ali, Abdelmoneim A

    2016-11-15

    Cardiovascular complications are the major causes of mortality among diabetic population. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 enzyme (PARP-1) is activated by oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. We investigated the implication of PARP-1 in diabetic cardiac complications. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by high fructose-high fat diet and low streptozotocin dose. PARP inhibitor 4-aminobenzamide (4-AB) was administered daily for ten weeks after diabetes induction. At the end of study, surface ECG, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were studied. PARP-1 activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite contents were assessed in heart muscle. Fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured in serum. Finally, histological examination and collagen deposition detection in rat ventricular and aortic sections were carried out. Hearts isolated from diabetic animals showed increased PARP-1 enzyme activity compared to control animals while significantly reduced by 4-AB administration. PARP-1 inhibition by 4-AB alleviated cardiac ischemia in diabetic animals as indicated by ECG changes. PARP-1 inhibition also reduced cardiac inflammation in diabetic animals as evidenced by histopathological changes. In addition, 4-AB administration improved the elevated blood pressure and the associated exaggerated vascular contractility, endothelial destruction and vascular inflammation seen in diabetic animals. Moreover, PARP-1 inhibition decreased serum levels of TNF-α and cardiac nitrite but increased cardiac GSH contents in diabetic animals. However, PARP-1 inhibition did not significantly affect the developed hyperglycemia. Our findings prove that PARP-1 enzyme plays an important role in diabetic cardiac complications through combining inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The effectiveness of bibliotherapy in alleviating tinnitus-related distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Noble, William; Schutte, Nicola S; Bhullar, Navjot

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of bibliotherapy in assisting individuals experiencing distress related to tinnitus. One hundred sixty-two tinnitus sufferers from Australia participated in a study designed to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behaviorally based self-help book in reducing distress. To maximize the ecological validity of the findings, we excluded no individuals interested in treatment for tinnitus-related distress. The experimental condition lost 35% of participants at postassessment, compared to 10% in the control group. In an analysis of participants who completed postintervention assessment, those assigned to the intervention condition, who received a tinnitus self-help book, showed significantly less tinnitus-related distress and general distress 2 months later compared to those assigned to the waiting list control condition. The intervention group's reduction in tinnitus-related distress and general distress from preintervention to postintervention 2 months later was significant, and these participants maintained a significant reduction in distress on follow-up 4 months after they received the tinnitus self-help book. A long-term follow-up of all participants, who at that time had received the book at least a year previously, showed a significant reduction in tinnitus distress. Although these group differences and pre-post changes were significant, effect sizes were small. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant effect for between-groups analyses, but did show a significant effect for the 1-year follow-up pre-post analysis. Information on the effectiveness of using a self-help book, without therapist assistance, in alleviating distress is important, as bibliotherapy can provide inexpensive treatment that is not bound by time or place. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Universal versus tailored solutions for alleviating disruptive behavior in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman-Kishony, Talia; Shvarts, Shifra

    2015-01-01

    Disruptive behavior among hospital staff can negatively affect quality of care. Motivated by a standard on disruptive behavior issued by The Joint Commission (LD 3.10), as well as the desire to improve patient care, minimize liability, and improve staff retention, hospitals are setting policies to prevent and resolve disruptive behaviors. However, it is unknown whether uniform conflict management tools are equally effective among different hospital settings. We surveyed residents and nurses to identify similarities and differences among hospital departments in the antecedents, characteristics, and outcomes of disruptive behaviors, and in the effectiveness of conflict management tools. We used a quantitative questionnaire-based assessment to examine conflict perceptions in eight different hospital departments at Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel. Most participants (89 %) reported witnessing disruptive behavior either directly or in other parties; the most significant causes were identified as intense work, miscommunication, and problematic personalities. The forms of these behaviors, however, varied significantly between departments, with some more prone to expressed conflicts, while others were characterized by hidden disruptive behaviors. These outcomes were correlated by the antecedents to disruptive behavior, which in turn affected the effectiveness of alleviating strategies and tools. Some tools, such as processes for evaluating complaints, teamwork and conflict management courses, and introducing a behavioral mission statement, are effective across many antecedents. Other tools, however, are antecedent-specific, falling into two principal categories: tools directly removing a specific problem and tools that offer a way to circumvent the problem. Conflict resolution tools and strategies, based on residents and nurse perceptions, may be more effective if tailored to the specific situation, rather than using a "one-size-fits-all" approach.

  11. Sustaining trajectory flexibility for air traffic complexity alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Saam N.; Rossiter, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Despite the fact that several Air Traffic Management (ATM) complexity metrics have been proposed in the past few years, very few of these studies incorporate a control independent intrinsic approach to the problem with the aim of sustaining trajectory flexibility. This paper proposes the introduction of novel decision making metrics for sustaining user trajectory flexibility. The hypothesis is, if all aircraft apply a flexibility preservation function, complexity may reduce automatically. The functions proposed combine concepts of adaptability, robustness and intrinsic traffic complexity metrics based on Lyapunov exponents. Adaptability is defined as a measure of the ability of the aircraft to change its planned trajectory in response to the occurrence of a disturbance that renders the current planned trajectory infeasible. The Robustness metric is defined as the ability of the aircraft to keep its planned trajectory unchanged in response to the occurrence of disturbances. An Intrinsic complexity measure is used to evaluate the level of disorder with regards to the aircraft trajectory; disorder is defined in this context as the level of consistency in the flow patterns of aircraft and their proximity. A point mass model for multiple aircraft(s) is used to extract the trajectories and computing a form of characterisation of sensitivity and interdependencies of a set of aircraft trajectories. Lyapunov exponents are used to compute this measure. The main contribution of this paper will be to test the hypothesis by combining the complexity metrics described above. Different operational scenarios are simulated using a airspace environment developed in MATLAB which shows how well the traffic is structured by varying the metrics defined. The simulation shows the efficacy of the metrics to alleviate complexity in a heavily congested airspace.

  12. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  13. Empowering people. Alleviating poverty through self-sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahariya, R

    1993-03-01

    Highlights from an interview with Benjamin D. de Leon, who was appointed Presidential Assistant for Social Development in the Philippines in September 1992, are presented. Mr. de Leon's concern for the marginal sectors of society in health, employment, housing, social welfare, and manpower training as well as his goals of poverty alleviation and people empowerment account for this appointment. Duties include formulating a social development agenda; assisting the Social Development Committee of the Cabinet and the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) in program implementation; and providing weekly information packages about family planning (FP), health, children, women, and the environment. The social development agenda of the Philippine Medium-term Plan (1992-1998) includes employment, income, wages; population, health and nutrition, and family planning; and housing, education, manpower development, social welfare, and community development. The Plan recognizes that poverty is aggravated by rapid population growth, and it strives to ensure that adolescents, military males, high-risk women, and young unmarried couples receive FP information and services from government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. Adequate resources for population and FP as well as recognizing the relationship among population, resources, and the environment are essential to meet the goals of the plan. The present population and FP policy is based on the 1987 Constitution, which spells out responsible parenthood but also rejects abortion as a method of contraception. The official FP program calls for child survival and safe motherhood and accessible, available, and affordable FP services. The Roman Catholic Church opposes the program, since the Church promotes only the rhythm method, but the other religions approve of the program. Some priests and nuns did not object to the promotion of FP. Sufficient financial support from the international community for the Philippine

  14. Tadalafil alleviates muscle ischemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Barresi, Rita; Byrne, Barry J; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Scott, Bryan L; Walker, Ashley E; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Anene, Francine; Elashoff, Robert M; Thomas, Gail D; Victor, Ronald G

    2012-11-28

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the muscle sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), which requires certain spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin to be targeted to the sarcolemma. When healthy skeletal muscle is subjected to exercise, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived NO attenuates local α-adrenergic vasoconstriction, thereby optimizing perfusion of muscle. We found previously that this protective mechanism is defective-causing functional muscle ischemia-in dystrophin-deficient muscles of the mdx mouse (a model of DMD) and of children with DMD, in whom nNOSμ is mislocalized to the cytosol instead of the sarcolemma. We report that this protective mechanism also is defective in men with BMD in whom the most common dystrophin mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ. In these men, the vasoconstrictor response, measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation, to reflex sympathetic activation is not appropriately attenuated during exercise of the dystrophic muscles. In a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial, we show that functional muscle ischemia is alleviated and normal blood flow regulation is fully restored in the muscles of men with BMD by boosting NO-cGMP (guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate) signaling with a single dose of the drug tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5A inhibitor. These results further support an essential role for sarcolemmal nNOSμ in the normal modulation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising human skeletal muscle and implicate the NO-cGMP pathway as a putative new target for treating BMD.

  15. Understanding ozone mechanisms to alleviate ceramic membrane fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Irma Giovanna Llamosas

    Ceramic membranes are a strong prospect as an advanced treatment in the drinking water domain. But their high capital cost and the lack of specific research on their performance still discourage their application in this field. Thus, knowing that fouling is the main drawback experienced in filtration processes, this bench-scale study was aimed to assess the impact of an ozonation pre-treatment on the alleviation of the fouling of UF ceramic membranes. Preozonation and filtration steps were performed under two different pH and ozone doses. Chosen pH values were at the limits of natural surface waters range (6.5 and 8.5) to keep practicability. Raw water from the Thousand Isle's river at Quebec-Canada was used for the tests. The filtration setup involved an unstirred dead-end filtration cell operated at constant flux. Results showed that pre-oxidation by ozone indeed reduced the fouling degree of the membranes according to the dose applied (up to 60 and 85% for membranes 8 and 50 kDa, respectively). Direct NOM oxidation was found responsible for this effect as the presence of molecular ozone was not essential to achieve these results. In the context of this experiment, however, pH showed to be more effective than the ozonation pre-treatment to keep fouling at low levels: 70% lower at pH 6.5 than at pH 8.5 for un-ozonated waters, which was contrary to most of the literature found on the topic (Changwon, 2013; De Angelis & Fidalgo, 2013; Karnik et al., 2005; S. Lee & Kim, 2014). This behaviour results mainly from the operation mode used in the experiment, the electrical repulsions between MON molecules at basic pH that led to the accumulation of material on the feed side of the membranes (concentration polarisation) and ulterior cake formation. In addition, solution pH showed an influence in the definition of fouling mechanisms. At solution pH 6.5, which was precisely the isoelectric point of the membranes (+/-6.5), the blocking fouling mode was frequently detected

  16. Blocking IL-17A Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ao-Wang; Liu, Qing-Huai; Wang, Jun-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17A, a proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases. However, it is unclear whether IL-17A is involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the most serious complications of autoimmune diabetes. This study aimed to demonstrate that IL-17A exacerbates DR by affecting retinal Müller cell function. High glucose (HG)-treated rat Müller cell line (rMC-1) was exposed to IL-17A, anti-IL-17A-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) or/and anti-IL-17 receptor (R)A-neutralizing mAb for 24 h. For in vivo study, DR was induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ). DR model mice were treated with anti-IL-17A mAb or anti-IL-17RA mAb in the vitreous cavity. Mice that were prepared for retinal angiography were sacrificed two weeks after intravitreal injection, while the rest were sacrificed two days after intravitreal injection. IL-17A production and IL-17RA expression were increased in both HG-treated rMC-1 and DR retina. HG induced rMC-1 activation and dysfunction, as determined by the increased GFAP, VEGF and glutamate levels as well as the downregulated GS and EAAT1 expression. IL-17A exacerbated the HG-induced rMC-1 functional disorders, whereas either anti-IL-17A mAb or anti-IL-17RA mAb alleviated the HG-induced rMC-1 disorders. Intravitreal injections with anti-IL-17A mAb or anti-IL-17RA mAb in DR model mice reduced Müller cell dysfunction, vascular leukostasis, vascular leakage, tight junction protein downregulation and ganglion cell apoptosis in the retina. IL-17A aggravates DR-like pathology at least partly by impairing retinal Müller cell function. Blocking IL-17A is a potential therapeutic strategy for DR. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  18. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) knockout preserves cardiac homeostasis through alleviating Akt-mediated myocardial autophagy suppression in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ren, J

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has a role in the development of obesity and diabetes. However, whether MIF has a role in fat diet-induced obesity and associated cardiac anomalies still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of MIF knockout on high-fat diet-induced obesity, obesity-associated cardiac anomalies and the underlying mechanisms involved with a focus on Akt-mediated autophagy. Adult male wild-type (WT) and MIF knockout (MIF(-/-)) mice were placed on 45% high-fat diet for 5 months. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, respiratory exchange ratio, locomotor activity and heat generation were measured using energy calorimeter. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed. Apoptosis was examined using terminal dUTP nick end labeling staining and western blot analysis. Akt signaling pathway and autophagy markers were evaluated. Cardiomyocytes isolated from WT and MIF(-/-) mice were treated with recombinant mouse MIF (rmMIF). High-fat diet feeding elicited increased body weight gain, insulin resistance and caloric disturbance in WT and MIF(-/-) mice. High-fat diet induced unfavorable geometric, contractile and histological changes in the heart, the effects of which were alleviated by MIF knockout. In addition, fat diet-induced cardiac anomalies were associated with Akt activation and autophagy suppression, which were nullified by MIF deficiency. In cardiomyocytes from WT mice, autophagy was inhibited by exogenous rmMIF through Akt activation. In addition, MIF knockout rescued palmitic acid-induced suppression of cardiomyocyte autophagy, the effect of which was nullified by rmMIF. These results indicate that MIF knockout preserved obesity-associated cardiac anomalies without affecting fat diet-induced obesity, probably through restoring myocardial autophagy in an Akt-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insights for the role of MIF in obesity and associated cardiac

  19. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per

    2014-01-01

    respond to gibberellic acid by secreting an array of proteins and provide a unique system for the analysis of plant protein secretion. Perturbation of protein secretion in gibberellic acid-induced aleurone layers by two independent mechanisms, heat shock and tunicamycin treatment, demonstrated overlapping...... and secretion, such as calreticulin, protein disulfide isomerase, proteasome subunits, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. Sixteen heat shock proteins in 29 spots showed diverse responses to the treatments, with only a minority increasing in response to heat shock. The majority, all of which were small heat...... shock proteins, decreased in heat-shocked aleurone layers. Additionally, glycopeptide enrichment and N-glycosylation analysis identified 73 glycosylation sites in 65 aleurone layer proteins, with 53 of the glycoproteins found in extracellular fractions and 36 found in intracellular fractions...

  20. A novel method to alleviate flash-line defects in coining process

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jiangping; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2013-01-01

    with the reported experimental results. We also propose a novel method of redesigning the rim geometry of the workpiece to alleviate the flash-line defects which also shows good agreement with experiments. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  2. E-Skill Information Acquisition Software: A Key to Poverty Alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-Skill Information Acquisition Software: A Key to Poverty Alleviation Or Self Reliance. ... has not helped matters. This project is about developing an e-skill transfer using software. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Hypersonic Cruise and Re-Entry Radio Frequency Blackout Mitigation: Alleviating the Communications Blackout Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented here will be a review of a NASA effort to provide a method to transmit and receive RF communications and telemetry through a re-entry plasma thus alleviating the classical RF blackout phenomenon.

  4. Chemometrics-assisted Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Two Co-administered Drugs of Major Interaction, Methotrexate and Aspirin, in Human Urine Following Acid-induced Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Hadir M; Ragab, Marwa A A; El-Kimary, Eman I

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mostly along with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most common of which is aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Since NSAIDs impair MTX clearance and increase its toxicity, it was necessary to develop a simple and reliable method for the monitoring of MTX levels in urine samples, when coadministered with ASA. The method was based on the spectrofluorimetric measurement of the acid-induced hydrolysis product of MTX, 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroic acid (AMP), along with the strongly fluorescent salicylic acid (SA), a product of acid-induced hydrolysis of aspirin and its metabolites in urine. The overlapping emission spectra were resolved using the derivative method (D method). In addition, the corresponding derivative emission spectra were convoluted using discrete Fourier functions, 8-points sin xi polynomials, (D/FF method) for better elimination of interferences. Validation of the developed methods was carried out according to the ICH guidelines. Moreover, the data obtained using derivative and convoluted derivative spectra were treated using the non-parametric Theil's method (NP), compared with the least-squares parametric regression method (LSP). The results treated with Theil's method were more accurate and precise compared with LSP since the former is less affected by the outliers. This work offers the potential of both derivative and convolution using discrete Fourier functions in addition to the effectiveness of using the NP regression analysis of data. The high sensitivity obtained by the proposed methods was promising for measuring low concentration levels of the two drugs in urine samples. These methods were efficiently used to measure the drugs in human urine samples following their co-administration.

  5. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  6. Essential Role of Growth Hormone and IGF-1 in Therapeutic Effect of Ghrelin in the Course of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2017-05-24

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this effect. In sham-operated or hypophysectomized male Wistar rats, colitis was induced by enema with 1 mL of 3% solution of acetic acid. Saline or ghrelin (given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day. Seven days after colitis induction, rats were anesthetized and the severity of the colitis was assessed. Treatment with ghrelin reduced the area of colonic mucosa damage in pituitary-intact rat. This effect was associated with increase in serum levels of GH and IGF-1. Moreover, administration of ghrelin improved blood flow in colonic mucosa and mucosal cell proliferation, as well as reduced mucosal concentration of proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and activity of myeloperoxidase. Hypophysectomy reduced serum levels of GH and IGF-1 and increased the area of colonic damage in rats with colitis. These effects were associated with additional reduction in mucosal blood follow and DNA synthesis when compared to pituitary-intact rats. Mucosal concentration of IL-1β and mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase were maximally increased. Moreover, in hypophysectomized rats, administration of ghrelin failed to affect serum levels of GH or IGF-1, as well as the healing rate of colitis, mucosal cell proliferation, and mucosal concentration of IL-1β, or activity of myeloperoxidase. We conclude that administration of ghrelin accelerates the healing of the acetic acid-induced colitis. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in experimental colitis is mainly mediated by the release of endogenous growth hormone and IGF-1.

  7. Water participation for poverty alleviation--the case of Meseta Purépecha, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, M; Kurtycz, A; van der Helm, R

    2003-01-01

    The construction of small water reservoirs has been used in an effort to alleviate poverty in Messeta Purépecha region in Mexico. The programme's rationale can be characterised as incentive-based participation, using both local employment and shared risks concepts. The programme so far has been a relative success. However, in the light of poverty alleviation questions have to be raised about the isolated nature of the programme as well as the role of the incentives used.

  8. Expression of ultraviolet-induced restriction alleviation in Escherichia coli K-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, B.; Wackernagel, W.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet-induced restriction alleviation is an SOS function which partially relieves the K-12-specific DNA restriction in Escherichia coli. Restriction alleviation is determined by observing elevated survival of unmodified phage lambda in cells irradiated with ultraviolet prior to infection. The authors demonstrate that restriction of lambda is also relieved when log-phase cells are irradiated as late as 50 min after adsorption of lambda. At this time more than 60% of the lambda DNA is already released as acid-soluble material from the cells. Experiments involving reextraction of lambda DNA from infected cells and a mild detergent treatment removing adsorbed phages from the cellular surface showed that only a small specific fraction of all lambda infections is destined to escape restriction due to restriction alleviation. This fraction (10-20%) has a retarded mode of DNA injection (60 min or longer) after adsorption which allows the expression of the restriction alleviation function before the phage DNA is exposed to restriction endonucleases. This behaviour of a fraction of lambda phages explains why the SOS function restriction alleviation could initially be discovered. The authors show that the retarded mode of DNA injection is not required for another SOS function acting on lambda DNA, the increased repair of ultraviolet-irradiated DNA (Weigle reactivation). (Auth.)

  9. Alleviating effects of calcium on cobalt toxicity in two barley genotypes differing in cobalt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwalaba, Jonas Lwalaba Wa; Zvobgo, Gerald; Fu, Liangbo; Zhang, Xuelei; Mwamba, Theodore Mulembo; Muhammad, Noor; Mundende, Robert Prince Mukobo; Zhang, Guoping

    2017-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) contamination in soils is becoming a severe issue in environment safety and crop production. Calcium (Ca) , as a macro-nutrient element, shows the antagonism with many divalent heavy metals and the capacity of alleviating oxidative stress in plants. In this study, the protective role of Ca in alleviating Co stress was hydroponically investigated using two barley genotypes differing in Co toxicity tolerance. Barley seedlings exposed to 100µM Co showed the significant reduction in growth and photosynthetic rate, and the dramatic increase in the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, with Ea52 (Co-sensitive) being much more affected than Yan66 (Co-tolerant). Addition of Ca in growth medium alleviated Co toxicity by reducing Co uptake and enhancing the antioxidant capacity. The effect of Ca in alleviating Co toxicity was much greater in Yan66 than in Ea52. The results indicate that the alleviation of Co toxicity in barley plants by Ca is attributed to the reduced Co uptake and enhanced antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alleviating Border Effects in Wavelet Transforms for Nonlinear Time-varying Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU, H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Border effects are very common in many finite signals analysis and processing approaches using convolution operation. Alleviating the border effects that can occur in the processing of finite-length signals using wavelet transform is considered in this paper. Traditional methods for alleviating the border effects are suitable to compression or coding applications. We propose an algorithm based on Fourier series which is proved to be appropriate to the application of time-frequency analysis of nonlinear signals. Fourier series extension method preserves the time-varying characteristics of the signals. A modified signal duration expression for measuring the extent of border effects region is presented. The proposed algorithm is confirmed to be efficient to alleviate the border effects in comparison to the current methods through the numerical examples.

  11. Alleviation of glucose repression of maltose metabolism by MIG1 disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Christopher; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B.

    1996-01-01

    The MIG1 gene was disrupted in a haploid laboratory strain (B224) and in an industrial polyploid strain (DGI 342) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alleviation of glucose repression of the expression of MAL genes and alleviation of glucose control of maltose metabolism were investigated in batch...... cultivations on glucose-maltose mixtures. In the MIG1-disrupted haploid strain, glucose repression was partly alleviated; i.e., maltose metabolism was initiated at higher glucose concentrations than in the corresponding wild-type strain. In contrast, the polyploid Delta mig1 strain exhibited an even more...... stringent glucose control of maltose metabolism than the corresponding wild-type strain, which could be explained by a more rigid catabolite inactivation of maltose permease, affecting the uptake of maltose. Growth on the glucose-sucrose mixture showed that the polyploid Delta mig1 strain was relieved...

  12. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  13. Development of SMA Actuated Morphing Airfoil for Wind Turbine Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakalas, A.; Machairas, T.; Solomou, A.; Riziotis, V.; Saravanos, D.

    Wind turbine rotor upscaling has entered a range of rotor diameters where the blade structure cannot sustain the increased aerodynamic loads without novel load alleviation concepts. Research on load alleviation using morphing blade sections is presented. Antagonistic shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are implemented to deflect the section trailing edge (TE) to target shapes and target time-series relating TE movement with changes in lift coefficient. Challenges encountered by the complex thermomechanical response of morphing section and the enhancement of SMA transient response to achieve frequencies meaningful for aerodynamic load alleviation are addressed. Using a recently developed finite element for SMA actuators [1], actuator configurations are considered for fast cooling and heating cycles. Numerical results quantify the attained ranges of TE angle movement, the moving time period and the developed stresses. Estimations of the attained variations of lift coefficient vs. time are also presented to assess the performance of the morphing section.

  14. Gallic Acid Induces a Reactive Oxygen Species-Provoked c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Apoptosis in Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Liu, Hsiang-Chun; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disorder characterized by fibroblasts proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation. Induction of fibroblast apoptosis therefore plays a crucial role in the resolution of this disease. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a common botanic phenolic compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in tumor cell lines and renal fibroblasts. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lung fibroblasts apoptosis induced by gallic acid. We found that treatment with gallic acid resulted in activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (PKB, Akt), but not p38MAPK, in mouse lung fibroblasts. Inhibition of JNK using pharmacologic inhibitor (SP600125) and genetic knockdown (JNK specific siRNA) significantly inhibited p53 accumulation, reduced PUMA and Fas expression, and abolished apoptosis induced by gallic acid. Moreover, treatment with antioxidants (vitamin C, N-acetyl cysteine, and catalase) effectively diminished gallic acid-induced hydrogen peroxide production, JNK and p53 activation, and cell death. These observations imply that gallic acid-mediated hydrogen peroxide formation acts as an initiator of JNK signaling pathways, leading to p53 activation and apoptosis in mouse lung fibroblasts. PMID:23533505

  15. Uric acid induces hepatic steatosis by generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress: potential role in fructose-dependent and -independent fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel A; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G; Choi, Yea-Jin; Cicerchi, Christina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Marek, George; Duranay, Murat; Schreiner, George; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kang, Duk-Hee; Sautin, Yuri Y; Johnson, Richard J

    2012-11-23

    Uric acid is an independent risk factor in fructose-induced fatty liver, but whether it is a marker or a cause remains unknown. Hepatocytes exposed to uric acid developed mitochondrial dysfunction and increased de novo lipogenesis, and its blockade prevented fructose-induced lipogenesis. Rather than a consequence, uric acid induces fatty liver Hyperuricemic people are more prone to develop fructose-induced fatty liver. Metabolic syndrome represents a collection of abnormalities that includes fatty liver, and it currently affects one-third of the United States population and has become a major health concern worldwide. Fructose intake, primarily from added sugars in soft drinks, can induce fatty liver in animals and is epidemiologically associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. Fructose is considered lipogenic due to its ability to generate triglycerides as a direct consequence of the metabolism of the fructose molecule. Here, we show that fructose also stimulates triglyceride synthesis via a purine-degrading pathway that is triggered from the rapid phosphorylation of fructose by fructokinase. Generated AMP enters into the purine degradation pathway through the activation of AMP deaminase resulting in uric acid production and the generation of mitochondrial oxidants. Mitochondrial oxidative stress results in the inhibition of aconitase in the Krebs cycle, resulting in the accumulation of citrate and the stimulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase leading to de novo lipogeneis. These studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under normal and diseased states.

  16. Effects of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors activations and ionizing radiation cotreatment on cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hironori; Iwabuchi, Miyu; Kazama, Yuka; Furukawa, Maho; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2018-04-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and induce antiviral immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that RLR activation induces antitumor immunity and cytotoxicity against different types of cancer, including lung cancer. However a previous report has demonstrated that ionizing radiation exerts a limited effect on RLR in human monocytic cell-derived macrophages, suggesting that RLR agonists may be used as effective immunostimulants during radiation therapy. However, it is unclear whether ionizing radiation affects the cytotoxicity of RLR agonists against cancer cells. Therefore, in the present study the effects of cotreatment with ionizing radiation and RLR agonists on cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer cells A549 and H1299 was investigated. Treatment with RLR agonist poly(I:C)/LyoVec™ [poly(I:C)] exerted cytotoxic effects against human non-small cell lung cancer. The cytotoxic effects of poly(I:C) were enhanced by cotreatment with ionizing radiation, and poly(I:C) pretreatment resulted in the radiosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer. Furthermore, cotreatment of A549 and H1299 cells with poly(I:C) and ionizing radiation effectively induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner compared with treatment with poly(I:C) or ionizing radiation alone. These results indicate that RLR agonists and ionizing radiation cotreatment effectively exert cytotoxic effects against human non-small cell lung cancer through caspase-mediated apoptosis.

  17. Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides from Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca on citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Prisenžňáková, Lubica; Košťálová, Zuzana; Ebringerová, Anna; Hromádková, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Several water-soluble pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the pumpkin fruit biomass and characterized by composition, structural features and molecular properties. The pectic polysaccharides were tested for antitussive activity by studying the effects of citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs and reactivity of the airway smooth muscle in vivo conditions in comparison to the narcotic drug codeine. Oral administration of all pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin inhibited the number of coughs induced by citric acid in guinea pigs, but to various extents. The results indicated that the antitussive activity of the pectic polysaccharides is affected by their molecular and structural properties, whereby a synergistic action between the polysaccharide and non-carbohydrate components on the biological response has been suggested as well. The cough depressive efficacy of most of the tested polysaccharides was comparable and even higher than that of codeine. Moreover, the application of these polysaccharides provoked any side effects what is their advantage towards the conventional opioid-derived antitussive agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Motamed, Saeed Mohammadi; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Chamanara, Mohsen; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Rashidian, Amir

    2017-10-24

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway in acetic acid-induced rat colitis. Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2 mL of diluted acetic acid (4%) solution. Two hours after the induction of colitis, 0.2% tween 80 in normal saline, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and F. vulgare essential oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) were administered to the animals by oral gavage and continued for 5 consecutive days. Assessment of macroscopic and microscopic lesions was done. MPO activity was evaluated by biochemical method. Furthermore, TNF-α activity was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the expression level of p-NF-kB p65 protein was measured by western blot analysis. Dexamethasone and F. vulgare essential oil (200, 400 mg/kg) reduced the macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the acetic acid group (p kB p65 protein (p kB pathway.

  19. A Patient-Invented Maneuver to Alleviate Freezing of Gait Using a Foot Loop Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Okuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a disabling gait disorder in parkinsonian patients characterized by the inability to initiate or continue locomotion. I herein present a 65-year-old man with Parkinson's disease who invented a unique method (foot loop band to alleviate FOG, which has not been previously described in the literature. The mechanisms to alleviate FOG include not only facilitating mechanical weight shift, but also restoring internal cueing and driving motor commands for gait initiation. This patient-invented maneuver may be recommended for patients having intractable FOG, because it is portable, cheap and safe.

  20. Do Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...... whether liberalizing economic institutions, a type of reform favoured by some economists, is likely to alleviate such loses. Estimating the effects of crises across European states 1975–2011 suggest that countries with relatively easy market regulations suffered smaller well-being losses....

  1. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  2. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24) month...

  3. Antistranspirant compounds alleviate the mild-desiccation-induced reduction of vase life in cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Gebraegziabher, Habtamu; Li, Tao; Kambourakis, Emmanouil; Ligoxigakis, Eleftherios K.; Padadimitriou, Michael; Strataridaki, Argiro; Bouranis, Dimitrios; Fiorani, F.; Heuvelink, E.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2016-01-01

    The vase life sensitivity to mild desiccation (12% weight loss) was addressed in rose, together with alleviation possibilities. The postharvest longevity upon arrival or following mild desiccation was determined on eight cultivars, combined with several morpho-physiological traits. Mild desiccation

  4. Effect of social capital on poverty alleviation: A study of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entrepreneurial performance of women in developing countries is influenced by microfinance factors such as social capital. However, there are mixed findings on the effect of social capital on poverty alleviation. Thus, this study assessed the effect of social capital on self-employment, education, training and skills ...

  5. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs—economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities—on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty. PMID:29596517

  6. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT SECURITY IN CONTIGUOUS POVERTY ALLEVIATION AREA OF SICHUAN PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Xian; Y. Chen; J. Chen; X. Luo; H. Shao

    2018-01-01

    According to the overall requirements of ecological construction and environmental protection, rely on the national key ecological engineering, strengthen ecological environmental restoration and protection, improve forest cover, control soil erosion, construct important ecological security barrier in poor areas, inhibit poverty alleviation through ecological security in this area from environmental damage to the vicious cycle of poverty. Obviously, the dynamic monitoring of ecological securi...

  7. Natural Products for the Prevention and Alleviation of Risk Factors for Diabetes: Chromium and Cinnamon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products are widespread for the alleviation and prevention of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We have shown that glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c levels are all improved in people with type 2 diabetes following chromium supplementation in a double-b...

  8. Exogenous calcium alleviates low night temperature stress on the photosynthetic apparatus of tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxian Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous CaCl2 on photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII activities, cyclic electron flow (CEF, and proton motive force of tomato leaves under low night temperature (LNT was investigated. LNT stress decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II], and photochemical quenching (qP, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment improved Pn, Y(II, and qP under LNT stress. LNT stress significantly increased the non-regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation [Y(NO], whereas CaCl2 alleviated this increase. Exogenous Ca2+ enhanced stimulation of CEF by LNT stress. Inhibition of oxidized PQ pools caused by LNT stress was alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. LNT stress reduced zeaxanthin formation and ATPase activity, but CaCl2 pretreatment reversed both of these effects. LNT stress caused excess formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment decreased the said factor under LNT. Thus, our results showed that photoinhibition of LNT-stressed plants could be alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. Our findings further revealed that this alleviation was mediated in part by improvements in carbon fixation capacity, PQ pools, linear and cyclic electron transports, xanthophyll cycles, and ATPase activity.

  9. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  10. Geographical targeting of poverty alleviation programs : methodology and applications in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.; Srinivasan, P.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for mapping poverty within national borders at the level of relatively small geographical areas and illustrates this methodology for India. Poverty alleviation programs in India are presently targeted only at the level of the state. All states includes, however, many

  11. The politics of defining and alleviating poverty: State strategies and their impacts in rural Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.; Thampi, B.V.; Narayana, D.; Nandigama, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a relational approach to the study of poverty (Mosse, 2010), and uses this to critically evaluate state strategies for identifying and alleviating poverty in Kerala, India. It traces these from national planning documents through to their point of implementation, drawing on

  12. The Use of the Ombudsman's Services for Alleviating International Students' Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsara, Ourania

    2015-01-01

    This article offers some suggestions regarding the development of a support strategy by ombudsmen in order to alleviate international students' difficulties when studying in host universities. It is also shown how the Organisational Justice Theory can be used as a framework for understanding the role of ombudsman in higher education settings and…

  13. Embodied terror management: interpersonal touch alleviates existential concerns among individuals with low self-esteem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Tjew-a-Sin, Mandy; Schneider, I.K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a

  14. Role of dietary modification in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn; Probst, Yasmine

    2017-08-01

    To review the evidence for the role of dietary modifications in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms. A systematic literature review was guided by PRISMA and conducted using Scopus, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science and PsycINFO scientific databases (1994-2016) to identify relevant studies. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, the quality of each paper was assessed and data extracted into a standardised tabular format. Positive outcomes were highlighted in some included studies for polyphenol intakes in animal studies, D-ribose supplementation in humans and aspects of symptom alleviation for one of three polynutrient supplement studies. Omega three fatty acid blood levels and supplementation with an omega three fatty acid supplement also displayed positive outcomes in relation to chronic fatigue syndrome symptom alleviation. Limited dietary modifications were found useful in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms, with overall evidence narrow and inconsistent across studies. Implications for public health: Due to the individual and community impairment chronic fatigue syndrome causes the population, it is vital that awareness and further focused research on this topic is undertaken to clarify and consolidate recommendations and ensure accurate, useful distribution of information at a population level. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naminse, Eric Yaw; Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs-economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities-on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty.

  16. Economic contribution of participatory agroforestry program to poverty alleviation: a case from Sal forests, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, K.K.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Ullah, M.O.; Sato, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the Forest Department of Bangladesh, a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population. We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible

  17. Can musical engagement alleviate age-related decline in inhibitory control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, R.D.; Nilsenova, Marie; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether active musical engagement alleviates decline in inhibitory control due to cognitive aging. Given that musical training in young adults has been shown to improve attentional performance, we can expect this benefit to persist for older adults as well.

  18. Appraisal of auto-rickshaw as poverty alleviation strategy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the use of auto-rickshaw (three - wheeled cycle) as poverty alleviation scheme in metropolitan areas of Lagos state Nigeria, with the aim of exploring the significance of the scheme in solving beneficiaries' financial challenges. Data were obtained from secondary and primary sources. 200 structured ...

  19. Load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) in the INDUFLAP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Thanasis K.; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    The load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) is verified on a full Design Load Base (DLB) setup using the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and by investigating a flap configuration for the NREL 5MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model. The performance of the CRTEF...

  20. Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of arbuscular ... Roots of the cowpea lines were all heavily colonized by the fungi and their leaf P was ... Total dry weight of inoculated cowpea was not affected by soil acidity while it ...

  1. Foreign direct investment and poverty alleviation : the case of Bulyanhulu and Geita gold mines, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyankweli, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis seeks to quantify the economic, social and environmental effects of the gold mining sector as a component of foreign direct investments in Tanzania and its contribution to poverty alleviation. In addition to highlighting the socio-economic gains and losses, by exploring the corporate

  2. Breaking bad habits: Targeting MDSCs to alleviate immunosuppression in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sumanta K; Kortylewski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    The myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to tumor immune evasion and still remain an elusive therapeutic target. Our study identified granulocytic MDSCs accumulating in prostate cancer patients during disease progression. We demonstrate the feasibility of using STAT3siRNA-based strategy for targeting MDSCs to alleviate arginase-dependent suppression of T cell activity.

  3. Studies on possibility for alleviation of lifestyle diseases by low-dose irradiation or radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, T.; Sakoda, A.; Yoshimoto, M.; Nakagawa, S.; Toyota, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Yamato, K.; Ishimori, Y.; Kawabe, A.; Hanamoto, K.; Taguchi, T.; Yamaoka, K.

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies showed the possibility that activation of the anti-oxidative function alleviates various oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. Results showed that, low-dose X-ray irradiation activated superoxide dismutase and inhibits oedema following ischaemia-reperfusion. To alleviate ischaemia-reperfusion injury with transplantation, the changes of the anti-oxidative function in liver graft using low-dose X-ray irradiation immediately after exenteration were examined. Results showed that liver grafts activate the anti-oxidative function as a result of irradiation. In addition, radon inhalation enhances the anti-oxidative function in some organs, and alleviates alcohol-induced oxidative damage of mouse liver. Moreover, in order to determine the most effective condition of radon inhalation, mice inhaled radon before or after carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) administration. Results showed that radon inhalation alleviates CCl 4 -induced hepatopathy, especially prior inhalation. It is highly possible that adequate activation of anti-oxidative functions induced by low-dose irradiation can contribute to preventing or reducing oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. (authors)

  4. Poverty alleviation as business strategy? Evaluating commitments of frontrunner Multinational Corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the debate on how to combat poverty, the positive role of MNCs is frequently mentioned nowadays, although doubts and criticism remain. Facing this societal debate, MNCs feel pressure to formulate a position. This paper analyzes MNCs' policies on their poverty-alleviating potential. 'Frontrunner'

  5. Extractive sector politics in Latin America and their impact on poverty alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    and experiences of Mexico, Chile and Peru in regards to the nexus between non-renewable resource management and poverty alleviation. With that contextual background, the paper will present the most common developmental debates taking place in El Salvador, the province of Mendoza (Argentina) and the state of Baja...

  6. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  7. Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, G; Body, S; Cheung, T H C; Hampson, C L; Deakin, J F W; Anderson, I M; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2008-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is believed to contribute to the control of operant behaviour by reinforcers. Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers. This study aims to examine the effect of AcbC lesions on performance on a progressive-ratio schedule using a quantitative model that dissociates effects of interventions on motor and motivational processes (Killeen 1994 Mathematical principles of reinforcement. Behav Brain Sci 17:105-172). Rats with bilateral quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the AcbC (n = 15) or sham lesions (n = 14) were trained to lever-press for food-pellet reinforcers under a progressive-ratio schedule. In Phase 1 (90 sessions) the reinforcer was one pellet; in Phase 2 (30 sessions), it was two pellets; in Phase 3, (30 sessions) it was one pellet. The performance of both groups conformed to the model of progressive-ratio performance (group mean data: r2 > 0.92). The motor parameter, delta, was significantly higher in the AcbC-lesioned than the sham-lesioned group, reflecting lower overall response rates in the lesioned group. The motivational parameter, a, was sensitive to changes in reinforcer size, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. The AcbC-lesioned group showed longer post-reinforcement pauses and lower running response rates than the sham-lesioned group. The results suggest that destruction of the AcbC impairs response capacity but does not alter the efficacy of food reinforcers. The results are consistent with recent findings that AcbC lesions do not alter sensitivity to reinforcer size in inter-temporal choice schedules.

  8. Citric acid induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) via caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Tsung-Ho; Chen, Chia-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Hung, Sung-Jen; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-10-01

    Citric acid is an alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) widely used in cosmetic dermatology and skincare products. However, there is concern regarding its safety for the skin. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of citric acid on the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. HaCaT cells were treated with citric acid at 2.5-12.5 mM for different time periods. Cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, flow cytometry, western blot and confocal microscopy. Citric acid not only inhibited proliferation of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, but also induced apoptosis and cell cycle-arrest at the G2/M phase (before 24 h) and S phase (after 24 h). Citric acid increased the level of Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and reduced the levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL) and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently induced apoptosis via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Citric acid also activated death receptors and increased the levels of caspase-8, activated BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) protein, Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and Endonuclease G (EndoG). Therefore, citric acid induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. The study results suggest that citric acid is cytotoxic to HaCaT cells via induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in vitro.

  9. PtrWRKY73, a salicylic acid-inducible poplar WRKY transcription factor, is involved in disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanjiao; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Ye, Shenglong; Karim, Abdul; Ling, Zhengyi; He, Yunqiu; Yang, Siqi; Luo, Keming

    2015-05-01

    A salicylic acid-inducible WRKY gene, PtrWRKY73, from Populus trichocarpa , was isolated and characterized. Overexpression of PtrWRKY73 in Arabidopsis thaliana increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but reduced resistance against necrotrophic pathogens. WRKY transcription factors are commonly involved in plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the roles of the WRKY genes in poplar defense. In this study, we isolated a salicylic acid (SA)-inducible WRKY gene, PtrWRKY73, from Populus trichocarpa, belonging to group I family and containing two WRKY domains, a D domain and an SP cluster. PtrWRKY73 was expressed predominantly in roots, old leaves, sprouts and stems, especially in phloem and its expression was induced in response to treatment with exogenous SA. PtrWRKY73 was localized to the nucleus of plant cells and exhibited transcriptional activation. Overexpression of PtrWRKY73 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in increased resistance to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (PstDC3000), but more sensitivity to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The SA-mediated defense-associated genes, such as PR1, PR2 and PAD4, were markedly up-regulated in transgenic plants overexpressing PtrWRKY73. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) was not affected, whereas a defense-related gene PAL4 had reduced in PtrWRKY73 overexpressor plants. Together, these results indicated that PtrWRKY73 plays a positive role in plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens but a negative effect on resistance against necrotrophic pathogens.

  10. Dose dependent activation of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I promotes both proliferation and apoptosis signals in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Hu

    Full Text Available The retinoic-acid-inducible gene (RIG-like receptor (RLR family proteins are major pathogen reorganization receptors (PRR responsible for detection of viral RNA, which initiates antiviral response. Here, we evaluated the functional role of one RLR family member, RIG-I, in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. RIG-I is abundantly expressed both in poorly-differentiated primary cancer and lymph node metastasis, but not in normal adjacent tissues. Activation of RIG-I by transfection with low dose of 5'-triphosphate RNA (3p-RNA induces low levels of interferon and proinflammatory cytokines and promotes NF-κB- and Akt-dependent cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast, activation of RIG-I by a high dose of 3p-RNA induces robust mitochondria-derived apoptosis accompanied by decreased activation of Akt, which is independent of the interferon and TNFα receptor, but can be rescued by over-expression of constitutively active Akt. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the CARD domain of RIG-I is essential for inducing apoptosis by interacting with caspase-9. Together, our results reveal a dual role of RIG-I in HNSCC through regulating activation of Akt, in which RIG-I activation by low-dose viral dsRNA increases host cell survival, whereas higher level of RIG-I activation leads to apoptosis. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of dsRNA mediated RIG-I activation in the treatment of HNSCC.

  11. Comparisons of different mean airway pressure settings during high-frequency oscillation in inflammatory response to oleic acid-induced lung injury in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Ono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Ono1, Tomonobu Koizumi2, Rikimaru Nakagawa1, Sumiko Yoshikawa2, Tetsutarou Otagiri11Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, JapanPurpose: The present study was designed to examine effects of different mean airway pressure (MAP settings during high-frequency oscillation (HFO on oxygenation and inflammatory responses to acute lung injury (ALI in rabbits.Methods: Anesthetized rabbits were mechanically ventilated with a conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV mode (tidal volume 6 ml/kg, inspired oxygen fraction [FIo2] of 1.0, respiratory rate [RR] of 30/min, positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] of 5 cmH2O. ALI was induced by intravenous administration of oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg and the animals were randomly allocated to the following three experimental groups; animals (n = 6 ventilated using the same mode of CMV, or animals ventilated with standard MAP (MAP 10 cmH2O, n = 7, and high MAP (15 cmH2O, n = 6 settings of HFO (Hz 15. The MAP settings were calculated by the inflation limb of the pressure-volume curve during CMV.Results: HFO with a high MAP setting significantly improved the deteriorated oxygenation during oleic acid-induced ALI and reduced wet/dry ratios, neutrophil counts and interleukin-8 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, compared to those parameters in CMV and standard MAP-HFO.Conclusions: These findings suggest that only high MAP setting during HFO could contribute to decreased lung inflammation as well as improved oxygenation during the development of ALI.Keywords: lung protective ventilation, open lung ventilation, IL-8, neutrophil

  12. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates are essential for systemic activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and accumulation of jasmonic acid in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Heinrich, Maria; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-28

    Herbivory induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the accumulation of jasmonates and defensive metabolites in damaged leaves and in distal undamaged leaves. Previous studies mainly focused on individual responses and a limited number of systemic leaves, and more research is needed for a better understanding of how different plant parts respond to herbivory. In the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, FACs (fatty acid-amino acid conjugates) in Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are the major elicitors that induce herbivory-specific signaling but their role in systemic signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that simulated herbivory (adding M. sexta OS to fresh wounds) dramatically increased SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) activity and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in damaged leaves and in certain (but not all) undamaged systemic leaves, whereas wounding alone had no detectable systemic effects; importantly, FACs and wounding are both required for activating these systemic responses. In contrast to the activation of SIPK and elevation of JA in specific systemic leaves, increases in the activity of an important anti-herbivore defense, trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI), were observed in all systemic leaves after simulated herbivory, suggesting that systemic TPI induction does not require SIPK activation and JA increases. Leaf ablation experiments demonstrated that within 10 minutes after simulated herbivory, a signal (or signals) was produced and transported out of the treated leaves, and subsequently activated systemic responses. Our results reveal that N. attenuata specifically recognizes herbivore-derived FACs in damaged leaves and rapidly send out a long-distance signal to phylotactically connected leaves to activate MAPK and JA signaling, and we propose that FACs that penetrated into wounds rapidly induce the production of another long-distance signal(s) which travels to all systemic leaves and activates TPI defense.

  13. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bum Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV actively evades host interferon (IFN responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP and poly(IC. The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity.

  15. A combined physiological and proteomic approach to reveal lactic-acid-induced alterations in Lactobacillus casei Zhang and its mutant with enhanced lactic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei has traditionally been recognized as a probiotic and frequently used as an adjunct culture in fermented dairy products, where acid stress is an environmental condition commonly encountered. In the present study, we carried out a comparative physiological and proteomic study to investigate lactic-acid-induced alterations in Lactobacillus casei Zhang (WT) and its acid-resistant mutant. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the mutant exhibited 33.8% higher glucose phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system activity and lower glycolytic pH compared with the WT under acidic conditions. In addition, significant differences were detected in both cells during acid stress between intracellular physiological state, including intracellular pH, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. Comparison of the proteomic data based on 2D-DIGE and i-TRAQ indicated that acid stress invoked a global change in both strains. The mutant protected the cells against acid damage by regulating the expression of key proteins involved in cellular metabolism, DNA replication, RNA synthesis, translation, and some chaperones. Proteome results were validated by Lactobacillus casei displaying higher intracellular aspartate and arginine levels, and the survival at pH 3.3 was improved 1.36- and 2.10-fold by the addition of 50-mM aspartate and arginine, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that aspartate may be involved in acid tolerance in Lactobacillus casei. Results presented here may help us understand acid resistance mechanisms and help formulate new strategies to enhance the industrial applications of this species.

  16. Sertraline and venlafaxine improves motor performance and neurobehavioral deficit in quinolinic acid induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats: Possible neurotransmitters modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jaskamal Singh; Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Puneet; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2017-04-01

    Huntington Disease is autosomal, fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which clinically available drugs offer only symptomatic relief. Emerging strides have indicated that antidepressants improve motor performance, restore neurotransmitters level, ameliorates striatal atrophy, increases BDNF level and may enhance neurogenesis. Therefore, we investigated sertraline and venlafaxine, clinically available drugs for depression with numerous neuroprotective properties, for their beneficial effects, if any, in quinolinic acid induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered quinolinic acid (QA) (200 nmol/2μl saline) intrastriatal bilaterally on 0day. Sertraline and venlafaxine (10 and 20mg/kg, po) each were administered for 21days once a day. Motor performance was assessed using rotarod test, grip strength test, narrow beam walk test on weekly basis. On day 22, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH and Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, motor performance, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), neurochemical level (GABA, glutamate, nor-epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, HVA, DOPAC, 5-HIAA). Sertraline and venlafaxine at selected doses significantly attenuated QA induced alterations in striatum. The present study suggests that modulation of monoamines level, normalization of GABA and glutamatergic signaling, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties could underlie the neuroprotective effect of sertraline and venlafaxine in QA induced Huntington's like symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  17. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Bello, Rosario I.; Gonzalez, Raul; Ferrin, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Ana B.; Munoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Rodriguez, Blanca A.; Barrera, Pilar; Ranchal, Isidora; Duran-Prado, Mario; Aguilar-Melero, Patricia; De la Mata, Manuel; Muntane, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca 2+ on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca 2+ pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca 2+ entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca 2+ mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca 2+ entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca 2+ entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca 2+ -dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  19. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I; Bello, Rosario I [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Gonzalez, Raul; Ferrin, Gustavo [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Hidalgo, Ana B [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Munoz-Gomariz, Elisa [Department of Biostatistics, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Rodriguez, Blanca A [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Barrera, Pilar; Ranchal, Isidora [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Duran-Prado, Mario [Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, CSIC, Granada (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion CB06/03, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (Spain); Aguilar-Melero, Patricia [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); De la Mata, Manuel [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Muntane, Jordi [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca{sup 2+} on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca{sup 2+} pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca{sup 2+} entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  20. Improvement by methylphenidate and atomoxetine of social interaction deficits and recognition memory impairment in a mouse model of valproic acid-induced autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Taruta, Atsuki; Katashiba, Keisuke; Hasebe, Shigeru; Takano, Erika; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Rodents exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) show autism-related behavioral abnormalities. We recently found that prenatal VPA exposure causes a reduction of dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex of male, but not female, mice. This suggests that reduced prefrontal dopaminergic activity is associated with behavioral abnormalities in VPA-treated mice. In the present study, we examined whether the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs methylphenidate and atomoxetine (which increase dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, but not striatum, in mice) could alleviate the behavioral abnormalities and changes in dendritic spine morphology induced by prenatal VPA exposure. We found that methylphenidate and atomoxetine increased prefrontal dopamine and noradrenaline release in VPA-treated mice. Acute treatment with methylphenidate or atomoxetine did not alleviate the social interaction deficits or recognition memory impairment in VPA-treated mice, while chronic treatment for 2 weeks did. Methylphenidate or atomoxetine for 2 weeks also improved the prenatal VPA-induced decrease in dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex. The effects of these drugs on behaviors and dendritic spine morphology were antagonized by concomitant treatment with the dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist SCH39166 or the dopamine-D2 receptor antagonist raclopride, but not by the α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with methylphenidate or atomoxetine improves abnormal behaviors and diminishes the reduction in spine density in VPA-treated mice via a prefrontal dopaminergic system-dependent mechanism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 926-939. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Alleviating Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    Why do we find entrepreneurship within larger groups? This question has challenged the social sciences since Olson (1965) showed that it does not pay an individual to provide collective goods voluntarily, if the individual economic gain from doing this is negative. However, the fact that larger g...

  2. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Lizárraga, Daneida; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A

    2011-01-01

    Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene found in the protective wax-like coating of the leaves and fruit of Olea europaea L., is a promising agent for the prevention of colon cancer. We have shown elsewhere that maslinic acid inhibits cell proliferation to a significant extent and activates mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In our latest work we have investigated further this compound's apoptotic molecular mechanism. We used HT29 adenocarcinoma cells. Changes genotoxicity were analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, changes in protein expression were examined by western blotting. Student's t-test was used for statistical comparison. HT29 cells treated with maslinic acid showed significant increases in genotoxicity and cell-cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours' treatment and an apoptotic sub-G0/G1 peak after 96 hours. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for this cytotoxic effect of maslinic acid has never been properly explored. We show here that the anti-tumoral activity of maslinic acid might proceed via p53-mediated apoptosis by acting upon the main signaling components that lead to an increase in p53 activity and the induction of the rest of the factors that participate in the apoptotic pathway. We found that in HT29 cells maslinic acid activated the expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inducing p53. Treatment of tumor cells with maslinic acid also resulted in an increase in the expression of Bid and Bax, repression of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome-c and an increase in the expression of caspases -9, -3, and -7. Moreover, maslinic acid produced belated caspase-8 activity, thus amplifying the initial mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. All these results suggest that maslinic acid induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon-cancer cells through the JNK-Bid-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the activation of p53. Thus we propose

  3. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingelhoeffer Christoph

    2012-05-01

    against oxidative stress mediated by ascorbic acid induced hydrogen peroxide production. The antioxidative enzyme catalase is important to protect cancer cells against cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide. Silenced catalase expression increased the susceptibility of the formerly resistant cancer cell line BT-20 to oxidative stress.

  4. Metacognitive emotion regulation: children's awareness that changing thoughts and goals can alleviate negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-08-01

    Metacognitive emotion regulation strategies involve deliberately changing thoughts or goals to alleviate negative emotions. Adults commonly engage in this type of emotion regulation, but little is known about the developmental roots of this ability. Two studies were designed to assess whether 5- and 6-year-old children can generate such strategies and, if so, the types of metacognitive strategies they use. In Study 1, children described how story protagonists could alleviate negative emotions. In Study 2, children recalled times that they personally had felt sad, angry, and scared and described how they had regulated their emotions. In contrast to research suggesting that young children cannot use metacognitive regulation strategies, the majority of children in both studies described such strategies. Children were surprisingly sophisticated in their suggestions for how to cope with negative emotions and tailored their regulatory responses to specific emotional situations. Copyright 2010 APA

  5. Tolvaptan alleviates excessive fluid retention of nephrotic diabetic renal failure unresponsive to furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tesshu; Masaki, Tsuguto; Hoshiyama, Ayako; Toki, Takuya; Kamata, Yuji; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2018-04-17

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy develop nephrotic syndrome, and may show limited response to conventional therapy. They often require earlier initiation of renal replacement therapy because they become refractory to diuretics, and experience excessive fluid retention. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of tolvaptan, an oral arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, in a case series of 14 severe diabetic renal failure patients who were severely refractory to maximal doses of furosemide and had excessive fluid retention despite preserved cardiac function and residual renal function. All 14 patients experienced immediate and sustained water diuretic effects, resulting in alleviation of congestive heart failure. None required initiation of renal replacement therapy. Tolvaptan promptly increased urine volume and free water clearance, reversed progressive fluid retention, and alleviated congestive heart failure. Thus, tolvaptan could serve as a potential adjunct therapy for severe diabetic renal failure patients with excessive fluid retention and congestive heart failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Making a technological choice for disaster management and poverty alleviation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2009-03-01

    The right mix of policy, institutional arrangements and use of technology provides the framework for a country's approach to disaster mitigation. Worldwide, there has been a shift away from a strictly 'top-down' approach relying on government alone, to a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. The aim is to enhance the indigenous coping mechanisms of vulnerable communities; draw on their cooperative spirit and energy; and empower them through appropriate information and contextual knowledge to mitigate natural disasters. In light of this, the paper examines India's use of space technology in its disaster management efforts. Poverty alleviation and disaster management are almost inseparable in many parts of the country, as vulnerability to natural disasters is closely aligned with poverty. Addressing these issues together requires integrated knowledge systems. The paper examines how knowledge inputs from space technology have strengthened the national resolve to combat natural disasters in conjunction with alleviating rural poverty.

  7. Stimulus attributes of reactivated memory: alleviation of ontogenetic forgetting in rats is context specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R; Riccio, D C; McKenney, M

    1988-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that ontogenetic forgetting (infantile amensia) can be alleviated by a number of different types of reminder treatment. The present study extends the information about the alleviation of infantile amnesia by examining the "content" of the reactivated memory. Toward this purpose, one attribute of memory (environmental context) was examined in rats tested either shortly after training (preamnesic) or after 1-week retention interval. For the latter, a reactivation treatment was used to reverse infantile amnesia. At both intervals, a context shift resulted in impaired performance of a conditioned fear response. These findings demonstrate that environment context is an important component of the originally encoded memory as well as the reactivated amnestic memory. The implications of these results for both the reactivation of memory and general memory processes are discussed.

  8. Tongluo Zhitong Prescription Alleviates Allodynia, Hyperalgesia, and Dyskinesia in the Chronic Constriction Injury Model of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is common in clinical practice. Exploration of new drug therapeutics has always been carried out for more satisfactory effects and fewer side-effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate effects of Tongluo Zhitong Prescription (TZP, a compounded Chinese medicine description, on neuropathic pain model of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI. The CCI model was established by loosely ligating sciatic nerve with catgut suture, proximal to its trifurcation. The static and dynamic allodynia, heat hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and gait were assessed. Our results showed that TZP alleviated CCI-induced static and dynamic allodynia, suppressed heat hyperalgesia and cold and mechanical allodynia, and improved gait function. These results suggest that TZP could alleviate neuropathic pain. Further experiments are needed to explore its mechanisms.

  9. Model of urban poverty alleviation through the development of entrepreneurial spirit and business competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaningsih, NN; Irianto, Kt; Marsa Arsana, Md; Juli Suarbawa, Kt

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increased of urban population can not be controlled by the city government. This will have an impact on the emergence of new poverty in urban areas, due to inadequate of the job opportunities and skills. Government programs for poverty alleviation can reduce some rural poverty, but have not been able to overcome poverty in urban areas. The diversity of urban issues and needs is greater than in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the research with the aim to build urban poverty reduction model through the development of entrepreneurship spirit and business competence. This research was conducted by investigation method, and questionnaire. Questionnaires are arranged with rating scale measurements. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested by factor analysis. Model construction is constructed from various informant analyzes and descriptive statistical analysis. The results show that poverty alleviation model is very effective done by developing spirit of entrepreneurship and business competence.

  10. Study on vibration alleviating properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete through orthogonal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Wenfeng; Zhang Jianhua; Yan Peng; Wang Xinli

    2009-01-01

    Polymer concrete (PC), because of its good vibration alleviating properties, is a proper material for elementary machine parts in high-precision machine tools. Glass fiber was applied in PC to improve its mechanical properties, and the material obtained is called glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete (GFRPC). The best parameter to estimate the vibration alleviating property is damping ratio. Orthogonal tests were carried out to prepare GFRPC specimens with different component proportions. Damping ratio of the GFRPC specimens was measured. The effect of the factors considered in the experiments on damping ratio of GFRPC was studied. Results of the tests show that granite proportion plays the most important role in determining damping ratio of GFRPC, then flexibilizer dosage and glass fiber length, while epoxy resin dosage and glass fiber dosage play a comparatively less important part. Detailed descriptions were made about how the considered factors affect damping ratio of GFRPC in this paper

  11. Novel controller design demonstration for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet; Nitzsche, Fred

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an advanced controller design methodology for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor sys- tems. Particularly, vibration alleviation in a forward ight regime where the rotor blades experience periodically varying aerodynamic loading was investigated. Controller synthesis was carried out under the time-periodic H2 and H∞ framework and the synthesis problem was solved based on both periodic Riccati and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulations. The closed-loop stability was analyzed using Floquet-Lyapunov theory, and the controller's performance was validated by closed-loop high-delity aeroelastic simulations. To validate the con- troller's performance an actively controlled trailing edge ap strategy was implemented. Computational cost was compared for both formulations.

  12. Gust load alleviation wind tunnel tests of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing with piezoelectric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An active control technique utilizing piezoelectric actuators to alleviate gust-response loads of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing is investigated. Piezoelectric materials have been extensively used for active vibration control of engineering structures. In this paper, piezoelectric materials further attempt to suppress the vibration of the aeroelastic wing caused by gust. The motion equation of the flexible wing with piezoelectric patches is obtained by Hamilton’s principle with the modal approach, and then numerical gust responses are analyzed, based on which a gust load alleviation (GLA control system is proposed. The gust load alleviation system employs classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers which treat piezoelectric patches as control actuators and acceleration as the feedback signal. By a numerical method, the control mechanism that piezoelectric actuators can be used to alleviate gust-response loads is also analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, through low-speed wind tunnel tests, the effectiveness of the gust load alleviation active control technology is validated. The test results agree well with the numerical results. Test results show that at a certain frequency range, the control scheme can effectively alleviate the z and x wingtip accelerations and the root bending moment of the wing to a certain extent. The control system gives satisfying gust load alleviation efficacy with the reduction rate being generally over 20%.

  13. The Use of Kanban to Alleviate Collaboration and Communication Challenges of Global Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Tanner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper aims to describe how various Kanban elements can help alleviate two prominent types of challenges, communication and collaboration in Global Software Development (GSD. Background: Iterative and Lean development methodologies like Kanban have gained significance in the software development industry, both in the co-located and globally distributed contexts. However, little is known on how such methodologies can help mitigate various challenges in that occur in a globally distributed software development context. Methodology: The study was conducted using a single-case study based on a general inductive approach to analysis and theory development. Through the literature review, collaboration and communication challenges that GSD teams face were identified. Data collected through semi-structured interviews was then inductively analyzed to describe how the case-study teams employed various Kanban elements to mitigate communication and collaboration challenges they face during GSD. Findings: The study found that some Kanban elements, when properly employed, can help alleviate collaboration and communication challenges that occur within GSD teams. These relate to Inclusion Criteria, Reverse Items, Kanban Board, Policies, Avatars, and Backlog. Contribution: The paper contributes to knowledge by proposing two simple concept maps that detail the specific types of communication and collaboration challenges which can be alleviated by the aforementioned Kanban elements in GSD. Recommendations for Practitioners: This paper is relevant to GSD teams who are seeking ways to enhance their team collaboration and communication as these are the most important elements that contribute to GSD project success. It is recommended that relevant Kanban elements be used to that effect, depending on the challenges that they aim to alleviate. Future Research: Future research can investigate the same research questions (or similar ones using a

  14. Empowerment impact assessment (EmpIA), a tool for poverty alleviation and capacity building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, MR

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available their quality of life. xrhombus Facilitate the upgrading of the social and physical environment. xrhombus Increase employment. xrhombus Reduce poverty. xrhombus Stimulate economic growth. xrhombus Reduce imbalances in access to economic opportunities. 1... IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EmpIA), A TOOL FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND CAPACITY BUILDING M.R. LOUW CSIR Built Environment: Pretoria, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 ABSTRACT Empowerment impact assessment (EmpIA) is a quantitative...

  15. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors. full text

  16. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission el...

  17. Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarlan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The development of a country usually determined by the human development index HDI. Per capita income education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 2011 year. The result of this research were a income per capita growth was not sign...

  18. Fluoxetine Alleviates Behavioral Depression while Decreasing Acetylcholine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, David T; Rada, Pedro V; Kim, Kay; Kosloff, Rebecca A; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2011-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have demonstrated the ability to alleviate behavioral depression in the forced swim test; however, the sites and mechanisms of their actions remain to be further elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that behavioral depression in the swim test is mediated in part by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulating the cholinergic M1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. The current study tested whether acute, local, and chronic, subc...

  19. Sulfur-Mediated-Alleviation of Aluminum-Toxicity in Citrus grandis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the sulfur (S-mediated-alleviation of aluminum (Al-toxicity in higher plants. Citrus grandis seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with 0.5 mM MgSO4 or 0.5 mM MgSO4 + 0.5 mM Na2SO4, and 0 (−Al or 1 mM AlCl3·6H2O (+Al, Al-toxicity. Under Al-toxicity, S decreased the level of Al in leaves; increased the relative water content (RWC of roots and leaves, the contents of phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg per plant, the dry weights (DW of roots and shoots, the ratios of root DW/shoot DW, and the Al-induced secretion of citrate from root; and alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of photosynthesis via mitigating the Al-induced decrease of electron transport capacity resulting from the impaired photosynthetic electron transport chain. In addition to decreasing the Al-stimulated H2O2 production, the S-induced upregulation of both S metabolism-related enzymes and antioxidant enzymes also contributed to the S-mediated-alleviation of oxidative damage in Al-treated roots and leaves. Decreased transport of Al from roots to shoots and relatively little accumulation of Al in leaves, and increased leaf and root RWC and P, Ca, and Mg contents per plant might also play a role in the S-mediated-alleviation of Al-toxicity.

  20. Policy Review on Watershed Protection and Poverty Alleviation by the Grain for Green Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    The sustained growth of Chinese economy in the new century is a silver lining in the continuously depressed global economy. Meanwhile, the rapid development of Chinese economy is still confronted with constraints from deteriorating environment and rural poverty issues. It has become a significant policy option in maintaining high speed, efficiency and sound development of Chinese economy to rehabilitate forest resources, improve ecological conditions, increase farmers' income and get on a sustainable road featuring coordinated development of population, resources and environment. The Grain for Green Program, as a CDM activity of Chinese style, launched on trial in 1999 and implemented in 2002 across the country, is the biggest land use transition, watershed management and poverty alleviation program involving the largest population in Chinese history and across the globe. It covers 25 provinces/regions/cities and gets over 1600 counties, 15 million households and 60 million farmers were involved. Hence the Grain for Tree policy has a significant bearing on ecological protection and farmers' poverty alleviation in the soil and water erosion-prone region. A review and assessment of the background, essentials, effects, problems and trend of the Grain for Tree policy is of great significance for both China and the other developing countries in the world in their efforts to combat the deteriorating environment and alleviate poverty.

  1. Let there be light: A multi-actor approach to alleviating energy poverty in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnoletti, Belinda; O’Callaghan, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Energy poverty is the primary energy security issue impacting almost 800 million people, particularly women and children, in the developing countries of Asia. Current trends indicate that should there be no change to existing policies, and the governance systems and institutions underpinning them, the absolute number of energy poor will barely shift. Most significantly, addressing energy poverty is critical to absolute poverty reduction, enhanced gender equality and political stability in the Asian region. We offer a solution to progress the energy poverty alleviation effort focused on encouraging sustainable, development-centred investment. This will involve multi-actor partnerships between developed and developing country governments, investors, and multilateral institutions. We propose that there may be spill over effects for investing firms, in the form of strengthened corporate reputation. Consequently, energy poverty alleviation efforts can create new opportunities for commerce, multilateral institutions, NGOs, and developing and developed countries. It is envisaged that the multi-actor approach put forward by this paper will facilitate the partnerships, programs and provisions needed to alleviate energy poverty in Asia. However, critical to the success of this collaborative approach is a genuine shift in sentiment from the key stakeholders involved in the effort

  2. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services with Dual Goals of Environment and Poverty Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Crystal; Uchida, Emi; Rozelle, Scott; Xu, Jintao; Zhan, Jinyan

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this article is to understand strategies by which both the environmental and poverty alleviation objectives of PES programs can be achieved cost effectively. To meet this goal, we first create a conceptual framework to understand the implications of alternative targeting when policy makers have both environmental and poverty alleviation goals. We then use the Grain for Green program in China, the largest PES program in the developing world, as a case study. We also use a data set from a survey that we designed and implemented to evaluate the program. Using the data set we first evaluate what factors determined selection of program areas for the Grain for Green program. We then demonstrate the heterogeneity of parcels and households and examine the correlations across households and their parcels in terms of their potential environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participating, and the asset levels of households as an indicator of poverty. Finally, we compare five alternative targeting criteria and simulate their performance in terms of cost effectiveness in meeting both the environmental and poverty alleviation goals when given a fixed budget. Based on our simulations, we find that there is a substantial gain in the cost effectiveness of the program by targeting parcels based on the “gold standard,” i.e., targeting parcels with low opportunity cost and high environmental benefit managed by poorer households.

  4. Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy by Preventing Retinal Inflammation and Tight Junction Protein Decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengyang; Gong, Chenyuan; Lu, Bin; Yang, Li; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to observe the alleviation of the ethanol extract of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. (DC), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on DR and its engaged mechanism. After DC (30 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated, the breakdown of blood retinal barrier (BRB) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats was attenuated by DC. Decreased retinal mRNA expression of tight junction proteins (including occludin and claudin-1) in diabetic rats was also reversed by DC. Western blot analysis and retinal immunofluorescence staining results further confirmed that DC reversed the decreased expression of occludin and claudin-1 proteins in diabetic rats. DC reduced the increased retinal mRNA expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and IL-1β in diabetic rats. In addition, DC alleviated the increased 1 and phosphorylated p65, IκB, and IκB kinase (IKK) in diabetic rats. DC also reduced the increased serum levels of TNFα, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-10 in diabetic rats. Therefore, DC can alleviate DR by inhibiting retinal inflammation and preventing the decrease of tight junction proteins, such as occludin and claudin-1. PMID:25685822

  5. Metabolic Profiling Analysis of the Alleviation Effect of Treatment with Baicalin on Cinnabar Induced Toxicity in Rats Urine and Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Guangyue Su; Guangyue Su; Gang Chen; Gang Chen; Xiao An; Haifeng Wang; Haifeng Wang; Yue-Hu Pei; Yue-Hu Pei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Baicalin is the main bioactive flavonoid constituent isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The mechanisms of protection of liver remain unclear. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabonomics approach has been used to investigate the alleviation effect of Baicalin.Method:1H NMR metabolomics analyses of urine and serum from rats, was performed to illuminate the alleviation effect of Baicalin on mineral medicine (cinnabar)-induced liver and kidney toxicity.Results: The metabolic p...

  6. Metabolic Profiling Analysis of the Alleviation Effect of Treatment with Baicalin on Cinnabar Induced Toxicity in Rats Urine and Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Guangyue; Chen, Gang; An, Xiao; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Baicalin is the main bioactive flavonoid constituent isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The mechanisms of protection of liver remain unclear. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabonomics approach has been used to investigate the alleviation effect of Baicalin. Method: 1H NMR metabolomics analyses of urine and serum from rats, was performed to illuminate the alleviation effect of Baicalin on mineral medicine (cinnabar)-induced liver and kidney toxicity. Results: The me...

  7. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  8. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng; Lin, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H 2 in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H 2 in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity via Decreasing Apoplast and Symplast Al Contents in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Q. Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S plays a vital role in Al3+ stress resistance in plants, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with 2 μM of the H2S donor NaHS significantly alleviated the inhibition of root elongation caused by Al toxicity in rice roots, which was accompanied by a decrease in Al contents in root tips under 50 μM Al3+ treatment. NaHS pretreatment decreased the negative charge in cell walls by reducing the activity of pectin methylesterase and decreasing the pectin and hemicellulose contents in rice roots. This treatment also masked Al-binding sites in the cell wall by upregulating the expression of OsSATR1 and OsSTAR2 in roots and reduced Al binding in the cell wall by stimulating the expression of the citrate acid exudation gene OsFRDL4 and increasing the secretion of citrate acid. In addition, NaHS pretreatment decreased the symplasmic Al content by downregulating the expression of OsNRAT1, and increasing the translocation of cytoplasmic Al to the vacuole via upregulating the expression of OsALS1. The increment of antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and peroxidase (POD] activity with NaHS pretreatment significantly decreased the MDA and H2O2 content in rice roots, thereby reducing the damage of Al3+ toxicity on membrane integrity in rice. H2S exhibits crosstalk with nitric oxide (NO in response to Al toxicity, and through reducing NO content in root tips to alleviate Al toxicity. Together, this study establishes that H2S alleviates Al toxicity by decreasing the Al content in the apoplast and symplast of rice roots.

  10. Alleviation of Boron Stress through Plant Derived Smoke Extracts in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500 were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

  11. Dietary Modulation of Gut Microbiota Contributes to Alleviation of Both Genetic and Simple Obesity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Poorly managed diet and genetic mutations are the two primary driving forces behind the devastating epidemic of obesity-related diseases. Lack of understanding of the molecular chain of causation between the driving forces and the disease endpoints retards progress in prevention and treatment of the diseases. We found that children genetically obese with Prader–Willi syndrome shared a similar dysbiosis in their gut microbiota with those having diet-related obesity. A diet rich in non-digestible but fermentable carbohydrates significantly promoted beneficial groups of bacteria and reduced toxin-producers, which contributes to the alleviation of metabolic deteriorations in obesity regardless of the primary driving forces.

  12. Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song YanXia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR in dendritic cells (DCs and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.

  13. Prioritizing refuge sites for migratory geese to alleviate conflicts with agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Anker; Wisz, Mary S.; Madsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Expanding populations of geese feeding on farmland during winter and spring conflict with agricultural interests along their migratory flyway in north-western Europe. In Mid-Norway, farmers scare spring-staging pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus off their land to protect crops, and this has had...... clear effects on goose distribution. To protect the geese, Norwegian authorities have implemented economic compensation to farmers to discourage scaring, but this has not been prioritised to accommodate the biological requirements and dispersal patterns of the geese, though such an approach is clearly...... prioritisation. Our approach has direct implications for alleviating similar goose-agriculture conflicts throughout Europe....

  14. Tema 2: Ethel and her Telenoid: Toward using humanoids to alleviate symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Dinesen Strandbech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on a longitudinal study investigating if conversations with the teleoperated humanoid robot Telenoid can alleviate symptoms of dementia. The article initially frames Telenoid in the field of social robotics and relevant dementia-initiatives before dwelling on the emerging relationship between Telenoid and a person with severe dementia. Here it is shown how persons with severe dementia can benefit greatly from interaction with Functionally Designed Anthropomorphic Robots such as Telenoid as a means of providing a temporary ‘conversational stepping stone’, working toward improving quality of life and regaining conversational and social confidence to seek and interact socially with others.

  15. Economic growth and poverty alleviation in Africa - linking hard and soft economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    soft and hard economics, arguing that economic growth must be converted into social change that benefits poor for it to be described as development-oriented. It provides a direction for future research into issues of economic growth and poverty alleviation in Sub-Sahara Africa......This paper provides a quick glance at the dominant issues that have characterized the development economics debate during the past five decades. It is based on a review of a selection of literature that highlights the dominant perspectives in development economics. It draws a distinction between...

  16. Sertraline alleviated osmophobia caused by partial hypopituitarism with isolated ACTH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Heng; Chang, Yun; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Liao, Shih-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Hyperosmia may be an early manifestation of hypocortisolism and may be mistakenly diagnosed as osmophobia. However, sertraline therapy incidentally alleviated the phobic symptoms and hindered accurate diagnosis. A 41-year-old man was diagnosed as having osmophobia. Initial sertraline treatment relieved the symptoms, but its cessation resulted in recurrence of osmophobia. Endocrinological examinations revealed severe hypocortisolism and partial hypopituitarism with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. After prednisolone supplementation, his condition dramatically improved. We recommend that, before intervention with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is performed, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis be evaluated in psychiatric patients presenting with co-occurring olfactory change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    hippocampal pyramidal layer thickness and live neurons in IBO induced rats, with slight pathological changes in the entorhinal cortex (EC of rat brain, which was prevented on RSV administration. Our study thus concludes that RSV administration significantly ameliorated the deleterious effects in the IBO lesioned rat model for AD by alleviating cholinergic pathways, reducing oxidative stress and thereby improving spatial memory.

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  19. Treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; Song, Wook; Jun, Tae-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra is a key pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic dopaminergic neuronal cell death and fiber loss in the nigrostriatum, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson's rats. Parkinson's rats were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using stereotaxic instrument. Four weeks after 6-OHDA injection, the rats in the 6-OHDA-injection group exhibited significant rotational asymmetry following apomorphine challenge. The rats in the exercise groups were put on the treadmill to run for 30 min once a day for 14 consecutive days starting 4 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. In the present results, extensive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with loss of dopaminergic fibers in the striatum were produced in the rats without treadmill running, which resulted in short-term memory impairment. However, the rats performing treadmill running for 2 weeks alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and alleviated short-term memory impairment with increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson's rats. The present results show that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value for the Parkinson's disease.

  20. [Clinical observation on nanometer acupoint mounting method for alleviation of myospasm complicated by spinal injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Jie; Si, Tong; Li, Zhi

    2008-11-01

    To observe clinical effect of nanometer acupoint mounting method for alleviation of myospasm complicated by spinal injury. Sixty cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. The observation group were treated by nanometer mounting at 4 Jiaji (EX-B 2) points each on both sides of the affected spine and Shenshu (BL 23), Shangliao (BL 31), Ciliao (BL 32), Yang-lingquan (GB 34), Xuanzhong (GB 39); and the control group by mounting zinc oxide sticking tablets at the above acupoints. The mounting was replaced once each two days, 7 times constituting one course. One week and one month after the end of 3 courses, their results were recorded, respectively. Before treatment, there was no significant difference between the two groups in grades of the myospasm degree (P > 0.05). One week after the end of treatment, 15 cases were grade I of myospasm, 9 cases were grade II, 5 cases were grade III and 1 case was grade IV in the observation group, and 1 cases grade I, 7 cases grade II, 14 cases grade III, 8 cases grade IV in the control group. Ridit analysis on the data indicated that there were significant differences before and after treatment in the myospasm degree (P mounting method is a new one for alleviation of myospasm complicated by spinal injury, with convenience, safety and no side effect.

  1. PDE5 inhibition alleviates functional muscle ischemia in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael D; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Tavyev, Jane; Nelson, Stanley F; Miceli, M Carrie; Elashoff, Robert M; Sweeney, H Lee; Victor, Ronald G

    2014-06-10

    To determine whether phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition can alleviate exercise-induced skeletal muscle ischemia in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In 10 boys with DMD and 10 healthy age-matched male controls, we assessed exercise-induced attenuation of reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction, i.e., functional sympatholysis, a protective mechanism that matches oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reflex vasoconstriction was induced by simulated orthostatic stress, measured as the decrease in forearm muscle oxygenation with near-infrared spectroscopy, and performed when the forearm muscles were rested or lightly exercised with rhythmic handgrip exercise. Then, the patients underwent an open-label, dose-escalation, crossover trial with single oral doses of tadalafil or sildenafil. The major new findings are 2-fold: first, sympatholysis is impaired in boys with DMD-producing functional muscle ischemia-despite contemporary background therapy with corticosteroids alone or in combination with cardioprotective medication. Second, PDE5 inhibition with standard clinical doses of either tadalafil or sildenafil alleviates this ischemia in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PDE5 inhibition also normalizes the exercise-induced increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (measured by Doppler ultrasound), which is markedly blunted in boys with DMD. These data provide in-human proof of concept for PDE5 inhibition as a putative new therapeutic strategy for DMD. This study provides Class IV evidence that in patients with DMD, PDE5 inhibition restores functional sympatholysis. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lifetime Maximization via Hole Alleviation in IoT Enabling Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zahid; Javaid, Nadeem; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Alrajeh, Nabil; Alabed, Mohamad Souheil; Guizani, Nadra

    2017-07-21

    In Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), there are two major factors which degrade the performance of the network. One is the void hole which occurs in a particular region due to unavailability of forwarder nodes. The other is the presence of energy hole which occurs due to imbalanced data traffic load on intermediate nodes. Therefore, an optimum transmission strategy is required to maximize the network lifespan via hole alleviation. In this regard, we propose a heterogeneous network solution that is capable to balance energy dissipation among network nodes. In addition, the divide and conquer approach is exploited to evenly distribute number of transmissions over various network areas. An efficient forwarder node selection is performed to alleviate coverage and energy holes. Linear optimization is performed to validate the effectiveness of our proposed work in term of energy minimization. Furthermore, simulations are conducted to show that our claims are well grounded. Results show the superiority of our work as compared to the baseline scheme in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime.

  4. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27%) and liver triglycerides (314.75%) compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  5. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD, high fat diet (HFD, and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg (V-HFD. After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27% and liver triglycerides (314.75% compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  6. Success Stories of Tanzanian Women Entrepreneurship Programs in Alleviating Poverty: Insights from WORTH Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwajabu Mbaruku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide evidence on the relevance and type of support given by women entrepreneurship support programs in alleviating poverty among Tanzanian women entrepreneurs. As such, it argues that WORTH is beneficial for women entrepreneurs. Data for this study was drawn from the reviewed literature including existing documents at PACT Tanzania, supplemented by field work and discussions with PACT Tanzania’s WORTH specialists. The study revealed that the WORTH program provides various support to women both in groups and at an individual level. In addition, the success stories highlight that in the face of daunting obstacles, women have shown their ability and commitment to change their lives and their communities. Women entrepreneurs have had limited opportunities to describe their own opinions, experience and their ways of establishing and conducting business. This study gives voice to the voiceless and contributes to the growing body of literature on women entrepreneurship support programs in alleviating poverty.Working with allies and partners, in both the public and private sectors, is essential in successfully addressing and scaling up women’s entrepreneurial opportunities and support programs.

  7. AN APPROACH TO ALLEVIATE THE FALSE ALARM IN BUILDING CHANGE DETECTION FROM URBAN VHR IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building change detection from very-high-resolution (VHR urban remote sensing image frequently encounter the challenge of serious false alarm caused by different illumination or viewing angles in bi-temporal images. An approach to alleviate the false alarm in urban building change detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, as shadows casted by urban buildings are of distinct spectral and shape feature, it adopts a supervised object-based classification technique to extract them in this paper. Secondly, on the opposite direction of sunlight illumination, a straight line is drawn along the principal orientation of building in every extracted shadow region. Starting from the straight line and moving toward the sunlight direction, a rectangular area is constructed to cover partial shadow and rooftop of each building. Thirdly, an algebra and geometry invariant based method is used to abstract the spatial topological relationship of the potential unchanged buildings from all central points of the rectangular area. Finally, based on an oriented texture curvature descriptor, an index is established to determine the actual false alarm in building change detection result. The experiment results validate that the proposed method can be used as an effective framework to alleviate the false alarm in building change detection from urban VHR image.

  8. Extracellular vesicle-derived protein from Bifidobacterium longum alleviates food allergy through mast cell suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Jang, Min Seong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Moon, Sook Jin; Yun, Chang Ho; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Seoh, Ju-Young; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Oh, Sung-Jong; Ham, Jun-Sang; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of food allergies has increased dramatically during the last decade. Recently, probiotics have been studied for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. We examined whether Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 and Enterococcus faecalis KACC 91532 have the capacity to suppress food allergies. B longum KACC 91563 and E faecalis KACC 91532 were administered to BALB/c wild-type mice, in which food allergy was induced by using ovalbumin and alum. Food allergy symptoms and various immune responses were assessed. B longum KACC 91563, but not E faecalis KACC 91532, alleviated food allergy symptoms. Extracellular vesicles of B longum KACC 91563 bound specifically to mast cells and induced apoptosis without affecting T-cell immune responses. Furthermore, injection of family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein, a main component of extracellular vesicles, into mice markedly reduced the occurrence of diarrhea in a mouse food allergy model. B longum KACC 91563 induces apoptosis of mast cells specifically and alleviates food allergy symptoms. Accordingly, B longum KACC 91563 and family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein exhibit potential as therapeutic approaches for food allergies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple measures could alleviate long-branch attraction in phylogenomic reconstruction of Cupressoideae (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiao-Jian; Jin, Jian-Jun; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2017-01-25

    Long-branch attraction (LBA) is a major obstacle in phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogenetic relationships among Juniperus (J), Cupressus (C) and the Hesperocyparis-Callitropsis-Xanthocyparis (HCX) subclades of Cupressoideae are controversial. Our initial analyses of plastid protein-coding gene matrix revealed both J and C with much longer stem branches than those of HCX, so their sister relationships may be attributed to LBA. We used multiple measures including data filtering and modifying, evolutionary model selection and coalescent phylogenetic reconstruction to alleviate the LBA artifact. Data filtering by strictly removing unreliable aligned regions and removing substitution saturation genes and rapidly evolving sites could significantly reduce branch lengths of subclades J and C and recovered a relationship of J (C, HCX). In addition, using coalescent phylogenetic reconstruction could elucidate the LBA artifact and recovered J (C, HCX). However, some valid methods for other taxa were inefficient in alleviating the LBA artifact in J-C-HCX. Different strategies should be carefully considered and justified to reduce LBA in phylogenetic reconstruction of different groups. Three subclades of J-C-HCX were estimated to have experienced ancient rapid divergence within a short period, which could be another major obstacle in resolving relationships. Furthermore, our plastid phylogenomic analyses fully resolved the intergeneric relationships of Cupressoideae.

  10. Inhibition of ethylene production by putrescine alleviates aluminium-induced root inhibition in wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Zhou, Weiwei; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-08

    Inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of aluminium (Al) toxicity. Although putrescine (Put) has been identified as an important signaling molecule involved in Al tolerance, it is yet unknown how Put mitigates Al-induced root inhibition. Here, the possible mechanism was investigated by using two wheat genotypes differing in Al resistance: Al-tolerant Xi Aimai-1 and Al-sensitive Yangmai-5. Aluminium caused more root inhibition in Yangmai-5 and increased ethylene production at the root apices compared to Xi Aimai-1, whereas the effects were significantly reversed by ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. The simultaneous exposure of wheat seedlings to Al and ethylene donor, ethephon, or ethylene biosynthesis precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), increased ethylene production and aggravated root inhibition, which was more pronounced in Xi Aimai-1. In contrast, Put treatment decreased ethylene production and alleviated Al-induced root inhibition in both genotypes, and the effects were more conspicuous in Yangmai-5. Furthermore, our results indicated that Al-induced ethylene production was mediated by ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase, and that Put decreased ethylene production by inhibiting ACS. Altogether, these findings indicate that ethylene is involved in Al-induced root inhibition and this process could be alleviated by Put through inhibiting ACS activity.

  11. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity.

  12. A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachenal, X; Daynes, S; Weaver, P M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements. (paper)

  13. A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenal, X.; Daynes, S.; Weaver, P. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements.

  14. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haretsebe Manwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest reserves for ecotourism. Data was collected through mixed methods involving in-depth interviews with government departments, traditional leaders, quasi-government organisations and the Hospitality and Tourism Association of Botswana. Focus group discussions were also held with village development committees, Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust (CECT and Kasane, Lesoma and Pandematenga Trust (KALEPA members, and a consultative national workshop of stakeholders was also held. The findings indicate that opening up forest reserves for ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty among the disadvantaged groups living adjacent to forest reserves through direct (employment, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, secondary (linkages/partnerships and dynamic effects (sustainable livelihoods. The study concludes by cautioning that whilst pro-poor tourism may yield short- and medium-term benefits, in keeping with sustainability objectives, participants in the programme need to be mindful of forestry encroachment and come up with strategies to ensure the sustainability of the Botswana forest reserves.

  15. Ebselen alleviates testicular pathology in mice with Zika virus infection and prevents its sexual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Yogy; Liang, Jian-Jong; Chen, Si-Yu; Li, Jin-Kun; Lee, Yi-Ling; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongoing; therefore, in the meantime, preventing the disease transmission is critical. Primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, ZIKV also can be sexually transmitted. We used AG129 mice lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors to study the testicular pathogenesis and sexual transmission of ZIKV. Infection of ZIKV progressively damaged mouse testes, increased testicular oxidative stress as indicated by the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase 4, spermatogenesis-associated-18 homolog in sperm and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and G-CSF. We then evaluated the potential role of the antioxidant ebselen (EBS) in alleviating the testicular pathology with ZIKV infection. EBS treatment significantly reduced ZIKV-induced testicular oxidative stress, leucocyte infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, it improved testicular pathology and prevented the sexual transmission of ZIKV in a male-to-female mouse sperm transfer model. EBS is currently in clinical trials for various diseases. ZIKV infection could be on the list for potential use of EBS, for alleviating the testicular pathogenesis with ZIKV infection and preventing its sexual transmission.

  16. A Comparative Study on Poverty Alleviation Between Moslem and Non Moslem Populated Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hudaifah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore the problems and roots of poverty, the poverty alleviation progress, programs and policies between selected Moslem populated-countries in Asia and selected non-Moslem populated-countries in Latin America. By conducting comparative analysis on statistical data, literature surveys, several journals, official reports and reliable research findings, all sources have been examined to construct comprehensive findings in the present article. Three important aspects are concluded. Firstly, by definition, a person who earns below 2,00 USD per day is considered “poor” according to the World Bank, and they are mostly living in rural areas and suburban slums. Second, poverty alleviation efforts in both particular groups of countries have resulted in a better outcome, whereby the number of poor decreased gradually according to statistical data reported by the World Bank. Other economic indicators such as GNI per capita and income inequality graphic have shown better patterns. Third, there have been different strategic policies and programs implemented between the two groups of countries. Islamic economic notions such as zakah, infaq, and sadaqah play a very significant role in Moslem populated countries, on the other hand, non Moslem populated countries tend to create more radical and creative strategies such as agendas of land reform and tourism industry development. DOI: 10.15408/aiqv9i1.3222

  17. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  18. SOCIAL ENTERPRISES AND MICROFINANCE AS TOOLS FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-MIRELA COJOCARU (DIACONESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a dangerous indicator that situates Romania in top positions in many EU statistics: 40% of the population is at risk of poverty or social exclusion and 29% have severe material deprivation. Even though it has been stated on several occasions that funds for the eradication of poverty in Romania do exist, the lack of interest and focus on solving this problem have led to the mismanagement of these funds. In contrast with the previous EU financing programme, a new perspective on the policy creation regarding poverty alleviation has been recently developed and is presented as an integrated package. This wishes to bring together disparate programmes/projects and different stakeholders. This proposal is a very different approach from institutional/methodological point of view, and it has been said to mark “the start of an effective capacity building effort”. The purpose of this literature exploration is focused on the potential Romanian social enterprises and microfinance have in poverty alleviation, taking into consideration that these tools have been created especially for poverty eradication. Our conclusion has been that policy makers have to sustain the development of social enterprises through microfinance, which most of the times can be the single financial instrument available to them.

  19. To compare methods used in our operating room for alleviating tourniquet pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M. A.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of different methods used to alleviate tourniquet pain in operating rooms as well as assess their effect on post-operative pain. Methods: The study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from June to August 2010. All patients who came for elective orthopaedic surgery in whom a tourniquet application was planned were included in the study. Information was collected through a pre-designed data form. Qualitative data was expressed as mean standard deviation, while qualitative data was presented as frequency and percentage. Results: In the 106 patients studied, opioids were administered in 90 (85%) cases, paracetamol in 73 (69%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 11 (10.4%) cases. Efficacy was determined by means of the effect on the blood pressure and heart rate of the patient before and after the drug administration. Intravenous paracetamol was found to be the most effective in reducing both blood pressure and heart rate (p<0.001). The effect on post-operative pain was insignificant. Conclusions: Intravenous paracetamol is a cost-effective and safe analgesic, especially when combined with a multi-modal regimen, and has potential effect on the alleviation of tourniquet pain. (author)

  20. Ebselen alleviates testicular pathology in mice with Zika virus infection and prevents its sexual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogy Simanjuntak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongoing; therefore, in the meantime, preventing the disease transmission is critical. Primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, ZIKV also can be sexually transmitted. We used AG129 mice lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors to study the testicular pathogenesis and sexual transmission of ZIKV. Infection of ZIKV progressively damaged mouse testes, increased testicular oxidative stress as indicated by the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase 4, spermatogenesis-associated-18 homolog in sperm and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and G-CSF. We then evaluated the potential role of the antioxidant ebselen (EBS in alleviating the testicular pathology with ZIKV infection. EBS treatment significantly reduced ZIKV-induced testicular oxidative stress, leucocyte infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, it improved testicular pathology and prevented the sexual transmission of ZIKV in a male-to-female mouse sperm transfer model. EBS is currently in clinical trials for various diseases. ZIKV infection could be on the list for potential use of EBS, for alleviating the testicular pathogenesis with ZIKV infection and preventing its sexual transmission.

  1. Combination of Erythromycin and Curcumin Alleviates Staphylococcus aureus Induced Osteomyelitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubin Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Both erythromycin and curcumin can suppress S. aureus growth, but their roles in osteomyelitis are barely studied. We aim to explore the activities of erythromycin and curcumin against chronical osteomyelitis induced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Chronicle implant-induced osteomyelitis was established by MRSA infection in male Wistar rats. Four weeks after bacterial inoculation, rats received no treatment, erythromycin monotherapy, curcumin monotherapy, or erythromycin plus curcumin twice daily for 2 weeks. Bacterial levels, bone infection status, inflammatory signals and side effects were evaluated. Rats tolerated all treatments well, with no death or side effects such as, diarrhea and weight loss. Two days after treatment completion, erythromycin monotherapy did not suppress bacterial growth and had no effect in bone infection, although it reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6. Curcumin monotherapy slightly suppressed bacterial growth, alleviated bone infection and reduced TNF-α and IL-6. Erythromycin and curcumin combined treatment markedly suppressed bacterial growth, substantially alleviated bone infection and reduced TNF-α and IL-6. Combination of erythromycin and curcumin lead a much stronger efficiency against MRSA induced osteomyelitis in rats than monotherapy. Our study suggests that erythromycin and curcumin could be a new combination for treating MRSA induced osteomyelitis.

  2. Adiponectin alleviates genioglossal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

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    Hanpeng Huang

    Full Text Available Genioglossal dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea hypoxia syndrome (OSAHS characterized by nocturnal chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. The pathophysiology of genioglossal dysfunction and possible targeted pharmacotherapy for alleviation of genioglossal injury in CIH require further investigation.Rats in the control group were exposed to normal air, while rats in the CIH group and CIH+adiponectin (AD group were exposed to the same CIH condition (CIH 8 hr/day for 5 successive weeks. Furthermore, rats in CIH+AD group were administrated intravenous AD supplementation at the dosage of 10 µg, twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. We found that CIH-induced genioglossus (GG injury was correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in the numbers of mitochondrias, impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure, and a reduction in type I fibers. Compared with the CIH group, impaired mitochondrial structure and function was significantly improved and a percentage of type I fiber was elevated in the CIH+AD group. Moreover, compared with the control group, the rats' GG in the CIH group showed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of LKB1, AMPK, and PGC1-α, whereas there was significant rescue of such reduction in phosphorylation within the CIH+AD group.CIH exposure reduces mitochondrial biogenesis and impairs mitochondrial function in GG, while AD supplementation increases mitochondrial contents and alleviates CIH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction possibly through the AMPK pathway.

  3. Large vein injection alleviates rocuronium-induced pain in gynaecologic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Mei; Wang, Qun; Wang, Wei-Si; Wang, Meng

    2017-08-01

    Rocuronium-induced pain upon injection is very common in the clinical setting. Using the antecubital rather than the hand vein can avoid pain due to propofol injection. We aimed to investigate whether the use of the antecubital vein for injection would alleviate rocuronium-induced pain in a similar fashion. Sixty patients (ASA classes I and II) scheduled for gynaecologic laparoscopy were randomised into two groups. Rocuronium (0.6mg/kg) was injected either into the vein on the dorsum of the hand (group D) or a large vein in the antecubital fossa (group A). Pain was assessed and recorded using a four-point scale. Compared with group D, the incidence of pain and severe pain was lower in group A patients. The rate of no pain was also higher in group A patients. The incidence and severity of rocuronium-induced injection pain were significantly alleviated via use of a large vein for rocuronium injection. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreasing mitochondrial fission alleviates hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Brookes, Paul S; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-09-15

    Mitochondria produce the majority of cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and their capacity to do so is influenced by many factors. Mitochondrial morphology is recently suggested as an important contributor in controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, which is affected by environmental factors, including metabolic alterations. Underscoring its bioenergetic influence, altered mitochondrial morphology is reported in tissues of patients and in animal models of metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we found that mitochondrial fission plays a vital role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The development of hepatic steatosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, and hepatic tissue damage, induced by a high-fat diet, were alleviated in genetically manipulated mice suppressing mitochondrial fission. The alleviation of steatosis was recapitulated in primary hepatocytes with the inhibition of mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, our study indicates that fission inhibition enhances proton leak under conditions of free fatty acid incubation, implicating bioenergetic change through manipulating mitochondrial fission. Taken together, our results suggest a mechanistic role for mitochondrial fission in the etiology of NAFLD. The efficacy of decreasing mitochondrial fission in the suppression of NAFLD suggests that mitochondrial fission represents a novel target for therapeutic treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine used by persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders to alleviate symptom distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake-Nilsson, Kerstin; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Unge, Peter; Wengström, Yvonne

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the complementary and alternative medicine methods most commonly used to alleviate symptom distress in persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders. People with functional gastrointestinal disorders face many challenges in their everyday lives, and each individual has his/her own way of dealing with this illness. The experience of illness often leads persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders to complementary and alternative medicine as a viable healthcare choice. Quantitative and describing design. A study-specific complementary and alternative medicine questionnaire was used, including questions about complementary and alternative medicine methods used and the perceived effects of each method. Efficacy assessments for each method were preventive effect, partial symptom relief, total symptom relief or no effect. A total of 137 persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders answered the questionnaire, 62% (n = 85) women and 38% (n = 52) men. A total of 28 different complementary and alternative medicine methods were identified and grouped into four categories: nutritional, drug/biological, psychological activity and physical activity. All persons had tried at least one method, and most methods provided partial symptom relief. Persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders commonly use complementary and alternative medicine methods to alleviate symptoms. Nurses have a unique opportunity to expand their roles in this group of patients. Increased knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine practices would enable a more comprehensive patient assessment and a better plan for meaningful interventions that meet the needs of individual patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. L-Glycine Alleviates Furfural-Induced Growth Inhibition during Isobutanol Production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hun-Suk; Jeon, Jong-Min; Choi, Yong Keun; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Wooseong; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Park, Kyungmoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Hongweon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-12-28

    Lignocellulose is now a promising raw material for biofuel production. However, the lignin complex and crystalline cellulose require pretreatment steps for breakdown of the crystalline structure of cellulose for the generation of fermentable sugars. Moreover, several fermentation inhibitors are generated with sugar compounds, majorly furfural. The mitigation of these inhibitors is required for the further fermentation steps to proceed. Amino acids were investigated on furfural-induced growth inhibition in E. coli producing isobutanol. Glycine and serine were the most effective compounds against furfural. In minimal media, glycine conferred tolerance against furfural. From the IC₅₀ value for inhibitors in the production media, only glycine could alleviate growth arrest for furfural, where 6 mM glycine addition led to a slight increase in growth rate and isobutanol production from 2.6 to 2.8 g/l under furfural stress. Overexpression of glycine pathway genes did not lead to alleviation. However, addition of glycine to engineered strains blocked the growth arrest and increased the isobutanol production about 2.3-fold.

  7. Melatonin Has the Potential to Alleviate Cinnamic Acid Stress in Cucumber Seedlings

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    Juanqi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid (CA, which is a well-known major autotoxin secreted by the roots in cucumber continuous cropping, has been proven to exhibit inhibitory regulation of plant morphogenesis and development. Melatonin (MT has been recently demonstrated to play important roles in alleviating plant abiotic stresses. To investigate whether MT supplementation could improve cucumber seedling growth under CA stress, we treated cucumber seeds and seedlings with/without MT under CA- or non-stress conditions, and then tested their effects on cucumber seedling growth, morphology, nutrient element content, and plant hormone. Overall, 10 μM MT best rescued cucumber seedling growth under 0.4 mM CA stress. MT was found to alleviate CA-stressed seedling growth by increasing the growth rates of cotyledons and leaves and by stimulating lateral root growth. Additionally, MT increased the allocation of newly gained dry weight in roots and improved the tolerance of cucumber seedlings to CA stress by altering the nutrient elements and hormone contents of the whole plant. These results strongly suggest that the application of MT can effectively improve cucumber seedling tolerance to CA stress through the perception and integration of morphology, nutrient element content and plant hormone signaling crosstalk.

  8. Alleviation of isoproturon toxicity to wheat by exogenous application of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M

    2014-06-01

    Treatment with the recommended field dose of isoproturon to 7-d-old wheat seedlings significantly decreased shoot height, fresh and dry weights during the subsequent 15days. Meanwhile contents of carotenoids, chlorophylls and anthocyanin as well as activities of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) were significantly inhibited. On the other hand, the herbicide significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA), a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation and H2O2, while it significantly decreased the contents of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) and reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). These findings indicate an induction of a stress status in wheat seedlings following isoproturon treatment. However, exogenous GSH appeared to limit the toxic effects of isoproturon and seemed to overcome this stress status. Most likely, contents of pigment and activities of enzymes were raised to approximate control levels. Moreover, antioxidants were elevated and the oxidative stress indices seemed to be alleviated by GSH application. These results indicate that exogenous GSH enhances enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to alleviate the effects of isoproturon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  10. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  11. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity.

  12. [Key points of poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry and classification of recommended Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Su, Gang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ping; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian

    2017-11-01

    To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.the Ministry of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office and other five departments jointly issued the "China Herbal Industry Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (2017-2020)", according to local conditions of guidance and planning of Chinese herbal medicine production practice, promote Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation related work In this paper, based on the relevant data of poverty-stricken areas, this paper divides the areas with priority to the poverty alleviation conditions of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and analyzes and catalogs the list of Chinese herbal medicines grown in poverty-stricken areas at the macro level. The results show that there are at least 10% of the poor counties in the counties where the poverty-stricken counties and the concentrated areas are concentrated in the poverty-stricken areas. There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Poverty-stricken counties, with a certain degree of development of Chinese medicine industry poverty alleviation conditions, the need to strengthen the relevant work to expand the foundation and capacity of Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation; 37% of poor counties to develop Chinese medicine

  13. The tree-species-specific effect of forest bathing on perceived anxiety alleviation of young-adults in urban forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Guan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest bathing, i.e. spending time in a forest to walk, view and breathe in a forest, can alleviate the mental depression of visitors, but the tree-species-specific effect of this function by the urban forest is unknown. In this study, sixty-nine university students (aged 19-22, male ratio: 38% were recruited as participants to visit urban forests dominated by birch (Betula platyphylla Suk., maple (Acer triflorum Komarov and oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb trees in a park at the center of Changchun City, Northeast China. In the maple forest only the anxiety from study interest was decreased, while the anxiety from employment pressure was alleviated to the most extent in the birch forest. Participants perceived more anxiety from lesson declined in the oak forest than in the birch forest. Body parameters of weight and age were correlated with the anti-anxiety scores. In the oak forest, female participants can perceive more anxiety alleviation than male participants. For university students, forest bathing in our study can promote their study interest. Forest bathing can be more effective to alleviate the anxiety of young adults with greater weight. The birch forest was recommended to be visited by students to alleviate the pressure of employment worry, and the oak forest was recommended to be visited by girls.

  14. Dietary Modulation of Gut Microbiota Contributes to Alleviation of Both Genetic and Simple Obesity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenhong; Yin, Aihua; Li, Hongde; Wang, Ruirui; Wu, Guojun; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Yaping; Ouyang, Haimei; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yinan; Wang, Jicheng; Lv, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulan; Zhang, Feng; Zeng, Benhua; Li, Wenxia; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fu, Huaqing; Chen, Feng; Zhao, Naisi; Hamaker, Bruce R; Bridgewater, Laura C; Weinkove, David; Clement, Karine; Dore, Joel; Holmes, Elaine; Xiao, Huasheng; Zhao, Guoping; Yang, Shengli; Bork, Peer; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Wei, Hong; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Xiaozhuang; Zhao, Liping

    2015-08-01

    Gut microbiota has been implicated as a pivotal contributing factor in diet-related obesity; however, its role in development of disease phenotypes in human genetic obesity such as Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) remains elusive. In this hospitalized intervention trial with PWS (n = 17) and simple obesity (n = 21) children, a diet rich in non-digestible carbohydrates induced significant weight loss and concomitant structural changes of the gut microbiota together with reduction of serum antigen load and alleviation of inflammation. Co-abundance network analysis of 161 prevalent bacterial draft genomes assembled directly from metagenomic datasets showed relative increase of functional genome groups for acetate production from carbohydrates fermentation. NMR-based metabolomic profiling of urine showed diet-induced overall changes of host metabotypes and identified significantly reduced trimethylamine N-oxide and indoxyl sulfate, host-bacteria co-metabolites known to induce metabolic deteriorations. Specific bacterial genomes that were correlated with urine levels of these detrimental co-metabolites were found to encode enzyme genes for production of their precursors by fermentation of choline or tryptophan in the gut. When transplanted into germ-free mice, the pre-intervention gut microbiota induced higher inflammation and larger adipocytes compared with the post-intervention microbiota from the same volunteer. Our multi-omics-based systems analysis indicates a significant etiological contribution of dysbiotic gut microbiota to both genetic and simple obesity in children, implicating a potentially effective target for alleviation. Poorly managed diet and genetic mutations are the two primary driving forces behind the devastating epidemic of obesity-related diseases. Lack of understanding of the molecular chain of causation between the driving forces and the disease endpoints retards progress in prevention and treatment of the diseases. We found that children

  15. Dietary Modulation of Gut Microbiota Contributes to Alleviation of Both Genetic and Simple Obesity in Children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenhong; Yin, Aihua; Li, Hongde; Wang, Ruirui; Wu, Guojun; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Yaping; Ouyang, Haimei; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yinan; Wang, Jicheng; Lv, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulan; Zhang, Feng; Zeng, Benhua; Li, Wenxia; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fu, Huaqing; Chen, Feng; Zhao, Naisi; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Bridgewater, Laura C.; Weinkove, David; Clement, Karine; Dore, Joel; Holmes, Elaine; Xiao, Huasheng; Zhao, Guoping; Yang, Shengli; Bork, Peer; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Wei, Hong; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Xiaozhuang; Zhao, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota has been implicated as a pivotal contributing factor in diet-related obesity; however, its role in development of disease phenotypes in human genetic obesity such as Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) remains elusive. In this hospitalized intervention trial with PWS (n = 17) and simple obesity (n = 21) children, a diet rich in non-digestible carbohydrates induced significant weight loss and concomitant structural changes of the gut microbiota together with reduction of serum antigen load and alleviation of inflammation. Co-abundance network analysis of 161 prevalent bacterial draft genomes assembled directly from metagenomic datasets showed relative increase of functional genome groups for acetate production from carbohydrates fermentation. NMR-based metabolomic profiling of urine showed diet-induced overall changes of host metabotypes and identified significantly reduced trimethylamine N-oxide and indoxyl sulfate, host-bacteria co-metabolites known to induce metabolic deteriorations. Specific bacterial genomes that were correlated with urine levels of these detrimental co-metabolites were found to encode enzyme genes for production of their precursors by fermentation of choline or tryptophan in the gut. When transplanted into germ-free mice, the pre-intervention gut microbiota induced higher inflammation and larger adipocytes compared with the post-intervention microbiota from the same volunteer. Our multi-omics-based systems analysis indicates a significant etiological contribution of dysbiotic gut microbiota to both genetic and simple obesity in children, implicating a potentially effective target for alleviation. Research in context Poorly managed diet and genetic mutations are the two primary driving forces behind the devastating epidemic of obesity-related diseases. Lack of understanding of the molecular chain of causation between the driving forces and the disease endpoints retards progress in prevention and treatment of the diseases. We found

  16. The design and research of poverty alleviation monitoring and evaluation system: a case study in the Jiangxi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hong-yuan; Wang, Ying-jie; Yu, Zhuo-yuan

    2009-07-01

    The Poverty Alleviation Monitoring and Evaluation System (PAMES) is introduced in this paper. The authors present environment platform selection, and details of system design and realization. Different with traditional research of poverty alleviation, this paper develops a new analytical geo-visualization approach to study the distribution and causes of poverty phenomena within Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on the most detailed poverty population data, the spatial location and population statistical indicators of poverty village in Jiangxi province, the distribution characteristics of poverty population are detailed. The research results can provide much poverty alleviation decision support from a spatial-temporal view. It should be better if the administrative unit of poverty-stricken area to be changed from county to village according to spatial distribution pattern of poverty.

  17. The symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and alleviation practices as reported by their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mercado, Velda J; Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Arthur R; Pedro, Elsa; Colon, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Although symptoms during cancer treatments are prevalent and are important clinical outcomes of childhood cancer, the symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children along with the symptom alleviation/care practices that parents provide during cancer treatments have received limited attention. To examine the occurrence/severity of symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist-Children (TRSC-C), reported by mothers of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and identifying mothers' symptom alleviation/management strategies. Descriptive study conducted between January and May 2012. Mothers of 65 Puerto Rican children/adolescents undergoing cancer treatments responded to the Spanish versions of the TRSC-C, Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, and a Demographic and Health form. The children/adolescents' mean age was 9.2 (1-17) years; 62% were boys; 56 had chemotherapy; 9 had chemoradiotherapy. Children diagnoses were 35.4% leukemia, 24.6% solid tumors, 24.6% nervous system tumors, and 15.4% other. On the TRSC-C, the symptoms experienced by 70% or more of the children were: irritability (77%), nausea (75%), and hair loss (72%). On the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, the most commonly reported symptom alleviation category was "taking prescribed medicines." Puerto Rican mothers reported the use of alleviation practices to treat their children experiencing symptoms during pediatric cancer treatments. Patients and caregivers need to be educated about treatment-induced side effects, and the life-threatening consequences of underreporting and undermanagement. Symptoms should always be addressed at the time of initiation of primary or adjuvant cancer therapy because pretreatment symptoms may persist or get worse across the trajectory of treatment. A continuous assessment and management of symptoms during the childhood cancer trajectory can optimize clinical care and improve quality of life of patients and families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia

  18. Nuclear power: An overview in the context of alleviating greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The document gives a brief overview of the current development of nuclear power worldwide, covering essentially technical, economic and environmental aspects. Policy issues related to implementation instruments and potential barriers to nuclear power deployment are also touched upon. Views are given on the possible medium and long term development of nuclear power, as a means for alleviating greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector. Advanced technologies for the reactors and their associated fuel cycles are described, including advanced fission reactors and fusion energy. Direct cost and externalities are given for the present generation of nuclear power plants as well as for power plants to be commissioned in the coming decades. Environmental burdens and risks are analysed with emphasis on potential risks of accident, radioactive waste, and atmospheric emission in routine operation, focusing on greenhouse gases. 77 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. CFD simulation of alleviation of fluid back mixing by baffles in bubble column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Y.K.; Peng, F.F.; Wolfe, E. [Sedgman LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The global back mixing of liquid in an open flotation column is harmful to mineral separations. The inclusion of baffles and packing in open columns can dampen the effects of global back mixing. A mathematical model based on the principle of fluid dynamics is helpful in designing baffled or packed columns. This paper presents a two-dimensional Euler-Lagrangian model to simulate the multiphase flow for some cases of baffled and packed columns. Fluid motion is calculated by directly solving the Navier-Stokes equations by a SIMPLE approach. Bubbles are moved in a Lagrangian frame through the interaction forces imposed by the gas-fluid coupling. The simulated results successfully reveal that the liquid back-mixing effect in the open bubble columns can be alleviated by baffles or packings.

  20. Optimality study of a gust alleviation system for light wing-loading STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, M.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study was made of an optimal gust alleviation system that employs a vertical gust sensor mounted forward of an aircraft's center of gravity. Frequency domain optimization techniques were employed to synthesize the optimal filters that process the corrective signals to the flaps and elevator actuators. Special attention was given to evaluating the effectiveness of lead time, that is, the time by which relative wind sensor information should lead the actual encounter of the gust. The resulting filter is expressed as an implicit function of the prescribed control cost. A numerical example for a light wing loading STOL aircraft is included in which the optimal trade-off between performance and control cost is systematically studied.

  1. Nuclear power: An overview in the context of alleviating greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The document gives a brief overview of the current development of nuclear power worldwide, covering essentially technical, economic and environmental aspects. Policy issues related to implementation instruments and potential barriers to nuclear power deployment are also touched upon. Views are given on the possible medium and long term development of nuclear power, as a means for alleviating greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector. Advanced technologies for the reactors and their associated fuel cycles are described, including advanced fission reactors and fusion energy. Direct cost and externalities are given for the present generation of nuclear power plants as well as for power plants to be commissioned in the coming decades. Environmental burdens and risks are analysed with emphasis on potential risks of accident, radioactive waste, and atmospheric emission in routine operation, focusing on greenhouse gases. 77 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  3. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  4. Deep Brain Stimulation of the H Fields of Forel Alleviates Tics in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Neudorfer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current rationale for target selection in Tourette syndrome revolves around the notion of cortico-basal ganglia circuit involvement in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, despite extensive research, the ideal target for deep brain stimulation (DBS is still under debate, with many structures being neglected and underexplored. Based on clinical observations and taking into account the prevailing hypotheses of network processing in Tourette syndrome, we chose the fields of Forel, namely field H1, as a target for DBS. The fields of Forel constitute the main link between the striatopallidal system and the thalamocortical network, relaying pallidothalamic projections from core anatomical structures to the thalamic ventral nuclear group. In a retrospective study we investigated two patients suffering from chronic, medically intractable Tourette syndrome who underwent bilateral lead implantation in field H1 of Forel. Clinical scales revealed significant alleviation of tics and comorbid symptoms, namely depression and anxiety, in the postoperative course in both patients.

  5. Combination Treatment of C16 Peptide and Angiopoietin-1 Alleviates Neuromyelitis Optica in an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerve, causing blindness and paralysis in some individuals. Moreover, NMO may cause secondary complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC, leading to oligodendrocyte and neuronal damage. In this study, a rodent NMO model, showing typical NMO pathogenesis, was induced with NMO-IgG from patient serum and human complement. We then tested whether the combination of C16, an αvβ3 integrin-binding peptide, and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1, a member of the endothelial growth factor family, could alleviate NMO in the model. Our results demonstrated that this combination therapy significantly decreased disease severity, inflammatory cell infiltration, secondary demyelination, and axonal loss, thus reducing neural death. In conclusion, our study suggests a possible treatment that can relieve progressive blindness and paralysis in an animal model of NMO through improvement of the inflammatory milieu.

  6. [Octanol preconditioning alleviates mouse cardiomyocyte swelling induced by simulated ischemia/reperfusion challenge in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yukun; Fang, Jun; Fan, Lin; Lin, Chaogui; Chen, Zhaoyang; Chen, Lianglong

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of connexin 43-formed hemichannels in cell volume regulation induced by simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R). Mouse cardiomyocytes isolated on a Langendorff apparatus with enzyme solution were aliquoted into control, SI/R and SI/R +octanol groups. Calcein-AM was used to stain the cells and the cell volume was measured with confocal microscope by stack scanning. Trypan blue was used to measure the cell viability after the treatments. Calcein-AM staining and cofocal microscopy yielded stable and reproducible results for cell volume measurement. Mouse cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated SI/R showed obvious cell swelling as compared with the control cells [(126∓6)% vs 100%, Poctanol preconditioning significantly attenuated the cell swelling [(113∓6)%, Poctanol preconditioning obviously reduced the viability of the cells with SI/R challenge [(31∓2)%, Poctanol can alleviate the cell swelling to enhance the viability of the cardiomyocytes following SI/R.

  7. Policy Analysis of Poverty Alleviation in Semarang City Using Spatial and Sectoral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiali, M.

    2018-02-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem. Therefore, poverty reduction policy is not only related to the increase of income, but also various other dimensions such as improvement of education, health, quality of life, access to electricity, access to sanitation and water supply. Semarang City Government in 2012 initiated a policy of poverty reduction synergy program called “Gerdu Kempling”. Gerdu Kempling is an integrated policy which gives priority to addressing poverty in each village and sub-district in Semarang based on aspects of health, economy, education, infrastructure, and environment. Based on the results of Budget Allocation Analysis and Analysis of Geographic Information Systems (Poverty Mapping), it can be concluded that the program and budget allocation for poverty alleviation in Semarang City are not synchronized either spatially or sectorally.

  8. VPA alleviates neurological deficits and restores gene expression in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixiang Guo

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs once in every 10,000-15,000 live female births. Despite intensive research, no effective cure is yet available. Valproic acid (VPA has been used widely to treat mood disorder, epilepsy, and a growing number of other disorders. In limited clinical studies, VPA has also been used to control seizure in RTT patients with promising albeit somewhat unclear efficacy. In this study we tested the effect of VPA on the neurological symptoms of RTT and discovered that short-term VPA treatment during the symptomatic period could reduce neurological symptoms in RTT mice. We found that VPA restores the expression of a subset of genes in RTT mouse brains, and these genes clustered in neurological disease and developmental disorder networks. Our data suggest that VPA could be used as a drug to alleviate RTT symptoms.

  9. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil...... section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able...... with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy...

  10. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  11. A Meta-Analysis for the Efficacy of Hypnotherapy in Alleviating PTSD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Tudor-Ștefan; Rusu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of PTSD used literature searches to obtain 47 articles. However, only 6 were experiments testing the efficacy of hypnosis-based treatments. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was applied to postintervention assessment results and 4-week follow-ups. A large effect in favor of hypnosis-based (especially manualized abreactive hypnosis) treatment was found for the studies that reported the posttest results (d = 1.17). The temporal stability of the effect remains strong, as reflected by the 4-week follow-up assessments (d = 1.58) and also by long-term evaluations (e.g., 12 months). Hypnosis appears to be effective in alleviating PTSD symptoms.

  12. COALA: A Protocol for the Avoidance and Alleviation of Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandris, Dionisis; Tselikis, George; Anastasiadis, Eleftherios; Panaousis, Emmanouil; Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2017-10-31

    The occurrence of congestion has an extremely deleterious impact on the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This article presents a novel protocol, named COALA ( COngestion ALleviation and Avoidance ), which aims to act both proactively, in order to avoid the creation of congestion in WSNs, and reactively, so as to mitigate the diffusion of upcoming congestion through alternative path routing. Its operation is based on the utilization of an accumulative cost function, which considers both static and dynamic metrics in order to send data through the paths that are less probable to be congested. COALA is validated through simulation tests, which exhibit its ability to achieve remarkable reduction of loss ratios, transmission delays and energy dissipation. Moreover, the appropriate adjustment of the weighting of the accumulative cost function enables the algorithm to adapt to the performance criteria of individual case scenarios.

  13. COALA: A Protocol for the Avoidance and Alleviation of Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisis Kandris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of congestion has an extremely deleterious impact on the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This article presents a novel protocol, named COALA (COngestion ALleviation and Avoidance, which aims to act both proactively, in order to avoid the creation of congestion in WSNs, and reactively, so as to mitigate the diffusion of upcoming congestion through alternative path routing. Its operation is based on the utilization of an accumulative cost function, which considers both static and dynamic metrics in order to send data through the paths that are less probable to be congested. COALA is validated through simulation tests, which exhibit its ability to achieve remarkable reduction of loss ratios, transmission delays and energy dissipation. Moreover, the appropriate adjustment of the weighting of the accumulative cost function enables the algorithm to adapt to the performance criteria of individual case scenarios.

  14. Acacetin and Chrysin, Two Polyphenolic Compounds, Alleviate Telomeric Position Effect in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Boussouar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We took advantage of the ability of human telomeres to silence neighboring genes (telomere position effect or TPE to design a high-throughput screening assay for drugs altering telomeres. We identified, for the first time, that two dietary flavones, acacetin and chrysin, are able to specifically alleviate TPE in human cells. We further investigated their influence on telomere integrity and showed that both drugs drastically deprotect telomeres against DNA damage response. However, telomere deprotection triggered by shelterin dysfunction does not affect TPE, indicating that acacetin and chrysin target several functions of telomeres. These results show that TPE-based screening assays represent valuable methods to discover new compounds targeting telomeres.

  15. Carbon-dependent alleviation of ammonia toxicity for algae cultivation and associated mechanisms exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Chen, Paul; Addy, Min; Zhang, Renchuan; Deng, Xiangyuan; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Chi; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2018-02-01

    Ammonia toxicity in wastewater is one of the factors that limit the application of algae technology in wastewater treatment. This work explored the correlation between carbon sources and ammonia assimilation and applied a glucose-assisted nitrogen starvation method to alleviate ammonia toxicity. In this study, ammonia toxicity to Chlorella sp. was observed when NH 3 -N concentration reached 28.03mM in artificial wastewater. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate in wastewater promoted ammonia assimilation, but low utilization efficiency and high cost of alpha-ketoglutarate limits its application in wastewater treatment. Comparison of three common carbon sources, glucose, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate, indicates that in terms of ammonia assimilation, glucose is the best carbon source. Experimental results suggest that organic carbon with good ability of generating energy and hydride donor may be critical to ammonia assimilation. Nitrogen starvation treatment assisted by glucose increased ammonia removal efficiencies and algal viabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  17. Fluoxetine Alleviates Behavioral Depression while Decreasing Acetylcholine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, David T; Rada, Pedro V; Kim, Kay; Kosloff, Rebecca A; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2011-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have demonstrated the ability to alleviate behavioral depression in the forced swim test; however, the sites and mechanisms of their actions remain to be further elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that behavioral depression in the swim test is mediated in part by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulating the cholinergic M1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. The current study tested whether acute, local, and chronic, subcutaneous fluoxetine treatments increase escape motivation during the swim test while simultaneously lowering extracellular ACh in the NAc shell. Experiment 1: Fluoxetine (1.0 mM) infused unilaterally in the NAc shell for 40 min reduced extracellular ACh while simultaneously increasing swimming time. Experiment 2: Fluoxetine (0.2, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) infused bilaterally in the NAc shell on day 3 dose-dependently decreased immobility and increased the total escape attempts (swimming and climbing) compared with Ringer given on day 2. Experiment 3: Fluoxetine (0.5 mM) infused bilaterally in the NAc for 40 min did not affect activities in an open field. Experiment 4: Chronic systemic fluoxetine treatment decreased immobility scores and increased total escape attempt scores compared with control saline treatment. In all, 14 days after the initial swim test, basal extracellular ACh in the shell was still elevated in the saline-treated group, but not in the fluoxetine-treated group. In summary, these data suggest that one of the potential mechanisms by which fluoxetine alleviates behavioral depression in the forced swim test may be to suppress cholinergic activities in the NAc shell. PMID:21525864

  18. Does going to an amusement park alleviate low back pain? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakakibara T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Toshihiko Sakakibara, Zhuo Wang, Yuichi KasaiDepartment of Spinal Surgery and Medical Engineering, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, JapanBackground: Low back pain is often called nonspecific pain. In this type of low back pain, various emotions and stress are known to strongly affect pain perception. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the degree of low back pain changes in people with chronic mild low back pain when they are inside and outside of an amusement park where people are supposed to have physical and psychological enjoyment.Methods: The subjects were 23 volunteers (13 males and 10 females aged 18 to 46 years old with a mean age of 24.0 years who had chronic low back pain. Visual analog scale (VAS scores of low back pain and salivary amylase levels (kIU/L of all subjects were measured at five time points: immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park; 10 minutes, 1 hour (immediately after boarding the roller coaster, and 3 hours (immediately after exiting the haunted house after arriving at the amusement park; and immediately before getting off the bus returning from the park.Results: The three VAS values in the amusement park (10 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after arriving at the amusement park measured were significantly lower (P < 0.05 when compared with the other two values measured immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park and immediately before getting off the return bus. In salivary amylase levels, there were no statistically significant differences among the values measured at the five time points.Conclusion: Low back pain was significantly alleviated when the subjects were in the amusement park, which demonstrated that enjoyable activities, though temporarily, alleviated their low back pain.Keywords: low back pain, emotion, salivary alpha-amylase activity, enjoyment activities, psychological stress

  19. Orally Targeted Delivery of Tripeptide KPV via Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Nanoparticles Efficiently Alleviates Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Xu, Zhigang; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Mingzhen; Han, Moon Kwon; Kang, Yuejun; Merlin, Didier

    2017-07-05

    Overcoming adverse effects and selectively delivering drug to target cells are two major challenges in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Lysine-proline-valine (KPV), a naturally occurring tripeptide, has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory responses of colonic cells. Here, we loaded KPV into hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant HA-KPV-NPs had a desirable particle size (∼272.3 nm) and a slightly negative zeta potential (∼-5.3 mV). These NPs successfully mediated the targeted delivery of KPV to key UC therapy-related cells (colonic epithelial cells and macrophages). In addition, these KPV-loaded NPs appear to be nontoxic and biocompatible with intestinal cells. Intriguingly, we found that HA-KPV-NPs exert combined effects against UC by both accelerating mucosal healing and alleviating inflammation. Oral administration of HA-KPV-NPs encapsulated in a hydrogel (chitosan/alginate) exhibited a much stronger capacity to prevent mucosa damage and downregulate TNF-α, thus they showed a much better therapeutic efficacy against UC in a mouse model, compared with a KPV-NP/hydrogel system. These results collectively demonstrate that our HA-KPV-NP/hydrogel system has the capacity to release HA-KPV-NPs in the colonic lumen and that these NPs subsequently penetrate into colitis tissues and enable KPV to be internalized into target cells, thereby alleviating UC. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine alleviates progressive motor deficits in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nélio; Simões, Ana T; Prediger, Rui D; Hirai, Hirokazu; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Pereira de Almeida, Luís

    2017-03-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a neurodegenerative spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) associated with an expanded polyglutamine tract within ataxin-3 for which there is currently no available therapy. We previously showed that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, delays the appearance of striatal damage resulting from expression of full-length mutant ataxin-3. Here we investigated the ability of caffeine to alleviate behavioral deficits and cerebellar neuropathology in transgenic mice with a severe ataxia resulting from expression of a truncated fragment of polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 in Purkinje cells. Control and transgenic c57Bl6 mice expressing in the mouse cerebella a truncated form of human ataxin-3 with 69 glutamine repeats were allowed to freely drink water or caffeinated water (1g/L). Treatments began at 7 weeks of age, when motor and ataxic phenotype emerges in MJD mice, and lasted up to 20 weeks. Mice were tested in a panel of locomotor behavioral paradigms, namely rotarod, beam balance and walking, pole, and water maze cued-platform version tests, and then sacrificed for cerebellar histology. Caffeine consumption attenuated the progressive loss of general and fine-tuned motor function, balance, and grip strength, in parallel with preservation of cerebellar morphology through decreasing the loss of Purkinje neurons and the thinning of the molecular layer in different folia. Caffeine also rescued the putative striatal-dependent executive and cognitive deficiencies in MJD mice. Our findings provide the first in vivo demonstration that caffeine intake alleviates behavioral disabilities in a severely impaired animal model of SCA. Ann Neurol 2017;81:407-418. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  1. Strategies to alleviate the incidence of ascites in broilers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Aftab

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascites is a complex problem caused by many interacting factors such as genetics, environment and management. Many nutritional, medicinal and management strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. Higher levels of dietary vitamin C and E along with selenium yeast might be beneficial, presumably because of their role in improving cellular integrity. Oils rich in n-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce pulmonary hypertension and, consequently, ascites incidence. The potential use of flax oil has already been demonstrated, whereas the effects of other oils rich in n-3 fatty acids (fish, linseed and canola oils remain to be investigated. The assessment of the effects of dietary electrolyte balance on ascites incidence seems to be a promising field of research in broiler nutrition. In general, reducing the dietary level of salt (NaCl and adding bicarbonates to the diet and drinking water have been proposed as potential "cost-effective" methods to reduce ascites incidence. The use of nutrients/drug agents that increase the vascular capacity of the lungs or decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance may help to alleviate the problem, but economic and local feed regulations might restrict such use. Diuretics have also shown positive effects, presumably because there is a reduction of sodium and fluid retention in the body; litter humidity however must be closely monitored if diuretics are continuously administered. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence. Under practical conditions, it might be interesting to test the additive effects of

  2. Ghrelin alleviates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Cang; Han, Qiu-Qin; Wang, Ya-Lin; Yue, Na; Wang, Jing; Yu, Rui; Li, Bing; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Liu, Qiong; Yu, Jin

    2017-05-30

    As a regulator of food intake, ghrelin also plays a key role in mood disorders. Previous studies reported that acute ghrelin administration defends against depressive symptoms of chronic stress. However, the effects of long-term ghrelin on rodents under chronic stress hasn't been revealed. In this study, we found chronic peripheral administration of ghrelin (5nmol/kg/day for 2 weeks, i.p.) could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swimming test (FST), and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed by the open field test (OFT) and the elevated plus maze test (EPM). Meanwhile, we observed that peripheral acylated ghrelin, together with gastral and hippocampal ghrelin prepropeptide mRNA level, were significantly up-regulated in CUMS mice. Besides, the increased protein level of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in hippocampus were also detected. These results suggested that the endogenous ghrelin/GHSR pathway activated by CUMS plays a role in homeostasis. Further results showed that central treatment of ghrelin (10μg/rat/day for 2 weeks, i.c.v.) or GHRP-6 (the agonist of GHSR, 10μg/rat/day for 2 weeks, i.c.v.) significantly alleviated the depression-like behaviors induced by CUMS in FST and sucrose preference test (SPT). Based on these results, we concluded that central GHSR is involved in the antidepressant-like effect of exogenous ghrelin treatment, and ghrelin/GHSR may have the inherent neuromodulatory properties against depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biochar alleviates the toxicity of imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoka, Ngitheni Winnie-Kate; Kanyile, Sthandiwe Nomthandazo; Bredenhand, Emile; Prinsloo, Godfried Jacob; Voua Otomo, Patricks

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the use of biochar for the alleviation of the toxic effects of a nanosilver colloidal dispersion and a chloronicotinyl insecticide. The survival and reproduction of the potworm Enchytraeus albidus were assessed after exposure to imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). E. albidus was exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg imidacloprid/kg and 0, 5, 25, 125, and 625 mg Ag/kg for 21 days in 10% biochar amended and non-biochar amended OECD artificial soil. In both exposure substrates, the effects of imidacloprid on survival were significant in the two highest treatments (p imidacloprid. In the case of AgNPs, significant mortality was only observed in the highest AgNP treatments in both the amended and non-amended soils (p imidacloprid/kg in the non-amended soil and a higher EC 50  = 46.23 mg imidacloprid/kg in the biochar-amended soil. This indicated a 2-fold decrease in imidacloprid toxicity due to biochar amendment. A similar observation was made in the case of AgNPs where a reproduction EC 50  = 166.70 mg Ag/kg soil in the non-amended soil increased to an EC 50  > 625 mg Ag/kg soil (the highest AgNP treatment) in the amended soil. This indicated at least a 3.7-fold decrease in AgNPs toxicity due to biochar amendment. Although more studies may be needed to optimize the easing effects of biochar on the toxicity of these chemicals, the present results show that biochar could be useful for the alleviation of the toxic effects of imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles in the soil.

  4. Oxygenated thawing and rewarming alleviate rewarming injury of cryopreserved pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hirotake; Barriga, Alyssa; Medrano, Leonard; Omori, Keiko; Kandeel, Fouad; Mullen, Yoko

    2017-05-06

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is an effective treatment for Type 1 diabetic patients to eliminate insulin injections; however, a shortage of donor organs hinders the widespread use. Although long-term islet storage, such as cryopreservation, is considered one of the key solutions, transplantation of cryopreserved islets is still not practical due to the extensive loss during the cryopreservation-rewarming process. We have previously reported that culturing islets in a hyperoxic environment is an effective treatment to prevent islet death from the hypoxic injury during culture. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of thawing and rewarming cryopreserved islets in a hyperoxic environment. Following cryopreservation of isolated human islets, the thawing solution and culture media were prepared with or without pre-equilibration to 50% oxygen. Thawing/rewarming and the pursuant two-day culture were performed with or without oxygenation. Short-term recovery rate, defined as the volume change during cryopreservation and thawing/rewarming, was assessed. Ischemia-associated and inflammation-associated gene expressions were examined using qPCR after the initial rewarming period. Long-term recovery rate, defined as the volume change during the two-day culture after the thawing/rewarming, was also examined. Islet metabolism and function were assessed by basal oxygen consumption rate and glucose stimulated insulin secretion after long-term recovery. Oxygenated thawing/rewarming did not alter the short-term recovery rate. Inflammation-associated gene expressions were elevated by the conventional thawing/rewarming method and suppressed by the oxygenated thawing/rewarming, whereas ischemia-associated gene expressions did not change between the thawing/rewarming methods. Long-term recovery rate experiments revealed that only the combination therapy of oxygenated thawing/rewarming and oxygenated culture alleviated islet volume loss. These islets showed higher metabolism

  5. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Salicylic Acid Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity in Soybean Roots through Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L. exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM and SA (10 μM/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H, and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  7. Can the Green Deal be fair too? Exploring new possibilities for alleviating fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency and social programmes have failed to stem the dramatic increase in the number of fuel poor households in recent years. As the 2016 deadline for eradicating fuel poverty nears, energy efficiency and fuel poverty programmes are undergoing significant changes. The ambitions for Britain's Green Deal, the overhaul of supplier obligations alongside the winding down of Warm Front, and the introduction of an incentive for renewable heat combine to form a sea change in how energy efficiency and fuel poverty objectives are financed and delivered. Green Deal Finance (GDF) eliminates the up-front capital cost of energy efficiency measures to the household by linking repayments to energy savings and spreading them over many years. This paper asks whether and how GDF could be beneficial to fuel poor households. Using scenarios modelled on the English House Condition Survey, it explores the extent to which fuel poverty could be reduced, allowing for repayments incurred by GDF. It examines how much further fuel poverty could be alleviated were the capital cost subsidised or repayments supported, and concludes that a flexible design for GDF is necessary if it is to contribute to alleviating fuel poverty. - Highlights: ► The potential impact of Green Deal finance (GDF) on fuel poverty (FP) is explored. ► GDF based on actual energy use rather than notional need is better at reducing FP. ► Additional subsidy by energy companies improves the impact of GDF on FP. ► However, the resultant increases in energy bills would negate much of this effect. ► Government support for repayments could be fairer and go further.

  8. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ruibing [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Lihui [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: ymylh@163.com [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  9. Curcumin alleviates lumbar radiculopathy by reducing neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and nociceptive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current non-surgical treatments for lumbar radiculopathy [e.g. epidural steroids and Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α antagonists] are neither effective nor safe. As a non-toxic natural product, curcumin possesses an exceptional anti-inflammatory profile. We hypothesised that curcumin alleviates lumbar radiculopathy by attenuating neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and nociceptive factors. In a dorsal root ganglion (DRG culture, curcumin effectively inhibited TNF-α-induced neuroinflammation, in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and COX-2. Such effects might be mediated via protein kinase B (AKT and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK pathways. Also, a similar effect in combating TNF-α-induced neuroinflammation was observed in isolated primary neurons. In addition, curcumin protected neurons from TNF-α-triggered excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS production and cellular apoptosis and, accordingly, promoted mRNA expression of the anti-oxidative enzymes haem oxygenase-1, catalase and superoxide dismutase-2. Intriguingly, electronic von Frey test suggested that intraperitoneal injection of curcumin significantly abolished ipsilateral hyperalgesia secondary to disc herniation in mice, for up to 2 weeks post-surgery. Such in vivo pain alleviation could be attributed to the suppression, observed in DRG explant culture, of TNF-α-elicited neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Surprisingly, micro-computed tomography (μCT data suggested that curcumin treatment could promote disc height recovery following disc herniation. Alcian blue/picrosirius red staining confirmed that systemic curcumin administration promoted regeneration of extracellular matrix proteins, visualised by presence of abundant newly-formed collagen and proteoglycan content in herniated disc. Our study provided pre-clinical evidence for expediting this natural, non-toxic pleiotropic agent to become a

  10. Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1997-03-01

    This article examines rural-urban migration, its role in poverty alleviation in Thailand, and policy implications. The empirical research literature suggests that the poorest tend be left behind by wealthier migrants moving to urban areas. The youngest tend to migrate. The impact of remittances tends to appear more positive in international migration, but the impact of remittances among rural internal migrant families can also be substantial and be responsible for wealth differences within rural communities. Return migrants contribute to communities by bringing back new ideas and new attitudes toward family size. Migration can also produce negative impacts for sending communities, but the total analysis appears to favor positive impacts. The urban sector becomes another resource base for rural populations that can sustain rural populations during rapid change processes. The migrant population tends to be wealthier and better educated than rural populations, but poorer and less educated than urban populations. Informal sectors in urban areas may offer migrants flexible working hours, no taxes or deductions, less bureaucratic structures, and only 9% less income than the formal sector. Social networks reinforce migrant work in the informal sector and segmentation of the labor force. Social networks may be formalized into associations and help in securing migrant's housing and living. Migrants are integrated in a variety of ways into city life. Migrant communities are a source of energy, organizational skills, and talent. The incidence of poverty appears to be the greatest among women. Women migrants and women left behind by migrants must adjust to new conditions. Migration policies tend to focus on regulating the volume of migration. The author concludes that migration alleviates poverty and that policies should address city management, migrant adjustment processes, and training programs for nonmigrants.

  11. Massage Alleviates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Strenuous Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of massage on alleviating delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and muscle performance after strenuous exercise.Method: Seven databases consisting of PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang were searched up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were eligible and the outcomes of muscle soreness, performance (including muscle maximal isometric force (MIF and peak torque and creatine kinase (CK were used to assess the effectiveness of massage intervention on DOMS.Results: Eleven articles with a total of 23 data points (involving 504 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria and were pooled in the meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that muscle soreness rating decreased significantly when the participants received massage intervention compared with no intervention at 24 h (SMD: –0.61, 95% CI: –1.17 to –0.05, P = 0.03, 48 h (SMD: –1.51, 95% CI: –2.24 to –0.77, P < 0.001, 72 h (SMD: –1.46, 95% CI: –2.59 to –0.33, P = 0.01 and in total (SMD: –1.16, 95% CI: –1.60 to –0.72, P < 0.001 after intense exercise. Additionally, massage therapy improved MIF (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90, P = 0.002 and peak torque (SMD: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.04–0.71, P = 0.03 as total effects. Furthermore, the serum CK level was reduced when participants received massage intervention (SMD: –0.64, 95% CI: –1.04 to –0.25, P = 0.001.Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that massage therapy after strenuous exercise could be effective for alleviating DOMS and improving muscle performance.

  12. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean roots through modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Song, Fengbin; Zhu, Xiancan; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Li, Xiangnan

    2017-11-01

    As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  13. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri alleviates the response to gastric distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Swantje C; Kamiya, Takeshi; Wang, Lu; Yang, Pingchang; Bienenstock, John

    2011-10-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria have been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, they have not been tested for use in functional gastric disease. We therefore investigated if strains previously shown to protect from response to colorectal distension (CRD) in rats also modulate response to gastric distension (GD). Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with viable, heat-killed, gamma-irradiated Lactobacillus reuteri or viable Lactobacillus plantarum wild type (WT), L. plantarum Dlt¯mutant, conditioned medium or medium control (9 d), and subjected to GD under anesthesia using an i.g. Teflon catheter. Effects were measured by heart rate (HR) changes during noxious distension (60 mm Hg) compared to baseline HR values. We also investigated the localization of viable, green fluorescent protein-transfected bacteria in the stomach mucosa. Viable L. reuteri decreased the bradycardia induced by noxious GD compared to placebo controls (P reuteri and conditioned medium did not have a protective effect in GD. Viable L. plantarum WT and Dlt¯mutant, previously shown to be effective antinociceptive agents in CRD, showed no protective effect in GD. All viable bacteria were associated with the pars glandularis of the rat stomach. Thus, we conclude that the antinociceptive mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria differ between the stomach and the colon. Symptom alleviation cannot be attributed to the localization of the bacteria in the stomach. Information derived from effects of CRD cannot be extrapolated to effects in the stomach, which are likely to be strain and organ specific.

  14. Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jian-Shan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the effect of salicylic acid (SA on photosynthesis of plants including grapevines has been investigated, very little is yet known about the effects of SA on carbon assimilation and several components of PSII electron transport (donor side, reaction center and acceptor side. In this study, the impact of SA pretreatment on photosynthesis was evaluated in the leaves of young grapevines before heat stress (25°C, during heat stress (43°C for 5 h, and through the following recovery period (25°C. Photosynthetic measures included gas exchange parameters, PSII electron transport, energy dissipation, and Rubisco activation state. The levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs in the chloroplast were also investigated. Results SA did not significantly (P Pn of leaves before heat stress. But, SA did alleviate declines in Pn and Rubisco activition state, and did not alter negative changes in PSII parameters (donor side, acceptor side and reaction center QA under heat stress. Following heat treatment, the recovery of Pn in SA-treated leaves was accelerated compared with the control (H2O-treated leaves, and, donor and acceptor parameters of PSII in SA-treated leaves recovered to normal levels more rapidly than in the controls. Rubisco, however, was not significantly (P Conclusion SA pretreatment alleviated the heat stress induced decrease in Pn mainly through maintaining higher Rubisco activition state, and it accelerated the recovery of Pn mainly through effects on PSII function. These effects of SA may be related in part to enhanced levels of HSP21.

  15. Poverty alleviation strategies in eastern China lead to critical ecological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Dearing, John A; Dawson, Terence P; Dong, Xuhui; Yang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-02-15

    Poverty alleviation linked to agricultural intensification has been achieved in many regions but there is often only limited understanding of the impacts on ecological dynamics. A central need is to observe long term changes in regulating and supporting services as the basis for assessing the likelihood of sustainable agriculture or ecological collapse. We show how the analyses of 55 time-series of social, economic and ecological conditions can provide an evolutionary perspective for the modern Lower Yangtze River Basin region since the 1950s with powerful insights about the sustainability of modern ecosystem services. Increasing trends in provisioning ecosystem services within the region over the past 60 years reflect economic growth and successful poverty alleviation but are paralleled by steep losses in a range of regulating ecosystem services mainly since the 1980s. Increasing connectedness across the social and ecological domains after 1985 points to a greater uniformity in the drivers of the rural economy. Regime shifts and heightened levels of variability since the 1970s in local ecosystem services indicate progressive loss of resilience across the region. Of special concern are water quality services that have already passed critical transitions in several areas. Viewed collectively, our results suggest that the regional social-ecological system passed a tipping point in the late 1970s and is now in a transient phase heading towards a new steady state. However, the long-term relationship between economic growth and ecological degradation shows no sign of decoupling as demanded by the need to reverse an unsustainable trajectory. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. D-Aspartate drinking solution alleviates pain and cognitive impairment in neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Enza; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Marabese, Ida; Romano, Rosaria; Iannotta, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; D'Aniello, Antimo; Stella, Luigi; Marmo, Federica; Usiello, Alessandro; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Maione, Sabatino; de Novellis, Vito

    2016-07-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid detected in multiple brain regions and putative precursor of endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) acting as agonist at NMDA receptors. In this study, we investigated whether D-Asp (20 mM) in drinking solution for 1 month affects pain responses and pain-related emotional, and cognitive behaviour in a model of neuropathic pain induced by the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve in mice. SNI mice developed mechanical allodynia and motor coordination impairment 30 days after SNI surgery. SNI mice showed cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour, reduced sociability in the three chamber sociability paradigm, increased expression of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor and Homer 1a in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The expression of (post synaptic density) PSD-95 and Shank 1was instead unaffected in the mPFC of the SNI mice. Treatment with D-Asp drinking solution, started right after the SNI (day 0), alleviated mechanical allodynia, improved cognition and motor coordination and increased social interaction. D-Asp also restored the levels of extracellular D-Asp, Homer 1a and NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor to physiological levels and reduced Shank1 and PSD-95 protein levels in the mPFC. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant used also to alleviate neuropathic pain in humans, reverted mechanical allodynia and cognitive impairment, and unlike D-Asp, was effective in reducing depression and anxiety-like behaviour in the SNI mice and increased PSD protein level. Altogether these findings demonstrate that D-Asp improves sensorial, motor and cognitive-like symptoms related to chronic pain possibly through glutamate neurotransmission normalization in neuropathic mice.

  17. Licochalcone A Upregulates Nrf2 Antioxidant Pathway and Thereby Alleviates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Lv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP overdose-induced fatal hepatotoxicity is majorly characterized by overwhelmingly increased oxidative stress while enhanced nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is involved in prevention of hepatotoxicity. Although Licochalcone A (Lico A upregulates Nrf2 signaling pathway against oxidative stress-triggered cell injury, whether it could protect from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by directly inducing Nrf2 activation is still poorly elucidated. This study aims to explore the protective effect of Lico A against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings indicated that Lico A effectively decreased tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP- and APAP-stimulated cell apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species generation and increased various anti-oxidative enzymes expression, which is largely dependent on upregulating Nrf2 nuclear translocation, reducing the Keap1 protein expression, and strengthening the antioxidant response element promoter activity. Meanwhile, Lico A dramatically protected against APAP-induced acute liver failure by lessening the lethality; alleviating histopathological liver changes; decreasing the alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, malondialdehyde formation, myeloperoxidase level and superoxide dismutase depletion, and increasing the GSH-to-GSSG ratio. Furthermore, Lico A not only significantly modulated apoptosis-related protein by increasing Bcl-2 expression, and decreasing Bax and caspase-3 cleavage expression, but also efficiently alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and translocation, inhibiting Bax mitochondrial translocation, apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c release. However, Lico A-inhibited APAP-induced the lethality, histopathological changes, hepatic apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction in WT mice were evidently abrogated in Nrf2-/- mice. These

  18. Improvement Of Rural Off-Farm Energy Use In Nigeria: A Prerequisite For Rural Development And Poverty Alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, B

    2002-01-01

    In Nigeria, agricultural production takes place predominantly in the rural areas. The development of those areas, therefore, is necessary for the much-coveted rise in agricultural production and poverty alleviation. Development is a natural ally of improved energy use, both on and off-farm. Energy use in rural Nigeria is rudimentary and unimpressive. This paper discusses the existing pattern of energy use in the off-farm sector of rural areas and suggests ways of improvement to alleviate poverty and propel rural development

  19. Who Cares for the Poor in Europe? Micro and Macro Determinants for Alleviating Poverty in 15 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Peer; Grotenhuis, Manfred te

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to answer research questions on people’s willingness to donate money to help alleviate poverty. First, what are the individual (or micro) determinants and state-level (macro) determinants of welfare states that influence people’s willingness to donate money to the poor?

  20. Self-Referential Information Alleviates Retrieval Inhibition of Directed Forgetting Effects—An ERP Evidence of Source Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrui Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Directed forgetting (DF assists in preventing outdated information from interfering with cognitive processing. Previous studies pointed that self-referential items alleviated DF effects due to the elaboration of encoding processes. However, the retrieval mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. Based on the dual-process framework of recognition, the retrieval of self-referential information was involved in familiarity and recollection. Using source memory tasks combined with event-related potential (ERP recording, our research investigated the retrieval processes of alleviative DF effects elicited by self-referential information. The FN400 (frontal negativity at 400 ms is a frontal potential at 300–500 ms related to familiarity and the late positive complex (LPC is a later parietal potential at 500–800 ms related to recollection. The FN400 effects of source memory suggested that familiarity processes were promoted by self-referential effects without the modulation of to-be-forgotten (TBF instruction. The ERP results of DF effects were involved with LPCs of source memory, which indexed retrieval processing of recollection. The other-referential source memory of TBF instruction caused the absence of LPC effects, while the self-referential source memory of TBF instruction still elicited the significant LPC effects. Therefore, our neural findings suggested that self-referential processing improved both familiarity and recollection. Furthermore, the self-referential processing advantage which was caused by the autobiographical retrieval alleviated retrieval inhibition of DF, supporting that the self-referential source memory alleviated DF effects.

  1. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The application of active trailing edge flaps in an industrial oriented implementation is evaluated in terms of capability of alleviating design extreme loads. A flap system with basic control functionality is implemented and tested in a realistic full Design Load Basis (DLB) for the DTU 10MW...

  2. Psychosocial group rehabilitation for lonely older people: favourable processes and mediating factors of the intervention leading to alleviated loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikko, Niina; Routasalo, Pirkko; Tilvis, Reijo; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2010-03-01

    Loneliness among community-dwelling older people is a common problem, with serious health consequences. The favourable processes and mediating factors of a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention in alleviating older people's loneliness were evaluated. Altogether, 117 lonely, home-dwelling individuals (aged ≥75 years) participated in a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention. The content comprised (i) art and inspiring activities, (ii) group exercise and discussions or (iii) therapeutic writing and group therapy. The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention was evaluated from the group leaders' diaries and by observing the groups. Experiences of loneliness and social participation were collected by postintervention questionnaires from the participants. Data were analysed using methodological triangulation. Doing things together and sharing experiences with their peers inspired lively discussions, created a feeling of togetherness and led to participants' empowerment and increased self-esteem. The intervention socially activated the participants, and their feelings of loneliness had been alleviated during the intervention. Several common favourable processes and mediating factors were identified in the psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention that led to alleviation of loneliness among older people. Relevance to clinical practice.  The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention gives nurses an effective tool to support older people's psychosocial resources by activating them and alleviating their loneliness. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. An Empirical Study on Alleviating Career English Writing Anxiety through Cooperative Learning in a Chinese Polytechnic Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on writing anxiety alleviation through a pre-test/post-test assessment. 120 EFL learners from a Chinese polytechnic institute were assigned into two groups: one experimental (cooperative writing) and the other comparison (solitary writing). Results revealed that cooperative learning…

  4. Can aerobic exercise alleviate flu-like symptoms following interferon beta-1a injections in patients with multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Kjølhede, Tue; Stenager, Egon

    2016-01-01

    IFNß-1a injections in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise can alleviate FLS following IFNß-1a injections in PwMS, and secondarily to examine whether or not fluctuations in circulating cytokines provide a mechanism that can explain a potential...

  5. The Effectiveness of Phalleria macrocarpa Bioactive Fraction in Alleviating Endometriosis and/or Adenomyosis Related Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wiweko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The overexpression of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-ß and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme coupled with the absence of expression of progesterone receptors (PR is critical to thepathogenesis of endometriosis and adenomyosis associated pain.  DLBS1442, a novel bioactiveextract of Phaleria macrocarpa, exerts its action by downregulating the overexpressed ER-ß andCOX-2 products and up-regulating PR gene expression. This pilot study was conducted to evaluatethe effectiveness of DLBS1442 treatment in alleviating endometriosis- and/or adenomyosis-relatedpain. Ten endometriosis and/or adenomyosis patients were recruited consecutively at YasminClinic Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital in January - March 2013. Pain associated withmenses, including pre-menstrual pain, dysmenorrhea, dyschezia and dysuria, was measuredusing the visual analog scale (VAS at each of the next three menstrual cycles. Patients reportingone or more pain symptoms with a VAS score = 4 were given 100 mg of DLBS1442 three timesdaily for 12 weeks. VAS score reduction was noted in the first post-treatment menstrual cycle(approximately 5.3 weeks after treatment initiation and VAS scores continued to decline overthe final two cycles. DLBS1442 was effective in alleviating endometriosis- and/ or adenomyosisrelatedpain, as demonstrated by early pain reduction as evaluated using the VAS. Keywords: DLBS1442, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, adenomyosis Efektivitas Ekstrak Bioaktif Phaleria macrocarpa pada Masalah NyeriTerkait Endometriosis dan/ atau Adenomiosis Abstrak Over-ekspresi reseptor estrogen beta (ER-ß dan enzim siklo-oksigenase-2 (COX-2 akan menekan ekspresi reseptor progesteron (PR di endometrium; hal tersebut penting dalampatogenesis endometriosis dan adenomiosis. DLBS 1442, ekstrak bioaktif Phaleria macrocarpa,bekerja dengan menekan over-ekspresi ER-ß dan COX-2 serta meningkatkan regulasi ekspresigen PR

  6. Investigation of plasma–surface interaction effects on pulsed electrostatic manipulation for reentry blackout alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, S; Close, S

    2017-01-01

    The reentry blackout phenomenon affects most spacecraft entering a dense planetary atmosphere from space, due to the presence of a plasma layer that surrounds the spacecraft. This plasma layer is created by ionization of ambient air due to shock and frictional heating, and in some cases is further enhanced due to contamination by ablation products. This layer causes a strong attenuation of incoming and outgoing electromagnetic waves including those used for command and control, communication and telemetry over a period referred to as the ‘blackout period’. The blackout period may last up to several minutes and is a major contributor to the landing error ellipse at best, and a serious safety hazard in the worst case, especially in the context of human spaceflight. In this work, we present a possible method for alleviation of reentry blackout using electronegative DC pulses applied from insulated electrodes on the reentry vehicle’s surface. We study the reentry plasma’s interaction with a DC pulse using a particle-in-cell (PIC) model. Detailed models of plasma–insulator interaction are included in our simulations. The absorption and scattering of ions and electrons at the plasma–dielectric interface are taken into account. Secondary emission from the insulating surface is also considered, and its implications on various design issues is studied. Furthermore, we explore the effect of changing the applied voltage and the impact of surface physics on the creation and stabilization of communication windows. The primary aim of this analysis is to examine the possibility of restoring L- and S-band communication from the spacecraft to a ground station. Our results provide insight into the effect of key design variables on the response of the plasma to the applied voltage pulse. Simulations show the creation of pockets where electron density in the plasma layer is reduced three orders of magnitude or more in the vicinity of the electrodes. These pockets extend to

  7. Bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution 1.5% for alleviating nasal symptoms in patients with allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavet ME

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Megan E Cavet,1 Paul J Gomes,2 Warner W Carr,3 Jon I Williams4 1Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY, 2Ora, Andover, MA, 3Allergy and Asthma Associates of Southern California, Mission Viejo, CA, 4Bausch + Lomb, Irvine, CA, USA Background: Bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution (BBOS 1.5% is a topical antihistamine for the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis (AC. Allergic rhinitis and AC are common comorbid conditions. We explored the efficacy of BBOS 1.5% in alleviating nasal symptoms in an integrated analysis of two Phase III conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC studies and a Phase IV environmental allergen study. Methods: In the Phase III trials, a CAC was performed 15 minutes, 8 hours, and 16 hours following ocular instillation of BBOS 1.5% (n=78 or placebo (n=79, and subjects evaluated nasal symptoms. In the environmental study, subjects instilled BBOS 1.5% (n=123 or placebo (n=122 twice daily and nasal symptoms were evaluated over 2 weeks. Results: In the Phase III trials, BBOS 1.5% had reduced CAC-induced nasal congestion and pruritus at 15 minutes and 8 hours postdosing and rhinorrhea and a non-ocular composite-symptom score (sum of nasal scores plus ear or palate pruritus at all time points postdosing (all P≤0.01 vs placebo. In the Phase IV environmental study, BBOS 1.5% reduced sneezing and nasal pruritus over 2 weeks and median number of days to improvement of nasal pruritus and total nasal symptom score (sum for rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal pruritus, and nasal congestion; P≤0.04 vs placebo. Additionally, investigator-reported improvement in overall ocular (pruritus, hyperemia, tearing and nasal symptoms was greater with BBOS 1.5% vs placebo (P≤0.03. Conclusion: Results of these exploratory analyses indicate that topical ocular BBOS 1.5% reduced nasal symptoms, supporting its use for alleviating rhinitis symptoms associated with AC. Keywords: bepotastine besilate, nasal symptoms, allergic rhinitis

  8. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ge

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG. Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun; Hu, Kang-Di; Wang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Hong; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG). Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  10. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens supplementation alleviates immunological stress in lipopolysaccharide-challenged broilers at early age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Yang, M X; Zhang, L L; Lu, Z X; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ( BA: ) on the immune function of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide ( LPS: ). 192 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly distributed into four treatments: 1) broilers fed a basal diet; 2) broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with BA; 3) LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet; and 4) LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with BA. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with eight broilers per replicate. Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 500 μg LPS per kg body weight or sterile saline at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. LPS decreased the average daily gain ( ADG: , P = 0.001) and average daily feed intake (P = 0.001). The decreased ADG (P = 0.009) and increased feed conversion ratio (P = 0.047) in LPS-challenged broilers were alleviated by BA. LPS increased the relative spleen weight (P = 0.001). Relative spleen (P = 0.014) and bursa (P = 0.024) weights in the LPS-challenged broilers were reduced by BA. LPS increased white blood cell ( WBC: ) numbers (P = 0.001). However, the WBC numbers (P = 0.042) and the ratio of lymphocytes to WBC (P = 0.020) in LPS-challenged broilers were decreased with BA treatment. LPS decreased plasma lysozyme activity (P = 0.001), but increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone (P = 0.012) and IL-2 (P = 0.020). In contrast, BA increased lysozyme activity in plasma (P = 0.040). LPS increased mRNA abundances of splenic toll-like receptor 4 (P = 0.046), interferon γ (P = 0.008), IL-1β (P = 0.045) and IL-6, (P = 0.006). IL-2 (P = 0.014) and IL-6 (P = 0.074) mRNA abundances in LPS-challenged broilers were reduced by BA, although BA had an opposite effect for IL-10 mRNA expression in those broilers (P = 0.004). In conclusion, BA supplementation could partially alleviate the compromised growth performance and immune status of broilers under immune stress induced by LPS challenge at early age.

  11. Magnesium alleviates adverse effects of lead on growth, photosynthesis and ultrastructural alterations of Torreya grandis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg2+ has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+ toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+ toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm, root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations in the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The gener¬ated results may have important implications for understanding the

  12. ISLAMIC MICROFINANCE AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAM: PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty should be defined, measured, and scrutinized its root causes from a multi-dimension perspectives. Therefore, in designing and implementation of poverty alleviation program, it should consider economic factors, social and political contexts surrounding the poor. Sen (1982; 1999 views poverty as a multifaceted world and ethical dimension essentially should be placed underpinning it as a vital economic problem. The paper takes the stance that the poor themselves have potential capacity to alleviate their condition in resolving poverty trap. Community development program is one of the strategies to deal with the poverty problem. Islamic microfinance can play an important role in combating poverty dilemma especially in Muslim majority population communities. Through the approach proposed by Bigg and Satterthwaite (2005 with strengthening local organizations and community development programs, Islamic microfinance should engage a strategic partnership with the Masjid and Islamic charity institutions (zakat and waqf organization. This strategic alliance will result more integrated programs and also capacity building of the institutions involved. This paper aims to contribute a grass root model in the purpose of combating poverty in the framework of Islamic economic system. =========================================== Kemiskinan harus didefinisikan, diukur, dan diteliti akar penyebabnya dari berbagai perspektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam merancang dan mengimplementasikan program pengentasan kemiskinan, faktor-faktor ekonomi, konteks sosial dan politik yang mengelilingi kemiskinan juga harus dipertimbangkan. Sen (1982; 1999 memandang kemiskinan sebagai sebuah dunia yang kompleks, dan dimensi dasar etika harus ditempatkan sebagai sebuah masalah ekonomi yang vital. Peneliti sendiri dalam hal ini berpandangan bahwa orang-orang miskin pada dasarnya punya kapasitas yang memadai untuk keluar dari garis kemiskinan. Salah satunya adalah dengan program

  13. Role of resilience and social support in alleviating depression in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Min Liu,1 Hong-Jer Chang,2 Ru-Hwa Wang,3 Li-King Yang,4 Kuo-Cheng Lu,4 Yi-Chou Hou4 1Department of Nursing, Ching Kuo Institute of Management and Health, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Long-Term Care, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei City, Taiwan; 3Department of Nursing, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, Taiwan Background: Patients who undergo hemodialysis encounter challenges including role changes, physical degeneration, and difficulty in performing activities of daily living (ADLs and self-care. These challenges deteriorate their physiological and psychosocial conditions, resulting in depression. High resilience (RES and social support can alleviate stress and depression. This study evaluated the importance of RES and social support in managing depression in elderly patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Patients and methods: In this descriptive, correlational study, 194 older patients undergoing HD were enrolled from the HD centers of three hospitals in northern Taiwan. The Barthel ADL Index, RES scale, Inventory of Socially Supportive Behavior, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were used. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to evaluate the interaction of RES and social support with illness severity, demographics, and ADLs. Results: Of the total participants, 45.9% experienced depressive symptoms. Demographic analysis showed that men and those with high educational level and income and financial independence had less depression (p<0.01. Patients with a higher Barthel Index (n=103, RES scale (n=33, and social support (n=113 showed less depressive symptoms (p<0.01. We found a significant negative correlation between depressive symptoms and social support (r=-0.506, p<0.01 and RES (r=-0.743, p<0.01. Hierarchical regression analysis showed

  14. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection Alleviates the Transient Worsening Caused by Steroids Pulse Therapy in Treating Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guo-Yan; Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the treatment effect and side effect of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) on alleviating transient worsening of myasthenia gravis (MG) symptoms caused by high-dose steroids pulse therapy. Methods. Sixty-six consecutive patients with MG were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group treated with SFI and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) and the control group treated with MPT alone. The severity of MG before, during, and after MPT and the duration of transient worsening (TW) were evaluated and compared with the clinical absolute scoring (AS) and relative scoring (RS) system. Results. Twenty-nine patients experienced TW in each group. At TW, the AS was significantly increased (P < 0.000) in both groups compared with baseline data, with the AS increase in the treatment group (16.8 ± 2) significantly smaller (P < 0.05) than in the control group (24.9 ± 2.5). At the end of the treatment course, the AS for the treatment group was significantly decreased (7.5 ± 0.9) compared with at TW, although no significant difference compared with the control (9.7 ± 1.1). The TW lasted 1–6 days (mean 3.7) for the treatment group, significantly shorter (P < 0.05) than 2–12 days (mean 7.8) for the control. The RS for the treatment group at the end of treatment was 43.8%–100% (mean 76.8% ± 2.6%), significantly better than the control group: 33.3%–100% (mean 67.2 ± 3.6%). Slight side effects (18.75%) included maldigestion and rash in the treatment group. Conclusion. SFI has a better treatment effect and few side effects and can alleviate the severity and shorten the duration of the transient worsening of MG during steroids pulse therapy. PMID:24348721

  15. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in the trapezius muscle region alleviate chronic neuropathic pain after lower brachial plexus root avulsion lesion: A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann; Meier, Kaare; Perinpam, Larshan

    Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in the trapezius muscle region alleviate chronic neuropathic pain after lower brachial plexus root avulsion lesion: A case report......Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in the trapezius muscle region alleviate chronic neuropathic pain after lower brachial plexus root avulsion lesion: A case report...

  16. Alleviating Pancreatic Cancer-Associated Pain Using Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Neurolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Mamoru; Kamata, Ken; Yoshikawa, Tomoe; Nakai, Atsushi; Omoto, Shunsuke; Miyata, Takeshi; Yamao, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    The most common symptom in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is abdominal pain. This has traditionally been treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid analgesics. However, these treatments result in inadequate pain control or drug-related adverse effects in some patients. An alternative pain-relief modality is celiac plexus neurolysis, in which the celiac plexus is chemically ablated. This procedure was performed percutaneously or intraoperatively until 1996, when endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided celiac plexus neurolysis was first described. In this transgastric anterior approach, a neurolytic agent is injected around the celiac trunk under EUS guidance. The procedure gained popularity as a minimally invasive approach and is currently widely used to treat pancreatic cancer-associated pain. We focus on two relatively new techniques of EUS-guided neurolysis: EUS-guided celiac ganglia neurolysis and EUS-guided broad plexus neurolysis, which have been developed to improve efficacy. Although the techniques are safe and effective in general, some serious adverse events including ischemic and infectious complications have been reported as the procedure has gained widespread popularity. We summarize reported clinical outcomes of EUS-guided neurolysis in pancreatic cancer (from the PubMed and Embase databases) with a goal of providing information useful in developing strategies for pancreatic cancer-associated pain alleviation. PMID:29462851

  17. Diagnosing and alleviating the impact of performance pressure on mathematical problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaro, Marci S; Rotar, Kristin E; Kendra, Matthew S; Beilock, Sian L

    2010-08-01

    High-pressure academic testing situations can lead people to perform below their actual ability levels by co-opting working memory (WM) resources needed for the task at hand (Beilock, 2008). In the current work we examine how performance pressure impacts WM and design an intervention to alleviate pressure's negative impact. Specifically, we explore the hypothesis that high-pressure situations trigger distracting thoughts and worries that rely heavily on verbal WM. Individuals performed verbally based and spatially based mathematics problems in a low-pressure or high-pressure testing situation. Results demonstrated that performance on problems that rely heavily on verbal WM resources was less accurate under high-pressure than under low-pressure tests. Performance on spatially based problems that do not rely heavily on verbal WM was not affected by pressure. Moreover, the more people reported worrying during test performance, the worse they performed on the verbally based (but not spatially based) maths problems. Asking some individuals to focus on the problem steps by talking aloud helped to keep pressure-induced worries at bay and eliminated pressure's negative impact on performance.

  18. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-09-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents.

  19. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  20. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibagaki, M.; Seo, M.; Asano, T.; Kiyono, S.

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  1. Structure and Inhibition of Microbiome β-Glucuronidases Essential to the Alleviation of Cancer Drug Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Bret D.; Roberts, Adam B.; Pollet, Rebecca M.; Ingle, James D.; Biernat, Kristen A.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Venkatesh, Madhu Kumar; Guthrie, Leah; O’Neal, Sara K.; Robinson, Sara J.; Dollinger, Makani; Figueroa, Esteban; McShane, Sarah R.; Cohen, Rachel D.; Jin, Jian; Frye, Stephen V.; Zamboni, William C.; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Mani, Sridhar; Kelly, Libusha; Redinbo, Matthew (Einstein); (UNC); (Cornell)

    2015-09-01

    The selective inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidases was recently shown to alleviate drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in mice, including the damage caused by the widely used anticancer drug irinotecan. Here, we report crystal structures of representative β-glucuronidases from the Firmicutes Streptococcus agalactiae and Clostridium perfringens and the Proteobacterium Escherichia coli, and the characterization of a β-glucuronidase from the Bacteroidetes Bacteroides fragilis. While largely similar in structure, these enzymes exhibit marked differences in catalytic properties and propensities for inhibition, indicating that the microbiome maintains functional diversity in orthologous enzymes. Small changes in the structure of designed inhibitors can induce significant conformational changes in the β-glucuronidase active site. Finally, we establish that β-glucuronidase inhibition does not alter the serum pharmacokinetics of irinotecan or its metabolites in mice. Together, the data presented advance our in vitro and in vivo understanding of the microbial β-glucuronidases, a promising new set of targets for controlling drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.

  2. miR-340 alleviates chemoresistance of osteosarcoma cells by targeting ZEB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haibin; Zhang, Bingyun; Fang, Chongbin; Chen, Liqiu

    2018-06-01

    Chemoresistance during treatment of osteosarcoma (OS) is attracting more and more attention as the main clinical obstacle. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of miR-340 in chemoresistance of OS. Plasmid construction and transfection, miRNA arrays, PCR analyses, and western blot analysis, as well as MTT, apoptosis, and luciferase assays were carried out in MG-63 cells and MG-63/cisplatin (DDP)-resistant cells. The results showed that miR-340 was downregulated in OS tissues and drug-resistant OS cells. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between miR-340 and ZEB1 expression in OS tissues. Forced expression of miR-340 in drug-resistant OS cells significantly reduced multidrug resistance-1 and P-gp expression. Overexpression of miR-340 enhanced sensitivity to DDP by inhibiting viability and promoting apoptosis. The luciferase assay and western blot analysis identified ZEB1 as a direct target of miR-340, and miR-340 negatively regulated ZEB1 expression. Ectopic expression of ZEB1 reversed the effects of miR-340 on P-gp expression, cell viability, and apoptosis. miR-340 alleviated chemoresistance of OS cells by targeting ZEB1. Our results indicate that targeting miR-340 may be a potential therapeutic approach to treat drug-resistant OS.

  3. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-09-29

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population.

  4. Electroacupuncture Alleviates Pain Responses and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Acute Gout Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Chai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gout arthritis is one of the most painful inflammatory conditions. Treatments for gout pain are limited to colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids, which oftentimes result in severe adverse effects. Electroacupuncture (EA has been proved to be effective in relieving many inflammatory pain conditions with few side effects. Here, we aim to investigate the therapeutic potentials of EA on pain and inflammation of a rat model of acute gout arthritis and underlying mechanisms. We found that 2/100 Hz EA produced the most robust analgesic effect on mechanical hyperalgesia of acute gout arthritis rat model compared with 2 and 100 Hz. EA produced similar analgesic effect compared with indomethacin. 2/100 Hz EA also significantly alleviates the ongoing pain behavior, thermal hyperalgesia, and ankle edema. Locally applied μ and κ-opioid receptor antagonists but not adenosine A1 receptor antagonist significantly abolished the analgesic effect of EA. Locally applied μ and κ-opioid receptor agonists produced significant antiallodynia on acute gout arthritis rats, mimicking EA. Furthermore, 2/100 Hz EA upregulated β-endorphin expression in inflamed ankle skin tissue. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that EA can be used for relieving acute gout arthritis with effect dependent on peripheral opioid system and comparable with the one obtained with indomethacin.

  5. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Nitrogen Application in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of drought stress on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. at different nitrogen (N levels, the changes in N accumulation and enzyme activities involved in N assimilation were investigated. The drought was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG under hydroponic culture conditions. Pakchoi seedlings were exposed to a modified nutrient solution with different nitrogen concentration (N1, N2, and N3 represent 2, 9 and 18 mM NaNO3, respectively and osmotic potential (W1, W2 and W3 represent 0, 60 and 120 g·L−1 PEG 6000 in a full factorial, replicated randomized block design. A short time (seven days of drought stress caused a significant decline in plant water content, transpiration rate, shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentration. Increasing N availability considerably alleviate drought stress by increasing the content of total free amino acids in the roots, promoting the acceleration of root biomass accumulation, and improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1 and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2 which would reduce moisture limitations. The results suggested that pakchoi supplied with relative higher N had better growth performance under drought stress.

  6. Pretreatment with Sodium Phenylbutyrate Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB, against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro. SPB also improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function and alleviated neuronal apoptosis both in cell and animal models; these effects of SPB were abolished by DJ-1 knockdown with siRNA. Furthermore, SPB improved the survival rate about 20% and neurological functions, as well as reduced about 50% of the infarct volume and brain edema, of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice 23 h after reperfusion. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that preconditioning of SPB possesses a neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial function dependent on the DJ-1 upregulation, suggesting that DJ-1 is a potential therapeutic target for clinical ischemic stroke.

  7. Pretreatment with Sodium Phenylbutyrate Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Xin; Lei, Jie; Wang, Bo-Dong; Feng, Da-Yun; Huang, Lu; Li, Yu-Qian; Li, Tao; Zhu, Gang; Li, Chen; Lu, Fang-Fang; Nie, Tie-Jian; Gao, Guo-Dong; Gao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro . SPB also improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function and alleviated neuronal apoptosis both in cell and animal models; these effects of SPB were abolished by DJ-1 knockdown with siRNA. Furthermore, SPB improved the survival rate about 20% and neurological functions, as well as reduced about 50% of the infarct volume and brain edema, of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice 23 h after reperfusion. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that preconditioning of SPB possesses a neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial function dependent on the DJ-1 upregulation, suggesting that DJ-1 is a potential therapeutic target for clinical ischemic stroke.

  8. The Root Extract of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Alleviates Cardiac Apoptosis in Lupus Prone Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available The roots of the perennial herb Gentiana macrophylla Pall. (GM are known as Qinjiao, which has been used for centuries to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, little is known about the effects of GM on cholesterol-aggravated cardiac abnormalities in SLE, and the mechanisms thereof. This study investigates whether GM exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, focusing on the left ventricle (LV of NZB/W F1 mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The morphology and apoptotic status of ventricular tissues were determined by microscopy and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Levels of apoptotic biomarkers were determined by immunoblotting. The results thus obtained revealed that GM significantly reduced the cholesterol-aggravated apoptosis of LV in NZB/W F1 mice by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Additionally, GM significantly increased the cardiac insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 survival signaling and anti-apoptotic proteins in LV tissues. Accordingly, GM is considered to be beneficial in alleviating cholesterol-aggravated cardiac damage in SLE, and therefore constitute an alternative treatment for SLE patients with cardiac abnormalities.

  9. Synthesis of walking sounds for alleviating gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Matthew W M; Young, William R; Craig, Cathy M

    2014-05-01

    Managing gait disturbances in people with Parkinson's disease is a pressing challenge, as symptoms can contribute to injury and morbidity through an increased risk of falls. While drug-based interventions have limited efficacy in alleviating gait impairments, certain nonpharmacological methods, such as cueing, can also induce transient improvements to gait. The approach adopted here is to use computationally-generated sounds to help guide and improve walking actions. The first method described uses recordings of force data taken from the steps of a healthy adult which in turn were used to synthesize realistic gravel-footstep sounds that represented different spatio-temporal parameters of gait, such as step duration and step length. The second method described involves a novel method of sonifying, in real time, the swing phase of gait using real-time motion-capture data to control a sound synthesis engine. Both approaches explore how simple but rich auditory representations of action based events can be used by people with Parkinson's to guide and improve the quality of their walking, reducing the risk of falls and injury. Studies with Parkinson's disease patients are reported which show positive results for both techniques in reducing step length variability. Potential future directions for how these sound approaches can be used to manage gait disturbances in Parkinson's are also discussed.

  10. Active control law design for flutter suppression and gust alleviation of a panel with piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Fazelzadeh, S; Mohammad Jafari, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an active optimal integral/feedforward control for a supersonic panel under gust disturbance effects with piezoelectric actuators. Classical laminate theory with induced strain actuation and a generalized form of Hamilton's principle are used to formulate the governing equations of motion. The total charge developed on the sensor layer is calculated from the direct piezoelectric equation. The piezoelectric sensor distributed output is also integrated, since the output voltage is dependent on the integrated strain rates over the sensor area. Aerodynamic modeling is accomplished by first-order piston theory with gust velocity effects. The model reduction is performed to the state space system of equations for the control design and the time domain simulation. Moreover, the disturbance dynamics are modeled through the addition to the equations of motion for various conditions. The optimal control problem is set up to minimize the panel deflection using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR). Using an integral control model as a part of the feedback loop, together with a feedforward of the disturbances, greatly enhances the transient response, and the steady state error characteristics of this system are observed. Also, parametric studies for three piezoelectric actuator configurations are demonstrated. Simulation results show that the controller model is effective for flutter suppression and gust alleviation for various piezo configurations

  11. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gust alleviation for a STOL transport by using elevator, spoilers, and flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallman, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Control laws were developed to investigate methods of alleviating the response of a STOL transport to gusty air. The transport considered in the study had triple-slotted, externally blown jet flaps and a large T-tail. The control devices used were the elevator, spoilers, and flaps. A hybrid computing system was used to simulate linearized longitudinal dynamics of the aircraft and to implement a conjugate gradient optimal search algorithm. The aircraft was simulated in the low-speed approach condition only. Feedback control matrices were found which minimized the average of a quadratic functional involving passenger compartment accelerations, pitch angle and rate, flight path angle and speed variations. The optimization was performed for artificially designed gust inputs in the form of predetermined rectangular waveforms. Results were obtained for elevator, spoilers, and flaps acting singly and in combination. Additional results were obtained for unit sinusoidal gust inputs by using the gain matrices computed for the artificial test gusts. Various sensor configurations were also investigated.

  13. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, M Rajesh; Dian, S Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things.

  14. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intermittent fasting alleviates the neuropathic phenotype in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madorsky, Irina; Opalach, Katherine; Waber, Amanda; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Solmo, Chelsea; Foster, Thomas; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates. The functional benefits of this dietary intervention are associated with an increased expression of myelin proteins combined with a thicker myelin sheath, less redundant basal lamina, and a reduction in aberrant Schwann cell proliferation. These morphological improvements are accompanied by a decrease in PMP22 protein aggregates, and enhanced expression of cytosolic chaperones and constituents of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. These results indicate that dietary restriction is beneficial for peripheral nerve function in TrJ neuropathic mice, as it promotes the maintenance of locomotor performance. PMID:19320048

  16. Antioxidant properties of the mung bean flavonoids on alleviating heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is a widespread belief in Asian countries that mung bean soup (MBS may afford a protective effect against heat stress. Lack of evidence supports MBS conferring a benefit in addition to water. RESULTS: Here we show that vitexin and isovitexin are the major antioxidant components in mungbean (more than 96% of them existing in the bean seed coat, and both of them could be absorbed via gavage into rat plasma. In the plasma of rats fed with mungbean coat extract before or after exposure to heat stress, the levels of malonaldehyde and activities of lactate dehydrogenase and nitric oxide synthase were remarkably reduced; the levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (a quantitative assessment of oxidative stress were significantly enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that MBS can play additional roles to prevent heat stress injury. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying mungbean beneficial effects should help in the design of diet therapy strategies to alleviate heat stress, as well as provide reference for searching natural medicines against oxidative stress induced diseases.

  17. Alleviation of Salinity Effects by Exogenous Applications of Salicylic Acid in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Seedlings

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    F Chaharlang Badil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Abiotic stresses cause 71% reduction in crop yield around the world, from which 20% is related to salinity stress. The importance of sugarcane increases every day due to greater demand for sugar. Since sugarcane has mainly grown in arid and semi-arid regions, salinity is one of the main problems for this crop due to higher evaporation in these areas. Salicylic acid (SA is classified as a phyto – hormone and belongs to a group of phenol compounds. Salicylic acid can improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. This research aimed at studying the effect of SA on the alleviating of salinity stress in sugarcane. Materials and Methods The effects of salicylic acid on the growth and some physiological responses of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cv. CP69-1062 were studied under salt stress. The experiment design was a factorial of two factors, based on a randomized completely design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Sugarcane Research and Training Institute of Khuzestan, Iran in 2012. Treatments evaluated in this study were three levels of salt stress, including (ECW

  18. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT SECURITY IN CONTIGUOUS POVERTY ALLEVIATION AREA OF SICHUAN PROVINCE

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    W. Xian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the overall requirements of ecological construction and environmental protection, rely on the national key ecological engineering, strengthen ecological environmental restoration and protection, improve forest cover, control soil erosion, construct important ecological security barrier in poor areas, inhibit poverty alleviation through ecological security in this area from environmental damage to the vicious cycle of poverty. Obviously, the dynamic monitoring of ecological security in contiguous destitute areas of Sichuan province has a policy sense of urgency and practical significance. This paper adopts RS technology and GIS technology to select the Luhe region of Jinchuan county and Ganzi prefecture as the research area, combined with the characteristics of ecological environment in poor areas, the impact factors of ecological environment are determined as land use type, terrain slope, vegetation cover, surface water, soil moisture and other factors. Using the ecological environmental safety assessment model, the ecological environment safety index is calculated. According to the index, the ecological environment safety of the research area is divided into four levels. The ecological environment safety classification map of 1990 in 2009 is obtained. It can be seen that with the human modern life and improve their economic level, the surrounding environment will be destroyed, because the research area ecological environment is now in good, the ecological environment generally tends to be stable. We should keep its ecological security good and improve local economic income. The relationship between ecological environmental security and economic coordinated development in poor areas has very important strategic significance.

  19. Two cases of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis alleviated with hange-shashin-to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuya; Yamashita, Taku; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) can result in a superior treatment response and survival outcome compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and it has become the standard of care for locally advanced disease and organ preservation. However, the major limitation to radiotherapy or CCRT is locoregional treatment-related toxicities, particularly oral mucositis (OM). We experienced two cases of pain-uncontrolled OM in which the Traditional Oriental Medicine Hange-shashin-to (TJ-14) was effective. A 44-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and neck metastases underwent CCRT and suffered from OM of grade 3 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects (CTCAE). His pain was uncontrolled with a variety of analgesics, so we prescribed TJ-14 for him as a gargle. Even during CCRT, the pain significantly diminished and OM was improved to grade 1. TJ-14 contributed to completion of CCRT and improvement of the patient's nutrition status. A 67-year-old man with unknown primary and neck metastases underwent neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy. During adjuvant radiotherapy, he had OM of grade 3 and was unable to eat, so he was hospitalized and was started to have TJ-14. Although his OM remained grade 3 during the therapy, his pain was alleviated, leading to completion of the treatment. TJ-14 can be an effective supportive therapy for OM caused by radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, M. Rajesh; Dian, S. Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things. PMID:26495430

  1. Gastrodin Inhibits Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry and Alleviates Cardiac Hypertrophy

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    Xiaoqiang Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure, which are among the leading causes of human death. Gastrodin is a small molecule that has been used clinically to treat neurological and vascular diseases for many years without safety issues. In the present study, we examined protective effect of gastrodin against cardiac hypertrophy and explored the underlying mechanism. Phenylephrine and angiotensin II were used to induce cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model and a cultured cardiomyocyte model. Gastrodin was found to alleviate the cardiac hypertrophy in both models. Mechanistically, gastrodin attenuated the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE by reducing the expression of STIM1 and Orai1, two key proteins in SOCE, in animal models as well as in cultured cardiomyocyte model. Furthermore, suppressing SOCE by RO2959, Orai1-siRNAs or STIM1-siRNAs markedly attenuated the phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocyte model. Together, these results showed that gastrodin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and it also reduced the SOCE via its action on the expression of STIM1 and Orai1. Furthermore, suppression of SOCE could reduce the phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that SOCE-STIM1-Orai1 is located upstream of hypertrophy.

  2. Sulfur dioxide alleviates programmed cell death in barley aleurone by acting as an antioxidant.

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    Sha-Sha Wang

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2, a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3-induced programmed cell death (PCD in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 μM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide anion (⋅O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in aleurone layers. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (POD were enhanced by SO2 donor treatment. Meanwhile, lipoxygenase (LOX activity was attenuated by SO2 donor treatment. Furthermore, an induction of endogenous H2S and NO were also observed in SO2-treated aleurone layers, suggesting interactions of SO2 with other well-known signaling molecules. Taken together, we show that SO2 negatively regulated PCD by acting as an antioxidant to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during PCD.

  3. Lactose Induces Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Neutrophils and Macrophages to Alleviate Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

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    Li-Long Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is one common clinical acute abdominal disease, for which specific pharmacological or nutritional therapies remain elusive. Lactose, a macronutrient and an inducer of host innate immune responses, possesses immune modulatory functions. The current study aimed to investigate potential modulatory effects of lactose and the interplay between the nutrient and pancreatic immunity during experimentally induced AP in mice. We found that either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of lactose time-dependently reduced the severity of AP, as evidenced by reduced pancreatic edema, serum amylase levels, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activities, as well as by histological examination of pancreatic damage. Overall, lactose promoted a regulatory cytokine milieu in the pancreas and reduced infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils and macrophages. On acinar cells, lactose was able to suppress caerulein-induced inflammatory signaling pathways and to suppress chemoattractant tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production. Additionally, lactose acted on pancreas-infiltrated macrophages, increasing interleukin-10 and decreasing tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Notably, lactose treatment reversed AP-associated infiltration of activated neutrophils. Last, the effect of lactose on neutrophil infiltration was mimicked by a galectin-3 antagonist, suggesting a potential endogenous target of lactose. Together, the current study demonstrates an immune regulatory effect of lactose to alleviate AP and suggests its potential as a convenient, value-added therapeutic macronutrient to control AP, and lower the risk of its systemic complications.

  4. Ambient carbon monoxide associated with alleviated respiratory inflammation in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhuohui; Chen, Renjie; Lin, Zhijing; Cai, Jing; Yang, Yingying; Yang, Dandan; Norback, Dan; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing controversy on whether acute exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is hazardous on respiratory health. We therefore performed a longitudinal panel study to evaluate the acute effects of ambient CO on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of airway inflammation. We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults during April to June in 2013 in Shanghai, China. We applied the linear mixed-effect model to investigate the short-term associations between CO and FeNO. CO exposure during 2–72 h preceding health tests was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. For example, an interquartile range increase (0.3 mg/m"3) of 2-h CO exposure corresponded to 10.6% decrease in FeNO. This association remained when controlling for the concomitant exposure to co-pollutants. This study provided support that short-term exposure to ambient CO might be related with reduced levels of FeNO, a biomarker of lower airway inflammation. - Highlights: • We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults. • Short-term CO exposure was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. • The inverse association between CO and FeNO was robust controlling for co-pollutants. - Short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide may alleviate the respiratory inflammation.

  5. Edaravone alleviates Alzheimer’s disease-type pathologies and cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Fan; Lu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Chi; Shen, Lin-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Ye-Ran; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Parikh, Ankit; Chen, Jia; Liang, Chun-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Bu, Xian-Le; Deng, Juan; Li, Jing; Xu, Juan; Zeng, Yue-Qin; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Hai-Wei; Zhong, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of most devastating diseases affecting elderly people. Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and the downstream pathological events such as oxidative stress play critical roles in pathogenesis of AD. Lessons from failures of current clinical trials suggest that targeting multiple key pathways of the AD pathogenesis is necessary to halt the disease progression. Here we show that Edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is marketed for acute ischemic stroke, has a potent capacity of inhibiting Aβ aggregation and attenuating Aβ-induced oxidation in vitro. When given before or after the onset of Aβ deposition via i.p. injection, Edaravone substantially reduces Aβ deposition, alleviates oxidative stress, attenuates the downstream pathologies including Tau hyperphosphorylation, glial activation, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and rescues the behavioral deficits of APPswe/PS1 mice. Oral administration of Edaravone also ameliorates the AD-like pathologies and memory deficits of the mice. These findings suggest that Edaravone holds a promise as a therapeutic agent for AD by targeting multiple key pathways of the disease pathogenesis. PMID:25847999

  6. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Gu, Wei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. PMID:29343942

  7. Phosphate dissolving fungi: Mechanism and application in alleviation of salt stress in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaind, Sunita

    2016-12-01

    The present investigation reveals the solubilization efficiency of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP), Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), aluminium phosphate (AP) and ferric phosphate (FP) by Aspergillus niger (ITCC 6719) and Trichoderma harzianum (ITCC 6721) as function of carbon concentrations. Increasing glucose concentration from 1 to 7% in the growth medium, though improved the phosphorus (P) solubilization significantly but each fungal strain preferred different optimum carbon concentrations for mediating solubilization of different P sources. The two fungi employed different mechanisms to reduce medium pH for release of P from TCP, AP and FP. However, URP was solubilized solely through fungal production of citric, succinic, propionic, malic and acetic acid. A linear increase in citric acid production with increasing carbon concentration was recorded during FP solubilization by T. harzianum. The cell free culture filtrate of A. niger detected high phytase and low acid phosphatase activity titre whereas results were vice versa for T. harzianum. Both the fungal strains possessed plant growth promoting attributes such as auxin and sidreophore production and could solubilize Zn. In hydroponic system (with 60mM of sodium chloride concentration), supplementation with culture filtrate from each fungal strain increased the shoot growth of wheat seedlings significantly compared to non culture filtrate control. Use of A.niger as bio-inoculant could be a sustainable approach to improve soil P availability, promote plant growth and alleviate adverse effect of salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prepubertal Exposure to Genistein Alleviates Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress in Adult Rats

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    Lian-Dong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22 to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw/day (G, DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450 and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450. On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient, testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors.

  10. Rank-dependent grooming patterns and cortisol alleviation in Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnweber, Ruth S; Ravignani, Andrea; Stobbe, Nina; Schiestl, Gisela; Wallner, Bernard; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-06-01

    Flexibly adapting social behavior to social and environmental challenges helps to alleviate glucocorticoid (GC) levels, which may have positive fitness implications for an individual. For primates, the predominant social behavior is grooming. Giving grooming to others is particularly efficient in terms of GC mitigation. However, grooming is confined by certain limitations such as time constraints or restricted access to other group members. For instance, dominance hierarchies may impact grooming partner availability in primate societies. Consequently specific grooming patterns emerge. In despotic species focusing grooming activity on preferred social partners significantly ameliorates GC levels in females of all ranks. In this study we investigated grooming patterns and GC management in Barbary macaques, a comparably relaxed species. We monitored changes in grooming behavior and cortisol (C) for females of different ranks. Our results show that the C-amelioration associated with different grooming patterns had a gradual connection with dominance hierarchy: while higher-ranking individuals showed lowest urinary C measures when they focused their grooming on selected partners within their social network, lower-ranking individuals expressed lowest C levels when dispersing their grooming activity evenly across their social partners. We argue that the relatively relaxed social style of Barbary macaque societies allows individuals to flexibly adapt grooming patterns, which is associated with rank-specific GC management. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Leaves' polysaccharide alleviates hepatic gluconeogenesis via the downregulation of miR-137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hai-Feng; Li, Yan; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.(VBT) is a traditional Chinese herb that recorded has an effect of hypoglycemic. We previous discovered a dose-dependent anti-diabetic function of VBT. leaves' polysaccharide (VBTLP), but little is known about its underlying molecular mechanism. Therefore, we hypothesized that VBTLP would decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis to improve glucose metabolism in mice. To test this hypothesis, glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the effect of VBTLP on mice hepatic gluconeogenesis. Western blot and RT-PCR were performed to measure both in vivo and in vitro gene regulation under VBTLP treatment. Online bioinformatic analysis was performed to discover a target candidate, miR-137 of LKB1 and AMPK under VBTLP treatment, and the luciferase assay was conducted to validate it. Here we found that VBT. leaves' polysaccharide (VBTLP) decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of LKB1/AMPK axis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic studies reveal that miR-137 regulates hepatic glucose homeostasis by directly targeting AMPK and LKB1. Furthermore, we shown that VBTLP decreased hepatic miR-137 level, which might contribute to activation of LKB1/AMPK and downregulation of gluconeogenesis. Taken together, our study shown that the mechanisms might involve in VBTLP hypoglycemic effect, alleviates hepatic gluconeogenesis via the downregulation of miR-137. Our findings provide guidance in developing novel, safe and effective therapies for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. A novel framework to alleviate the sparsity problem in context-aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Penghua; Lin, Lanfen; Wang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Recommender systems have become indispensable for services in the era of big data. To improve accuracy and satisfaction, context-aware recommender systems (CARSs) attempt to incorporate contextual information into recommendations. Typically, valid and influential contexts are determined in advance by domain experts or feature selection approaches. Most studies have focused on utilizing the unitary context due to the differences between various contexts. Meanwhile, multi-dimensional contexts will aggravate the sparsity problem, which means that the user preference matrix would become extremely sparse. Consequently, there are not enough or even no preferences in most multi-dimensional conditions. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to alleviate the sparsity issue for CARSs, especially when multi-dimensional contextual variables are adopted. Motivated by the intuition that the overall preferences tend to show similarities among specific groups of users and conditions, we first explore to construct one contextual profile for each contextual condition. In order to further identify those user and context subgroups automatically and simultaneously, we apply a co-clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we expand user preferences in a given contextual condition with the identified user and context clusters. Finally, we perform recommendations based on expanded preferences. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  13. Effect of German chamomile oil application on alleviating atopic dermatitis-like immune alterations in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Hee; Heo, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Historically, German chamomile (GC) oil has been used for treatment of skin disorders. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice a week with 100 µL of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and challenged twice the following week with 100 µL of 0.2% DNCB for atopic dermatitis induction. Thereafter, 3% GC oil was applied daily (70 µL, 6 times week) on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Saline or jojoba oil was used for the control mice. Blood was collected after second DNCB challenge, and at 2 and 4 weeks after initiating oil application. Serum IgE levels were significantly lowered in the GC oil application group at the end of the 4-week application period. The GC oil application for 4 weeks resulted in reduction in serum IgG1 level compared with that after 2-week application. The GC oil application group showed a significantly lower serum histamine level than the control group 2 weeks after oil application. Scratching frequency of the GC oil application group was significantly lower than either control groups. This study is to demonstrate GC oil's immunoregulatory potential for alleviating atopic dermatitis through influencing of Th2 cell activation. PMID:20195063

  14. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-21

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  15. Chronic antidepressant administration alleviates frontal and hippocampal BDNF deficits in CUMS rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gu, Fenghua; Chen, Jia; Dong, Wenxin

    2010-12-17

    Stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and mediates mood. Antidepressants alleviate stress and up-regulate BDNF gene expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the different kinds of antidepressant treatments on the HPA axis and the BDNF expression in the rat brain. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to a six-week CUMS procedure and received different antidepressant treatments including venlafaxine, mirtazapine, and fluoxetine. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to measure BDNF expression levels in the rat brain, and ELISAs were used to investigate the plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. CUMS significantly decreased the BDNF protein level in the DG, CA1, and CA3 of the hippocampus and increased plasma CORT level. Chronic antidepressant treatments all significantly increased BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and the pre-frontal cortex. In addition, venlafaxine and mirtazapine inhibited the increase of plasma CORT level. These results suggested that an increase in the BDNF level in the brain could be a pivotal mechanism of various antidepressants to exert their therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends and Future Potential of Payment for Ecosystem Services to Alleviate Rural Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Milder

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Payment for ecosystem services (PES is a market-based approach to environmental management that compensates land stewards for ecosystem conservation and restoration. Because low-income households and communities control much of the ecologically sensitive land in developing countries, they potentially stand to gain from PES, as environmentally responsible stewardship is assigned a value by various actors in society. To date, however, instances of PES benefiting the poor have been limited mainly to specific localities, small-scale projects, and a handful of broader government programs. We analyze the size, characteristics, and trends of PES to evaluate its future potential to benefit low-income land stewards in developing countries. We estimate that by the year 2030, markets for biodiversity conservation could benefit 10-15 million low-income households in developing countries, carbon markets could benefit 25-50 million, markets for watershed protection could benefit 80-100 million, and markets for landscape beauty and recreation could benefit 5-8 million. If payments and markets reach these potentials, they could provide a non-negligible contribution to poverty alleviation at the global level.

  17. Mechanisms involved in alleviation of intestinal inflammation by bifidobacterium breve soluble factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Heuvelin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Soluble factors released by Bifidobacterium breve C50 (Bb alleviate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells, but their effect on intestinal epithelium remains elusive. To decipher the mechanisms accounting for the cross-talk between bacteria/soluble factors and intestinal epithelium, we measured the capacity of the bacteria, its conditioned medium (Bb-CM and other Gram(+ commensal bacteria to dampen inflammatory chemokine secretion. METHODS: TNFalpha-induced chemokine (CXCL8 secretion and alteration of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signalling pathways by Bb were studied by EMSA, confocal microscopy and western blotting. Anti-inflammatory capacity was also tested in vivo in a model of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. RESULTS: Bb and Bb-CM, but not other commensal bacteria, induced a time and dose-dependent inhibition of CXCL8 secretion by epithelial cells driven by both AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription pathways and implying decreased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and IkappaB-alpha molecules. In TNBS-induced colitis in mice, Bb-CM decreased the colitis score and inflammatory cytokine expression, an effect reproduced by dendritic cell conditioning with Bb-CM. CONCLUSIONS: Bb and secreted soluble factors contribute positively to intestinal homeostasis by attenuating chemokine production. The results indicate that Bb down regulate inflammation at the epithelial level by inhibiting phosphorylations involved in inflammatory processes and by protective conditioning of dendritic cells.

  18. Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Sustainability through Improved Regimes of Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Bosselmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the Millennium Development Goals, international technology transfer can play a major role for poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability. At present, there are economic, social and legal (rather than technical barriers preventing the transfer of environmentally sound technology (EST from a wider use in international regimes. Removing these barriers requires greater political and regulatory efforts both domestically and internationally. To enable EST transfer, developed States need to improve domestic market conditions such as removal of negative subsidies and barriers to foreign investment, targeted fiscal incentives and law reforms favouring sustainable production and use of energy. There is no realistic perspective for international EST transfer as long as it is disadvantaged domestically. A coherent EST transfer regime is only possible through greater governmental intervention at the national and international level, including environmental regulations, national systems of innovation, and creating an enabling environment for EST. Such intervention should include effective public-private partnerships, both within and between States. Partnerships, if guided by law, could ensure EST innovation more efficiently than purely State-driven or market-driven EST transfers. In search for a model, the EST transfer regime under the Vienna Ozone Layer Convention and the Montreal Protocol deserves recognition. For example, the clean development mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol allows for considerable scope for EST transfer. The potential of EST transfer for climate change and for meeting the Millennium Development Goals has yet to be realized.

  19. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  20. Alleviation of iron toxicity in Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) by humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Dos Santos, Tamires Cruz; Pittarello, Marco; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; Ramos, Alessandro Coutinho; Busato, Jader Galba

    2018-04-01

    One of the industrial pillars of Espírito Santo state, South East of Brazil, is iron-mining products processing. This activity brings to a high level of coastal pollution due to deposition of iron particulate on fragile ecosystems as mangroves and restinga. Schinus therebinthifolius (aroeira) is a widespread restinga species. This work tested iron toxicity alleviation by vermicompost humic substances (HS) added to aroeira seedlings in hydroponic conditions. Catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase are antioxidant enzymes that work as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers: they increase their activity as an answer to ROS concentration rise that is the consequence of metal accumulation or humic substance stimulation. S. terebinthifolius seedlings treated with HS and Fe augmented their antioxidant enzyme activities significantly less than seedlings treated separately with HS and Fe; their significantly lower Fe accumulation and the slight increase of root and leaf area confirm the biostimulating effect of HS and their role in blocking Fe excess outside the roots. The use of HS can be useful for the recovery of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  1. Pain during mammography: Possible risk factors and ways to alleviate pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the literature surrounding the issue of pain experienced during mammography. This is an important topic since many women may refuse screening mammograms due to the possibility of a painful examination. It is a difficult area to research since the experience of pain is by nature subjective and the manner by which data have been collected has varied with many different pain assessment instruments being utilised. Accordingly there is wide variation in the degree of pain felt from only slight pain to some women finding it acutely painful. To discover why some women find it so painful certain risk factors that have been associated with painful mammography are explored. There are many of these risk factors but this article concentrates on three main areas: biological, psychological and staff-related. Once the reasons why some women experience such acute pain, ways to ease this may be found. Methods to alleviate painful mammography are suggested and discussed. The article concludes that there is a wide variance in the data collection techniques which could account for the wide variance in the reported pain. More research is required using a validated pain measurement to establish the extent of pain and to establish the effect of this on future compliance

  2. Structural Modulation of Gut Microbiota during Alleviation of Suckling Piglets Diarrhoea with Herbal Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the traditional Chinese herbal formula of Shen Ling Baizhu (SLB could modulate the composition of the gut microbiota and alleviate diarrhoea in suckling piglets, twenty-four newly born piglets (Large White × Landrace × Duroc were selected and allocated to 4 groups (control group and experimental groups I, II, and III randomly. Faecal microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. The result indicated that experimental groups I and II exhibited significantly different gut microbiota from the control group. Most notably, the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly elevated in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. Collinsella and Faecalibacterium were also enhanced in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. The results showed that SLB treatment could modulate the gut microbiota composition of suckling piglets, enriching the amount of beneficial bacteria in particular. The observed changes in the gut microbiota could provide the basis for further research on the pharmacological mechanism of the tested Chinese herbal formula.

  3. Selenium alleviates cadmium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Issam; Chtourou, Yacine; Djebali, Wahbi

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenium (Se) in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. The exposure of sunflower seedlings to 20μM Cd inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations and strongly increased accumulation of Cd in both roots and shoots. Similarly, Cd enhanced hydrogen peroxides content and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking seeds with Se (5, 10 and 20μM) alleviated the negative effect of Cd on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Cd. Furthermore, Se enhanced the activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, but lowered that of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. As important antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione contents in sunflower leaves exposed to Cd were significantly decreased by Se treatment. The data suggest that the beneficial effect of Se during an earlier growth period could be related to avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Cd, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A crucial role of ROCK for alleviation of senescence-associated phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Tae; Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Chi Hyun; Lee, Young-Sam; Cho, Kyung A; Park, Sang Chul

    2018-06-01

    In our previous study, we uncovered a novel mechanism in which amelioration of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) phenotype is mediated by mitochondrial functional recovery upon rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether this mechanism is also applied to the amelioration of normal aging cells. In this study, we used Y-27632 and fasudil as effective ROCK inhibitors, and examined their role in senescence. We found that ROCK inhibition induced the functional recovery of the mitochondria as well as the metabolic reprogramming, which are two salient features that are altered in normal aging cells. Moreover, microarray analysis revealed that the up-regulated pathway upon ROCK inhibition is enriched for chromatin remodeling genes, which may play an important role in the alleviation of senescence-associated cell cycle arrest. Indeed, ROCK inhibition induced cellular proliferation, concomitant with the amelioration of senescent phenotype. Furthermore, the restorative effect by ROCK inhibition was observed in vivo as evidenced by the facilitated cutaneous wound healing. Taken together, our data indicate that ROCK inhibition might be utilized to ameliorate normal aging process and to treat age-related disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Zakah Effective to Alleviate Poverty in a Muslim Society?: A Case of Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam, Onagun Isiaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kwara State is one of the Muslim-dominated states in Nigeria, where Islamic economic instrument of zakah is expected to play vital role in alleviating the problem of poverty in the society. One of the objectives of zakah is to economically circulate the wealth and resources from the rich to the poor and eventually realize fair distribution of those wealth and resources in a Muslim society. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of zakah in the poverty reduction of the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria, particularly, the poor Muslim women. The study employs mixed method of data collection whereby the primary data are explored using the questionnaire and interview designed for the potential respondents during the on-going academic research programme 2013/2014 academic session of 360 sample size. Similarly, verses from Holy Qu’ran and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh are used in the study. For the secondary data, existing literature and studies on zakah are also used. Data gathered are analysed using frequencies, percentages and inferential statistics via SPSS 20.0. The findings show that zakah and its institution are not significantly related to and effective in reducing poverty among the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria. However, recommendations are made towards introduction of standard institution of zakah in the State in order to assist in poverty reduction among the poor Muslims.

  6. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Ecological Environment Security in Contiguous Poverty Alleviation Area of Sichuan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, W.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Luo, X.; Shao, H.

    2018-04-01

    According to the overall requirements of ecological construction and environmental protection, rely on the national key ecological engineering, strengthen ecological environmental restoration and protection, improve forest cover, control soil erosion, construct important ecological security barrier in poor areas, inhibit poverty alleviation through ecological security in this area from environmental damage to the vicious cycle of poverty. Obviously, the dynamic monitoring of ecological security in contiguous destitute areas of Sichuan province has a policy sense of urgency and practical significance. This paper adopts RS technology and GIS technology to select the Luhe region of Jinchuan county and Ganzi prefecture as the research area, combined with the characteristics of ecological environment in poor areas, the impact factors of ecological environment are determined as land use type, terrain slope, vegetation cover, surface water, soil moisture and other factors. Using the ecological environmental safety assessment model, the ecological environment safety index is calculated. According to the index, the ecological environment safety of the research area is divided into four levels. The ecological environment safety classification map of 1990 in 2009 is obtained. It can be seen that with the human modern life and improve their economic level, the surrounding environment will be destroyed, because the research area ecological environment is now in good, the ecological environment generally tends to be stable. We should keep its ecological security good and improve local economic income. The relationship between ecological environmental security and economic coordinated development in poor areas has very important strategic significance.

  8. Embodied terror management: interpersonal touch alleviates existential concerns among individuals with low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem.

  9. Phosphorus improves arsenic phytoremediation by Anadenanthera peregrina by alleviating induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M P; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, G S; Marques, T C L L S M; Garcia, Q S; Guilherme, L R G; Soares, A M

    2013-01-01

    Due to similarities in their chemical behaviors, studies examining interactions between arsenic (As)--in special arsenate--and phosphorus (P) are important for better understanding arsenate uptake, toxicity, and accumulation in plants. We evaluated the effects of phosphate addition on plant biomass and on arsenate and phosphate uptake by Anadenanthera peregrina, an important Brazilian savanna legume. Plants were grown for 35 days in substrates that received combinations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) arsenate and 0, 200, and 400 mg kg(-1) phosphate. The addition of P increased the arsenic-phytoremediation capacity of A. peregrina by increasing As accumulation, while also alleviating As-induced oxidative stress. Arsenate phytotoxicity in A. peregrina is due to lipid peroxidation, but not hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Added P also increased the activity of important reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) that help prevent lipid peroxidation in leaves. Our findings suggest that applying P represents a feasible strategy for more efficient As phytoremediation using A. peregrina.

  10. Taltirelin alleviates fatigue-like behavior in mouse models of cancer-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, John P; Wolff, Brian S; Cullen, Mary J; Saligan, Leorey N; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue affects most cancer patients and has numerous potential causes, including cancer itself and cancer treatment. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is not relieved by rest, can decrease quality of life, and has no FDA-approved therapy. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has been proposed as a potential novel treatment for CRF, but its efficacy against CRF remains largely untested. Thus, we tested the TRH analog, taltirelin (TAL), in mouse models of CRF. To model fatigue, we used a mouse model of chemotherapy, a mouse model of radiation therapy, and mice bearing colon 26 carcinoma tumors. We used the treadmill fatigue test to assess fatigue-like behavior after treatment with TAL. Additionally, we used wild-type and TRH receptor knockout mice to determine which TRH receptor was necessary for the actions of TAL. Tumor-bearing mice displayed muscle wasting and all models caused fatigue-like behavior, with mice running a shorter distance in the treadmill fatigue test than controls. TAL reversed fatigue-like behavior in all three models and the mouse TRH 1 receptor was necessary for the effects of TAL. These data suggest that TAL may be useful in alleviating fatigue in all cancer patients and provide further support for evaluating TAL as a potential therapy for CRF in humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Does stimulating various coping strategies alleviate loneliness? Results from an online friendship enrichment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Tamara E; Aartsen, Marja J; van Tilburg, Theo G; Stevens, Nan L

    2017-09-01

    Loneliness stems from a mismatch between the social relationships one has and those one desires. Loneliness often has severe consequences for individuals and society. Recently, an online adaptation of the friendship enrichment program (FEP) was developed and tested to gain insight in its contribution to the alleviation of loneliness. Three loneliness coping strategies are introduced during the program: network development, adapting relationship standards, and reducing the importance of the discrepancy between actual and desired relationships. Data were collected among 239 participants aged 50-86. Loneliness was measured four times using a multi-item scale, and on various days with a single, direct question. Loneliness assessed with the scale declined during and after the program. Scores on loneliness assessed for a specific day, however, are more ambiguous. Despite the immediate positive effect of conducting assignments, we did not observe a decline in the single loneliness item score over the course of the program. The online FEP seems to reduce loneliness in general, but these effects are not visible on today's loneliness. Nevertheless, the online intervention to reduce loneliness is a valuable new contribution to the collection of loneliness interventions.

  12. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  13. Hand immersion in cold water alleviating physiological strain and increasing tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenok, Gennadi A; Hadid, Amir; Preiss-Bloom, Orahn; Yanovich, Ran; Erlich, Tomer; Ron-Tal, Osnat; Peled, Amir; Epstein, Yoram; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    The current study examines the use of hand immersion in cold water to alleviate physiological strain caused by exercising in a hot climate while wearing NBC protective garments. Seventeen heat acclimated subjects wearing a semi-permeable NBC protective garment and a light bulletproof vest were exposed to a 125 min exercise-heat stress (35 degrees C, 50% RH; 5 km/h, 5% incline). The heat stress exposure routine included 5 min rest in the chamber followed by two 50:10 min work-rest cycles. During the control trial (CO), there was no intervention, whilst in the intervention condition the subjects immersed their hands and forearms in a 10 degrees C water bath (HI). The results demonstrated that hand immersion in cold water significantly reduced physiological strain. In the CO exposure during the first and second resting periods, the average rectal temperature (T (re)) practically did not decrease. With hand immersion, the mean (SD) T (re) decreased by 0.45 (0.05 degrees C) and 0.48 degrees C (0.06 degrees C) during the first and second rest periods respectively (P immersion in cold water for 10 min is an effective method for decreasing the physiological strain caused by exercising under heat stress while wearing NBC protective garments. The method is convenient, simple, and allows longer working periods in hot or contaminated areas with shorter resting periods.

  14. Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Šteflová

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society faces. Urban water reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain, we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information, the level of knowledge, and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.

  15. Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation enhances growth performance and alleviates aluminum toxicity in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the protection offered by the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 against waterborne Al exposure in tilapia. Fish were allocated to control, CCFM639-only, Al-only or Al plus CCFM639 groups. The fish were exposed to 2.73mg/L Al ions for 4 weeks. The probiotic was incorporated into the fish diet at 10 8 CFU/g and provided twice daily. Our results showed that L. plantarum CCFM639 significantly enhanced feed utilization, growth performance and antioxidant ability in the absence of waterborne Al exposure. When fish were exposed to Al, dietary supplementation with the strain effectively decreased the death rate and accumulation of Al in tissues, and enhanced growth performance. Moreover, Al-induced changes in hematobiochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress and histopathology were also alleviated. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 may be a novel dietary supplement for fish to enhance growth performance and prevent aquaculture and food safety problems induced by Al pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Diffusive tunneling for alleviating Knudsen-layer reactivity reduction under hydrodynamic mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianzhu; McDevitt, Chris; Guo, Zehua

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic mix will produce small features for intermixed deuterium-tritium fuel and inert pusher materials. The geometrical characteristics of the mix feature have a large impact on Knudsen layer yield reduction. We considered two features. One is planar structure, and the other is fuel cells segmented by inert pusher material which can be represented by a spherical DT bubble enclosed by a pusher shell. The truly 3D fuel feature, the spherical bubble, has the largest degree of yield reduction, due to fast ions being lost in all directions. The planar fuel structure, which can be regarded as 1D features, has modest amount of potential for yield degradation. While the increasing yield reduction with increasing Knudsen number of the fuel region is straightforwardly anticipated, we also show, by a combination of direct simulation and simple model, that once the pusher materials is stretched sufficiently thin by hydrodynamic mix, the fast fuel ions diffusively tunnel through them with minimal energy loss, so the Knudsen layer yield reduction becomes alleviated. This yield recovery can occur in a chunk-mixed plasma, way before the far more stringent, asymptotic limit of an atomically homogenized fuel and pusher assembly. Work supported by LANL LDRD program.

  17. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hafeez, Farhan; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem

    2017-05-01

    Drought and salt stress negatively affect soil fertility and plant growth. Application of biochar, carbon-rich material developed from combustion of biomass under no or limited oxygen supply, ameliorates the negative effects of drought and salt stress on plants. The biochar application increased the plant growth, biomass, and yield under either drought and/or salt stress and also increased photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and modified gas exchange characteristics in drought and salt-stressed plants. Under drought stress, biochar increased the water holding capacity of soil and improved the physical and biological properties of soils. Under salt stress, biochar decreased Na + uptake, while increased K + uptake by plants. Biochar-mediated increase in salt tolerance of plants is primarily associated with improvement in soil properties, thus increasing plant water status, reduction of Na + uptake, increasing uptake of minerals, and regulation of stomatal conductance and phytohormones. This review highlights both the potential of biochar in alleviating drought and salt stress in plants and future prospect of the role of biochar under drought and salt stress in plants.

  19. Aerodynamic shape optimization for alleviating dynamic stall characteristics of helicopter rotor airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to alleviate the dynamic stall effects in helicopter rotor, the sequential quadratic programming (SQP method is employed to optimize the characteristics of airfoil under dynamic stall conditions based on the SC1095 airfoil. The geometry of airfoil is parameterized by the class-shape-transformation (CST method, and the C-topology body-fitted mesh is then automatically generated around the airfoil by solving the Poisson equations. Based on the grid generation technology, the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations are chosen as the governing equations for predicting airfoil flow field and the highly-efficient implicit scheme of lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS is adopted for temporal discretization. To capture the dynamic stall phenomenon of the rotor more accurately, the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model is employed to close the RANS equations. The optimized airfoil with a larger leading edge radius and camber is obtained. The leading edge vortex and trailing edge separation of the optimized airfoil under unsteady conditions are obviously weakened, and the dynamic stall characteristics of optimized airfoil at different Mach numbers, reduced frequencies and angles of attack are also obviously improved compared with the baseline SC1095 airfoil. It is demonstrated that the optimized method is effective and the optimized airfoil is suitable as the helicopter rotor airfoil.

  20. Recombinant human endostatin improves tumor vasculature and alleviates hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fang; Wang Jin; Zou Yi; Bao Yong; Huang Wenlin; Chen Guangming; Luo Xianrong; Chen Ming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether recombinant human endostatin can create a time window of vascular normalization prior to vascular pruning to alleviate hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Methods: Kinetic changes in morphology of tumor vasculature in response to recombinant human endostatin were detected under a confocal microscope with immunofluorescent staining in Lewis lung carcinomas in mice. The hypoxic cell fraction of different time was assessed with immunohistochemical staining . Effects on tumor growth were monitored as indicated in the growth curve of tumors . Results: Compared with the control group vascularity of the tumors was reduced over time by recombinant human endostatin treatment and significantly regressed for 9 days. During the treatment, pericyte coverage increased at day 3, increased markedly at day 5, and fell again at day 7. The vascular basement membrane was thin and closely associated with endothelial cells after recombinant human endostatin treatment, but appeared thickened, loosely associated with endothelial cells in control tumors. The decrease in hypoxic cell fraction at day 5 after treatment was also found. Tumor growth was not accelerated 5 days after recombinant human endostatin treatment. Conclusions: Recombinant human endostatin can normalize tumor vasculature within day 3 to 7, leading to improved tumor oxygenation. The results provide important experimental basis for combining recombinant human endostatin with radiation therapy in human tumors. (authors)

  1. A novel method to alleviate flash-line defects in coining process

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jiangping

    2013-04-01

    We employ a finite element framework based on a dynamic explicit algorithm to predict the flash-line defects in the coining process. The distribution of the flash-line is obtained by building a radial friction work model at the element level. The elasto-plastic behavior of porous materials undergoing large deformations is considered where the constitutive level updates are the result of a local variational minimization problem. We study the material flow at different strokes of the die across the entire coining process and observe that the change in the flow direction of the material in the rim region may contribute to the flash lines. Our proposed framework shows that a part of the rim region in which the flash-line defects appear is consistent with the reported experimental results. We also propose a novel method of redesigning the rim geometry of the workpiece to alleviate the flash-line defects which also shows good agreement with experiments. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aromatherapy alleviates endothelial dysfunction of medical staff after night-shift work: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenei; Fukuda, Shota; Maeda, Kumiko; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Kono, Yasushi; Jissho, Satoshi; Taguchi, Haruyuki; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2011-02-01

    Night-shift work causes mental stress and lifestyle changes, and is recognized as a risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with impaired endothelial function. Aromatherapy is becoming popular as a complementary therapy that is beneficial for mental relaxation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on the endothelial function of medical staff after night-shift work. This study consisted of 19 healthy medical personnel (19 men, mean age 32 ± 7 years), including 11 physicians and 8 technicians. Aromatherapy was performed for 30 min by inhalation of the essential oil of lavender. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured three times in each subject: on a regular workday, and after night-shift work before and immediately after aromatherapy. A control study was performed to assess the effect of a 30-min rest without aromatherapy. The mean value of sleep time during night-shift work was 3.3 ± 1.3 h. FMD after night-shift work was lower than on a regular workday (10.4 ± 1.8 vs. 12.5 ± 1.7%, Pnight-shift work impaired endothelial function in medical staff, an effect that was alleviated by short-term aromatherapy.

  3. Alleviating Redox Imbalance Enhances 7-Dehydrocholesterol Production in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Su

    Full Text Available Maintaining redox balance is critical for the production of heterologous secondary metabolites, whereas on various occasions the native cofactor balance does not match the needs in engineered microorganisms. In this study, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, a crucial precursor of vitamin D3 biosynthesis pathway was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 with endogenous ergosterol synthesis pathway blocked by knocking out the erg5 gene (encoding C-22 desaturase. The deletion of erg5 led to redox imbalance with higher ratio of cytosolic free NADH/NAD+ and more glycerol and ethanol accumulation. To alleviate the redox imbalance, a water-forming NADH oxidase (NOX and an alternative oxidase (AOX1 were employed in our system based on cofactor regeneration strategy. Consequently, the production of 7-dehydrocholesterol was increased by 74.4% in shake flask culture. In the meanwhile, the ratio of free NADH/NAD+ and the concentration of glycerol and ethanol were reduced by 78.0%, 50.7% and 7.9% respectively. In a 5-L bioreactor, the optimal production of 7-DHC reached 44.49(±9.63 mg/L. This study provides a reference to increase the production of some desired compounds that are restricted by redox imbalance.

  4. The Significance Of Experience Of West Bengal For Poverty Alleviation In Bangladesh

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    A. A. Nemova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes socio-economic problems and ways of eliminating poverty in Bangladesh. The focal point of the research is poverty among rural population which is the most vulnerable one. The author’s assumption is that the main reason for rural poverty is historical inequality of land property distribution in Bangladesh. The existing measures of poverty alleviation in Bangladesh (micro crediting among others have made the country a role model for development. However, due to the limited potential of micro crediting a broader program of socio-economic reforms is required for any country striving to provide inclusive development. Using comparative-historical method the article compares the experience of Bangladesh and Indian state of West Bengal in implementing agricultural reforms aimed at improving life of the poor. West Bengal under the CPM rule is considered as a state with strong government whereas Bangladesh is considered as a state with weak government but rather strong non-governmental actors (NGOs. The article makes a conclusion that a weak institutional power of Bangladesh is one of the main reasons why agricultural reforms have not been adopted in this country and that poverty elimination there requires structural reforms to redistribute land property and to guarantee rural population legal and economic equality.

  5. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2017-06-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  6. Intermittent fasting alleviates the neuropathic phenotype in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madorsky, Irina; Opalach, Katherine; Waber, Amanda; Verrier, Jonathan D; Solmo, Chelsea; Foster, Thomas; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates. The functional benefits of this dietary intervention are associated with an increased expression of myelin proteins combined with a thicker myelin sheath, less redundant basal lamina, and a reduction in aberrant Schwann cell proliferation. These morphological improvements are accompanied by a decrease in PMP22 protein aggregates, and enhanced expression of cytosolic chaperones and constituents of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. These results indicate that dietary restriction is beneficial for peripheral nerve function in TrJ neuropathic mice, as it promotes the maintenance of locomotor performance.

  7. Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M., E-mail: dr_Hanan_el_gowali@hotmail.com; Saad, Evan I.; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A.; Ibrahim, Einas R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of α-lipoic acid (35 mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5 mg/kg sc) for 6 days starting 2 days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of α-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-α. Unexpectedly, co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using α-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients. - Highlights: • Lipoic acid is more effective than

  8. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, M.; Yang, H.; Mousavi, J.; Schulin, R.; Binder, C. R.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2010-08-01

    Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP) and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990-2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  9. Twinkle overexpression prevents cardiac rupture after myocardial infarction by alleviating impaired mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Ikeda, Masataka; Ide, Tomomi; Fujino, Takeo; Matsuo, Yuka; Arai, Shinobu; Saku, Keita; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac rupture is a fatal complication after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the detailed mechanism underlying cardiac rupture after MI remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondria in the pathophysiology of cardiac rupture by analyzing Twinkle helicase overexpression mice (TW mice). Twinkle overexpression increased mtDNA copy number approximately twofold and ameliorated ischemic cardiomyopathy at day 28 after MI. Notably, Twinkle overexpression markedly prevented cardiac rupture and improved post-MI survival, accompanied by the suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the MI border area at day 5 after MI when cardiac rupture frequently occurs. Additionally, these cardioprotective effects of Twinkle overexpression were abolished in transgenic mice overexpressing mutant Twinkle with an in-frame duplication of amino acids 353-365, which resulted in no increases in mtDNA copy number. Furthermore, although apoptosis and oxidative stress were induced and mitochondria were damaged in the border area, these injuries were improved in TW mice. Further analysis revealed that mitochondrial biogenesis, including mtDNA copy number, transcription, and translation, was severely impaired in the border area at day 5 In contrast, Twinkle overexpression maintained mtDNA copy number and restored the impaired transcription and translation of mtDNA in the border area. These results demonstrated that Twinkle overexpression alleviated impaired mitochondrial biogenesis in the border area through maintained mtDNA copy number and thereby prevented cardiac rupture accompanied by the reduction of apoptosis and oxidative stress, and suppression of MMP activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Cordycepin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Rui; Huang, Zezhi; Tang, Yufei; Xiang, Qingke; Yang, Fan

    2018-04-24

    The present study is to investigate the protective effect of cordycepin on inflammatory reactions in rats with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as the underlying mechanism. Wistar rat model of ALI was induced by intravenous injection of LPS (30 mg/kg body weight). One hour later, intravenous injection of cordycepin (1, 10 or 30 mg/kg body weight) was administered. The wet-to-dry weight ratio of lung tissues and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues were measured. The contents of nitrite and nitrate were measured by reduction method, while chemiluminescence was used to determine the content of superoxide. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of mRNA and protein, respectively. Colorimetry was performed to determine the enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was identified by Western blotting. The plasma contents of cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cordycepin enhanced the expression and enzymatic activity of HO-1 in ALI rats, and activated Nrf2 by inducing the translocation of Nrf2 from cytoplasm to nucleus. In addition, cordycepin regulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 via HO-1, and suppressed inflammation in lung tissues of ALI rats by inducing the expression of HO-1. HO-1 played important roles in the down-regulation of superoxide levels in lung tissues by cordycepin, and HO-1 expression induced by cordycepin affected nitrite and nitrate concentrations in plasma and iNOS protein expression in lung tissues. Cordycepin showed protective effect on injuries in lung tissues. The present study demonstrates that cordycepin alleviates inflammation induced by LPS via the activation of Nrf2 and up-regulation of HO-1 expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Hyperglycemia Augments the Adipogenic Transdifferentiation Potential of Tenocytes and Is Alleviated by Cyclic Mechanical Stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Fu; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Chao, Yuan-Hung

    2017-12-28

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with damage to tendons, which may result from cellular dysfunction in response to a hyperglycemic environment. Tenocytes express diminished levels of tendon-associated genes under hyperglycemic conditions. In contrast, mechanical stretch enhances tenogenic differentiation. However, whether hyperglycemia increases the non-tenogenic differentiation potential of tenocytes and whether this can be mitigated by mechanical stretch remains elusive. We explored the in vitro effects of high glucose and mechanical stretch on rat primary tenocytes. Specifically, non-tenogenic gene expression, adipogenic potential, cell migration rate, filamentous actin expression, and the activation of signaling pathways were analyzed in tenocytes treated with high glucose, followed by the presence or absence of mechanical stretch. We analyzed tenocyte phenotype in vivo by immunohistochemistry using an STZ (streptozotocin)-induced long-term diabetic mouse model. High glucose-treated tenocytes expressed higher levels of the adipogenic transcription factors PPAR γ and C/EBPs. PPARγ was also highly expressed in diabetic tendons. In addition, increased adipogenic differentiation and decreased cell migration induced by high glucose implicated a fibroblast-to-adipocyte phenotypic change. By applying mechanical stretch to tenocytes in high-glucose conditions, adipogenic differentiation was repressed, while cell motility was enhanced, and fibroblastic morphology and gene expression profiles were strengthened. In part, these effects resulted from a stretch-induced activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and a concomitant inactivation of Akt. Our results show that mechanical stretch alleviates the augmented adipogenic transdifferentiation potential of high glucose-treated tenocytes and helps maintain their fibroblastic characteristics. The alterations induced by high glucose highlight possible pathological mechanisms for diabetic tendinopathy

  12. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response.

  13. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guoyin Zheng,1,* Fengfeng Mo,2,* Chen Ling,3,* Hao Peng,1 Wei Gu,1 Min Li,2 Zhe Chen1 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, 2Department of Military Hygiene, Second Military Medical University, 3Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine ­aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., diabetes, liver injury, Rho–NFκB

  14. Role of Accumulated Calcium in Alleviating Aluminum Injury in Wheat Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al sensitive wheat cultivar kalyansona was grown for 14 d in a range of Ca solution (125, 625, and 2500 μM plus other nutrients without Al. At 14 d after Ca treatment, half of these plants were harvested (H1, and the rest of the plants were exposed to 100 μM Al for additional 6 d and harvested (H2. Severe Al injury was found only in the plants with the lowest supply of Ca before Al treatment. Aluminum concentration in the apoplastic fluid was very high at 125 μM Ca probably because the plasma membrane of some of the cells was destroyed due to the attack of 100 μM Al. Aluminum content in roots decreased with increasing supply of Ca before Al treatment. Calcium content decreased drastically at harvest (H2 in the plants with 100 μM Al. Under Al stress conditions, the plant responded to Al in different ways due to not only the different Ca supply but also the variation of Ca content in the plant tissues. Actually, the plants having the largest Ca content in the roots before Al treatment can receive less Al injury during Al treatment. To substantiate this idea, a companion study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2500 μM Ca supply during, before, and after 100 μM Al treatment on root growth. The results indicated clearly that exogenous Ca supply before Al treatment is able to alleviate Al injury but less effective than Ca supply during Al treatment.

  15. Alleviation of spike stall in axial compressors utilizing grooved casing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Taghavi-Zenouz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with application of grooved type casing treatment for suppression of spike stall in an isolated axial compressor rotor blade row. The continuous grooved casing treatment covering the whole compressor circumference is of 1.8 mm in depth and located between 90% and 108% chord of the blade tip as measured from leading edge. The method of investigation is based on time-accurate three-dimensional full annulus numerical simulations for cases with and without casing treatment. Discretization of the Navier–Stokes equations has been carried out based on an upwind second-order scheme and k-ω-SST (Shear Stress Transport turbulence modeling has been used for estimation of eddy viscosity. Time-dependent flow structure results for the smooth casing reveal that there are two criteria for spike stall inception known as leading edge spillage and trailing edge backflow, which occur at specific mass flow rates in near-stall conditions. In this case, two dominant stall cells of different sizes could be observed. The larger one is caused by the spike stall covering roughly two blade passages in the circumferential direction and about 25% span in the radial direction. Spike stall disturbances are accompanied by lower frequencies and higher amplitudes of the pressure signals. Casing treatment causes flow blockages to reduce due to alleviation of backflow regions, which in turn reduces the total pressure loss and increases the axial velocity in the blade tip gap region, as well as tip leakage flow fluctuation at higher frequencies and lower amplitudes. Eventually, it can be concluded that the casing treatment of the stepped tip gap type could increase the stall margin of the compressor. This fact is basically due to retarding the movement of the interface region between incoming and tip leakage flows towards the rotor leading edge plane and suppressing the reversed flow around the blade trailing edge.

  16. Nurse Practitioner-Physician Comanagement: A Theoretical Model to Alleviate Primary Care Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norful, Allison A; de Jacq, Krystyna; Carlino, Richard; Poghosyan, Lusine

    2018-05-01

    Various models of care delivery have been investigated to meet the increasing demands in primary care. One proposed model is comanagement of patients by more than 1 primary care clinician. Comanagement has been investigated in acute care with surgical teams and in outpatient settings with primary care physicians and specialists. Because nurse practitioners are increasingly managing patient care as independent clinicians, our study objective was to propose a model of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement. We conducted a literature search using the following key words: comanagement; primary care; nurse practitioner OR advanced practice nurse. From 156 studies, we extracted information about nurse practitioner-physician comanagement antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A systematic review of the findings helped determine effects of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement on patient care. Then, we performed 26 interviews with nurse practitioners and physicians to obtain their perspectives on nurse practitioner-physician comanagement. Results were compiled to create our conceptual nurse practitioner-physician comanagement model. Our model of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement has 3 elements: effective communication; mutual respect and trust; and clinical alignment/shared philosophy of care. Interviews indicated that successful comanagement can alleviate individual workload, prevent burnout, improve patient care quality, and lead to increased patient access to care. Legal and organizational barriers, however, inhibit the ability of nurse practitioners to practice autonomously or with equal care management resources as primary care physicians. Future research should focus on developing instruments to measure and further assess nurse practitioner-physician comanagement in the primary care practice setting. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  17. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Alleviates the Neurodegenerative Phenotypes and Histone Dysregulation in Presenilins-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation has been shown to play a crucial role in memory formation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB has been demonstrated to improve memory performance and rescue the neurodegeneration of several Alzheimer’s Disease (AD mouse models. The forebrain presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 conditional double knockout (cDKO mice showed memory impairment, forebrain degeneration, tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation that closely mimics AD-like phenotypes. In this article, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of NaB on neurodegenerative phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that chronic NaB treatment significantly restored contextual memory but did not alter cued memory in cDKO mice while such an effect was not permanent after treatment withdrawal. We further revealed that NaB treatment did not rescue reduced synaptic numbers and cortical shrinkage in cDKO mice, but significantly increased the neurogenesis in subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (DG. We also observed that tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation related protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP level were decreased in cDKO mice by NaB. Furthermore, GO and pathway analysis for the RNA-Seq data demonstrated that NaB treatment induced enrichment of transcripts associated with inflammation/immune processes and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. RT-PCR confirmed that NaB treatment inhibited the expression of inflammation related genes such as S100a9 and Ccl4 found upregulated in the brain of cDKO mice. Surprisingly, the level of brain histone acetylation in cDKO mice was dramatically increased and was decreased by the administration of NaB, which may reflect dysregulation of histone acetylation underlying memory impairment in cDKO mice. These results shed some lights on the possible molecular mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor in alleviating the neurodegenerative phenotypes of cDKO mice and provide a promising target for treating AD.

  18. Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF₁ receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Misra, Kaushik K; Wee, Sunmee; Park, Paula E; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2012-02-01

    Animal models of drug dependence have described both reductions in brain reward processes and potentiation of stress-like (or anti-reward) mechanisms, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling. Accordingly, chronic exposure to opiates often leads to the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. We measured paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) in male Wistar rats allowed limited (short access group: ShA) or extended (long access group: LgA) access to heroin or cocaine self-administration, or in rats made dependent on ethanol via ethanol vapor exposure (ethanol-dependent group). In heroin self-administering animals, after transition to LgA conditions, thresholds were reduced to around 50% of levels observed at baseline, and were also significantly lower than thresholds measured in animals remaining on the ShA schedule. In contrast, thresholds in animals self-administering cocaine under either ShA (1 h) or LgA (6 h) conditions were unaltered. Similar to heroin LgA rats, ethanol-dependent rats also developed mechanical hypersensitivity after eight weeks of ethanol vapor exposure compared to non-dependent animals. Systemic administration of the CRF1R antagonist MPZP significantly alleviated the hypersensitivity observed in rats dependent on heroin or ethanol. The emergence of mechanical hypersensitivity with heroin and ethanol dependence may thus represent one critical drug-associated negative emotional state driving dependence on these substances. These results also suggest a recruitment of CRF-regulated nociceptive pathways associated with escalation of intake and dependence. A greater understanding of relationships between chronic drug exposure and pain-related states may provide insight into mechanisms underlying the transition to drug addiction, as well as reveal new treatment opportunities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Brain–Spinal Interface Alleviating Gait Deficits after Spinal Cord Injury in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Buse, Nicolas; Gandar, Jerome; Barraud, Quentin; Xing, David; Rey, Elodie; Duis, Simone; Jianzhong, Yang; Ko, Wai Kin D.; Li, Qin; Detemple, Peter; Denison, Tim; Micera, Silvestro; Bezard, Erwan; Bloch, Jocelyne; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain–computer interfaces1–3 have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, which have restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis1,4. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking5. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges6,7. Recently, we showed in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion8–10. Here, we interfaced leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain–spinal interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Rhesus monkeys were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array into the leg area of motor cortex; and a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain–spinal interface in intact monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain–spinal interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralyzed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain–spinal interface have all been approved for investigational

  20. Tanshinone I alleviates insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats through IRS-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Gao, Jiaqi; Qin, Lingling; Xu, Yunling; Wang, Dongchao; Shi, Haoxia; Xu, Tunhai; Liu, Tonghua

    2017-09-01

    Tanshinone I from tanshen has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. Given the link between inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we suspect that tanshinone I may have a beneficial effect on T2DM. This study was to investigate the potential effects of tanshinone I on T2DM and its underlying mechanism. T2DM was thus induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet. It was observed that T2DM rats had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), total triglyceride (TG) and total low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with normal, healthy SD rats. Treatment with tanshinone I decreased these levels and lowered blood glucose level in T2DM rats. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that T2DM rats had elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that T2DM rats had enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-κB as well as elevated phosphorylation of Ser307 in IRS-1(insulin receptor substrate 1). Treatment by tanshinone I lowered the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB as well as phosphorylation of Ser307 in IRS-1. These results demonstrated that tanshinone I could alleviate T2DM syndrome in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  2. Phytoplankton calcification as an effective mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M. N.; Ramos, J. Barcelos e.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Kaźmierczak, J.; Gallo, F.; Mackinder, L.; Li, Y.; Nesterenko, P. N.; Trull, T. W.; Hallegraeff, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Marine phytoplankton have developed the remarkable ability to tightly regulate the concentration of free calcium ions in the intracellular cytosol at a level of ~ 0.1 μmol L-1 in the presence of seawater Ca2+ concentrations of 10 mmol L-1. The low cytosolic calcium ion concentration is of utmost importance for proper cell signalling function. While the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the tight control of intracellular Ca2+ concentration are not completely understood, phytoplankton taxonomic groups appear to have evolved different strategies, which may affect their ability to cope with changes in seawater Ca2+ concentrations in their environment on geological timescales. For example, the Cretaceous (145 to 66 Ma), an era known for the high abundance of coccolithophores and the production of enormous calcium carbonate deposits, exhibited seawater calcium concentrations up to 4 times present-day levels. We show that calcifying coccolithophore species (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus braarudii) are able to maintain their relative fitness (in terms of growth rate and photosynthesis) at simulated Cretaceous seawater calcium concentrations, whereas these rates are severely reduced under these conditions in some non-calcareous phytoplankton species (Chaetoceros sp., Ceratoneis closterium and Heterosigma akashiwo). Most notably, this also applies to a non-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi which displays a calcium sensitivity similar to the non-calcareous species. We hypothesize that the process of calcification in coccolithophores provides an efficient mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning and thereby offered a potential key evolutionary advantage, responsible for the proliferation of coccolithophores during times of high seawater calcium concentrations. The exact function of calcification and the reason behind the highly ornate physical structures of coccoliths remain elusive.

  3. Choline Alleviates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Duodenal Motility Disorder in Infant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wu, Yang; Guo, Yonggao; Tang, Qingya; Lu, Ting; Cai, Wei; Huang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Poverty-alleviation program participation and salivary cortisol in very low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-06-01

    Correlational studies have shown associations between social class and salivary cortisol suggestive of a causal link between childhood poverty and activity of the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the associations between a family's participation in a large-scale, conditional cash transfer program in Mexico (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) during the child's early years of life and children's salivary cortisol (baseline and responsivity). We also examined whether maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of program participation. Low-income households (income Mexico were enrolled in a large-scale poverty-alleviation program between 1998 and 1999. A comparison group of households from demographically similar communities was recruited in 2003. Following 3.5 years of participation in the Oportunidades program, three saliva samples were obtained from children aged 2-6 years from intervention and comparison households (n=1197). Maternal depressive symptoms were obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Results were that children who had been in the Oportunidades program had lower salivary cortisol levels when compared with those who had not participated in the program, while controlling for a wide range of individual-, household- and community-level variables. Reactivity patterns of salivary cortisol did not differ between intervention and comparison children. Maternal depression moderated the association between Oportunidades program participation and baseline salivary cortisol in children. Specifically, there was a large and significant Oportunidades program effect of lowering cortisol in children of mothers with high depressive symptoms but not in children of mothers with low depressive symptomatology. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that the economic circumstances of a family can influence a child's developing stress

  5. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel V. Gale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction, and in the water leachates (through direct injection. Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species

  6. Compound edaravone alleviates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Luo, Zhaowen; Bi, Aijing; Yang, Weidong; An, Wenji; Dong, Xiaoliang; Chen, Rong; Yang, Shibao; Tang, Huifang; Han, Xiaodong; Luo, Lan

    2017-09-15

    Acute lung injury (ALI) represents an unmet medical need with an urgency to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Compound edaravone, a combination of edaravone and borneol, has been developed for treatment of ischemia stroke in clinical phase III study. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of compound edaravone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 cells and the therapeutic efficacy on LPS-induced ALI in mice. Edaravone and compound edaravone concentration-dependently decreased LPS-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 cells. The efficiency of compound edaravone was stronger than edaravone alone. In the animal study, compound edaravone was injected intravenously to mice after intratracheal instillation of LPS. It remarkably alleviated LPS-induced lung injury including pulmonary histological abnormalities, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration and extravasation. Further study demonstrated that compound edaravone suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 increase in mouse serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and COX-2 expression in mice lung tissues. Importantly, our findings demonstrated that the compound edaravone showed a stronger protective effect against mouse ALI than edaravone alone, which suggested the synergies between edaravone and borneol. In conclusion, compound edaravone could be a potential novel therapeutic drug for ALI treatment and borneol might produce a synergism with edaravone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin

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    Asutay Goktug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Injection pain after propofol administration is common and maydisturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous(iv nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand orantecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain.METHOD: There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic adminis-tered. Metoprolol (n = 31, Group M, lidocaine (n = 32, Group L and nitroglycerin (n = 29, GroupN were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evalu-ated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 --- light pain, 2 --- mild pain, 3 --- severe pain in 5, 10, 15and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathwaysfor injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score.RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p = 0.981.There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level,location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol(p = 0.015 and nitroglycerin (p = 0.001 among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metopro-lol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein(p > 0.05, nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lowerpain scores (p = 0.001.CONCLUSION: We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofolrelated pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations.

  8. Female labour force integration and the alleviation of urban poverty: a case study of Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J

    1995-01-01

    The author posits that female labor force integration in Jamaica accomplishes little in alleviating poverty and making maximum use of human resources. Women are forced into employment in a labor market that limits their productivity. Women have greater needs to increase their economic activity due to price inflation and cuts in government spending. During the 1980s and early 1990s the country experienced stabilization and structural adjustment resulting in raised interest rates, reduced public sector employment, and deflated public expenditures. Urban population is particularly sensitive to monetary shifts due to dependency on social welfare benefits and lack of assets. Current strategies favor low wage creation in a supply-side export-oriented economy. These strategies were a by-product of import-substitution industrialization policies during the post-war period and greater control by multilateral financial institutions in Washington, D.C. The World Bank and US President Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative stressed export-oriented development. During the 1980s, Jamaican government failed to control fiscal policy, built up a huge external debt, and limited the ability of private businessmen to obtain money for investment in export-based production. Over the decade, uncompetitive production declined and light manufacturing increased. Although under 10% of new investment was in textile and apparel manufacturing, almost 50% of job creation occurred in this sector and 80% of all apparel workers were low-paid women. Devaluation occurred both in the exchange rate and in workers' job security, fringe benefits, union representation, and returns on skills. During 1977-89 women increased employment in the informal sector, which could not remain competitive under devaluation. Women's stratification in the labor market, high dependency burdens, and declining urban infrastructure create conditions of vulnerability for women in Jamaica.

  9. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  10. Transgenerational effects alleviate severe fecundity loss during ocean acidification in a ubiquitous planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Peter; Dupont, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by anthropogenic CO2 emission is projected for thousands of years to come, and significant effects are predicted for many marine organisms. While significant evolutionary responses are expected during such persistent environmental change, most studies consider only short-term effects. Little is known about the transgenerational effects of parental environments or natural selection on the capacity of populations to counter detrimental OA effects. In this study, six laboratory populations of the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes were established at three different CO2 partial pressures (pCO2 of 400, 900 and 1550 μatm) and grown for two generations at these conditions. Our results show evidence of alleviation of OA effects as a result of transgenerational effects in P. acuspes. Second generation adults showed a 29% decrease in fecundity at 900 μatm CO2 compared to 400 μatm CO2 . This was accompanied by a 10% increase in metabolic rate indicative of metabolic stress. Reciprocal transplant tests demonstrated that this effect was reversible and the expression of phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, these tests showed that at a pCO2 exceeding the natural range experienced by P. acuspes (1550 μatm), fecundity would have decreased by as much as 67% compared to at 400 μatm CO2 as a result of this plasticity. However, transgenerational effects partly reduced OA effects so that the loss of fecundity remained at a level comparable to that at 900 μatm CO2 . This also relieved the copepods from metabolic stress, and respiration rates were lower than at 900 μatm CO2 . These results highlight the importance of tests for transgenerational effects to avoid overestimation of the effects of OA. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

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    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  12. Estrogen alleviates neuropathic pain induced after spinal cord injury by inhibiting microglia and astrocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Youn; Choi, Hae Young; Ju, Bong-Gun; Yune, Tae Young

    2018-04-16

    Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is developed in about 80% of SCI patients and there is no efficient therapeutic drug to alleviate SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Here we examined the effect of estrogen on SCI-induced neuropathic pain at below-level and its effect on neuroinflammation as underlying mechanisms. Neuropathic pain is developed at late phase after SCI and a single dose of 17β-estradiol (100, 300 μg/kg) were administered to rats with neuropathic pain after SCI through intravenous injection. As results, both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly reduced by 17β-estradiol compared to vehicle control. Both microglia and astrocyte activation in the lamina I and II of L4-5 dorsal horn was also inhibited by 17β-estradiol. In addition, the levels of p-p38MAPK and p-ERK known to be activated in microglia and p-JNK known to be activated in astrocyte were significantly decreased by 17β-estradiol. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators such as Il-1β, Il-6, iNos, and Cox-2 was more attenuated in 17β-estradiol-treated group than in vehicle-treated group. Particularly, we found that the analgesic effect by 17β-estradiol was mediated via estrogen receptors, which are expressed in dorsal horn neurons. These results suggest that 17β-estradiol may attenuate SCI-induced neuropathic pain by inhibiting microglia and astrocyte activation followed inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae) Alleviation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, Lawton; Tsiboe, Francis; Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Shew, Aaron; Thoma, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion) impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in production.

  14. Deletion of circadian gene Per1 alleviates acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Ping; Zhan, Yibei; Xia, Lin; Hua, Zichun; Zhang, Jianfa

    2013-01-01