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Sample records for allergies national prevalence

  1. The Jamaica asthma and allergies national prevalence survey: rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons and monitoring of trends. This paper describes methods used in the Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey, challenges associated with this survey and strategies used to overcome these challenges. Methods/Design An island wide, cross-sectional, community-based survey of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergies was done among adults and children using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey Questionnaire for adults and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 2, 163 adults aged 18 years and older and 2, 017 children aged 2-17 years for the survey. The Kish selection table was used to select one adult and one child per household. Data analysis accounted for sampling design and prevalence estimates were weighted to produce national estimates. Discussion The Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey is the first population- based survey in the Caribbean to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergies both in adults and children using standardized methods. With response rates exceeding 80% in both groups, this approach facilitated cost-effective gathering of high quality asthma prevalence data that will facilitate international and regional comparison and monitoring of asthma prevalence trends. Another unique feature of this study was the partnership with the Ministry of Health in Jamaica, which ensured the collection of data relevant for decision-making to facilitate the uptake of research evidence. The findings of this study will provide important data on the burden of asthma and allergies in Jamaica and contribute to evidence-informed planning of comprehensive asthma management and education programs.

  2. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    to compare the estimates of soy and wheat allergy between the age groups. Allergy to most foods, except soy and peanut, appeared to be more common in Northern Europe. In summary, the lifetime self-reported prevalence of allergy to common foods in Europe ranged from 0.1 to 6.0%. The heterogeneity between......Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published...... synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence...

  3. Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations ... out of every 100 children have a food allergy. In 2007, an estimated 3 million children under ...

  4. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

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    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  5. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferløv Schwensen, Jakob; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed...... several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  6. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...... on pollen and latex cross-reactivity, systemic reactions to contact allergens and coeliac disease point to a prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in the adult European population of approximately 5%. A mild itch in the mouth and lactose intolerance are not included in this estimate which is a qualified...

  7. The Prevalence and Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. Not only are more children being diagnosed with food allergies, but studies suggest that when people outgrow their food allergies, it is taking longer than was previously thought. Studies in recent years have noted factors that may lead to a lower likelihood of developing a food allergy, including the early introduction of common food allergens, having a sufficient vitamin D level, or having a higher maternal intake of peanut early in pregnancy. Given a recent report that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase from the late 1980s/early 1990s to the mid-2000s, further studies will need to examine if the rise in food allergy prevalence is due to a change in the relationship between sensitization and clinical allergy or changes in the recognition and diagnosis of food allergy.

  8. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world.

  9. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil;

    2007-01-01

    in the general population. Published research mainly originates from North America and Western Europe. The median prevalence of contact allergy to at least 1 allergen was 21.2% (range 12.5-40.6%), and the weighted average prevalence was 19.5%, based on data collected on all age groups and all countries between...... in the surveillance of national and international contact allergy epidemics....

  10. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

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    ... the Expert Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 11, 2017 Location: ... 11, 2017 Click Here to View Most Recent Pollen and Spore Levels (04/10/2017) If you ...

  11. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    . The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared......Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish......, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990...

  12. Food allergy prevalence: new possibilities for therapy and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy is an important clinical problem of increasing prevalence worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses are the most widely recognized form of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy is influenced by country, age, culture, and dietary habits. Strategies for the prevention of food allergy have been extensively studied. There is currently no standard treatment for food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy has been hindered by severe side effects in the past. A mutated recombinant major apple allergen is clinically hypoallergenic, which paves the way toward safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical practices in the world. A Chinese Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has been used as a therapy for food allergy patients. FAHF-2 was shown to be remarkably effective against food anaphylaxis in an animal model and in human clinical trial with the potential to be a long-lasting therapy.

  13. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cas...... of isolated MI contact allergy were published....

  14. Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.

  15. Chromium allergy and dermatitis: prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2015-01-01

    The history of chromium as an allergen goes back more than a century, and includesan interventional success with national legislation that led to significant changes inthe epidemiology of chromium allergy in construction workers. The 2015 EU Leather Regulation once again put a focus on chromium...... allergy, emphasizing that the investigation of chromium allergy is still far from complete. Our review article on chromium focuses on the allergen’s chemical properties, its potential exposure sources, and the allergen’s interaction with the skin, and also provides an overview of the regulations...

  16. [Food allergy:definitions, prevalence, diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication, and alcohol may help trigger food allergy and further complicate accurate diagnosis. Where food extract-based diagnostic tests are poorly correlated to symptom severity, new generation molecular diagnostics that measure IgE against individual food allergens provide clinicians and patients with more reliable symptom severity risk profiles. Molecular diagnostics also support establishing whether food sensitization originates directly from exposure to food or indirectly (cross-reactivity) from pollen sensitization. Epidemiological surveys have indicated that allergy to peach primarily originates from peach consumption in Europe, whereas in China it is the result of primary sensitization to mugwort pollen, in both cases mediated by an allergen molecule from the same family. Epidemiological surveys give insight into the etiology of food allergy, the size of the problem (prevalence), and the risk factors involved, which together support evidence-based strategies for prevention. Over the past decade, food allergy has increased in the affluent world. Economic growth and urbanization in

  17. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Joyce Irene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  18. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Human Immune...

  19. Prevalence of Seafood Allergy in Student Living in Bushehr and Borazjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shockrolla Farrokhi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seafood allergy is potentially severe, but the prevalence of this group of food allergies in Iran, has not been determined. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of seafood allergy in student living in Bushehr and Borazjan. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, random school survey by using a questionnaire in 2012-13. A total of 608 (36% male, and 64% female were asked questions about personal and family history of allergies, food and seafood allergy. Results: The overall prevalence of food allergy was 12% (Total 73 subjects, 69.8% male and 30.2% female, and seafood allergy was 4.4% (Total 27 subjects, 36.6% male, 43.4% female. Fish allergy (1.4% and shrimp and shellfish allergy (3.5% were reported. The most frequently reported symptoms were skin (49.3%, gastrointestinal (28.7%, and respiratory reactions (2.7%. Seafood allergy was not associated with subjects reporting atopic diseases, significantly (P> 0.05, while the other food allergy was positively associated (P=0.00. Conclusion: Our study is the first report on prevalence estimates for seafood allergy in Bushehr province. Findings indicated high prevalence of seafood allergy in student, therefore further studies and significant health concern is needed.

  20. 77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  1. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation...

  2. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Allergies KidsHealth > For Teens > Allergies Print A A A ... even get rid of your symptoms. What Are Allergies? Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things ...

  3. Food Consumption and Prevalence of Asthma & Allergies Symptoms in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased significantly over the last 30 years. Genetic factors cannot explain this prevalence and a number of studies have been performed to determine the Environmental factors especially dietary factors which are effective in the incidence of these diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the food consumption and the subsequent development of asthma and other allergic disorder symptoms in 2003 of children in yazd. Methods: We performed a Descriptive cross-sectional study of selected children in primary and secondary schools in Yazd. Standardized questionnaire(ISAAC that was developed based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were distributed to parents of 2768 children aged 6-7 years and 3201 children aged 13-14 years which randomly selected. The data was analyzed by Epi6.04 and SPSS softwares. Results: The prevalence of asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema symptoms in children 6-7 years old was 10.9%, 15.5% and 7.3% and in children 13-14 years old was 20.3 %, 42.7% and 14.8% respectively. High intake of butter-fat, chocolate, sweet and Sausage were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in children 6-7 years old. High intake of chocolate, Chips, egg were associated with an increased risk of wheeze and in children 13-14 years old. Conclusion: Dietary factors are associated with asthma and allergies symptoms. Fast foods, chocolates, junk foods & sausage may increase wheezing and allergic rhinitis & eczema symptoms in childhood

  4. 75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning (R34) Grants..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  5. Metal allergy--a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of metal allergy is high in the general population, and it is estimated that up to 17% of women and 3% of men are allergic to nickel and that 1-3% are allergic to cobalt and chromium. Among dermatitis patients, the prevalence of metal allergy is even higher. Metal allergy is mainly...... is responsible for most cases of metal allergy, the importance of occupational metal exposure remains present and should always be taken into consideration when one interprets allergic patch test reactions to metals. Traditionally, nickel, cobalt, and chromium have been the most important contact allergens....... The epidemiology of metal allergy has recently changed in Europe as nickel allergy among ear-pierced Danish women has decreased following regulatory intervention on nickel release from consumer products. In the United States, the prevalence of nickel allergy is still increasing, which may be explained...

  6. Parental Perception, Prevalence and Primary Care Physicians' Knowledge on Childhood Food Allergy in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricic, Tamara Voskresensky; Catipovic, Marija; Cetinic, Erina L; Krmek, Vlado; Horvat, Ivona

    2015-07-17

    Food allergy in children is increasing and the perception of food allergy among parents is even more common. In a questionnaire-based study of 702 children aged 6 to 48 months in four primary care settings, the aim was to determine the prevalence of perception vs. proven food allergy, parental anxiety and general pediatrician knowledge of food allergy. In 95/702 children (13.5%) parentally-reported food was associated reactions. IgE and/or skin prick test (SPT) and/or an open provocation test were performed in 48 (6.8%) and allergy was proven in 38 (5.4%) children. Discrepancy between parental perception and proven allergy is significant (p food other than milk, egg and peanut (p food allergy among general pediatricians is limited, and in children with severe reactions precautionary measures and information to parents were insufficient. Parents and general pediatricians need additional education in food allergy.

  7. Fluctuations in the prevalence of chromate allergy in Denmark and exposure to chrome-tanned leather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Caroline; Andersen, Klaus E; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2010-01-01

    A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products.......A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products....

  8. Metal allergy--a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    an environmental disorder although null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex were recently found to be associated with nickel allergy and dermatitis. Environmental metal exposures include jewelry, buttons, clothing fasteners, dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather. Although consumer exposure....... However, recently, gold and palladium have drawn much attention as the prevalence of contact allergy to these metals is high. Palladium allergy is mainly a result of cross-sensitization to nickel, whereas gold allergy is rarely clinically relevant when one takes its high prevalence into account...

  9. Prevalence and sensitization of atopic allergy and coeliac disease in the Northern Sweden Population Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Enroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy

  10. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a rand

  11. The EuroPrevall outpatient clinic study on food allergy : Background and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Barreales, L.; Mackie, A. R.; Fritsche, P.; Vázquez-Cortés, S.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, M.; Kowalski, M. L.; Clausen, M.; Gislason, D.; Sinaniotis, A.; Kompoti, E.; Le, T. M.; Knulst, A. C.; Purohit, A.; De Blay, F.; Kralimarkova, T.; Popov, T.; Asero, R.; Belohlavkova, S.; Seneviratne, S. L.; Dubakiene, R.; Lidholm, J.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Burney, P.; Crevel, R.; Brill, M.; Fernández-Pérez, C.; Vieths, S.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Van Ree, R.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The EuroPrevall project aimed to develop effective management strategies in food allergy through a suite of interconnected studies and a multidisciplinary integrated approach. To address some of the gaps in food allergy diagnosis, allergen risk management and socio-economic impact and to

  12. PREVALENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES IN THE POPULATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM THE CITY OF OSIJEK

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Nika; Vlahović, Jelena; MIŠKULIN, MAJA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is an immune-mediated hypersensitivity to allergens in food. This allergy affects about 6-8% of children younger than three years, about 4% of school-age children and about 2% of the adult population in the world. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of food allergies in the population of preschool children from the city of Osijek and to identify the most common causes of these allergies in the study population. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study ...

  13. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C;

    2009-01-01

    previously been demonstrated among Danish construction workers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of chromium allergy among patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007 in Denmark. Furthermore, to determine causative exposures in patients with chromium allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 16,228) and charts from patients with chromium allergy were reviewed. Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of chromium allergy decreased significantly from...

  14. 77 FR 297 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  15. 75 FR 7488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-402-1464. eb237e@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy...

  16. High prevalence of nickel allergy in an overweight female population: a pilot observational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Angela Lusi

    Full Text Available In our Allergy Unit, we incidentally observed that a low Nickel diet, prescribed for delayed allergy to Nickel sulfate, reduced body mass index (BMI and waist circumference in overweight patients.This pilot cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to compare the prevalence of Nickel allergy of overweight individuals versus the general population. We also had the chance to report the efficacy of a low Nickel diet on BMI and waist circumference in Nickel-sensitive overweight subjects.Eighty-seven overweight subjects, with a BMI > 26 Kg/m2, were consecutively enrolled in a health prevention program, and screened for the presence of Nickel allergy. The enrolled population was mostly females (72/87 (82.8%. Forty-three overweight women and two men showed a Nickel allergy and started a low Nickel diet. After 6-months of dieting, 24 overweight allergic women could be traced and changes in BMI and waist circumference were calculated.Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight.Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight female was 59.7%, compared with a prevalence rate of 12.5% in the general population. A significant reduction in BMI was observed in 24 out of 43 overweight females with Nickel allergy after 24 weeks of a low Nickel diet. Relative to baseline, mean BMI decrease was 4.2 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001 and the mean decline in waist circumference was 11.7 ± 0.6 cm (P < 0.001.This pilot observational analysis showed a substantially higher prevalence of Nickel allergy among overweight females, especially those with metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. A normocaloric low Nickel diet was effective in reducing BMI in this population. Further research is strongly needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  17. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., ec17w@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  18. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...@niaid.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  19. 76 FR 371 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... ] evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  20. Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula Arruda; Ericson Bagatin; Martinez,Edson Z.; Andrea A. Cetlin; Simoneti, Christian S; Freitas, Amanda S; Martinez, José A B; Borges, Marcos C; Vianna, Elcio O

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for...

  1. Relationship between treatment with antacid medication and the prevalence of food allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, Karen; Stecenko, Arlene; Sullivan, Kevin; Fitzpatrick, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy affects 8% of preschool children, but factors responsible for food allergy in children are poorly understood. Use of antacid medication may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this study was to determine if parent-reported antacid medication use was associated with higher prevalence of food allergy in atopic children. In this cross-sectional study, parents of children with atopic diseases completed a questionnaire relating to a history of treatment with antacid medication and food allergy. Charts were independently reviewed for food-specific IgE and/or skin-prick test results. Food allergy was defined as a reaction to a food consistent with the anaphylaxis consensus statement and either an elevated food-specific IgE or a positive food skin-prick test. One hundred four questionnaires were completed. Mean age of the participating children was 7.0 ± 4.3 years (range, 5 months to 18 years of age). Forty-seven (45%) individuals were reported to have taken an antacid medication in the past. History of taking antacid medication was associated with an increased prevalence (57% (27)/47 versus 32% (18)/57) and higher prevalence of food allergy of having food allergy (aPR, 1.7 [1.1-2.5]). Mean peanut food-specific IgE was higher in those with a history of taking antacid medication (11.0 ± 5.0 versus 2.0 ± 5.5.; p = 0.01). History of treatment with antacid medication is associated with an increased prevalence of having food allergy.

  2. Food allergy: Definitions,prevalence,diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune...... disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac...... disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication...

  3. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the... . Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council Microbiology and....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  4. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Muraro, A; Sheikh, A

    2014-08-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published in Europe from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2012, were identified from searches of four electronic databases. Two independent reviewers appraised the studies and extracted the estimates of interest. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Fifty studies were included in a narrative synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence interval: 5.7-6.4), 2.5% (2.3-2.7), 3.6% (3.0-4.2), 0.4% (0.3-0.6), 1.3% (1.2-1.5), 2.2% (1.8-2.5), and 1.3% (0.9-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of food-challenge-defined allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was 0.6% (0.5-0.8), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.1% (0.01-0.2), 0.3% (0.1-0.4), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.5% (0.08-0.8), 0.1% (0.02-0.2), and 0.1% (0.06-0.3), respectively. Allergy to cow's milk and egg was more common among younger children, while allergy to peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was more common among the older ones. There were insufficient data to compare the estimates of soy and wheat allergy between the age groups. Allergy to most foods, except soy and peanut, appeared to be more common in Northern Europe. In summary, the lifetime self-reported prevalence of allergy to common foods in Europe ranged from 0.1 to 6.0%. The heterogeneity between studies was high, and participation rates varied across studies reaching as low as food allergies and initiating strategies to increase participation will advance this evidence base.

  5. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro...

  6. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  7. Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930036 Skin tests in patients with history ofanaphylactic reaction to penicillin.WENZhaoming(文昭明),et al.Dept Allergy,PUMCHosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9);526—529.Skin tests including immediate patch test(IPT),skin prick test(SPT),or intradermaltest(IT)with penicillin G(PenG)and SPT withbenzylpenicilloyl human serum albumin(BPO)were done in 54 patients with history of anaphy-lactic reaction to penicillin or shock of unknowncause.Penicillin allergy were diagnosed in 26patients.BPO specific IgE measured with

  8. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The immune system normally protects the body against harmful substances, such as bacteria and viruses. It also reacts ... during the allergic reaction Drowsiness and other side effects of medicines When to Contact a Medical ... Breastfeeding can help prevent or decrease allergies when you ...

  9. [The prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in children in Tomsk Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O S; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Evdokimova, T A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy to peanuts and nuts is an actual problem of practical health care, associated with significant prevalence of this disease, severe clinical symptoms and difficulty of diet organization. Purpose of the study--to study the prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in Russian children, the investigation of clinical characteristics of this disease, and the mechanisms of sensitization to allergen components. The cross-sectional study was performed in the framework of the EuroPrevall (No FP6-2006-TTC-TU-5 Proposal 045879). The first stage was performed in random samples of primary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years (n = 13 010) from the Tomsk Region, Russia using a standardized questionnaire. The case-control sample was recruited for the second stage (n = 1288). Thus who reported adverse reactions to food in the screening stage were considered as cases (n = 652), children without reported reactions were controls (n = 636). The case-control stage included the completion of a clinical questionnaire, skin-prick test (ALK-Abelly, Spain), serum specific IgE measurement and component-resolved diagnostic: IgE measurement of allergen components of peanut (Ara h1, Ara h26, Ara h34, Ara h8), hazelnut (Cor a1, Cor a8, Cor a11) and birch allergen Bet v1 (ImmunoCAP, Phadia, Sweden). The prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in children aged 7-10 years in the Tomsk region is 0.08 and 0.09%, respectively. The manifestation of the food allergy to nuts occurs in the preschool years, main reactions associated with allergy to nuts were oral allergy syndrome (75-80%), gastrointestinal disorders (60-80%) and itching skin rash (20-50%). Sensitization to birch is significantly correlated with the level of specific IgE to hazelnut (r = 0.53, p hazelnut Cor a1 (8.8%) (homologues of Bet v1) dominates in the sample of children with food sensitization, that determines the cross-reactivity mechanism in the formation of food sensitization in the studied sample. The

  10. The prevalence and reliability of self-reported penicillin allergy in a community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh FA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Megan A R Slaton,2 Stephen L Katzen,2 Ashley A Woolbert,2 Sean D Anderson,2 Michelle B Parker,2 Rachel M Anderson,2 Krystal K Haase,3 Roger D Smalligan41Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USABackground: Penicillin (PCN accounts for most cases of antibiotic allergies. Reported PCN allergy deprives the patient from this class of antibiotics and creates hesitancy in using other beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of self-reported PCN allergy among adult patients admitted to the hospital and to examine the probable validity of these reports.Methods: A questionnaire was conducted among 192 patients with self-reported PCN allergy who were admitted to a community hospital between July 25, 2011 and January 25, 2012. Patients admitted with an infection and treated with a beta-lactam were also followed until hospital discharge.Results: The mean age of patients at the time of their self-reported allergic reaction was 20.3 years. The most common allergic symptoms reported in decreasing order of frequency were itchy rash, angioedema, and urticaria. Based on analysis of the questionnaires, 121 patients (63.0% had probable PCN allergy, 54 (28.1% had possible PCN allergy, and 17 (8.9% were unlikely to have a PCN allergy. Fifty-one participants (26.6% had self-reported subsequent exposure to PCN in their life. This subsequent exposure was well tolerated in 86.3% of the participants. Fifty participants (25.9% had self-reported subsequent exposure to a first generation cephalosporin and it was well tolerated in 78.4% of them.Conclusion: Taking a detailed history from patients with self-reported PCN allergy can help to distinguish a true PCN allergy from a false positive report of allergy and hence allow clinicians to use this important class

  11. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  12. The prevalence of plant food allergies: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.

    2008-01-01

    ) in the literature database MEDLINE focused on fruits, vegetables/legumes, tree nuts, wheat, soy, cereals, and seeds. Prevalence estimates were categorized by food item and method used (food challenges, skin prick test, serum IgE, parent/self-reported symptoms), complemented by appropriate meta-analyses. Results: We...... included 36 studies with,data from a total of over 250,000 children and adults. Only 6 studies included food challenge tests with prevalences ranging from 0.1% to 4.3% each for fruits and tree nuts, 0.1% to 1.4% for vegetables, and...

  13. 76 FR 6628 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856... Panel; Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Centers. Date: March 9-11, 2011. Time: 8 a.m... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  14. Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ferraz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16% than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01. Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group. Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.

  15. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  16. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in adolescents: prevalence measures and associations. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence measures of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark, and to examine the associations with atopic dermatitis, inhalant allergy and hand eczema. Contact...... allergy to a standard series allergen was found in 15.2% of schoolchildren. The point prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis was 0.7% and the lifetime prevalence 7.2%, predominantly in girls. The most common contact allergens were nickel (8.6%) and fragrance mix (1.8%). Nickel allergy was clinically...... relevant in 69% and fragrance allergy in 29% of cases. A significant association was found between contact allergy and hand eczema while no association was found between contact allergy and atopic dermatitis or inhalant allergy. In the future this cohort of schoolchildren will be followed with regard...

  17. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  18. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Peer Review... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and... Panel; Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Integrated Strategies to Prevent...

  19. Diagnosis of allergy against beta-lactams in primary care : prevalence and diagnostic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salden, Odette A E; Rockmann, Heike; Verheij, Theo J M; Broekhuizen, Berna D L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary care studies showed that a recorded allergy to beta-lactams could not be confirmed by valid allergy testing in >85% of cases. In daily practice, recorded beta-lactam allergies probably cause prescription of secondary choice antibiotics. This overrating of beta-lactam allergy ha

  20. Fluctuations in the prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy in eczema patients patch tested after implementation of the nickel regulation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Caroline; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2011-01-01

    A recent Danish study showed that the prevalence of nickel allergy decreased among young female patients and increased among older female patients with dermatitis patch tested between 1985 and 2007 at Gentofte Hospital, Denmark. The prevalence of cobalt allergy remained unchanged....

  1. EuroPrevall survey on prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliūnas, Andrius; Surkienė, Genė; Dubakienė, Rūta; Stukas, Rimantas; Zagminas, Kęstutis; Saulytė, Jurgita; Burney, Peter G; Kummeling, Ischa; Mills, Clare

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Vilnius University was a partner in the EuroPrevall project. A total of 4333 schoolchildren from 13 primary schools participated in the study. Of all 4333 questionnaires distributed, 3084 were returned (response rate, 71.2%). This screening phase was followed by the second (clinical) part with an objective confirmative laboratory analysis of blood samples for the diagnosis of food allergy. For the research purposes, 186 blood samples for IgE were analyzed. RESULTS. Almost half of the children had an illness or a disorder caused by eating food. The prevalence of adverse reactions to food was found to be increasing with age from 6 to 10 years. Food allergy was diagnosed in 16.4% of children. Boys had food allergy more frequently than girls. Diarrhea or vomiting and a rash, urticarial rash, or itchy skin were the most commonly mentioned symptoms. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were found to be the most common foods to cause adverse reactions. The most relevant foods for children with IgE-mediated food allergy were cow's milk and hazelnuts. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among primary schoolchildren was observed in almost half of the studied population. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were the most common foods to cause adverse reactions among primary schoolchildren in Lithuania. The determined differences in the prevalence of food hypersensitivity and IgE-mediated food allergy and associations with gender and age need further scientific analysis for the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools.

  2. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  3. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... of cosensitization. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the development of nickel and cobalt allergy among Danish female patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007. This was done to examine whether Danish nickel regulation has reduced the prevalence of nickel allergy and to examine whether the prevalence...... of cobalt allergy has increased as a result of the nickel regulation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patch test data from our database was performed (n = 10,335). Comparisons were made using a chi-square test for trend. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS...

  4. Prevalence of Allergy to Natural Rubber Latex and Potential Cross Reacting Food in Operation Room Staff in Shiraz Hospitals -2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nabavizade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study five hundred eighty operation room staff of ten private and state hospitals in Shiraz completed latex allergy questionnaire. They were questioned about personal history and previous history of latex sensitivity, symptoms of latex reactivity and about other allergies particularly to foods that may cross react with latex. Informed consent was obtained and skin prick testing was performed with natural rubber latex. Skin prick tests were done with three potentially cross reacting food (banana, Kiwi, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 580 operation room workers 104 (17.9 % of participants were positive to latex skin test. We found a significant association between positive skin test to latex in operation room staff and atopy, urticaria and food allergy. Positive skin test to latex related to positive kiwi skin test (p<0.05. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non surgical glove users, history of contact dermatitis or smoking status. Conclusion: Latex allergy has a high prevalence in personnel of operation room. Evaluation of present symptom and prediction of future disease necessitate screening test in individuals at risk.

  5. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the... Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: February 7, 2011. Closed: 8:30 a... . Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology...

  6. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Contact Person listed belowin advance of the meeting. The meetings will be closed to the public in....gov . Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and...; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: June 2, 2014. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to 10:15 a.m....

  7. Hazelnut allergy across Europe dissected molecularly : A EuroPrevall outpatient clinic survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, Mareen R.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Asero, Riccardo; Barreales, Laura; Belohlavkova, Simona; de Blay, Frederic; Bures, Peter; Clausen, Michael; Dubakiene, Ruta; Gislason, David; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Kowalski, Marek L.; Knulst, Andre C.; Kralimarkova, Tanya; Le, Thuy-My; Lovegrove, Alison; Marsh, Justin; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Popov, Todor; del Prado, Nayade; Purohit, Ashok; Reese, Gerald; Reig, Isabel; Seneviratne, Suranjith L.; Sinaniotis, Athanasios; Versteeg, Serge A.; Vieths, Stefan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mills, Clare; Lidholm, Jonas; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut allergy is birch pollen-driven in Northern/Western Europe and lipid transfer protein-driven in Spain and Italy. Little is known about other regions and other allergens. Objective: Establishing a molecular map of hazelnut allergy across Europe. Methods: In 12 European cities, sub

  8. The prevalence of suspected and challenge-verified penicillin allergy in a university hospital population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jacob Eli; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Suspected penicillin allergy is common among hospitalised patients, but the quality of the information given by the patient is often doubtful. Alleged penicillin allergic are likely to be treated with more toxic, broad-spectrum, and more expensive antibiotics, with effects on microbial resistance...... patterns and public economy as a consequence. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study with two visits to all clinical departments of a large university hospital in order to find in-patients with medical files labelled "penicillin allergy" or who reported penicillin allergy upon admission. Patient...... histories were obtained via a questionnaire, and they were offered investigation for penicillin allergy with specific IgE, basophil histamine release, skin prick tests, intradermal tests and drug challenge tests. Finally, the pharmaco-economical consequences of the penicillin allergy were estimated...

  9. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...

  10. Infant feeding and allergy prevention : a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Beyer, K.; Boulay, A.; van der Aa, L. B.; Sprikkelman, A.; Belohlavkova, S.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Duggan, E.; Reche, M.; Marino, L. V.; Norhede, P.; Ogorodova, L.; Schoemaker, A.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Szepfalusi, Z.; Vassilopoulou, E.; Veehof, S. H. E.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Wjst, M.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of

  11. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil;

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  12. Association between timing of food introduction in on first year old and the prevalence of allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael San Mauro-Martín

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food allergy is an abnormal response after ingestion of an allergen in a food where there is a proven immune mechanism. During the period of breastfeeding, infants are introducing new foods in small quantities and separately for possible allergies. All in relation to the suggested timetable for the introduction of different food groups suggested by the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition. Our project focused on studying the possible relationship between the variability of introduction of the different food groups and the development of allergies in infant.Material and Methods: Retrospective descriptive study in an incidental sample (n = 30. It evolved into an online platform with an Ad Hoc survey, in which data was recollected on the characteristics of allergy, diet, type of birth, and introduction of food were collected.Results: Allergies were found 36% fruit, 20% egg, nuts and dairy 16% and 12%, grains, legumes, seafood and vegetables 4% respectively. 89% were breastfeeding. 78% were born vaginally. 46.2% compliance with the protocol introduction and 53.8% advance or postpone the introduction.Conclusions: The data reviewed suggest that food allergies are influenced by several factors that can influence and affect the number of allergic conditions of a particular region, so it is necessary to define these variables in studies to have greater reliability in the necessary studies performed.

  13. Food Allergy: State of the Science--Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisacher, William; Damask, Cecelia; Calhoun, Karen; Veling, Maria

    2011-11-01

    In the past several years, food allergies have taken center stage in the media and have become a topic of great concern for our patients and their families. Whether or not this is due to a rise in the prevalence of food allergies or just a heightened awareness, it is our responsibility as clinicians and scientists to critically analyze the current evidence available concerning the epidemiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and management of this disease. In 2010, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) published guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management of food allergies. Since 2009, the Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery has sponsored a miniseminar titled, "Food Allergy: State of the Science." This commentary focuses on the highlights from the 2010 meeting and provides some thoughts on what this latest publication means to otolaryngologists.

  14. Foods and food allergy: The prevalence of IgE antibodies specific for food allergens in Saudi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Rab Mohamad Osman

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The intent of this study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of sensitivity to food allergens in Saudi patients. Subjects: The subjects included in this study were 58 patients with asthma, 47 patients with rhinitis and 112 patients with urticaria. They all gave clinical history suspecting food as causing or aggravating their symptoms. Methods: Specific IgE antibodies to different food allergens were measured in the patients serum by using the Pharmacia CAP Radioaller gosorbent (RAST Fluoroimmunoassay (FEIA test. Results: IgE-antibodies specific for different foods were detected in 38 (17.5% out of 217 patients. Most positive reactions were detected in urticaria patients (9.7% followed by asthmatic patients (5.5% and allergic rhinitis (2.3%. Reactions to peanut (22.6%, egg white (14.5 and cow′s milk (12.9% were very prominent. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of food allergy seems to be high in Saudi patients when compared to studies from other regions. The pattern of food reactions, detected in this study, can be utilized in diagnosis of patients with suspected food allergy. Further studies will be required to obtain more information about the prevalence and incidence rates among different patient groups.

  15. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  16. Food allergy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods...

  17. Prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy clinic (2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaghi F.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: According to controversies in the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs and patients who claim hypersensitivity to these drugs, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental amide local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy Clinic in 2005-2007. "nMaterials and Methods: In this Study (Review of existing data, records of 130 patients who were referred to "Tehran allergy Clinic" (2005-2007 were studied. "nResults: The average age of patients was 29.5±18.8 years. 34% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Lidocain concentrations and 10% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Prilocain concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in hypersensitivity to Lidocain 0.01 and 0.001 (p=0.017 and also between Lidocain 0.001 and 0.0001 (p<0.01. There was no statistically significant difference between other tested drug concentrations (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Many patients with history of hypersensitivity, show positive reaction to local dental anesthetic drugs. Prilocain hypersensitivity reactions are less than Lidocain. So application of Prilocain accompanies with less risk but its application should not be considered completely safe.

  18. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... butters (such as almond butter) and sunflower seeds Ethnic foods including African, Chinese, Indonesian, Mexican, Thai and Vietnamese ... Toit G, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for ... RA. Food allergy in children: Prevalence, natural history, and monitoring ...

  19. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Milk Allergy Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common ...

  20. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  1. 75 FR 156 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, ``Autoimmunity.'' Date: January 19, 2010. Time: 1...

  2. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Filipino adults based on the National Nutrition and Health Survey 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Shirley L.; Alava, Hilda Diana A.; Castor, Mary Anne R.; De Leon, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been no documented data on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Filipino adults. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among adults in the Philippines. Methods Using a multi-staged cluster sampling methodology, this study evaluated 7,202 adults from 3,744 households, 79 provinces and 17 regions. A pre-validated written questionnaire for allergic rhinitis based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies of Childhood was used as the survey instrument. Results The response rate obtained from the interview was 94.1%. The overall prevalence of nose symptoms in the past 12 months was 20% while prevalence of nose symptoms at any time in the past was 23.8%. The proportion among both sexes was similar. The prevalence was highest among the respondents 40-49 years old. The overall prevalence of nose and eye symptoms for the past twelve months was 14.0%. The prevalence of respondents who reported presence of nose problems for the past twelve months was similar across the 12 months of the year with highest rates noted in the months of June and May. Respondents from the rural area (22.1%) reported a higher prevalence of nose symptoms for the past twelve months compared to respondents from urban area (18%). There was no significant difference in prevalence of nose symptoms among residents living in coastal and/or inland areas. Conclusion The overall prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the Philippines based on the 2008 National Nutrition and Health Survey is 20.0%. PMID:22701863

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  4. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Shellfish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Shellfish Allergy Print A A ... Home en español Alergia al marisco About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  5. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  6. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  7. [Food allergy. II. Prevalence of organ manifestations of allergy-inducing food. A study on the basis of 173 cases, 1978-1982].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, T; Wüthrich, B

    1985-10-12

    From 1978 to 1982 173 cases of food allergy were diagnosed at the Allergy Unit of the Dermatological Clinic, University of Zürich. Of these predominantly adult patients, 118 (68%) were female and 55 (32%) male. 65% of the food-allergic patients also showed one or more atopic manifestations, and 26% pollinosis. Localization of symptoms of food allergy was most often the skin (43%), followed by the respiratory tract (23%), the gastrointestinal tract (21%) and the cardiovascular system (12.5%). Only 11% had exclusively intestinal allergic reactions. The most frequent food allergens were found to be vegetables. Celery headed the list with 40.5%, followed by carrots (20%) and green beans (6%). Other commonly occurring food allergens were eggs (21%), milk and dairy products (20%) and fish (12%). Sensitivity was found to groups of raw vegetables, and also cross-reactivity to other nutritional and inhalative allergens. In view of this finding the term "celery-carrot-mugwort-spice-syndrome" was coined. Regarding diagnostic procedure, a precise history remains essential. Once again, scratch techniques performed with fresh raw food proved to be markedly more dependable than skin tests performed with commercial food extracts. The use of a RAST was especially helpful in diagnosing milk-cheese-casein allergies.

  8. Childhood food allergies: current diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Dyer, Ashley A; Jain, Namrita; Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy is a growing public health concern in the United States that affects an estimated 8% of children. Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a specific food. Nearly 40% of children with food allergy have a history of severe reactions that if not treated immediately with proper medication can lead to hospitalization or even death. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened an expert panel in 2010 to develop guidelines outlining evidence-based practices in diagnosing and managing food allergy. The purpose of this review is to aid clinicians in translating the NIAID guidelines into primary care practice and includes the following content domains: (1) the definition and mechanism of childhood food allergy, (2) differences between food allergy and food intolerance, (3) the epidemiology of childhood food allergy in the United States, (4) best practices derived from the NIAID guidelines focused on primary care clinicians' management of childhood food allergy, (5) emerging food allergy treatments, and (6) future directions in food allergy research and practice. Articles focused on childhood food allergy were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were restricted to the English language and to those published within the past 40 years. A cross-listed combination of the following words, phrases, and MeSH terms was searched in PubMed and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles: food allergy, food hypersensitivity, child, pediatric, prevalence, and epidemiology. Additional sources were identified through the bibliographies of the retrieved articles.

  9. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  10. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs over ... basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very similar ...

  11. 78 FR 17218 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Panel, ``Limited Competition: Collaborative Partnership to Advance Global Biomedical Research Programs..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  12. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  13. Food allergy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  14. Research needs in allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Agache, Ioana; Bavbek, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health...... in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting...... excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic...

  15. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status......This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  16. Epidemiology of allergies in Austria. Results of the first Austrian allergy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita; Kunze, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The first Austrian Allergy Report is a compilation of all available epidemiological data relating to allergies in Austria. According to this report the cumulative prevalence of allergies in the Viennese population is 27.6% for men and 32.2% for women and the period prevalence in the year before questioning 19.6% and 22.4% respectively. 20.8% of men and 23.1% of women reported about allergies at health examinations. However, an allergy sensitivity to at least one inhalation allergen, verifiable by means of a prick test, is detectable in 50.8% of the general population and in 39.3% of those free from ailments. Analysis of the hospital discharge statistics of all Austrian hospitals shows that around 12,000 people per year were admitted on grounds of an allergy. In accordance with international studies some population sub groups are more often affected than others. Women suffer from allergies somewhat more frequently than men, although the sex difference is reversed among children. Allergies occur in all age groups, with most studies showing that people in their twenties are most frequently affected. People with higher levels of education, in more highly qualified jobs and living in urban areas are more commonly affected by allergies than people from lower socio-economic levels and rural communities. The internationally identified increase in trend can also be identified in Austria with a 2fold, 3.6fold, and 4.6fold increase in the prevalence of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema respectively, determined from the military health examinations of all recruits for national service between 1986 and 2003/04, although a clear decline in allergy prevalence was registered between 2003/04 and 2005. Health reports like the first Austrian Allergy Report provide the basis for international comparison of basic data. These data also enable the evaluation of the impact of different diseases on the health system as well as the development of public health strategies.

  17. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  18. 78 FR 71629 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... ALLERGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... than 15 days prior to the meeting due to finalizing the agenda and scheduling of events. (Catalogue...

  19. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  20. 78 FR 21961 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  1. 77 FR 74674 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  2. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...

  3. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of themeeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  4. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  5. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Research 2016 Fall Allergy Capitals If you’re one of the millions ... needs of their residents with allergic diseases. Fall Allergies by the Numbers Nasal allergies affect more than ...

  6. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  7. Cockroach Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Cockroach Allergy Cockroaches are insects that live in many locations ... other children with asthma. What Is a Cockroach Allergy? Cockroaches contain a protein that is an allergen ...

  8. Hypersensitivity and the Working Environment for Allergy Nurses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Kalm-Stephens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results.

  9. Ambient particulate pollution and the world-wide prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children: Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, H.R.; Ruggles, R.; Pandey, K.D.; Kapetanakis, V.; Brunekreef, B.; Lai, C.K.; Strachan, D.P.; Weiland, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of ambient particulate matter on variation in childhood prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. METHODS: Prevalences of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema obtained in Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (IS

  10. Ambient particulate pollution and the world-wide prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children : Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Ruggles, Ruth; Pandey, Kiran D.; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Brunekreef, Bert; Lai, Christopher K. W.; Strachan, David P.; Weiland, Stephan K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of ambient particulate matter on variation in childhood prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. Methods Prevalences of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema obtained in Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAA

  11. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  12. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  13. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22......%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy...

  14. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date... Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: May 14, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to...

  15. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  16. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  17. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognitio

  18. Food Allergy Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the Instit......Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills...

  19. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  20. A developmental, community, and psychosocial approach to food allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Christy R; Leo, Harvey L; Clark, Noreen M

    2010-09-01

    Recent estimates show that food allergies affect a substantial proportion of children in the United States and appear to have increased in prevalence. At present, management of food allergies consists of strict avoidance of the responsible allergen and an appropriate response should a reaction occur. Creating safe environments for the growing number of children with food allergies requires a partnership between affected families and members of the caregiving and educational communities. This article reviews issues affecting children with food allergies at different stages of psychosocial development and discusses strategies that can be implemented to promote food safety within child care and school environments as well as in the community. It also presents an overview of policy developments at the state and national level that have implications for children with food allergies.

  1. Cow’s milk protein allergy in infants

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Deirdre

    2016-05-01

    Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood in the developed world next to egg allergy. The prevalence is estimated at three to seven per cent, with a resolution rate of 80 to 90 per cent at six years. Accurate diagnosis rests on a good clear allergy focused history.

  2. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Pollen Allergy Allergy Symptoms Anaphylaxis / Severe Allergic Reaction Eye Allergies Rhinitis Sinusitis Skin Allergies Eczema Contact Dermatitis Hives Swelling Allergy Diagnosis Allergy Treatment Allergy ...

  3. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  4. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  5. My journey on breastfeeding: Autoethnographic challenge to low national prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Verónica Jiménez Cervantes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I offer a psychosocial reflection around breastfeeding and its scarce prevalence in Mexico. In my multiple role as mother-to-be, psychologist and researcher, I took part in a group, offered as a service by the socialized health organizations to Mexican mothers. In this autoethnography I analized my own pregnancy and maternity condition and compared it with the experiences of other mothers in varied wide variety of circumstances. I found that breastfeeding cannot be understood only as a mother-baby diad in a family environment but as a complex network of relationships and forces that range from national policy to the tastes and personal intentions of the mothers. Placing brestfeeding withing this perspective we can go forth on the road to explain and increase the extremely low present prevalences.

  6. Food allergy: definitions, prevalence, diagnosis and therapy%食物过敏的定义、流行性、诊断及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronaldvan Ree; Lars K.Poulsen; Gary WK Wong; Barbara K.Ballmer-Weber; 高中山; 贾旭东

    2015-01-01

    multiple organs,sometimes in an isolated way,sometimes simultaneously,with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis.Mechanistically,it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions.The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap.Food allergy,which is the theme of this paper,is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g.,celiac disease) and nonimmune (e.g.,lactose intolerance) nature.To reliably diagnose food allergy,a careful history (immediatetype reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge.Co-factors such as exercise,medication,and alcohol may help trigger food allergy and further complicate accurate diagnosis.Where food extract-based diagnostic tests are poorly correlated to symptom severity,new generation molecular diagnostics that measure IgE against individual food allergens provide clinicians and patients with more reliable symptom severity risk profiles.Molecular diagnostics also support establishing whether food sensitization originates directly from exposure to food or indirectly (cross-reactivity) from pollen sensitization.Epidemiological surveys have indicated that allergy to peach primarily originates from peach consumption in Europe,whereas in China it is the result of primary sensitization to mugwort pollen,in both cases mediated by an allergen molecule from the same family.Epidemiological surveys give insight into the etiology of food allergy,the size of the problem (prevalence),and the risk factors involved,which together support evidence-based strategies for prevention.Over the past decade,food allergy has increased in the affluent world.Economic growth and urbanization in upcoming economies are likewise expected to lead to increased prevalence of food allergies,sometimes to different foods due to

  7. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay in Touch Donate Get Support Kids with Food Allergies Search: Resources Recipes Community Home About KFA Programs ... AAFA KFA-AAFA Merger Contact Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy ...

  8. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  9. Shared genetic origins of allergy and autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, J. E.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Standl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases....

  10. Adult-onset food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  11. Penicillin Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other conditions resulting from penicillin allergy Less common penicillin allergy reactions occur days or weeks after exposure to the drug and may persist for some time after you stop taking it. These conditions include: Serum sickness, which may cause fever, joint pain, rash, swelling ...

  12. Impact of allergy treatment on the association between allergies and mood and anxiety in a population sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Galea, Sandro; Perzanowski, Matthew; Jacobi, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested an association between allergy and mood and anxiety disorders. Yet, extant work suffers from methodologic limitations. Objective To investigate the association between physician diagnosed allergy and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders in the general population, and to examine the role of allergy treatment in this relationship. Methods Data were drawn from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey, a population-based, representative sample of 4,181 adults aged 18-65 in Germany. Allergy was diagnosed by physicians during medical examination and mental disorders were diagnosed using the CIDI. Results Allergy was associated with an increased prevalence of any anxiety disorder (OR=1.3 (1.1, 1.6)), panic attacks (OR=1.6 (1.1, 2.1)), panic disorder (OR=1.6 (1.01, 2.3)), GAD (OR=1.8 (1.1, 3.0)), any mood disorder (OR= 1.4 (1.1, 1.7)), depression (OR=1.4 (1.1, 1.7)), and bipolar disorder (OR=2.0, (1.0, 3.8)). After adjusting for desensitization treatment status, these relationships were no longer significant. Those treated for allergy were significantly less likely to have any mood or anxiety disorder (OR=0.65 (0.4, 0.96)), compared to those untreated. All relationships were adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Conclusions & Clinical Relevance These findings provide the first evidence of a link between physician diagnosed allergy and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders in a representative sample. Treatment for allergy may mitigate much of this relationship. PMID:23181792

  13. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, C; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Hansen, K S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). METHODS: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests (SPTs......) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. RESULTS: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were nonresponders. Of the 11...

  14. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  15. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  17. [ Food allergy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, W; Frosch, B

    1983-06-01

    Food allergies' following food incompatibilities, which are not caused immunologically. Mostly allergic symptoms are caused by cow's milk or chicken eggs. Allergic reactions are preceded by sensitizing events; certain characteristics of foodstuffs and conditions in the human body facilitate their development. Gastrointestinal symptoms very often are just accompanying signs. In differential diagnosis the so-called "pseudo-allergies' following food ingestion have to be separated. Most important diagnostic measures are clinical history, prick-/scratch test, RAST, gastrointestinal provocation and abstinence test. The therapeutic program consists of allergen abstinence, avoiding all allergy-arousing factors, oral desensitizing and pharmaceutical treatment.

  18. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of... and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: September 19..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 1,...

  19. 78 FR 78982 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 20,...

  20. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  1. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  2. 76 FR 3919 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 14,...

  3. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  4. 77 FR 76058 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  5. 75 FR 48977 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  6. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 26,...

  7. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  8. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are intended for short-term use; long-term usage can actually make symptoms worse. Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy (allergy ... Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  9. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digesting the sugar in milk. This is called "lactose intolerance," and it isn't an allergy because it ... t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea. SymptomsWhat ...

  10. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  11. Exploring the Determinants of the Perceived Risk of Food Allergies in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel W.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann E.; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Godefroy, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Food allergies are emerging health risks in much of the Western world, and some evidence suggests prevalence is increasing. Despite lacking scientific consensus around prevalence and management, policies and regulations are being implemented in public spaces (e.g., schools). These policies have been criticized as extreme in the literature, in the media, and by the non-allergic population. Backlash appears to be resulting from different perceptions of risk between different groups. This article uses a recently assembled national dataset (n = 3,666) to explore how Canadians perceive the risks of food allergy. Analyses revealed that almost 20% self-report having an allergic person in the household, while the average respondent estimated the prevalence of food allergies in Canada to be 30%. Both of these measures overestimate the true clinically defined prevalence (7.5%), indicating an inflated public understanding of the risks of food allergies. Seventy percent reported food allergies to be substantial risks to the Canadian population. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed important determinants of risk perception including demographic, experience-based, attitudinal, and regional predictors. Results are discussed in terms of understanding emerging health risks in the post-industrial era, and implications for both policy and risk communication. PMID:23172987

  12. 75 FR 43181 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Panel; T Cell Receptor Signaling Network. Date: August 19, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Rockledge 6700, 6700B...D, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program, Division of Extramural Activities,...

  13. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergies To Insect Venom Facts About Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. If you have allergic tendencies and ... lives of those who are sensitive to it...insect venom! Although less common than pollen allergy, insect ...

  14. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  15. National survey of tuberculosis prevalence in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoa, N.B.; Sy, D.N.; Nhung, N.V.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Cobelens, F.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis in Viet Nam with data from a population-based survey, compare it with the prevalence estimated by the World Health Organization, and identify major demographic determinants of tuberculosis prevalence. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with multis

  16. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.

  17. Older siblings, pets and early life infections: impact on gut microbiota and allergy prevalence during the first three years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    with allergies did not differ substantially from that in children without symptoms. Conclusions: Early life infections might precede childhood respiratory allergy and are associated with low microbial diversity/richness during late infancy. The presence of older siblings affects the gut microbiota composition......, diversity and richness during late infancy and the risk of developing eczema during early childhood. However, gut microbiota in late infancy was not associated with eczema or respiratory allergy in early childhood. Further studies are warranted to assess whether the profound sibling effect on the gut...

  18. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  19. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Point ( HACCP ) program, and use of the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) decision-making tree (Australian Food and Grocery Council...to cow’s milk and beef meat proteins. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89 61-64. Emmett, S. E., et al. (1999) Perceived prevalence of peanut allergy in

  20. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    . Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. Patients/methods. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  1. Latex Allergy with Discus Form of Inhalation Drug of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogun Sezer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers and which was taken chronic medical therapy has significantly increased during the last 15 years. Latex allergy generally refers to a type 1 reaction to natural rubber latex (NRL proteins with clinical manifestations ranging from contact urticaria to asthma and anaphylaxis. In this report, we discuss latex allergy with discus form of inhalation drug of asthma after contact of discus form to lips. Still, latex allergy is an important problem in patients with latex allergy. We must inform all patients about latex allergy and all latex containing devices. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 451-452

  2. Introduction of oral vitamin D supplementation and the rise of the allergy pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wjst Matthias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The history of the allergy pandemic is well documented, enabling us to put the vitamin D hypothesis into its historical context. The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence of rickets, vitamin D supply, and allergy prevalence at 50-year intervals by means of a retrospective analysis of the literature since 1880. English cities in 1880 were characterized by an extremely high rickets prevalence, the beginning of commercial cod liver oil production, and the near absence of any allergic diseases. By 1930 hay fever prevalence had risen to about 3% in English-speaking countries where cod liver oil was preferentially used for the treatment of rickets. In 1980 vitamin D was used nation-wide in all industrialized countries as supplement to industrial baby food, thus eradicating nearly all cases of rickets. At the same time the allergy prevalence reached an all-time high, affecting about 30% of the population. Time trends are therefore compatible with the vitamin D hypothesis although direct conclusions cannot be drawn. It is interesting, however, to note that there are at least two earlier research papers linking synthesized vitamin D intake and allergy (Reed 1930 and Selye 1962 published prior to the modern vitamin D hypothesis first proposed in 1999.

  3. National and subnational hypertension prevalence estimates for the Republic of Ireland: better outcome and risk factor data are needed to produce better prevalence estimates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barron, Steve

    2014-01-10

    Hypertension is a global public health challenge. National prevalence estimates can conceal important differences in prevalence in subnational areas. This paper aims to develop a consistent set of national and subnational estimates of the prevalence of hypertension in a country with limited data for subnational areas.

  4. Allergy to cypress pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Lahoz, C; Pichot, C; Waisel, Y

    2005-03-01

    Although Cupressus sempervirens has been spread over southern Europe since antiquity, cypress pollen allergy has not been reported until 1945. In France, the very first case reports were published in 1962. Since then, the prevalence of cypress pollinosis seems to demonstrate an upward trend, concomitantly with the increased use of cypress trees as ornamental plants, as wind breaks and as hedges. Hyposensitization, using improved pollen extracts, is increasingly prescribed. Besides, prevention measures begin to be implemented. Such measures include avoidance of planting new cypress trees, especially near human populations' centres, trimming of cypress hedges before the pollination season and agronomical research for hypoallergenic trees. Altogether, such new developments in cypress allergy deserve an update review.

  5. The impact of food allergy on asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kewalramani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anupama Kewalramani, Mary E BollingerDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy/Pulmonology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Food allergy is a potentially severe immune response to a food or food additive. Although a majority of children will outgrow their food allergies, some may have lifelong issues. Food allergies and other atopic conditions, such as asthma, are increasing in prevalence in Western countries. As such, it is not uncommon to note the co-existence of food allergy and asthma in the same patient. As part of the atopic march, many food allergic patients may develop asthma later in life. Each can adversely affect the other. Food allergic patients with asthma have a higher risk of developing life-threatening food-induced reactions. Although food allergy is not typically an etiology of asthma, an asthmatic patient with food allergy may have higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the asthma. Asthma is rarely a manifestation of food allergy alone, but the symptoms can be seen with allergic reactions to foods. There may be evidence to suggest that early childhood environmental factors, such as the mother’s and child’s diets, factor in the development of asthma; however, the evidence continues to be conflicting. All food allergic patients and their families should be counseled on the management of food allergy and the risk of developing co-morbid asthma.Keywords: food allergy, diagnosis, treatment, asthma

  6. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  7. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  8. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  9. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know that some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food allergy , his ... sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have ...

  10. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. Asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians living in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossakowska, M; Pawlinska-Chmara, R; Broczek, K M

    2008-12-01

    According to National Census, there were 1541 people over the age of 100 years (centenarians) in Poland, in 2002, including 1215 females and 326 males. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians included in the Polish Centenarians Program, POLSTU 2001, conducted between 2001 and 2004. The study group consisted of 301 subjects including 258 females and 43 males. Research data were gathered in a questionnaire designed exclusively for the study, completed by the interviewer during meetings with the subjects and their families. According to the medical history reported by the subjects, 10 persons (3.3%) suffered from asthma and 41 (13.6%) from allergy. There were no subjects with childhood onset asthma. Allergy to food and medicinal products was the most prevalent. One in four centenarians reported dyspnea and one in eight complained of cough. When analyzed in relation to gender, cough was more prevalent in males, which might have been related to cigarette smoking. Respiratory disorders are frequent in elderly populations, but symptoms may be underreported, especially in the situation of coexisting medical problems. Moreover, it might be difficult to perform full diagnostic procedures in the very elderly due to disability, cognitive impairment, and technical problems. Thus, medical care for the aged should be based on thorough medical evaluation supported by the medical history and reliable information on physician-diagnosed diseases.

  12. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  13. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  14. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents with food-allergic children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Kim, Jennifer S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Parents of food-allergic children are responsible for risk assessment and management of their child's condition. Such practices are likely informed by parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of food allergy. Our objective was to characterize food allergy knowledge and perceptions among parents with food-allergic children. Parents were recruited nationally between January 2008 and 2009 to complete the validated, web-based Chicago Food Allergy Research Survey for Parents of Children with Food Allergy. Findings were analyzed to provide composite/itemized knowledge scores, describe attitudes and beliefs, and examine the effects of participant characteristics on response. A sample of 2945 parents was obtained. Participants had an average knowledge score of 75% correct (range 19-100%). Strengths were observed in each content domain; e.g., 95% of participants accurately identified the signs of a milk-induced reaction. Weaknesses were limited to items assessing food allergy triggers/environmental risks and perceptions of susceptibility/prevalence; e.g., 52% of parents incorrectly believed young children are at higher risk for fatal anaphylaxis than adolescents. Parental attitudes/beliefs were diverse, although 85% agreed children should carry an EpiPen at school and 91% felt schools should have staff trained in food allergy. One in four parents reported food allergy caused a strain on their marriage/relationship, and 40% reported experiencing hostility from other parents when trying to accommodate their child's food allergy. In conclusion, parents in our study exhibited solid baseline knowledge although several important misconceptions were identified. While a broad spectrum of parental perceptions was observed, a large proportion of parents reported that their child's food allergy had an adverse impact on personal relationships and also agreed on certain policies to address food allergy in schools.

  15. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Hee Ahn; Ji Hee Yu; Seung-Hyun Ko; Hyuk-Sang Kwon; Dae Jung Kim; Jae Hyeon Kim; Chul Sik Kim; Kee-Ho Song; Jong Chul Won; Soo Lim; Sung Hee Choi; Kyungdo Han; Bong-Yun Cha; Nan Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and de...

  16. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, being caused by thermo- and chemolabile allergens, and it is rarely combined with generalized manifestations of food allergy. Prevalence and spectrum of the causal allergens depend on a kind of pollen sensitization. In Moscow region, as well as in Northern Europe, allergic sensitization most commonly occurs to the pollen of leaf trees, whereas OAS is mostly connected with ingestion of fruits from Rosaceae family and nuts. Since last years, a newly developed technique of component-resolved molecular diagnosis (CR diagnostics allows of more precise detection of OAS-causing allergen molecules. These data are of extreme importance for administration of adequate nutritional therapy and prediction of SIT efficiency. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 1, pp 17-28

  17. Hepatitis C prevalence in Denmark -an estimate based on multiple national registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Hay, Gordon; Jepsen, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    A national survey for chronic hepatitis C has not been performed in Denmark and the prevalence is unknown. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C from public registers and the proportion of these patients who received specialized healthcare....

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Dating Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the prevalence of serious forms of dating violence in adolescents from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The results conclude that serious dating violence is highly prevalent among adolescents and a major health problem that needs to be tackled by early detection, prevention and intervention.

  19. Can we define a tolerable level of risk in food allergy? Report from a EuroPrevall/UK Food Standards Agency workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Allen, K. J.;

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that, as with other risks in society, zero risk for food‐allergic people is not a realistic or attainable option. Food allergy challenge data and new risk assessment methods offer the opportunity to develop quantitative limits for unintended allergenic ingredients w...

  20. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact...

  1. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  2. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  3. 三城市两岁以下儿童食物过敏现状调查%Prevalence of food allergy in children under 2 years of age in three cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 廖艳; 张红忠; 赵泓; 陈洁; 黎海芪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and clinical features of food allergy in children aged 0-2 years.Method From January to February,2009 and January to May,2010,all well-infants and young children between the age of 0 and 2 years attending routine health visits at the Department of Primary Child Care,in Chongqing,Zhuhai and Hangzhou were invited to participate in the study.Parents completed questionnaires and all children were skin prick tested (SPT) to a panel of 10 foods (egg white,egg yolk,cow's milk,soybean,peanut,wheat,fish,shrimp,orange and carrot). Based on the results of SPT and medical history,the subjects under went the suspected food elimination and oral food challenge under medical supervision.Food allergy was confirmed by the food challenge test.Result Totally 1687 children were recruited by the consent of their parents.Of 1687 children approached,1604 (550 of Chongqing,573 of Zhuhai and 481 of Hangzhou) fulfilled the study criteria for diagnosing food allergy.One hundred children were confirmed to have challenge-proven food allergy in 3 cities (40 of Chongqing,33 of Zhuhai and 27 of Hangzhou).The prevalence of food allergy in 0-2 years old children in Chongqing was 7.3%,in Zhuhai was 5.8% and in Hangzhou was 5.5%.There was no significant difference in the prevalence of food allergy in children under 2 years among the three cities,and the average prevalence for food allergy in children under 2 years was 6.2%.Egg(3.0%-4.4% )was the most common allergen,followed by cow's milk (0.83%- 3.5% ),shrimp(0.17%-0.42% )and fish(0.17%-0.21% ).Conclusion The prevalence of food allergy in 0-2 years old children in China was 5.5% -7.3%.There was no significant difference in the prevalence of food allergy in children under 2 years of age among the three cities. Egg was the most common allergen,followed by cow's milk,shrimp and fish.%目的 通过多中心大样本研究了解我国0~2岁儿童食物过敏现状.方法 将2009年1月至2

  4. Probiotics and food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2013-07-29

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.

  5. My journey on breastfeeding: Autoethnographic challenge to low national prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this article I offer a psychosocial reflection around breastfeeding and its scarce prevalence in Mexico. In my multiple role as mother-to-be, psychologist and researcher, I took part in a group, offered as a service by the socialized health organizations to Mexican mothers. In this autoethnography I analized my own pregnancy and maternity condition and compared it with the experiences of other mothers in varied wide variety of circumstances. I found that breastfeeding cannot be understood ...

  6. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  7. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, Teddy; L Menné, T;

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  8. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L;

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  9. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...... and adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  10. A vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Alisic, E.; Brewin, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determinants of cross-national differences in the prevalence of mental illness are poorly understood. Aims: To test whether national post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates can be explained by (a) rates of exposure to trauma and (b) countries’ overall cultural and socioeconomic vuln

  11. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  12. Managing food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  13. Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 13- to 14-year-old children in Africa: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Khaled, N; Odhiambo, J; Pearce, N; Adjoh, K S; Maesano, I A; Benhabyles, B; Bouhayad, Z; Bahati, E; Camara, L; Catteau, C; El Sony, A; Esamai, F O; Hypolite, I E; Melaku, K; Musa, O A; Ng'ang'a, L; Onadeko, B O; Saad, O; Jerray, M; Kayembe, J M; Koffi, N B; Khaldi, F; Kuaban, C; Voyi, K; M'Boussa, J; Sow, O; Tidjani, O; Zar, H J

    2007-03-01

    Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood has provided valuable information regarding international prevalence patterns and potential risk factors in the development of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. However, in Phase I, only six African countries were involved (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya, South Africa and Ethiopia). Phase III, conducted 5-6 years later, enrolled 22 centres in 16 countries including the majority of the centres involved in Phase I and new centres in Morocco, Tunisia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Togo, Sudan, Cameroon, Gabon, Reunion Island and South Africa. There were considerable variations between the various centres of Africa in the prevalence of the main symptoms of the three conditions: wheeze (4.0-21.5%), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (7.2-27.3%) and eczema (4.7-23.0%). There was a large variation both between countries and between centres in the same country. Several centres, including Cape Town (20.3%), Polokwane (18.0%), Reunion Island (21.5%), Brazzaville (19.9%), Nairobi (18.0%), Urban Ivory Coast (19.3%) and Conakry (18.6%) showed relatively high asthma symptom prevalences, similar to those in western Europe. There were also a number of centres showing high symptom prevalences for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (Cape Town, Reunion Island, Brazzaville, Eldoret, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Casablanca, Wilays of Algiers, Sousse and Eldoret) and eczema (Brazzaville, Eldoret, Addis Ababa, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Marrakech and Casablanca).

  14. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.

  15. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  16. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A What's in this article? ... are at work. Seasonal allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that ...

  17. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  18. Developmental trajectories in food allergy: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, A

    2009-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the relationships between perceptions, emotions, behaviors and health has changed the way health and disease are portrayed and researched. A chronic condition may affect and\\/or interact with already existing normative demands and changes in socialization. Although the prevalence of food allergy and anaphylaxis have been reportedly increasing, the emotional and social impact of growing up with food allergy has received little emphasis. In this paper, we present current findings on the biopsychosocial impact of food allergy on children in order to gain insight into the food allergy experience, from the perspective of the child, teen, and parent living with food allergy, with particular attention to developmental aspects. Due to the scarcity of publications on the psychosocial dimensions of food allergy, we also draw on selected literature on children\\'s and parent\\'s experience of, and coping with chronic disease that may inform research into food allergy. To this end, we review some general developmental mechanisms that may underpin and explain normative age-graded shifts in patterns of coping across childhood and adolescence. We also highlight gaps in the literature and assess implications of current research in food allergy and other chronic diseases for intervention and prevention of negative short and long term outcomes.

  19. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence o

  20. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  1. 临床护士乳胶手套过敏的现状调查及危险因素分析%Prevalence and risk factors for latex glove allergy in clinical nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓珍; 陈如红; 倪少凯; 樊翌明

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解临床护士中乳胶手套过敏的发生率及其危险因素.方法 采用自行设计的问卷对湛江市4家综合性医院的临床护士进行乳胶手套过敏情况调查,并用logistic回归分析其危险因素.结果 在1469名护士中,248名占16.9%出现乳胶手套过敏症状.过敏组的年龄、工龄明显大于非过敏组,且过敏性疾病家族史和个人史阳性率明显增加.主要危险因素为过敏性疾病家族史、过敏性疾病个人史、药物或其他物质过敏和房间内工作时间,而每天平均使用手套数为保护因素.结论 临床护士属于乳胶过敏的高危人群,过敏体质是导致乳胶手套过敏的主要危险因素.%Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for latex glove allergy in clini-cal nurses. Methods A serf-administered questionnaire was used to collect the information about latex glove-related allergy among clinical nursing staff in 4 general hospitals in Zhanjiang, and the risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. Results Latex glove-related symptoms were reported in 16.9% of 1469 nurses. Age, employment seniority, and positive rate of personal and family history of ana-phylaetie diseases in sensitized nurses were superior to those in unsensitized ones. The positive personal and family history of hypersensitivity diseases, allergy to drugs or other materials, and working time in a room were high risk factors for the development of latex glove allergy, but the average number of gloves used in a working day was the protective factor. Conclusions Clinical nurses belong to high risk latex sensitization population, and the main risk factor is the atopie subjects.

  2. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Smoking Prevalence: Evidence from a National Survey of Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanna A. Asfaw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.

  3. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    , European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Japanese Society for Allergology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology, and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....

  4. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    ; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....

  5. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine......) articles on cow's milk allergy (CMPA) for the years 1967 through 2001 was performed. In addition, references from other review articles have been included. This review represents a synthesis of these sources and the expert opinion of the author. STUDY SELECTION: The expert opinion of the author was used...... in up to 50% and allergy against inhalants in 50 to 80% before puberty. CONCLUSIONS: CMPA is the most common food allergy in early childhood with an incidence of 2 to 3% in the first year of life. The overall prognosis of CMPA in infancy is good with a remission rate of approximately 85 to 90...

  6. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy medlineplus.gov/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever medlineplus. ...

  7. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  8. A national survey to determine prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among pregnant women in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costales, Jaime A; Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Silva-Aycaguer, Luis C; Cevallos, William; Tamayo, Susana; Yumiseva, César A; Jacobson, Jerry O; Martini, Luiggi; Carrera, Caty A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-04-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of Chagas disease prevalence among pregnant women in Ecuador. As part of a national probability sample, 5,420 women seeking care for delivery or miscarriage at 15 healthcare facilities were recruited into the study. A small minority of participants reported knowing about Chagas disease or recognized the vector. A national seroprevalence of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0-0.2%) was found; cases were concentrated in the coastal region (seroprevalence = 0.2%; 95% CI = 0.0-0.4%). No cases of transmission to neonates were identified in the sample. Seropositive participants were referred to the National Chagas Program for evaluation and treatment. Additional studies are necessary to determine if areas of higher prevalence exist in well-known endemic provinces and guide the development of a national strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease in Ecuador.

  9. Prevalence of stroke and associated disability in Brazil: National Health Survey - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela M. Bensenor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce data about prevalence of stroke in Brazil. The National Health Survey (PNS is a community-based epidemiological survey, with a nationally representative sample to assess the absolute numbers with respective prevalence rates of stroke and post-stroke disabilities. It was estimated 2,231.000 stroke and 568,000 stroke cases with severe disabilities. The point prevalences was 1.6% and 1.4% in men and women, respectively. The prevalences of post-stroke disabilities were 29.5% for men and 21.5% for women. Stroke prevalence rates increased with aging, low education level, among people living in urban areas with no difference according to self-reported skin color. The degree of post-stroke disability was not statistically different according to sex, race, education level or living area. This new data from PNS show high stroke prevalence rates especially in older individuals without formal education and urban dweller, but the degree of stroke disability was not determined by the sociodemographic characteristics of the Brazilian population.

  10. Prevalence of At-Risk Drinking among a National Sample of Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    As limited research exists on medical students' substance use patterns, including over-consumption of alcohol, the objective of this study was to determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students, using a cross-sectional, anonymous, Web-based survey. A total of 2710 medical students from 36 U.S.…

  11. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  12. Immunology of metal allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marc; Goebeler, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metal allergens is a common health concern worldwide, greatly impacting affected individuals with regard to both quality of life and their ability to work. With an estimated 15-20 % of the Western population hypersensitive to at least one metal allergen, sensitization rates for metallic haptens by far outnumber those reported for other common triggers of allergic contact dermatitis such as fragrances and rubber. Unfortunately, the prevalence of metal-induced hypersensitivity remains high despite extensive legislative efforts to ban/reduce the content of allergy-causing metals in recreational and occupational products. Recently, much progress has been made regarding the perception mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses to this unique group of contact allergens. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of this enigmatic disease. Particular emphasis is put on the mechanisms of innate immune activation and T cell activation by common metal allergens such as nickel, cobalt, palladium, and chromate.

  13. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  14. IgE-Mediated food allergy diagnosis : Current status and new perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, Riccardo; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Beyer, Kirsten; Conti, Amedeo; Dubakiene, Ruta; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Lidholm, Jonas; Mustakov, Tihomir; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Pumphrey, Richard S. H.; Skov, Per Stahl; van Ree, Ronald; Vlieg - Boerstra, Berber J.; Hiller, Reinhard; Hourihane, Jonathan O.; Kowalski, Marek; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Wal, Jean-Michel; Mills, E. N. Clare; Vieths, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, the work of the EU Integrated Project EuroPrevall was started. EuroPrevall is the largest research project on food allergy ever performed in Europe. Major aims of the project are to generate for the first time reliable data on the prevalence of food allergies across Europe and on the n

  15. Allergenicity in food allergy : influence of food processing and immunomodulation by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.

    2011-01-01


    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe all

  16. Decrease in the rate of sensitization and clinical allergy to natural rubber latex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Michelle S B; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the 1980s, a striking increase in natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy was seen. Since then, many measures have been taken to prevent NRL allergy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in the prevalence of NRL sensitization/clinical NRL allergy over time from 2002 to 2013. METHODS: All...

  17. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Your Children About Your Allergies Managing at Work Healthcare Providers Child Care Facilities Americans with Disabilities Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...

  18. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  19. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Itching for Allergy Relief? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... for children of any age." back to top Allergy Shots People who don't respond to either ...

  20. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  1. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  2. Recommendations for competency in allergy training for undergraduates qualifying as medical practitioners: a position paper of the world allergy organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Paul C; Warner, John O; Pawankar, Ruby; Kaliner, Michael A; Del Giacco, Sergio; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    2009-08-01

    Society of South Africa (Sharon Kling); The Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Tomás Chivato); The Swiss Society for Allergology and Immunology (SSAI-SGAI) (Beat A. Imhof, Andreas Bircher); The Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand (Pakit Vichyanond); The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Omer Kalayci); and The Venezuelan Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (Luis F Sarmiento).

  3. Developing an allergy management support system (AMSS) for primary care : agreement between the AMSS and the allergy specialist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M.; Roerdink, E. M.; Brakel, T. M.; Oude Elberink, J. N.; Oei, R.; Schuttelaar, M-L A.; Christoffers, W. A.; van der Molen, T.; Dubois, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis and management of allergic patients is often initially and exclusively performed by GPs. Since the prevalence of allergy is increasing and many GPs report having difficulties in diagnosing and managing allergic patients, an Allergy Management Support System (AMSS) for primary c

  4. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  5. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy.

  6. FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Santalha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In these cases, most children had co-sensitization with other allergens, as well as another manifestation of concomitant allergy, showing the role of food allergy in allergic march. Food allergy diagnosis is extremely important, as it can be potentially serious if not prevented by food avoidance.

  7. Addressing Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  8. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  9. Scabies and impetigo prevalence and risk factors in Fiji: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Romani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%, followed by children aged less than five (36.5%, and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%. Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. CONCLUSIONS: As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in

  10. Trends in Ranavirus Prevalence Among Plethodontid Salamanders in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, William B; Gray, Matthew J; Hoverman, Jason T; Secrist, Richard G; Super, Paul E; Hardman, Rebecca H; Tucker, Jennifer L; Miller, Debra L

    2015-06-01

    Emerging pathogens are a potential contributor to global amphibian declines. Ranaviruses, which infect ectothermic vertebrates and are common in aquatic environments, have been implicated in die-offs of at least 72 amphibian species worldwide. Most studies on the subject have focused on pool-breeding amphibians, and infection trends in other amphibian species assemblages have been understudied. Our primary study objective was to evaluate hypotheses explaining ranavirus prevalence within a lungless salamander assemblage (Family Plethodontidae) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. We sampled 566 total plethodontid salamanders representing 14 species at five sites over a 6-year period (2007-2012). We identified ranavirus-positive individuals in 11 of the 14 (78.6%) sampled species, with salamanders in the genus Desmognathus having greatest infection prevalence. Overall, we found the greatest support for site elevation and sampling year determining infection prevalence. We detected the greatest number of infections in 2007 with 82.5% of sampled individuals testing positive for ranavirus, which we attribute to record drought during this year. Infection prevalence remained relatively high in low-elevation sites in 2008 and 2009. Neither body condition nor aquatic dependence was a significant predictor of ranavirus prevalence. Overall, our results indicate that life history differences among species play a minor role determining ranavirus prevalence compared to the larger effects of site elevation and yearly fluctuations (likely due to environmental stressors) during sampling years.

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese Yi nationality: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are considered a serious health problem. There are little data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Yi ethnic group in China. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic features of overweight/obesity among Chinese Yi nationality. Methods A cross-sectional study, including 1255 subjects aged 20-75 years, was carried out in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province from 2007 to 2008. Overweight/overall obesity was defined by World Health Organization (WHO or the Working Group on Obesity in China. Results Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0% and 2.9%, respectively, based on the WHO definition, while it was 21.0% and 7.4%, respectively, according to the Working Group on Obesity in China, which is similar to data reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (WHO criteria: 4.3% vs 1.7% p = 0.008; China criteria: 11.4% vs 3.7%, p p p Conclusions The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the Yi nationality is similar to that in Chinese adults 5 years ago. However, urban residents have a much higher prevalence of overweight/obesity than their rural counterparts. Lifestyle and diet patterns associated with socioeconomic status may explain the difference between urban and rural residents. The prevention of overweight/obesity among urban inhabitants deserves more attention in national health education programs.

  12. Association between cancer and contact allergy: a linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kaare; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil;

    2011-01-01

    and cancer, few have looked into the association between cancer and contact allergy, a type IV allergy. By linking two clinical databases, the authors investigate the possible association between contact allergy and cancer. Methods Record linkage of two different registers was performed: (1) a tertiary...... by logistic regression analysis. Results An inverse association between contact allergy and non-melanoma skin- and breast cancer, respectively, was identified in both sexes, and an inverse trend for brain cancer was found in women with contact allergy. Additionally, a positive association between contact......Background Contact allergy is a prevalent disorder. It is estimated that about 20% of the general population are allergic to one or more of the chemicals that constitute the European baseline patch test panel. While many studies have investigated associations between type I allergic disorders...

  13. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  14. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo at Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, T C; Kriek, N P; Bengis, R G; Whyte, I J; Viljoen, P C; de Vos, V; Boyce, W M

    2001-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was first detected in Kruger National Park (KNP) in a single African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in 1990. In 1991/1992, 2,071 African buffalo were examined for BTB as part of a culling program that removed animals from all known herds in KNP. The prevalence of BTB in 1991/1992 was estimated to be 0%, 4.4% (+/-0.6%), and 27.1% (+/-1.4%), in the north, central, and south zones of KNP, respectively. In 1998, a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling method was used to estimate that the prevalence of BTB was 1.5% (+/-2.5%), 16% (+/-5.3%), and 38.2% (+/-6.3%), in the north, central, and south zones, respectively. This represented a significant increase in prevalence (P management strategies. The methodology and sample sizes used in 1998 are appropriate for future BTB monitoring in KNP.

  15. Developing vaccines to prevent sustained infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Conference proceedings: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rockville, Maryland USA, November 7, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    On November 7, 2014, Aeras and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a conference entitled "Vaccine Prevention of Sustained Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection." The purpose of this meeting was to explore the biologic plausibility, potential public health and economic impact, and regulatory feasibility in attempting to develop a vaccine to prevent sustained infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Currently there are two main goals for tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development, to develop a vaccine that could serve as a booster to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and prevent active TB in adolescents and adults, and to develop an improved vaccine to replace BCG in infants. Although prevention of sustained Mtb infection is being used as a proof of biological activity for vaccines in mid-Phase 2 development, there currently are no plans for pursuing a prevention of Mtb infection licensure indication for TB vaccines. Ultimately, pursuing a prevention of sustained Mtb infection indication for TB vaccines, in parallel with ongoing efforts to develop vaccines to prevent active TB disease, was deemed a potentially important effort, but would require further resources, particularly to improve diagnostic assays, to increase the regulatory feasibility of this endeavor.

  16. Association between cobalt allergy and dermatitis caused by leather articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from ....... CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a positive association between cobalt allergy and a history of dermatitis caused by non-occupational exposure to leather articles.......BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from...... as the most frequent exposure source causing dermatitis in the case group. Although the case group significantly more often reported non-occupational dermatitis caused by leather exposure (p

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  18. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  19. Time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence: analyses of repeated national surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio JD; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Objective Much is known about national trends in child undernutrition, but there is little information on how socioeconomic inequalities are evolving over time. We aimed to assess socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence over time. Setting Nationally representative household surveys from 25 low and middle income countries. Design We selected nationally representative surveys carried out since the mid-1990s for which information was available on asset indices and on child anthropometry. We identified twenty-five countries which had at least two surveys over an interval of 10 or more years, totaling 87 surveys. Stunting prevalence was calculated according to wealth quintiles. Absolute and relative inequalities were calculated, and time trends were obtained by regression. Results National prevalence declined significantly in 22 of the 25 countries. In 18 out of 25 countries, relative reductions among the rich than among the poor. Overall, there was no indication that inequalities improved. Striking examples are Nepal, with a 17·0 percent points decline in stunting per decade, but where inequalities increased sharply, and Brazil where stunting fell by 6·7 percent points and inequalities were all but eliminated. Conclusions Global progress in reducing stunting has not been accompanied by improved equity, but countries varied markedly in how successful they were in reducing prevalence among the poorest children. It is important to document how some countries were able to reduce inequalities, so that these lessons can be used to foster global progress, particularly in light of the increased importance of within-country inequalities in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25521530

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology.

  1. [Special aspects of food allergy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B

    2012-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to foods represent the earliest and most important manifestation of allergic diseases in childhood. Sensitization to foods may happen very early in life. Basic options for alimentary allergy prevention are breast-feeding of at least 4 months and in case nursing is impossible, use of an alternative hypoallergenic formula. The most common food allergens in childhood are cow's milk, hen's egg, peanuts, tree nuts and wheat. The prevalence of food allergies in childhood is 2 to 6%. In up to 50% of infants and children with atopic eczema, food allergies play a role; vice versa 95% of children with an IgE-mediated food allergy have atopic eczema as an underlying disease. Diagnostic reliability in suspected allergic reactions to food is only achieved in most cases by performing controlled oral food challenges. The long-term prognosis is good for cow's milk and hen's egg allergy, while peanut and tree nut allergies often last life-long. The most important therapeutic option is a specific elimination diet; especially in infancy, a nutritionally adequate substitution diet has to be considered. Children who might inadvertently get into contact with their potentially life threatening food allergen, should be provided with an epinephrine autoinjector.

  2. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Minna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  3. British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology guidelines for the management of egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A T; Skypala, I; Leech, S C; Ewan, P W; Dugué, P; Brathwaite, N; Huber, P A J; Nasser, S M

    2010-08-01

    This guideline advises on the management of patients with egg allergy. Most commonly, egg allergy presents in infancy, with a prevalence of approximately 2% in children and 0.1% in adults. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay) will confirm the diagnosis in most cases. Egg avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Egg allergy often resolves and re-introduction can be achieved at home if reactions have been mild and there is no asthma. Patients with a history of severe reactions or asthma should have reintroduction guided by a specialist. All children with egg allergy should receive measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. Influenza and yellow fever vaccines should only be considered in egg-allergic patients under the guidance of an allergy specialist. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for allergists and others with a special interest in allergy. The recommendations are evidence-based but where evidence was lacking consensus was reached by the panel of specialists on the committee. The document encompasses epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and co-morbid associations.

  4. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  5. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 1998-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Ha Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDyslipidemia is a disorder of lipid metabolism, including elevated total cholesterol, elevated triglyceride, elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. The objective of this study was to investigate recent changes in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and also the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia among Korean adults.MethodsDyslipidemia is defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III as total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL, LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL, HDL-C <40 mg/dL, and triglyceride ≥200 mg/dL. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was estimated for adults aged ≥20 years using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES in 1998 (n=6,923, 2001 (n=4,882, and 2005 (n=5,323. Rates of awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia were calculated for adults aged ≥30 years using the KNHANES in 2005 (n=4,654.ResultsThe prevalence of dyslipidemia (aged ≥20 years increased from 32.4% in 1998 to 42.6% in 2001 and 44.1% in 2005. Compared with the KNHANES in 1998, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35% to 59% higher in 2001 and 61% (95% CI, 49% to 75% higher in 2005. In 2005, only 9.5% of people with dyslipidemia were aware of the disease, 5.2% used lipid-lowering medication, and 33.2% of patients with treatment reached treatment goals.ConclusionThe prevalence of dyslipidemia in Korea gradually increased between 1998 and 2005. These findings suggest that more intense efforts for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia may lead to further improvement in the management of dyslipidemia.

  6. Hepatitis C prevalence in Denmark -an estimate based on multiple national registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Peer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A national survey for chronic hepatitis C has not been performed in Denmark and the prevalence is unknown. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C from public registers and the proportion of these patients who received specialized healthcare. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C were identified from four national registers: a laboratory register, the Hospital Discharge Register, a clinical database of chronic viral hepatitis and the Register of Communicable Diseases. The total population diagnosed with hepatitis C was estimated by capture-recapture analysis. The population with undiagnosed hepatitis C was derived from the national register of drug users by comparing diagnosed and tested persons. Results A total of 6,935 patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C were identified in the four registers and the estimated population diagnosed with the disease was 9,166 persons (95% C.I. interval 8,973 – 9,877, corresponding to 0.21% (95% CI 0.21%-0.23% of the Danish population over 15years of age. The prevalence was highest among persons 40–49years old (0.39% and males (0.28%. It was estimated that 40% of the diagnosed patients lived in the capital region, and 33.5% had attended specialised healthcare. It was estimated that 46% of hepatitis C patients had not been diagnosed and the total population with chronic hepatitis C in Denmark was 16,888 (95% C.I. 16,474-18,287, corresponding to 0.38% (95% CI 0.37-0.42 of the population over 15years of age. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of chronic hepatitis C in Denmark was 0.38%. Less than half of the patients with chronic hepatitis C in Denmark have been identified and among these patients, one in three has attended specialised care.

  7. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular.

  8. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T;

    2009-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005...... as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who...... are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out...

  9. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control, and Associated Factors: Results from a National Survey, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Jaddou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension (HTN, and associated factors and to evaluate the trend in hypertension between 2009 (period 2 and 1994–1998 (period 1. A national sample of 4117 adults aged 25 years and older was selected. Prevalence rate of HTN (SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90 or on antihypertensive therapy was 32.3% and was higher than the 29.4% prevalence rate reported in period 1. Prevalence rate was significantly higher among males, older age groups, least educated, obese, and diabetics than their counterparts. The rate of awareness among hypertensives was 56.1% and was higher than the 38.8% rate reported form period 1 data. Awareness was positively associated with age, smoking, and diabetes for both men and women, and with level of education and body mass index for men. Rate of treatment for HTN among aware patients was 63.3% and was significantly higher than the 52.8% rate reported in period1. Control rate of HTN among treated hypertensives was 39.6%; significantly higher than the 27.9% control rate in period 1. Control of HTN was positively associated with age but only for women. In conclusion, HTN is still on the rise in Jordan, and levels of awareness and control are below the optimal levels.

  10. [The diagnosis of food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, O; Doyen, V

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of food allergies is more than 5 %, rising currently. The clinical presentations are polymorphic and involve the skin, respiratory, vascular and gut systems. The diagnosis is based on the consistancy between the allergic history and the results of the specific IgE investigations. When the relationship between the history and the IgE sensitization is not significant, an oral challenge test with food is indicated under supervision of a reference center. New approach, based on dosage of specific IgE to different constituent (recombinant protein) of each allergen, can predict the severity of the reaction and the cross reactivity between allergens, in some patients.

  11. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... proteins that cause allergic reactions. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins ...

  12. Increasing prevalence of coeliac disease in Denmark: a linkage study combining national registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dydensborg, Stine; Toftedal, Peter; Biaggi, Matteo;

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To determine the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed coeliac disease (CD) in Danish children and adolescents and to describe trends over time. Methods:  All children with a CD diagnosis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) were included in the study. Data were validated....... The mean age at diagnosis increased from 5.1 [95% CI 3.5-6.6] to 8.1 [95% CI 7.2-9.0] years of age. The proportion of children with associated diseases did not change over time. Conclusion:  The prevalence of diagnosed CD in Danish children and adolescents has increased over the last 15 years....... by combining this information with registrations of small-bowel biopsies in the National Registry of Pathology (NRP) and with a selected sample of hospital records. Results:  Data were obtained from 1996 to 2010. The prevalence of CD registered in DNPR increased from 43.2 [95% CI 39.3-47.1] to 83.6 [95% CI 78...

  13. Nasal allergies hayfever among young adults in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abramson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research

  14. A national study on the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Inger W; Nieuwendam, Josta; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L; Graafsma, Tobi L G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname has never been subjected to a reliable assessment. The only data available include rough estimates of a range of internationally comparable indicators extrapolated from child protection and police corps statistics for offenses against children. This study aimed to provide a reliable estimate of the prevalence of all forms of child maltreatment in Suriname. One thousand three hundred and ninety-one (1,391) adolescents and young adults of different ethnicities completed a questionnaire about child maltreatment. The study sample, obtained by random probability sampling, consisted of students (ages 12 through 22) from five districts in Suriname. A significant proportion of Surinamese children experienced maltreatment. In total, 86.8% of adolescents and 95.8% of young adults reported having been exposed to at least one form of child maltreatment during their lives. Among the adolescents, 57.1% were exposed to child maltreatment in the past year. When the definition of the National Incidence Study was applied, 58.2% of adolescents and 68.8% of young adults had been exposed to at least one form of maltreatment. Among adolescents, 36.8% reported having experienced at least one form of maltreatment in the past year. The results indicate the (extremely) high lifetime and year prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname. The serious and often lifelong consequences of such maltreatment indicate that a national approach to child abuse and neglect, including the development of a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system and changes to the state's programmatic and policy response, is urgently needed.

  15. Insulin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Mohammad K; Johnston, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    Insulin reactions occur rarely but are of tremendous clinical importance. The first was reported in 1922 as a callus reaction at the injection site of insufficiently purified bovine insulin. Porcine insulin was subsequently found to be less allergenic than bovine insulin. Increasingly pure insulins have decreased the risk of adverse reactions, and the production of recombinant insulin with the same amino sequence as human insulin saw a large decrease in adverse reactions. Currently, the prevalence of allergic reactions to insulin products appears to be approximately 2%, and less than one-third of these events have been considered related to the insulin itself. Other reactions occur due to the preservatives added to insulin, including zinc, protamine, and meta-cresol. Allergic reactions can be type I or immunoglobulin E-mediated, type III or Arthus, and type IV or delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Type I reactions are the most common and can, rarely, cause anaphylaxis. In contrast, type IV reactions can occur after a delay of several days. Investigations include skin prick testing, patch testing, intradermal testing, and occasionally, skin biopsy.

  16. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 13 children in the U.S. has a food allergy. Help stop this emerging epidemic. GIVE NOW ... Food Allergy Mom Gretchen Food Allergy Mom Managing Food Allergies Learn more about managing food allergies in ...

  17. The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is an important atopic disease although its precise burden is unclear. This systematic review aimed to provide recent, up-to-date data on the incidence, prevalence, time trends, and risk and prognostic factors for FA in Europe. We searched four electronic databases, covering...... for the development or resolution of FA identified, but sex, age, country of residence, familial atopic history, and the presence of other allergic diseases seem to be important. Food allergy is a significant clinical problem in Europe. The evidence base in this area would benefit from additional studies using...

  18. The prevalence of workaholism: a survey study in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Workaholism has become an increasingly popular area for empirical study. However, most studies examining the prevalence of workaholism have used non-representative samples and measures with poorly defined cut-off scores. To overcome these methodological limitations, a nationally representative survey among employees in Norway (N = 1,124 was conducted. Questions relating to gender, age, marital status, caretaker responsibility for children, percentage of full-time equivalent, and educational level were asked. Workaholism was assessed by the use of a psychometrically validated instrument (i.e., Bergen Work Addiction Scale. Personality was assessed using the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. Results showed that the prevalence of workaholism was 8.3% (95% CI  = 6.7-9.9%. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that workaholism was negatively related to age and positively related to the personality dimensions agreeableness, neuroticism, and intellect/imagination. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  19. Prevalence of Mindfulness Practices in the US Workforce: National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachan, Diana; Olano, Henry; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Annane, Debra W.; Mehta, Ashwin; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Fleming, Lora E.; McClure, Laura A.; Lee, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mindfulness-based practices can improve workers’ health and reduce employers’ costs by ameliorating the negative effect of stress on workers’ health. We examined the prevalence of engagement in 4 mindfulness-based practices in the US workforce. Methods We used 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults (aged ≥18 y, n = 85,004) to examine 12-month engagement in meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong among different groups of workers. Results Reported yoga practice prevalence nearly doubled from 6.0% in 2002 to 11.0% in 2012 (P benefit from workplace mindfulness interventions. Improving institutional factors limiting access to mindfulness-based wellness programs and addressing existing beliefs about mindfulness practices among underrepresented worker groups could help eliminate barriers to these programs. PMID:28055821

  20. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  1. The impact of family history of allergy on risk of food allergy: a population-based study of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Jennifer J; Allen, Katrina J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Peters, Rachel L; Lowe, Adrian J; Tang, Mimi L K; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2013-10-25

    The apparent rapid increase in IgE-mediated food allergy and its implications are now widely recognized, but little is known about the relationship between family history (an indirect measure of genetic risk) and the risk of food allergy. In a population-based study of 5,276 one year old infants (HealthNuts), the prevalence of oral food challenge-confirmed food allergy was measured. Associations between family history of allergic disease and food allergy in infants were examined using multiple logistic regression. Food allergy was diagnosed in 534 infants. Compared to those with no family history of allergic disease, children meeting the current definition of "high risk" for allergic disease (one immediate family member with a history of any allergic disease) showed only a modest increase (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) in food allergy, while having two or more allergic family members was more strongly predictive of food allergy in the child (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.3). There were also differences in the associations between family history and egg and peanut allergy in the child. Re-defining "high risk" as two or more allergic family members may be more useful for identification of groups with a significantly increased risk of food allergy both clinically and within research studies.

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  3. Gambling in the Mist of Economic Crisis: Results From Three National Prevalence Studies From Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Hayer, Tobias; Brosowski, Tim; Meyer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    In October 2008 all three major banks in Iceland went bankrupt with serious consequences for Icelandic society. The national currency lost more than half of its value and there was a sharp increase in household debts and prices for domestic goods. Very little is known about the potential effects of economic recessions on gambling participation and problem gambling. This study reports on the results of three national prevalence studies conducted before and after the economic collapse in Iceland. The same methodology and measures were used in all three studies to ensure their comparability and the studies included in total N = 8.249 participants. There was an increase in past year gambling participation which extended across most gambling types. Only participation on EGMs declined significantly after the economic collapse. Past year prevalence of problematic gambling increased but further examination revealed that this increase is most probably explained by an increase in card and internet gambling among young men. Moreover, those who experienced financial difficulties due to the economic recession were 52% more likely to have bought a lottery ticket during the recession compared to those who were not affected financially. Overall, the results indicate that serious national economic recessions have differential effects on gambling behavior.

  4. Managing Food Allergies at School: Teachers and Paraeducators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of teachers and paraeducators in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  5. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Mental Health Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  6. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Transportation Staff

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of bus drivers and transportation staff in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  7. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nutrition Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the role of school nutrition professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/13/2015.

  8. Heritability of self-reported asthma and allergy : A study in adult Dutch twins, siblings and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Gonneke; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; van Baal, Caroline G. C. M.; Postma, Dirkje; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of asthma and allergy, and estimated the importance of genetic and environmental influences on asthma and allergy liability and their association. Longitudinal data on self-reported, doctor-diagnosed asthma and allergy were collected in over 14,000 individua

  9. Contact allergy to chlorhexidine in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant in the healthcare setting and in cosmetic products. A high prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy was reported in Denmark in the 1980s (2.0-5.4% of patients patch tested). It is unknown whether the prevalence is still high, which products...... cause the contact allergy, and whether accidental re-exposure occurs in some patients. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark; to investigate whether patch testing with both chlorhexidine diacetate and chlorhexidine digluconate...... is necessary; to investigate how many patients have combined immediate-type allergy and contact allergy; and to identify which products cause chlorhexidine contact allergy, and whether patients are accidentally re-exposed. METHODS: This was a retrospective study including all patients patch tested...

  10. [Importance of epidemiologic surveillance in contact dermatitis: Spanish surveillance system on contact allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavín, J; Armario-Hita, J C; Fernández-Redondo, V; Fernández-Vozmediano, J M; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Silvestre, J F; Uter, W; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of contact dermatitis means that this common medical problem has considerable personal, societal, and economic impact. Clinical and epidemiologic research is needed if we are to shed light on the real situation of contact dermatitis in Spain. In this article we will look at epidemiologic research from a practical point of view and analyze the role of the dermatologist in planning and designing studies. The advantages of multicenter studies are discussed, along with the roles of national and international surveillance networks. We present the Spanish Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, which serves as a bridge between Spanish dermatologists and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies. The present and future aims of the Spanish network are described.

  11. Diagnosis, management, and investigational therapies for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies.

  12. Learning about Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are probably allergic to the allergen. previous continue Taking Control Your doctor will probably suggest ways to stay ... away from the allergen might be enough to control your allergy. If your ... and taking medicines, an allergist might recommend allergy shots. These ...

  13. Ideal cardiovascular health prevalence in the Brazilian population - National Health Survey (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Claro, Rafael; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Primordial prevention is defined as the initial prevention of risk factors, through the adoption of healthier behaviors. Within this concept, the American Heart Association (AHA) has defined seven metrics, based on evidence, to achieve ideal cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population, according to sex, age, and region of residence, using data from the latest National Health Survey (2013). We assessed the risk factors, as recommended by the AHA, combined (number of factors) and individually: four behavioral (smoking, physical activity, body mass index and diet) and three biological factors (blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels). The Brazilian population has reached very low prevalence (1%), for the sum of 7 factors in ideal level. Individually, 3.2% of the population consumed ideal diet, followed by physical activity (23.6%) and body mass index (43.7%). The subjects aged between 18 and 35 years showed higher prevalence of metrics combined at the optimal levels (0.5%), which was also reached by the population of the Northern region. These results indicate that greater efforts are urgent by public policies at the level of primordial prevention in order to achieve appropriate targets of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population.

  14. Latitude, birth date, and allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wjst

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. CONCLUSION: Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors.

  15. [Allergy in cosmetology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, A

    1983-01-01

    The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.

  16. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available Insect consumption (entomophagy is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors.We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years.A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups, and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8% lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0% daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1% consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6% the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year and only 22 (2% had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2% and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%. Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0% and change of life (29; 5.5%. Of 1059, 80 (7.5% reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0% reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  17. Prevalence and clinical impact of sensitization to latex and fruits in dentistry students at the University of Antioquia, and its relationship with allergy to fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echenique Manrique, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical impact of sensitization to latex and to five tropical fruits (banana, avocado, kiwi, pineapple and passion fruit in dentistry students. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study of 128 dentistry students at University of Antioquia in Medellín, Colombia. Information was collected by means of a questionnaire and skin prick tests with latex and fruits were done. Results: All students reported having had contact with latex. Nine of them informed at least one episode of adverse reaction to contact with latex without proof of sensitization to it. Five reported at least one reaction with one of the fruits, but skin prick tests were negative. Four of the 14 students who reported gastrointestinal symptoms were sensitized to latex or to one of the tested fruits. Overall, latex sensitization rate was 3.1%. Conclusion: This percentage of sensitization to latex is lower than that in other studies; this may be due to the expression of immune mechanisms other than IgE mediation. We failed to demonstrate a higher sensitization rate to latex as students advanced in their career. The association between gastrointestinal symptoms and sensitization to both fruit and latex is to be emphasized.

  18. Immunotherapy for food allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinolli, Francesco; Carraro, Silvia; Berardi, Mariangela; Ferraro, Valentina; Baraldi, Eugenio; Zanconato, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem all over the world and especially in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. During childhood natural tolerance development is frequent, but some children with cow's milk or hen's egg allergy and the majority of children with peanut allergy will remain allergic until adulthood, limiting not only the diet of patients but also their quality of life. Within the last several years, the usefulness of immunotherapy for food allergies has been investigated in food allergic patients. Several food immunotherapies are being developed; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. The approach generally follows the same principles as immunotherapy of other allergic disorders and involves administering small increasing doses of food during an induction phase followed by a maintenance phase with regular intake of a maximum tolerated amount of food. Oral immunotherapy seems to be a promising approach for food allergic patients based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation for cow's milk and egg allergic subjects. However, oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. Additional bigger, multicentric and hopefully randomized-controlled studies must answer multiple questions including optimal dose, ideal duration of immunotherapy, degree of protection, efficacy for different ages, severity and type of food allergy responsive to treatment.

  19. Internet addiction prevalence and quality of (real) life: a meta-analysis of 31 nations across seven world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Li, Angel Yee-lam

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1-6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4-16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0-4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators.

  20. Internet Addiction Prevalence and Quality of (Real) Life: A Meta-Analysis of 31 Nations Across Seven World Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angel Yee-lam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1–6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I2=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4–16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0–4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators. PMID:25489876

  1. Prevalence and Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogratius Okoche

    Full Text Available Carbapenemases have increasingly been reported in enterobacteriaceae worldwide. Most carbapenemases are plasmid encoded hence resistance can easily spread. Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae are reported to cause mortality in up to 50% of patients who acquire bloodstream infections. We set out to determine the burden of carbapenem resistance as well as establish genes encoding for carbapenemases in enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates obtained from Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda.This was a cross-sectional study with a total of 196 clinical isolates previously collected from pus swabs, urine, blood, sputum, tracheal aspirates, cervical swabs, endomentrial aspirates, rectal swabs, Vaginal swabs, ear swabs, products of conception, wound biopsy and amniotic fluid. All isolates were subjected to phenotypic carbapenemase screening using Boronic acid-based inhibition, Modified Hodge and EDTA double combined disk test. In addition, all the isolates were subjected to PCR assay to confirm presence of carbapenemase encoding genes.The study found carbapenemase prevalence of 22.4% (44/196 in the isolates using phenotypic tests, with the genotypic prevalence slightly higher at 28.6% (56/196. Over all, the most prevalent gene was blaVIM (21,10.7%, followed by blaOXA-48 (19, 9.7%, blaIMP (12, 6.1%, blaKPC (10, 5.1% and blaNDM-1 (5, 2.6%. Among 56 isolates positive for 67 carbapenemase encoding genes, Klebsiella pneumonia was the species with the highest number (52.2%. Most 32/67(47.7% of these resistance genes were in bacteria isolated from pus swabs.There is a high prevalence of carbapenemases and carbapenem-resistance encoding genes among third generation cephalosporins resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Uganda, indicating a danger of limited treatment options in this setting in the near future.

  2. Prevalence and Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoche, Deogratius; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Katabazi, Fred Ashaba; Kato, Laban; Najjuka, Christine F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Carbapenemases have increasingly been reported in enterobacteriaceae worldwide. Most carbapenemases are plasmid encoded hence resistance can easily spread. Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae are reported to cause mortality in up to 50% of patients who acquire bloodstream infections. We set out to determine the burden of carbapenem resistance as well as establish genes encoding for carbapenemases in enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates obtained from Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a total of 196 clinical isolates previously collected from pus swabs, urine, blood, sputum, tracheal aspirates, cervical swabs, endomentrial aspirates, rectal swabs, Vaginal swabs, ear swabs, products of conception, wound biopsy and amniotic fluid. All isolates were subjected to phenotypic carbapenemase screening using Boronic acid-based inhibition, Modified Hodge and EDTA double combined disk test. In addition, all the isolates were subjected to PCR assay to confirm presence of carbapenemase encoding genes. Results The study found carbapenemase prevalence of 22.4% (44/196) in the isolates using phenotypic tests, with the genotypic prevalence slightly higher at 28.6% (56/196). Over all, the most prevalent gene was blaVIM (21,10.7%), followed by blaOXA-48 (19, 9.7%), blaIMP (12, 6.1%), blaKPC (10, 5.1%) and blaNDM-1 (5, 2.6%). Among 56 isolates positive for 67 carbapenemase encoding genes, Klebsiella pneumonia was the species with the highest number (52.2%). Most 32/67(47.7%) of these resistance genes were in bacteria isolated from pus swabs. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of carbapenemases and carbapenem-resistance encoding genes among third generation cephalosporins resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Uganda, indicating a danger of limited treatment options in this setting in the near future. PMID:26284519

  3. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thai adults: a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khonputsa Panrasri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD who need dialysis and/or transplantation has more than doubled in Thailand during the past two decades. It has been suggested that therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of ESRD and other complications in CKD are now available, thus the early recognition and the institution of proven therapeutic strategies are important and beneficial. We, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD in Thai adults from the National Health Examination Survey of 2004. Methods Data from a nationally representative sample of 3,117 individuals aged 15 years and older was collected using questionnaires, physical examination and blood samples. Serum creatinine was measured by Jaffé method. GFR was estimated using the Chinese modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Chronic kidney Disease (CKD stages were classified based on Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI. Results The prevalence of CKD in Thai adults weighted to the 2004 Thai population by stage was 8.1% for stage 3, 0.2% and 0.15% for stage 4 and 5 respectively. Compared to non-CKD, individuals with CKD were older, had a higher level of cholesterol, and higher blood pressure. Those with cardiovascular risk factors were more likely to have CKD (stage 3-5 than those without, including hypertension (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1, 3.4, diabetes (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.0, 3.4. CKD was more common in northeast (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.3, 3.3 compared to central region. Urinalysis was not performed, therefore, we could not have data on CKD stage 1 and 2. We have no specific GFR formula for Thai population. Conclusion The identification of CKD patients should be evaluated and monitored for appropriate intervention for progression to kidney disease from this screening.

  4. Update on Early Nutrition and Food Allergy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-05-01

    With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy.

  5. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  6. Occupational and food allergy: focus on allergen extracts

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, Nicolette

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is, first, the diagnostic work-up of occupational and food allergies in the absence of well-validated commercially available standardised extracts for Skin Prick Test. Second, to investigate cross-reactivity in occupational and food allergic patients. Third, the treatment of, employees with an occupational allergy in order to enable the continuation of work. The number of work-related symptoms among greenhouse workers is increasing and the prevalence of food...

  7. A National Study on Nurses' Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alameddine

    Full Text Available Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses' exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon.A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1-3, 4-9 and 10+ times and physical violence (never, ever over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively.Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses' exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58-65% and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8-13%. Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76-23.32, depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3-15 and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8-8.3. They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5-6.3. Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1-4.3, working day and

  8. Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Food Allergy in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuko Mukoyama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing and a variety of problems have emerged regarding what should be considered a food allergy. A treatment regimen consists of avoiding the offending food (elimination diet therapy and receiving nourishment from alternative foods (substitutional diet therapy. There is a growing concern that confusion has resulted from the lack of a consensus on the procedures for diagnosing and treating food allergies. The Food Allergy Committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology established the “Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Food Allergy.” Definition, classification, pathophysiology, clinical disorders and management of food allergy are discussed and determined.

  9. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as “high” compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies. In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  10. Ocular allergy and keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.

  11. Food allergies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  12. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  13. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  14. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  15. Seasonal Allergies in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrists, and ankles also may indicate an allergy. Eczema When it comes to rashes, the most common ... seen with the naked eye Furry animals: cats, dogs, guinea pigs, gerbils, rabbits, and other pets Clothing ...

  16. Coping with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accurately predicted from the severity of past ones. Fast Facts About one in 20 children and one in every 25 adults in the United States has a food allergy. In the United States, the most common ...

  17. Prevalence of Newborn Intensive Care Unit-Acquired, Healthcare-Associated Blood-Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients: Results From The First National Point-Prevalence Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: This national multicenter study documented the high prevalence of NICU-acquired infections. Preventing these infections should be national priority. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 119-128

  18. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  19. History of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  20. Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Nikolaos G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations (EFA is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD patients’ organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels. Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into

  1. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  2. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in wild mammals in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Samra, Nada; Jori, Ferran; Samie, Amidou; Thompson, Peter

    2011-01-10

    This study determined the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in faecal samples from elephant (Loxodonta africana), buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and an adjacent game reserve in South Africa. Two of the study areas were in close proximity to rural communities on the western KNP boundary and the third study area was located in the centre of the KNP. Fresh stool samples (n=445) were collected and tested using an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA) for Cryptosporidium parvum. A total of 278 of these were randomly selected (approximately 90 samples per wildlife species) and tested with the modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique (ZN) for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was highest in elephants (25.8% [95% confidence interval: 17.3, 35.9]), compared to buffalo (5.5% [1.8, 12.4]) and impala (4.3% [1.2, 10.5]). C. parvum showed similar patterns, being most prevalent in elephants (4.2% [1.5, 8.8]), compared to buffalo (1.4% [0.2, 5.1]) and impala (1.9% [0.4, 5.3]). 29 samples, including ZN positive and IFA positive samples, were retested using a real time PCR (rtPCR) technique. Of the 28 ZN-positive samples, 14 (50%) were positive with rtPCR and of the 9 IFA-positive samples 6 (67%) were confirmed positive by rtPCR. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was significantly higher in both of the two study areas adjacent to the western KNP boundary compared to the area in the centre of the KNP (OR=3.2 [1.2, 9.0]; P=0.024). Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in South Africa. The transmission of this parasite between wildlife, domestic animals and humans is a plausible hypothesis and represents a potential risk for immunodeficient human populations.

  3. Soy protein allergy: incidence and relative severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, Christopher T

    2004-05-01

    Food allergy is a relatively rare and sometimes violent reaction of the immune system to food proteins. The first report characterizing soy allergy appeared in 1934. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations includes soy in its list of the 8 most significant food allergens. At least 16 potential soy protein allergens have been identified but their relative clinical significance is unknown. Conversely, soy has a long history of successful use in managing cow's milk allergies in infants. To better predict the utility of soy proteins for controlling food allergy, it is important to understand the relative allergenic reactivity of soy compared with other major food proteins. This can be studied using clinical data, animal models, and biochemical approaches; all show diminished reactivity for soy. Clinical studies using in vitro methods and blinded food challenges have generated substantial information. Study populations include high-risk asymptomatic infants and patients with atopic symptoms, positive food challenges, and specific milk allergies. Generally, these studies show lower allergic reactivity for soy proteins vs. other food allergens. Comparisons of food allergen dose-response relationships for triggering allergic symptoms also demonstrate a higher protein concentration threshold for soy (approximately 100 times), indicating lower allergenic reactivity. Extensive investigations of soy immunological reactivity have also been carried out using animal models. Consistent with clinical results, all of these data show substantially diminished immunological reactivity for soy proteins. Biochemical and immunochemical analyses indicate no striking differences between soy and other food proteins that would explain these unexpected differences in allergenic reactivity.

  4. The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemariam Solomon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO. Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90. In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43 and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12 of attending service for depressive

  5. Prevalência de sintomas de asma, rinite e eczema atópico entre crianças e adolescentes brasileiros identificados pelo International Study of Asthma and Allergies (ISAAC: fase 3 Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema among Brazilian children and adolescents identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC: phase 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Solé

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de sintomas relacionados à asma, rinite e eczema atópico em escolares (EC entre 6 e 7 anos e adolescentes (AD entre 13 e 14 anos, residentes em 20 cidades brasileiras, empregando o questionário escrito padronizado do ISAAC, e avaliar a sua associação com a latitude, altitude e temperatura média anual dos centros de residência. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo EC e AD das cinco regiões do Brasil, totalizando 23.422 questionários ISAAC respondidos pelos pais de EC e 58.144 pelos próprios AD. Os índices de latitude, altitude e temperatura média anual foram obtidos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. RESULTADOS: As prevalências médias para os EC e AD, respectivamente, foram: asma ativa, 24,3 e 19,0%; rinoconjuntivite, 12,6 e 14,6%; e eczema flexural, 8,2 e 5,0%. Associação significante e negativa foi observada entre latitude e prevalência de asma diagnosticada por médico para os EC, asma grave, asma diagnosticada por médico, eczema e eczema flexural para os AD. Não houve associação com a altitude dos centros. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de asma, rinite e eczema atópico no Brasil foi variável. Valores mais altos, sobretudo de asma e eczema, foram observados nos centros localizados mais próximos ao Equador.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema among schoolchildren aged 6 to 7 years and adolescents aged 13 to 14 years in 20 Brazilian cities by using the standardized ISAAC written questionnaire, and to assess the association of this prevalence with latitude, altitude and average annual temperature of collaborating centers. METHODS: Schoolchildren and adolescents from five Brazilian regions participated in the study, totaling 23,422 ISAAC questionnaires answered by schoolchildren's parents and 58,144 questionnaires answered by adolescents. The values for latitude, altitude and average annual temperature were obtained from the

  6. [New food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  7. Characterization of food allergies in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jaryoung; Kim, Jungyun; Cho, Sunheui; Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Sang Sun

    2013-04-01

    We examined the characteristics of food allergy prevalence and suggested the basis of dietary guidelines for patients with food allergies and atopic dermatitis. A total of 2,417 patients were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent a skin prick test as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurement. A double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge was conducted using milk, eggs, wheat, and soybeans, and an oral food challenge was performed using beef, pork, and chicken. Food allergy prevalence was found among 50.7% in patients with atopic dermatitis. Among patients with food allergies (n = 1,225), the prevalence of non-IgE-mediated food allergies, IgE-mediated food allergies, and mixed allergies was discovered in 94.9%, 2.2%, and 2.9% of the patients, respectively. Food allergy prevalence, according to food item, was as follows: eggs = 21.6%, milk = 20.9%, wheat = 11.8%, soybeans = 11.7%, chicken = 11.7%, pork = 8.9% and beef = 9.2%. The total number of reactions to different food items in each patient was also variable at 45.1%, 30.6%, 15.3%, 5.8%, 2.2%, and 1.0% for 1 to 6 reactions, respectively. The most commonly seen combination in patients with two food allergies was eggs and milk. The clinical severity of the reactions observed in the challenge test, in the order of most to least severe, were wheat, beef, soybeans, milk, pork, eggs, and chicken. The minimum and maximum onset times of food allergy reactions were 0.2-24 hrs for wheat, 0.5-48 hrs for beef, 1.0-24 hrs for soybeans, 0.7-24 hrs for milk, 3.0-24 hrs for pork, 0.01-72 hrs for eggs, and 3.0-72 hrs for chicken. In our study, we examined the characteristics of seven popular foods. It will be necessary, however, to study a broader range of foods for the establishment of a dietary guideline. Our results suggest that it may be helpful to identify food allergies in order to improve symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  8. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....

  9. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  10. Prevalence and Social Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment in Chinese Children—A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairment may affect children’s communication skills, social development, and educational achievement. Little is known about the prevalence of hearing impairment among Chinese children. Data were taken from the 2006 second China National Survey on Disability (CNSD. Hearing impairment was defined as moderate (41–60 dB HL, severe (61–80 dB HL, profound (81–90 dB HL, or complete (>91 dB HL. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. A weighted number of 567,915 hearing impairment children were identified, yielding a prevalence of 17.49 per 10,000 people (95% CI: 16.90–18.08, with prevention or treatment options possible for 64.6% of hearing impairment children. The main causes of hearing impairment were hereditary, tympanitis, and drug intoxication. Illiteracy in one or both parents (mother: OR = 1.388, 95% CI: 1.125–1.714, p < 0.0001; father: OR = 1.537, 95% CI: 1.152–2.049, p < 0.0001 relative to no school or primary school, annual family income lower than national average (OR = 1.323, 95% CI: 1.044–1.675, p = 0.0203, relative to higher than national average, household size larger than three people (OR = 1.432, 95% CI: 1.164–1.762, p = 0.0007, relative to smaller than three people and single-mother family (OR = 2.056, 95% CI: 1.390–3.042, p = 0.0176, relative to intact family were the independence risk factors for hearing impairment among Chinese children. Lower annual family income, male children, larger household size, single-mother family, and lower levels of maternal and paternal education were independent risk factors for hearing impairment for Chinese children. Further studies on hearing impairment prevention and the relationship between parental social factors and the risk of hearing impairment are needed.

  11. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : A patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for food-

  12. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : a patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. AIMS: To investigate the health service cost for food-

  13. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cases...

  14. Food allergy in gastroenterologic diseases: Review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasquale Mansueto; Giuseppe Montalto; Maria Luisa Pacor; Maria Esposito-Pellitteri; Vito Ditta; Claudia Lo Bianco; Stefania Maria Leto-Barone; Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Food allergy is a common and increasing problem worldwide. The newly-found knowledge might provide novel experimental strategies, especially for laboratory diagnosis. Approximately 20% of the population alters their diet for a perceived adverse reaction to food, but the application of double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, the "gold standard" for diagnosis of food allergy, shows that questionnaire-based studies overestimate the prevalence of food allergies. The clinical disorders determined by adverse reactions to food can be classified on the basis of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms and the organ system or systems affected. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on clinical history, skin prick tests, and laboratory tests to detect serum-food specific IgE, elimination diets and challenges. The primary therapy for food allergy is to avoid the responsible food. Antihistamines might partially relieve oral allergy syndrome and IgE-mediated skin symptoms,but they do not block systemic reactions. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in treating chronic IgE-mediated disorders. Epinephrine is the mainstay of treatment for anaphylaxis. Experimental therapies for IgE-mecliated food allergy have been evaluated, such as humanized IgG anti-IgE antibodies and allergen specific immunotherapy.

  15. Food allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother’s milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of nonselective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/ or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible. The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient’s complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children “outgrow” their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  16. Food allergy: Diagnosis, management & emerging therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Glick Robison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgE-mediated food allergy is an important health concern with increasing prevalence worldwide. Manifestations of IgE-mediated food allergy include urticaria, angioedema, pruritus, difficulty in breathing, laryngeal oedema, vomiting, diarrhoea and/or hypotension within minutes to two hours of the offending food′s ingestion. Diagnosis requires both a careful history and supportive testing with laboratory studies and possibly oral food challenges. Current treatment of food allergy focuses on avoidance of the allergen and prompt emergency management of reactions. Epinephrine autoinjectors are provided to patients for the treatment of severe reactions. More research is needed to determine the optimal timing with which to introduce common allergens into a child′s diet to possibly prevent the development of food allergy. Novel therapies are under investigation given the difficulty of allergen avoidance and the potentially fatal nature of reactions. Both allergen specific therapies such as oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy and allergen non-specific therapies such the Chinese herbal formula FAHF-2 and omalizumab show promise though more data on efficacy and long-term safety are needed before these therapies become mainstream.

  17. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  18. Food allergy and probiotics in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Leonardi, Salvatore; Maiello, Nunzia; Brunese, Francesco Paolo

    2010-09-01

    Food allergy is a frequent problem in childhood and its prevalence is increasing. In most cases food allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that cause skin reactions as urticaria. Subacute or chronic disorders have generally a not IgE mediated mechanism. Milk is the most common food allergen in USA and UK followed by egg, peanut and walnuts. Sensitization to milk or egg in infancy is associated with an increased risk to develop house dust mite sensitization and asthma later in childhood. Commensal gut flora play a role in induction of oral tolerance and the importance of the intestinal microbiota in the development of food allergy is essential in early ages, when the mucosal barrier and immune system are still immature. Probiotics interact with the mucosal immune system by the same pathways as commensal bacteria. Recent study show that probiotic bacteria induced in vivo increased plasma levels IL-10 and total IgA in children with allergic predisposition. Many clinical studies reporting significant benefits by probiotics supplementation in food allergy prevention and management but not everyone agree on their effectiveness. These differences are probably related to differences in selected populations and in probiotic strains used.

  19. Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy History?

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    David Basketter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.

  20. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20 yr and over were included. Mean (SE levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03, 46.9 (0.34, 128.7 (1.09, and 131.4 (2.20 mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp. but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.. Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C.

  1. Chemical pollution, respiratory allergy and asthma: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gareth S; Cadogan, David; Flueckiger, Andreas; Hennes, Christa; Kimber, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) convened a workshop in June 2005 to address the speculation that exposure to specific chemicals, and/or chemical pollutants in general, may play an important role in the increased prevalence of allergy and asthma in 'westernized' societies. This paper summarises one perspective arrived at during this workshop. It was acknowledged that certain chemicals and certain types of pollution might trigger or exacerbate asthmatic reactions in sensitised subjects. However, overall levels of pollution appear not to have had a major impact upon the prevalence of atopic allergy. Epidemiological studies suggest that pollution may in some circumstances protect from acquisition of sensitisation. Increasing exposure to household chemicals may enhance pre-existing allergies, but evidence for their causation of allergy is lacking. Other risk factors considered included societal dietary changes and exposure to endotoxins. Future research needs were identified which included epidemiological studies employing exposure and biomonitoring data, studies on domestic exposure to chemicals and their association with the incidence of allergy and asthma, and prospective birth cohort studies employing well-defined aspects of lifestyle, diet, chemical and endotoxin exposure as factors that may drive susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  2. Guidelines for Managing Life-Threatening Food Allergies in Massachusetts Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheetz, Anne H.; Goldman, Patricia G.; Millett, Kathleen; Franks, Jane C.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Carroll, Constance R.; Gorak, Diane; Harrison, Christanne Smith; Carrick, Michele Abu

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, prevalence of food allergies among children increased. Caring for children with life-threatening food allergies has become a major challenge for school personnel Prior to 2002, Massachusetts did not provide clear guidelines to assist schools in providing a safe environment for these children and preparing for an emergency…

  3. Probiotics and Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

    The atopic diseases include atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma. The prevalence of atopic diseases has been on the rise for several decades, particularly in high-income industrialized nations (ISAAC, 1998; Sibbald et al., 1990). As potential explanations for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases the so-called hygiene hypothesis has been suggested. The hypothesis suggests that the continuously increased hygiene in the environment and the food supply results to reduced exposure to a variety of microbes and consequently to a less diverse intestinal microbiota from early life onwards and/or to changes in the gut microbiota from early life. Such changes reflect the exposure to microbes in industrially processed foods and the improved hygiene of the living environment of the mother and infant.

  4. Environmental pollution and allergy: historical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Alessandrini, Francesca; Buters, Jeroen; Krämer, Ursula; Koren, Hillel; Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their related risk factors in Libya: a national seroepidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzouki, A-N; Smeo, M-N; Sammud, M; Elahmer, O; Daw, M; Furarah, A; Abudher, A; Mohamed, M K

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections has been reported among specific patient groups in Libya; a survey was thus designed to determine the extent of the problem at the national level. A multi-stage sampling design covering all administrative areas of Libya was applied, covering > 65,000 individuals of all age groups. All subjects gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire on demographic and risk behaviour data. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV were 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age, rising gradually after age 30 years, in contrast to a stable prevalence of HBsAg in all age groups 10+ years. Age-adjusted risk factors for HCV infection were previous hospitalization, surgical operations, previous blood transfusions and intravenous drug use; for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified.

  6. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... and run the air conditioner. back to top Allergy Medicines For most children, symptoms may be controlled ...

  7. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  8. The psychosocial impact of life-threatening childhood food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome-Stone, S Brantlee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this integrated literature review was to bring understanding to medical professionals of the psychosocial impact of parenting a child with life-threatening food allergies. Prevalence of life-threatening food allergy among children is increasing, and families continue to navigate the effects it can have on all members of a family. A comprehensive literature review was performed related to chronic childhood illnesses and life-threatening food allergies. Commonalities among the conditions exist related to stress, coping, and adaptive responses when parental perceptions and experiences are considered. This information may provide a conceptual context for the adaptation process involved with parenting a young child with life-threatening food allergies, revealing areas where nursing can serve to intervene and support this process.

  9. Immunotherapy for food allergies: a myth or a reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Andrea D; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a worldwide issue, with an estimated prevalence of 2-10%. An effective treatment is not available for people affected and the only management is the avoidance of the allergen. Oral immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy have been tested by several authors, in particular for milk, egg and peanuts allergy, with significant results in term of desensitization induction. The achievement of tolerance is by the contrary doubtful, with different results obtained. In this review, we reviewed protocols of oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy published in literature, mainly against milk, egg and peanut. At present, immunotherapy does not represent the gold standard in the treatment of food allergy, even if it can desensitize patients.

  10. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy.

  11. Immunological and genetic aspects of asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Madore

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics

  12. Allergy and orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  13. Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Adults, China National Nutrition and Health Survey, 2002

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    Shuqian Liu, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAs a result of rapid economic development in China, the lifestyles and dietary habits of its people have been changing, and the rates of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic conditions have increased substantially. We report the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG and the association between diabetes and overweight and obesity in Chinese adults. We also compare the results with those from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.MethodsData were from adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the China National Nutrition and Health Survey, 2002 (n = 47,729. Diabetes and IFG were defined by the American Diabetes Association 2009 criteria. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes, IFG, and overweight and obesity by sex, age, region of residence, and ethnicity. ResultsThe prevalence of diabetes and IFG in Chinese adults was 2.7% and 4.9%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes increased with age and body mass index. Men and women had a similar prevalence of diabetes, but men had a significantly higher prevalence of IFG. The prevalence of diabetes among Chinese who lived in urban areas was 2 to 3 times higher than the prevalence among those who lived in rural areas (3.9% for urban areas and 6.1% for large cities vs 1.9% for rural areas, and the prevalence of IFG was 1.5 to 2 times higher (6.1% and 8.1% vs 4.2%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes among Chinese women and young (20-39 y and middle-aged (40-59 y adults who lived in large cities was similar to the prevalence of diabetes in the US population.ConclusionThe prevalence of diabetes and IFG was much higher in urban than rural areas, particularly in the large cities of China. Prevention must be emphasized among adults to reduce the future social and economic burden of diabetes in China.

  14. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  15. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from a data...

  16. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Harassment and Discrimination in the Workplace: Results from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally representative random digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003-2004 (n = 2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace…

  17. Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions.

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    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public

  18. Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program

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    Condon John R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.

  19. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed......% and allergy against inhalants in 50 to 80%. The basic treatment of CMPA is avoidance of CMP. In early childhood a milk substitute is needed. Documented extensively hydrolysed formulas are recommended, whereas partially hydrolysed formulas should not be used because of a high degree of antigenicity...... and allergenicity associated with adverse reactions. In case of intolerance to extensively hydrolysed formulas and multiple food allergies a formula based on aminoacids is recommended. Alternative milk substitutes such as sheep's and goat's milk should not be used because of a high degree of cross reactivity...

  20. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2016-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort.

  1. Systematic review of pathways for the delivery of allergy services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Carole; Lilford, Richard; Roberts, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and prevalence of allergies worldwide has been increasing and allergy services globally are unable to keep up with this increase in demand. This systematic review aims to understand the delivery of allergy services worldwide, challenges faced and future directions for service delivery. Methods A systematic scoping review of Ovid, EMBASE, HMIC, CINAHL, Cochrane, DARE, NHS EED and INAHTA databases was carried out using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data on the geographical region, study design and treatment pathways described were collected, and the findings were narratively reported. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results 205 publications were screened and 27 selected for review. Only 3 were prospective studies, and none included a control group. There were no eligible publications identified from North America, Africa, Australia and most parts of Asia. Most publications relate to allergy services in the UK. In general, allergy services globally appear not to have kept pace with increasing demand. The review suggests that primary care practitioners are not being adequately trained in allergy and that there is a paucity of appropriately trained specialists, especially in paediatric allergy. There appear to be considerable barriers to service improvement, including lack of political will and reluctance to allocate funds from local budgets. Conclusions Demand for allergy services appears to have significantly outpaced supply. Primary and secondary care pathways in allergy seem inadequate leading to poor referral practices, delays in patient management and consequently poor outcomes. Improvement of services requires strong public and political engagement. There is a need for well-planned, prospective studies in this area and a few are currently underway. There is no evidence to suggest that any given pathway of service provision is better than

  2. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...... on the role of polarized T-lymphocyte responses in the development of allergic contact dermatitis and occupational asthma in humans. The implications for understanding of chemical allergy in humans are explored in this Commentary....

  3. Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program

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    Sang Youl Rhee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP cohort study is performing an ongoing large-scale prospective multicenter investigation to discover the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in Korean patients. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes among those registered in the KNDP cohort within the past 4 years.MethodsThis study was performed between June 2006 and September 2009 at 13 university hospitals and included 4,265 KNDP cohort participants. Among the participants, the crude prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular diseases of those checked for diabetes-related complications was determined, and the adjusted standard prevalence and standardization of the general population prevalence ratio (SPR was estimated based on the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES population demographics.ResultsAmong the KNDP registrants, 43.2% had hypertension, 34.8% had dyslipidemia, 10.8% had macrovascular disease, and 16.7% had microvascular disease. The SPR of the KNDP registrants was significantly higher than that of the KNHANES subjects after adjusting for demographics in the KNHANES 2005 population. However, with the exception of cardiovascular disease in females, the standardized prevalence for the most complicated items in the survey was significantly higher than that in the KNHANES subjects.ConclusionThe prevalence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease were significantly higher in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes than in the normal population. However, no significant difference was noted in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in females.

  4. A National Baseline Prevalence Survey of Schistosomiasis in the Philippines Using Stratified Two-Step Systematic Cluster Sampling Design

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    Lydia Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion.

  5. Relative Risk of Peanut Allergy across the Globe; Where Toxicology Meets Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Gibb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In December 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO published the first ever report on the estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases, which included diseases related to chemical exposures in foods such as peanut allergy. In the report, the burden of disease related to peanut allergies was measured for the European, American and West Pacific Regions. The report showed that unlike other food-related chemical exposures, peanut allergies are far more common in the European and American Regions than in the West Pacific Region. In this commentary we tried to inform physicians and public health workers, and to raise awareness about peanut allergies to facilitate future discussions. Although the WHO report on the estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases indicates a possible geographical difference in global peanut allergy prevalence, further studies need to compare the relative risk of peanut allergies among individuals of different racial backgrounds in one defined population.

  6. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.

  7. Food Allergy: Review, Classification and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cianferoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies, defined as an immune response to food proteins, affect as many as 8% of young children and 2% of adults in westernized countries, and their prevalence appears to be rising like all allergic diseases. In addition to well-recognized urticaria and anaphylaxis triggered by IgE antibody-mediated immune responses, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis. New knowledge is being developed on the pathogenesis of both IgE and non-IgE mediated disease. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and initiating therapy if ingestion occurs. However, novel strategies are being studied, including sublingual/oral immunotherapy and others with a hope for future.

  8. The association between regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer: Results from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Erickson, Steven R; Hansen, Richard A; Wu, Chung-Hsuen

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is prevalent with significant morbidity in the United States. Aspirin previously has been found to be associated with reduced carcinogenesis of prostate cells. However, it remains unclear whether regularly taking aspirin could lower the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between self-reported regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer in a national sample of the US adult population.The National Health Interview Survey is an annual survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics to investigate health and healthcare use of the US population. The current study is a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Adult male respondents who self-reported regularly taking aspirin at least 3 times per week were grouped as regular users. The prostate cancer prevalence was measured by respondents' self-report of prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between these 2 factors by adjusting for covariates selected based on Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use.An estimated 23 million (23.7%) males in the United States reported that they took aspirin regularly. Of them, 5.0% had prostate cancer. Regular aspirin use was significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.94).Regular aspirin use was found to be significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer in the United States in 2010. Further clinical trials and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between regular aspirin use and prostate cancer.

  9. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema as well as nickel contact allergy is prevalent among hairdressers. Recently, two female hairdressers were diagnosed with nickel contact allergy-related hand eczema following prolonged skin contact with scissors and crochet hooks used during work. OBJECTIVES: To determine...... the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  10. Allergy and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This review of the major milestones in the history of ocular allergy and immunology shows how significantly this subdiscipline has contributed to the tremendous progress in the understanding of mechanisms of allergic and immunologic diseases, as well as in their better management. It also indicates unmet needs and priority areas for future research.

  11. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  12. Kiwifruit allergy across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T. M.; Knulst, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value. Commercial plantings of kiwifruit started a few decades ago and in the last 30 years, it has become a widely consumed fruit. Nowadays, it is one of the most common causes of food allergy. Symptoms vary between mild symptoms in the oral cavity to sever

  13. The prevalence of obesity in children with autism: a secondary data analysis using nationally representative data from the National Survey of Children's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Must Aviva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the last two decades and numerous efforts to understand, intervene on, and prevent this significant threat to children's health are underway for many segments of the pediatric population. Understanding the prevalence of obesity in populations of children with developmental disorders is an important undertaking, as the factors that give rise to obesity may not be the same as for typically developing children, and because prevention and treatment efforts may need to be tailored to meet their needs and the needs of their families. The goal of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents with autism. Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional nationally representative data collected by telephone interview of parents/guardians on 85,272 children ages 3-17 from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH. Autism was determined by response to the question, "Has a doctor or health professional ever told you that your child has autism?" Children and adolescents were classified as obese accordingto CDC guidelines for body mass index (BMI for age and sex. Results The prevalence of obesity in children with autism was 30.4% compared to 23.6% of children without autism (p = .075. The unadjusted odds of obesity in children with autism was 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.00, 2.02, p = .052 compared to children without autism. Conclusions Based on US nationally representative data, children with autism have a prevalence of obesity at least as high as children overall. These findings suggest that additional research is warranted to understand better the factors that influence the development of obesity in this population of children.

  14. Role of food allergy in childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dianne E

    2012-12-01

    The interplay between atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy is complex and subject to significant misconceptions both by the general public and the medical community. Childhood AD is a very prevalent disorder. In its moderate and severe forms, AD is a challenging disorder to manage from the perspective of the child, parent and treating doctor. As AD is one of the disease manifestations of atopy, it is unsurprising that many children with AD also have a coexisting IgE-mediated food allergy. It is a common misconception that food allergy is causal in the setting of AD. However, in a proportion of sufferers, food allergy does play a role in triggering or exacerbating pre-existing AD by immune-mediated mechanisms and potentially by non-immune mechanisms. It is, therefore, important to differentiate causality, co-existent disease and disease modifiers in this context. This paper seeks to clarify the role of food allergy in childhood AD, and to outline a rational framework for the diagnosis and approach to food allergy in the context of the management of a child with problematic AD.

  15. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy.

  16. Latex allergy in Bozyaka Social Security Hospital workers, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kose Sukran; MandIraclo(g)glu Aliye

    2004-01-01

    @@ Latex glove used in healthcare settings has risen dramatically since around 1987. The increased threat of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, and other infectious agents during the course of delivering health care to patients has created the need for barrier protection. 1 Studies have estimated that the prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers ranged from 2.9% up to 17%.2

  17. The High Impact of Penicillin Allergy Registration in Hospitalized Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Savannah M.; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Wassenberg, Marjan W M; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; de Groot, Mark C H; Rockmann, Heike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suspected penicillin allergy (Pen-A) is often not verified or excluded by diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and impact of Pen-A registration in a Dutch University Medical Center. METHODS: In a prospective matched cohort study, all admitted patients (July 2013-July 2

  18. The High Impact of Penicillin Allergy Registration in Hospitalized Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Savannah M.; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Wassenberg, Marjan W M; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; de Groot, Mark C H; Rockmann, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Background Suspected penicillin allergy (Pen-A) is often not verified or excluded by diagnostic testing. Objective To assess the prevalence and impact of Pen-A registration in a Dutch University Medical Center. Methods In a prospective matched cohort study, all admitted patients (July 2013-July 2014

  19. Reducing the incidence of allergy and intolerance to cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, allergies and certain food intolerances have shown a worldwide gradual increase in prevalence, concomitantly with economic growth, urbanization, and changes in lifestyle and dietary patterns. They are triggered in humans with an unbalanced immune system and intestinal micro-fl

  20. Immunomodulation by Food: Allergy Mitigation by Dietary Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Proper and well-balanced immune functioning is of pivotal importance to health and well-being. In the past decades, there has been an apparent decrease in the prevalence of classical infectious diseases, with a concomitant increase in immune-related disorders, including allergies. Causally, a relati

  1. The association between metal allergy, total hip arthroplasty, and revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Engkilde, Kåre;

    2009-01-01

    in general with THA. Furthermore, we compared the prevalence of metal allergy in dermatitis patients with and without THA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry (DHAR) contained detailed information on 90,697 operations. The Gentofte patch-test database contained test results...

  2. Incorporating a gender dimension in food allergy research : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Frewer, L.; Knibb, R. C.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Klinge, I.

    2006-01-01

    Sex and gender are the major determinants of health and disease in both men and women. The aim of this review paper was to examine differences in gender and sex in relation to the prevalence and effects of food allergy. There are still major gaps in our knowledge about the kinds of processes which s

  3. The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey: prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity among the Malaysian elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, S; Kee, C C; Jamaludin, A R; Noor Safiza, M N; Khor, G L; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ahmad Ali, Z; Rahmah, R; Ruzita, A T; Ahmad Fauzi, Y

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is an emerging public health threat in the elderly population in developing countries. Hence, the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey has assessed 4746 individuals aged 60 years and older recruited through a household survey to determine the prevalence of adiposity using body mass index and waist circumference. The national's prevalence of overweight and obesity in men was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.2-31.3) and 7.4% (95% CI = 6.4-8.6), respectively. However, the prevalence decreased with age. The figures in women were 30.3% (95% CI = 28.5-32.1) and 13.8% (95% CI = 12.5-15.2), respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 21.4% (95%CI = 20.2-22.6), with 7.7% (95% CI = 6.7-9.0) in men and 33.4% (95% CI = 31.4-35.3) in women. Predictors of adiposity include the following: Malay and Indian ethnicity, higher education level, higher household income, from urban area, and being married. In conclusion, adiposity affects about one third of the Malaysian elderly population, especially those of the younger age group, women, and those with higher socioeconomic status.

  4. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and related factors for infants and young children in southwest of China%西南地区家长自述婴幼儿食物过敏及其相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 芮溧; 孙晓红; 黄璐娇; 庞学红; 曾果

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究西南地区家长自述婴幼儿食物过敏现状及相关因素. [方法]采用分层整群随机抽样的方法抽取云贵川三省城乡6~24月龄婴幼儿3 344名作为对象,通过对婴幼儿看护人进行问卷调查收集婴幼儿食物过敏、致敏食物、婴幼儿及其家庭基本信息,初步探讨家长自述婴幼儿食物过敏流行趋势及特征,应用Logistic回归方法分析其相关因素. [结果]家长自述婴幼儿食物过敏发生率为9.54%,城市(13.62%)高于农村(5.69%),差异有统计学意义(x2 =61.51,P<0.05);性别及月龄组间无显著差异.主要致敏食物为鱼虾类(城市34.65%,农村30.63%)和蛋类(城市29.53%,农村27.03%),第3位致敏食物城乡有差异,城市是水果类(9.45%),农村是奶类(18.02%).剖宫产儿食物过敏风险高于自然分娩儿(OR=1.53,P<0.05)、4个月内非纯母乳喂养儿食物过敏风险高于纯母乳喂养儿(OR=2.17,P<0.05)、断乳月龄早于4个月儿食物过敏风险高于4月龄后断乳儿(OR=1.55,P<0.05). [结论]西南地区家长自述婴幼儿食物过敏发生率较高,值得进一步关注.自然分娩和母乳喂养可能有助于预防婴幼儿食物过敏.%[Objective] To investigate the prevalence and related factors of self-reported food allergy for infants and young children in southwest China.[Methods] A cross-sectional study on food allergy was carried out among 3 344 infants and young children aged 6~24 months who were selected from urban and rural of Yunnan,Guizhou and Sichuan provinces by stratified random cluster method.Data on morbidity of self-reported allergy,food allergens and basic informations about both child and their family were collected from a questionnaire through interviewing infants' caregivers.The related factors on food allergy were analyzed by Logistic regression models.[Results] The morbidity of self-reported food allergy in infants and young children was 9.54%,the difference

  5. National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Milanak, Melissa E; Miller, Mark W; Keyes, Katherine M; Friedman, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) defined according to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5; 2013) and fourth edition (DSM-IV; 1994) was compared in a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,953) recruited from an online panel. Exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and functional impairment were assessed online using a highly structured, self-administered survey. Traumatic event exposure using DSM-5 criteria was high (89.7%), and exposure to multiple traumatic event types was the norm. PTSD caseness was determined using Same Event (i.e., all symptom criteria met to the same event type) and Composite Event (i.e., symptom criteria met to a combination of event types) definitions. Lifetime, past-12-month, and past 6-month PTSD prevalence using the Same Event definition for DSM-5 was 8.3%, 4.7%, and 3.8% respectively. All 6 DSM-5 prevalence estimates were slightly lower than their DSM-IV counterparts, although only 2 of these differences were statistically significant. DSM-5 PTSD prevalence was higher among women than among men, and prevalence increased with greater traumatic event exposure. Major reasons individuals met DSM-IV criteria, but not DSM-5 criteria were the exclusion of nonaccidental, nonviolent deaths from Criterion A, and the new requirement of at least 1 active avoidance symptom.

  6. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fundagul Bilgic; Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor; Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health ...

  7. Prevalence and predictors of grandparent childcare in Ireland: Findings from a nationally representative sample of infants and their families

    OpenAIRE

    SHARE, MICHELLE; MCNALLY, SINEAD; Murray, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Introduction: Anecdotal evidence suggests that grandparents provide a substantial amount of childcare support to parents of infants in Ireland yet there has been little attention to the provision of grandparent childcare at policy-level. Using nationally representative data on childcare provision in the Republic of Ireland, this study examined the prevalence of grandparent childcare provision for very young children, and associations between this choice of childcare and key infan...

  8. Sesame seed allergy: Clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollahi MR.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-origin foods are among the most important sources of food allergic reactions. An increase in the incidence of sesame seed allergy among children and adults has been reported in recent years. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence, importance and clinical manifestations of sesame allergy among Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 250 patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergies completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with sesame extract as well as cross-reacting foods (walnut, soya and peanut. Total IgE and sesame-specific IgE levels were measured. Patients with positive skin test reactions and/or IgE specific for sesame without clinical symptoms were considered sensitive to sesame. The patients who also had clinical symptoms with sesame consumption were diagnosed as allergic to sesame.Results: Of the 250 patients enrolled in this study, 129 were male and 121 female, with a mean age of 11.7 years. The most common food allergens were cow's milk, egg, curry, tomato and sesame. Sesame sensitivity was found in 35 patients (14.1%. Only five patients (2% had sesame allergy. Sesame-sensitive patients had a significantly higher frequency of positive prick test to cross-reacting foods when compared to non-sensitized patients (p=0.00. The type of symptom was independent of gender and age of the patients, but urticaria and dermatitis-eczema were significantly more frequent in sensitized patients (p=0.008.Conclusions: This is the first study addressing the prevalence of sesame seed allergy in Iranian population. We found sesame to be a common and important cause of food allergy. The panel of foods recommended for use in diagnostic allergy tests should be adjusted.

  9. Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rönmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components.

  10. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  11. 6.1.Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930238 Preliminary observation on tubercu-lous allergy and cross reaction with atypical my-cobacteria PPD in BCG immunized babies.XUDaoan (徐道安),et al.Hangzhou Tubere Con-trol Clinic,Zhejiang,310014.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(6):328—330.In order to know the cross reaction betweenBCG and Atypical Myeobaeteria (AM) anti-.genieity,1150 BCG immunized babies aged 12—24 weeks,undertook a bilateral arm control testwith H-PPD type 11 AM-PPD and BCG-PPD.The results show that all the AM—PPDtested can bring about a delayed allergy in thesebabies,but the total positive rate (42.87%)and mean reactive diameter (3.87mm) are thelowest and smallest among the above mentionedthree types of PPD.The BCG—PPD derived al-

  12. [Occupational allergies to xylanases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2004-02-01

    The exposure against enzyme dusts have long been known to cause occupational allergies. In the 1960s an increasing number of occupational allergies in the detergent industry were observed. In this context the high sensitization potential of enzyme dusts attracted attention. The present evaluation of literature data confirms that this is also true for xylanases. These frequently used industrial enzymes belong to the hemicellulases and are mostly of fungal origin. Several cases of specific airway sensitization caused by xylanases or other hemicellulases are verified by a number of case reports and cross sectional studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  13. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China’s National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rou, Keming; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Liu, Enwu; Wu, Zunyou

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program. Methods Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution. Results Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17–8.52, p<0.0001) and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96–2.06, p<0.0001). Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001). Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012. Conclusions The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China. PMID:26906025

  14. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China's National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhe Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program.Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution.Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17-8.52, p<0.0001 and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96-2.06, p<0.0001. Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001. Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012.The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China.

  15. Nickel and cobalt allergy before and after nickel regulation--evaluation of a public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2011-09-01

    Over the 20th century, the frequent use of nickel in consumer products resulted in an increasing prevalence of nickel allergy. Risk items included suspenders in the 1950s-1960s; buttons, zippers and rivets in the 1970s; and ear-piercing jewellery in the 1980s. When subjects allergic to nickel were exposed to nickel in high concentrations, it often resulted in allergic nickel contact dermatitis and hand eczema. In 1990, the Danish government began to regulate consumer nickel exposure as a response to the increasing nickel allergy problem. In 1994, the EU Nickel Directive was passed, a regulation that was based on the Danish and Swedish nickel regulations. These major public health interventions were expected to change the epidemiology of nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europe. Furthermore, it was debated whether nickel would be replaced by cobalt in inexpensive jewellery and result in higher prevalence of cobalt allergy. An evaluation of the possible effects of the European nickel regulations is of importance to ensure protection of consumers and dermatitis patients. This doctoral thesis aimed to evaluate the effects of regulatory interventions on nickel exposure by investigating the development of nickel allergy and dermatitis before and after nickel regulation. Furthermore, a change in the association between nickel allergy and hand eczema was evaluated. The nickel spot test was validated to determine its value when used for screening purposes. Possible explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy were explored including genetic predisposition and consumer nickel exposure from jewellery and accessories. A cobalt spot test was developed and validated. Finally, it was evaluated whether a cobalt allergy epidemic had replaced the nickel allergy epidemic after nickel regulation in terms of increasing cobalt sensitization and cobalt exposure. The thesis showed that the prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly after nickel regulation in young Danish

  16. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Are tree nut allergies diagnosed too ...

  17. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cookbooks and food allergy awareness materials, FARE's online store has a variety of resources to help you live well with food allergies. Start Shopping True Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina ...

  18. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  19. Food Allergies: The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic ...

  20. [Stress and allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  1. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  2. Globalisation and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  3. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently performed via either the subcutaneous or sublingual routes as a treatment for type I (IgE dependent) allergies. Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts in the absence of any immunopotentiator. Adjuvants to be included in the future in products for allergen specific immunotherapy should ideally enhance Th1 and CD4+ regulatory T cell responses. Imunomodulators impacting dendritic or T cell functions to induce IL10, IL12 and IFNγ production are being investigated in preclinical allergy models. Such candidate adjuvants encompass synthetic or biological immunopotentiators such as glucocorticoids, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, selected probiotic strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species) as well as TLR2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A, synthetic lipid A analogs) or TLR9 (CpGs) ligands. Furthermore, the use of vector systems such as mucoadhesive particules, virus-like particles or liposomes are being considered to enhance allergen uptake by tolerogenic antigen presenting cells present in mucosal tissues.

  4. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  5. Gastrointestinal Food Allergy in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Morita

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation.

  6. Occupational allergies caused by latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Debra D Fett; Sobczak, Steven C; Yunginger, John W

    2003-05-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important cause of occupational allergy in healthcare workers. Disposable medical gloves are the major reservoir of latex allergens, particularly powdered gloves, in healthcare delivery settings. Diagnosis of latex allergy requires a history of exacerbation of cutaneous, respiratory, ocular, or systemic signs and symptoms after exposure to natural rubber latex products; and evidence of sensitization by patch testing, skin testing, measurement of latex-specific IgE antibodies, or challenge testing. Optimal management of latex allergy involves education concerning cross-reacting allergens, reduction of cutaneous or mucosal contact with dipped rubber products, and minimization of exposure to latex aeroallergens in work environments.

  7. Allergy, asthma and the environment; Allergie, Asthma und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Gfesser, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-10-11

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Asthma and other allergic diseases have increased in prevalence during the last decades in many industrialized countries. Among other hypotheses, the possible role of environmental pollutants has received much public and scientific attention. Some pollutants may modulate the different phases of allergic reactions. Inflammation is a critical feature in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore, beside allergen avoidance, anti-inflammatory treatment is the first line therapy of asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid mediators which appear to play a major role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Based on current data, it appears that leukotrience receptor antagonists have bronchodilative and anti-inflammatory effects and may therefore enrich the pharmacotherapeutic spectrum within the therapeutic concept of patient management in asthma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Asthma bronchiale ist eine entzuendliche Erkrankung der Atemwege. Epidemiologische Studien konnten eine deutliche Zunahme der Erkrankung in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten aufzeigen. In der Entstehung von Allergien und Asthma bronchiale spielen Umwelteinfluesse eine grosse Rolle. Luftschadstoffe scheinen mit verschiedenen Allergie-Parametern bei der Sensibilisierung, Symptombildung und Chronifizierung zu interferieren. Da beim Asthma bronchiale neben der Bronchokonstriktion die Entzuendung der Bronchialschleimhaut eine besondere Rolle spielt, wird heute neben Allergenkarenz und prophylaktischen Massnahmen eine fruehzeitige antientzuendliche Asthmatherapie angestrebt. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene gehoeren zu den wirksamsten Entzuendungsmediatoren beim Asthma bronchiale. Leukotrien-Rezeptorantagonisten scheinen sowohl bronchodilatatorische als auch antientzuendliche Wirkungen zu haben und koennten so innerhalb eines Gesamtkonzeptes von antiallergischer und antiasthmatischer Therapie das pharmakotherapeutische Spektrum bereichern. (orig.)

  8. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard; Barkley, Russell; Biederman, Joseph; Conners, C. Keith; Demler, Olga; Faraone, Stephen V.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Howes, Mary J.; Secnik, Kristina; Spencer, Thomas; Ustun, T. Bedirhan; Walters, Ellen E.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite growing interest in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about prevalence or correlates. METHODS A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability sub-sample (n = 3199) of 18–44 year old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 NCS-R respondents, over-sampling those with a positive screen. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD. RESULTS Estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD is 4.4%. Significant correlates include being male, previously married, unemployed, and Non-Hispanic White. Adult ADHD is highly comorbid with many other NCS-R/DSM-IV disorders and is associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases are untreated, although many obtain treatment for other comorbid mental and substance disorders. CONCLUSIONS Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD. Research is needed to determine whether effective treatment would reduce the onset, persistence, and severity of disorders that co-occur with adult ADHD. PMID:16585449

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland: a national study of prevalence and testing efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders and non-Greenlanders living in Greenland and to estimate the efficacy of testing for GDM. Design This study was performed as an observational, cross-sectional study including all women with permanent address in Greenland who had given birth to a singleton during 2014. The prevalence of GDM was calculated as the proportion of all pregnant women tested with a 75-g 2-h glucose tolerance test who had a 2-h capillary whole-blood glucose value of 8.5 mmol/l or above. Testing efficacy was calculated as the proportion of women who fulfilled the testing criteria who were actually tested in Greenland in 2014. Results A total of 794 women (727 Greenlanders and 67 non-Greenlanders) were included in the study. The prevalence of GDM among tested women was 3.3% (confidence interval, CI: 0.9–5.6) among Greenlanders and 12.5% (CI: 0–25.7) among non-Greenlanders, corresponding, respectively, to 1.0% (CI: 0.3–1.3) and 4.5% (CI: 0–9.4) of all singleton pregnancies in Greenland in 2014. The overall testing efficacy was 69.0% among all eligible residents of Greenland and 85.1% among eligible residents in the capital city, Nuuk. Conclusion In conclusion, the prevalence of GDM seems quite low in Greenland. Although diagnostic testing activity has improved within the last 6 years, still around one-third of all pregnant women in all Greenland fulfilling the testing criteria were not tested. Universal testing for GDM may be needed to improve testing of GDM in Greenland. PMID:27562574

  10. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korea: A National Health Insurance Database Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Koo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and use of anti-diabetic medications for patients with GDM in Korea, using data of the period 2007-2011 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA database, which includes the claims data of 97% of the Korean population.We used the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes provided by the HIRA to identify women with delivery in the HIRA database between 2009 and 2011. GDM was defined according to ICD-10 codes, and patients with pre-existing diabetes between January 1, 2007 and pregnancy were excluded. A Poisson regression was performed to evaluate the trends in annual prevalence rates.The annual numbers of deliveries in 2009-2011 were 479,160 in 2009, 449,747 in 2010, and 377,374 in 2011. The prevalence of GDM during that period was 7.5% in 2009-2011: 5.7% in 2009, 7.8% in 2010, and 9.5% in 2011. The age-stratified analysis showed that the prevalence of GDM was highest in women aged 40-44 years, at 10.6% in 2009-2011, and that the annual prevalence significantly increased even in young women aged 20-29 years during that period (P 98% of the patients with GDM on medication.The prevalence of GDM in Korean women recently reached 5.7-9.5% in recent years. This represents a public health concern that warrants proper screening and medical care for GDM in women during the childbearing years.

  11. Lipid transfer protein-linked hazelnut allergy in children from a non-Mediterranean birch-endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinterman, Annebeth E.; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Jager, Constance F. den Hartog; Rigby, Neil M.; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.; Knuist, Andr C.; van Ree, Ronald; Pasmans, Suzanne G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut allergy in birch pollen-exposed areas is usually due to cross-reactivity (Cor a 1 and 2) and is usually mild in nature (oral allergy). In areas without birches, severe reactions are more prevalent and linked to sensitization to the lipid transfer protein (LTP) Cor a 8. Objective

  12. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (S-FAQLQ-AF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolin-Amerigo, D.; Cerecedo Carballo, [Unknown; Muriel, A.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Dieguez Pastor, M.; Flokstra-de Blok, B.; Dubois, A.; De la Hoz Caballer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Specific food allergy quality of life questionnaires have been developed within the context of the EuroPrevall project. We aimed to adapt and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) in the Spanish language. Methods: The original English questionnai

  13. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas Clement

    2016-01-01

    analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20-30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most...... common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated...... published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010...

  14. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the national animal health monitoring system sheep 2011 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples c...

  15. Prevalence of Civilian Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Representative National Sample of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed prevalence of traumatic events, lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD in past 6 months in 4,008 adult women. Lifetime exposure to any type of traumatic event was 69%, whereas exposure to crimes that included sexual or aggravated sexual assault or homicide of close relative of friend occurred among 36%. (Author/NB)

  16. Prevalence, Neonatal Characteristics, and First-Year Mortality of Down Syndrome: A National Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.E.; Furth, A.M. van; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Broers, C.J.M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, neonatal characteristics, and first-year mortality in Down syndrome (DS) among children in the Netherlands. Study design: The number of DS births registered by the Dutch Paediatric Surveillance Unit (DPSU) in 2003 was compared with total live births (reference

  17. National pholcodine consumption and prevalence of IgE-sensitization: a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, S G O; Florvaag, E; Oman, H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test, on a multinational level, the pholcodine (PHO) hypothesis, i.e. that the consumption of PHO-containing cough mixtures could cause higher prevalence of IgE antibodies to PHO, morphine (MOR) and suxamethonium (SUX). As a consequence the risk of anaphylaxis...

  18. Epidemiological data on consumer allergy to p-phenylenediamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, J.M.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    Many women and men now dye their hair. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a frequent and important component of permanent hair dye products; exposure to it may cause allergic contact sensitization, acute dermatitis, and severe facial oedema. To increase our understanding of PPD allergy, we reviewed...... published literature containing PPD patch test data from dermatitis patients and individuals in the general population. This was performed to estimate the median prevalence and the weighted average of PPD sensitization and thereby assess the burden of PPD-containing hair care products on health. Literature...... in the 1970s was replaced by a plateau with steady, high prevalences ranging between 2% and 6%. The prevalence remained high in North America, although a decreasing tendency was observed. Contact allergy to PPD is an important health issue for both women and men. More stringent regulation and enforcement...

  19. Prevalence of Enuresis and its Association with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among U.S. Children: Results from a Nationally Representative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeram, Srirangam; He, Jiang-Ping; Kalaydjian, Amanda; Brothers, Shannon; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2009-01-01

    Data from a national health survey is used to describe the prevalence, demographic correlates, and commorbidities of enuresis in a sample of U.S. children. The 12-month prevalence of enuresis is 4.45 percent and boys have this condition significantly more than girls. A strong association between enuresis and attention deficit hyperactivity…

  20. Brief Report: Prevalence of Co-Occurring Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder--The U.S. National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny; Hovinga, Mary E.; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38%. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for…

  1. [Diagnosis and treatment of food allergies in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Eng, P

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergies in preschool children has increased in the last few decades. Depending on the triggering allergen, children may outgrow many hypersensitivity reactions to food proteins by the age of 3 - 5 years. Despite improved diagnosis and knowledge, food allergies are still restricting the quality of life in affected subjects and their families. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestation from mild cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Food proteins are the most frequent cause of anaphylactic reactions in childhood and adolescence. The task of primary care physicians includes identification of at-risk patients, early diagnosis and advice to family members concerning preventive measures and emergency treatment (e. g. adrenaline) in case of accidental ingestion of the culprit food. There is still no causal treatment of food allergy available. Therefore, strict avoidance of the causative food remains the most important measure to date.

  2. Legumes steam allergy in childhood: Update of the reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliti, G; Pavone, P; Spataro, G; Giunta, L; Guglielmo, F; Falsaperla, R

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the prevalence of allergic diseases has deeply increased, with a key role played by food allergies. Legumes seem to play a major role towards the overall increase in the scenario of food allergy, since they are an appreciated source, consumed worldwide, due to their high protein content, variable amounts of lipids and for the presence of vitamins. In literature there are numerous descriptions of adverse reactions after ingestion of uncooked and cooked legumes. Nevertheless, cases of allergic reactions induced by inhaling vapours from cooking legumes have rarely been described. Herein the authors report an update of the literature data on allergic reactions caused by legume steam inhalation, underlying the possible pathogenic mechanism of these atopic events and the knowledge of literature data in paediatric age. The importance of this review is the focus on the clinical aspects concerning legume vapour allergy, referring to literature data in childhood.

  3. Toward an Evidence-Based Nonclinical Road Map for Evaluating the Efficacy of New Tuberculosis (TB) Drug Regimens: Proceedings of a Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases In Vivo Pharmacology Workshop for TB Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuermberger, Eric; Sizemore, Christine; Romero, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Novel tuberculosis (TB) drug regimens are urgently needed, and their development will be enabled by improved preclinical approaches that more effectively inform and ensure safe selection of clinical candidates and drug combination/regimens. An evidence-based approach for the assessment of nonclinical models supporting TB drug development has been proposed by a joint partnership between the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens (CPTR) Consortium. PMID:26824941

  4. Toward an Evidence-Based Nonclinical Road Map for Evaluating the Efficacy of New Tuberculosis (TB) Drug Regimens: Proceedings of a Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases In Vivo Pharmacology Workshop for TB Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nuermberger, Eric; Sizemore, Christine; Romero, Klaus; Hanna, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Novel tuberculosis (TB) drug regimens are urgently needed, and their development will be enabled by improved preclinical approaches that more effectively inform and ensure safe selection of clinical candidates and drug combination/regimens. An evidence-based approach for the assessment of nonclinical models supporting TB drug development has been proposed by a joint partnership between the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens ...

  5. [Contact allergies in medical occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, T; Pilz, B; Frosch, P J

    1994-12-01

    Based on reports in the literature, data from the information network of German dermatology centres (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) and the authors own findings, a review is presented on prevalence, clinical picture and causative agents of contact allergic dermatoses in health care professions. In 1991 the proportion of suspected occupational diseases in the health care professions (including hairdressers) represented by cases of dermatitis, as reported to the responsible insurance institution, reached 72% of the total for the year (7287 out of 10127). Every 20th to 40th case was recognized as an occupational dermatosis according to German law. Accurate figures on incidence are scarce; for dentists an incidence of 0.11% has been calculated. The risk of developing occupational hand eczema has been shown to be at least three times higher for nurses than for other so-called dry professions. For persons engaged in the personal care of the ill and the elderly, relevant occupational allergens were found to be benzalkonium chloride and aldehydes in disinfectants, as well as rubber accelerators such as thiuram mix. Latex contact urticaria has increasing significance for medical personnel, with prevalence rates of sensitization between 4.5% and 10.7%. Among physicians, contact allergies to thiuram mix were found to be dominant (12.9%). For surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons, methyl methacrylate as a constituent of bone cement is of great importance. Various esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid are important sensitizers in the dental professions, particularly in heavily exposed dental laboratory technicians. Only a few gloves protect against these types of sensitizers. Sensitizations by medicaments can be avoided in most cases by reducing direct skin contact, as practiced with penicillin or ispaghula powder. Strategies of prevention include information of atopics regarding the increase in occupational dermatitis, the regular use of barrier creams

  6. Development of an allergy management support system in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flokstra - de Blok, Bertine MJ; van der Molen, Thys; Christoffers, Wianda A; Kocks, Janwillem WH; Oei, Richard L; Oude Elberink, Joanne NG; Roerdink, Emmy M; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise; van der Velde, Jantina L; Brakel, Thecla M; Dubois, Anthony EJ

    2017-01-01

    Background Management of allergic patients in the population is becoming more difficult because of increases in both complexity and prevalence. Although general practitioners (GPs) are expected to play an important role in the care of allergic patients, they often feel ill-equipped for this task. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an allergy management support system (AMSS) for primary care. Methods Through literature review, interviewing and testing in secondary and primary care patients, an allergy history questionnaire was constructed by allergists, dermatologists, GPs and researchers based on primary care and specialists’ allergy guidelines and their clinical knowledge. Patterns of AMSS questionnaire responses and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE)-test outcomes were used to identify diagnostic categories and develop corresponding management recommendations. Validity of the AMSS was investigated by comparing specialist (gold standard) and AMSS diagnostic categories. Results The two-page patient-completed AMSS questionnaire consists of 12 (mainly) multiple choice questions on symptoms, triggers, severity and medication. Based on the AMSS questionnaires and sIgE-test outcome of 118 patients, approximately 150 diagnostic categories of allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis, food allergy, hymenoptera allergy and other allergies were identified, and the corresponding management recommendations were formulated. The agreement between the allergy specialists’ assessments and the AMSS was 69.2% (CI 67.2–71.2). Conclusion Using a systematic approach, it was possible to develop an AMSS that allows for the formulation of diagnostic and management recommendations for GPs managing allergic patients. The AMSS thus holds promise for the improvement of the quality of primary care for this increasing group of patients. PMID:28352197

  7. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  8. Alleged allergy to local anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.

  9. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  10. Allergy to tartrazine in alprazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S

    1996-08-01

    Allergy to tartrazine-containing psychotropic medication (especially antidepressants) had been reported. 20 patients of apparent allergy to tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands in 480 patients exposed to the dye are described. Rechallenge with non tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands did not produce the similar allergic reactions.

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland: a national study of prevalence and testing efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lynge Pedersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders and non-Greenlanders living in Greenland and to estimate the efficacy of testing for GDM. Design: This study was performed as an observational, cross-sectional study including all women with permanent address in Greenland who had given birth to a singleton during 2014. The prevalence of GDM was calculated as the proportion of all pregnant women tested with a 75-g 2-h glucose tolerance test who had a 2-h capillary whole-blood glucose value of 8.5 mmol/l or above. Testing efficacy was calculated as the proportion of women who fulfilled the testing criteria who were actually tested in Greenland in 2014. Results: A total of 794 women (727 Greenlanders and 67 non-Greenlanders were included in the study. The prevalence of GDM among tested women was 3.3% (confidence interval, CI: 0.9–5.6 among Greenlanders and 12.5% (CI: 0–25.7 among non-Greenlanders, corresponding, respectively, to 1.0% (CI: 0.3–1.3 and 4.5% (CI: 0–9.4 of all singleton pregnancies in Greenland in 2014. The overall testing efficacy was 69.0% among all eligible residents of Greenland and 85.1% among eligible residents in the capital city, Nuuk. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of GDM seems quite low in Greenland. Although diagnostic testing activity has improved within the last 6 years, still around one-third of all pregnant women in all Greenland fulfilling the testing criteria were not tested. Universal testing for GDM may be needed to improve testing of GDM in Greenland.

  12. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  13. Trends in the Prevalence of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors. National YRBS: 1991-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  14. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  15. [Allergy-related emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S

    2002-01-01

    Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  16. [Occupational allergies to bromelain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2007-03-01

    The protease bromelain originating from the pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) finds frequent use in industry. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to bromelain. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by bromelain could be shown clearly by the presented studies. Since the symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunological mechanism can be assumed.

  17. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Teen Pregnancy in Vietnam: Results from Two National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study asked two broad questions: (1 what is the prevalence of teen pregnancy in contemporary Vietnam; and (2 what selected social, family, and individual factors are associated with teen pregnancy in Vietnam? The study utilized Vietnam Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth surveys conducted in 2003 and 2008 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades. Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19. Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.

  18. Food allergies in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  19. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in China: results from the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey, 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%. The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs. Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.

  20. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies.

  2. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  3. Stress and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.

  4. Hydrolyzed Proteins in Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Silvia; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolyzed proteins are used worldwide in the therapeutic management of infants with allergic manifestations and have long been proposed as a dietetic measure to prevent allergy in at risk infants. The degree and method of hydrolysis, protein source and non-nitrogen components characterize different hydrolyzed formulas (HFs) and may determine clinical efficacy, tolerance and nutritional effects. Cow's milk (CM)-based HFs are classified as extensively (eHF) or partially HF (pHF) based on the percentage of small peptides. One whey pHF has been shown to reduce atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants who are not exclusively breastfed. More studies are needed to determine the benefit of these formulas in the prevention of CM allergy (CMA) and in the general population. eHFs represent up to now the treatment of choice for most infants with CMA. However, new developments, such as an extensively hydrolyzed rice protein-based formula, could become alternative options if safety and nutritional and therapeutic efficacy are confirmed as this type of formula is less expensive. In some countries, an extensive soy hydrolysate is available.

  5. The potential link between gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L K; Ward, Alister C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-12-16

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  6. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Molloy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  7. A national survey of musculoskeletal impairment in Rwanda: prevalence, causes and service implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwarantimi Atijosan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate information on the prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment (MSI is lacking in low income countries. We present a new survey methodology that is based on sound epidemiological principles and is linked to the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning. METHODS: Clusters were selected with probability proportionate to size. Households were selected within clusters through compact segment sampling. 105 clusters of 80 people (all ages were included. All participants were screened for MSI by a physiotherapist and medical assistant. Possible cases plus a random sample of 10% of non-MSI cases were examined further to ascertain diagnosis, aetiology, quality of life, and treatment needs. FINDINGS: 6757 of 8368 enumerated individuals (80.8% were screened. There were 352 cases, giving an overall prevalence for MSI of 5.2%. (95% CI 4.5-5.9 The prevalence of MSI increased with age and was similar in men and women. Extrapolating these estimates, there are approximately 488,000 MSI diagnoses in Rwanda. Only 8.2% of MSI cases were severe, while the majority were moderate (43.7% or mild (46.3%. Diagnostic categories comprised 11.5% congenital, 31.3% trauma, 3.8% infection, 9.0% neurological, and 44.4% non-traumatic non infective acquired. The most common individual diagnoses were joint disease (13.3%, angular limb deformity (9.7% and fracture mal- and non-union (7.2%. 96% of all cases required further treatment. INTERPRETATION: This survey demonstrates a large burden of MSI in Rwanda, which is mostly untreated. The survey methodology will be useful in other low income countries, to assist with planning services and monitoring trends.

  8. Atopic eczema and food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.

  9. Life style and home environment are associated with racial disparities of asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuexia, E-mail: ysun@engr.psu.edu [Texas Institute of Allergy, Indoor Environment and Energy (TxAIRE), University of Texas at Tyler, 3900 University Blvd, Tyler, Tx 75799 (United States); Architecture Engineering Department, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Engineering Unit A, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Sundell, Jan, E-mail: ja.sundell@gmail.com [Dept of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing City 100084 (China); The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba District, Chongqing City 400030 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A high prevalence and racial disparities in asthma and allergy have been observed in American children. This study aimed to identify risk factors for asthma and allergy among children, and their contribution to racial disparities in allergy prevalence. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1-8 years in Northeast Texas 2008-2009. The health conditions, life style and home environment of 3766 children were surveyed by parental questionnaires through e.g. daycares, elementary school, and medical clinics. Among participants who indicated their ethnicity, 255 were Mexican-Americans, 178 Afro-Americans and 969 Caucasians. Afro-American children had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma and eczema. Caucasian had the highest prevalence of rhinitis. Compared to Mexican-American children, Afro-American and Caucasian children were breast fed shorter time, more often went to day care center, had pets and environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home more often. For all children, being at a day care center, being exposed to dampness and environmental tobacco smoke at home were strong risk factors for asthma and allergy. Central air conditioning system was associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze among Mexican-American children, while pets were associated with an increased risk of rhinitis among Afro-American and Caucasian children. Caucasian children were generally not healthier than relatively poor Mexican-American children. Differences in the prevalence of asthma and allergy between races cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. Life style and home environmental exposures are important risk factors for asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children. - Highlights: {yields} This is a general population cross-sectional study in Northeast Texas. {yields} Racial disparity of allergy cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. {yields} Life style and home environment caused racial disparity of allergy in children

  10. Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis in Infants and Preschool-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar-Marques, J; Carreiro-Martins, P.; Papoila, AL; Caires, I; Pedro, C; Araújo-Martins, J; Virella, D; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Leiria-Pinto, P; Neuparth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) prevalence data in infants and preschool-age children are sparse, and proposed risk factors lack confirmation. In this study, 19 children’s day care centers (DCC) from 2 main Portuguese cities were selected after stratification and cluster analysis. An ISAAC’s (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) derived health questionnaire was applied to a sample of children attending DCCs. Outcomes were FA parental report and anaphylaxis. Logistic regression wa...

  11. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  12. Prevalence of masturbation and associated factors in a British national probability survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerressu, Makeda; Mercer, Catherine H; Graham, Cynthia A; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M

    2008-04-01

    A stratified probability sample survey of the British general population, aged 16 to 44 years, was conducted from 1999 to 2001 (N = 11,161) using face-to-face interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing. We used these data to estimate the population prevalence of masturbation, and to identify sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and attitudinal factors associated with reporting this behavior. Seventy-three percent of men and 36.8% of women reported masturbating in the 4 weeks prior to interview (95% confidence interval 71.5%-74.4% and 35.4%-38.2%, respectively). A number of sociodemographic and behavioral factors were associated with reporting masturbation. Among both men and women, reporting masturbation increased with higher levels of education and social class and was more common among those reporting sexual function problems. For women, masturbation was more likely among those who reported more frequent vaginal sex in the last four weeks, a greater repertoire of sexual activity (such as reporting oral and anal sex), and more sexual partners in the last year. In contrast, the prevalence of masturbation was lower among men reporting more frequent vaginal sex. Both men and women reporting same-sex partner(s) were significantly more likely to report masturbation. Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reporting between men and women.

  13. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of…

  14. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  15. Risk Management for Food Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...... the epidemiology of food allergy, assessing allergen thresholds and risk, specifics of gluten management and celiac disease, and much more. The practical advice on factory risk management, catering industry practices, allergen detection and measurement and regulatory controls is key for food industry professionals...

  16. Prevalence of blood-borne viruses among Iranian dentists: Results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health care workers, including dentists, are at the front line for acquiring blood-borne virus infections. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods: The survey included 1628 dental health care workers who attended the 51st annual Congress of the Iranian Dental Association. Data on the risk of blood-borne virus transmission during health care and infection control practices were gathered from self-administered questionnaires. Sera were screened serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The positive samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PRC followed by direct sequencing. Results: Six (0.36% and 81 (5.0% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and (anti-hepatitis B virus core antigen (anti-HBc, respectively. Only 1 (0.061% was positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV. No case was positive for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV. One case was diagnosed as being occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. One thousand five hundred thirty-five (94.3% of participants had received at least 1 dose of HBV vaccine. One thousand three hundred fifty-nine (88.5% contained hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs > 10 IU/ml, of whom 55 (4.0% were anti-HBc positive, suggesting that they had been infected with HBV in the past. Anti-HBc positive cases had past histories of hepatitis, either their own or their spouses’. Individuals with inadequate anti-HBs levels (< 10 IU/ml were significantly more prevalent among anti-HBc positive cases (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of blood-borne viruses among dental HCWs found in this study was lower than past reports from Iranian dentists and general population. The implementation of HBV vaccination together with improvement in infection control procedures has reduced the potential for risk infection among Iranian dentists.

  17. [Prevalence of HIV infection in dialysis patients: results of a national multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poignet, J L; Desassis, J F; Chanton, N; Litchinko, M B; Zins, B; Kolko, A; Patte, R; Sobel, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in french patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis therapy, questionnaire forms were mailed out in february 1997 to the heads of the 260 dialysis facilities. We documented number of patients on maintenance dialysis therapy (hemo and peritoneal dialysis) and for HIV infected dialysis patients: age, gender, cause and duration of ESRD, known duration of HIV infection, risk factors for HIV infection, HBV and/or HCV infection, presence of clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), total CD4 count and treatment with antiretroviral agents. Questionnaire forms were returned from 98% of the dialysis facilities. As of february 1997 some 22,707 patients with ESRD were treated by renal replacement therapy, 19,947 by hemodialysis (HD) and 2760 by peritoneal dialysis (PD). 82 patients with ESRD and HIV infection were reported corresponding to 0.36% prevalence rate of all patients undergoing dialysis at the time specified. The 82 study subjects with ESRD and HIV infection received hemodialysis (79 patients) or peritoneal dialysis (3 patients) in 42 facilities. Forty seven patients were treated in Paris and suburbs and 9 in our own center. All 82 patients comprised 63% men and 47% women which included patients coming from Africa (37%), Caribbean and Oceania (28%), Europe (35%) of a mean age of 41.8 years. Modes of transmission were homobisexuals 15%, heterosexuals 31%, intravenous drug abusers 17%, blood transfusion 17% and unknown 20%. The mean duration of HIV infection was 96 months (range 12-168 months) and the mean duration of ESRD was 58 months (range 1-235 months). HIV associated nephropathy was established in 31%. AIDS was diagnosed in 25 patients. Seventy one percent of the patients were receiving an antiretroviral drug (tritherapy in 25% of cases). In conclusion HIV prevalence rate among French dialysis patients is low and focused in Paris and oversea. Sexual transmission is the

  18. Food Allergy Concerns in Primary Classrooms: Keeping Children Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Peggy; Cameron, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Food-allergy awareness and management have only lately come to the forefront in early childhood settings, although advocacy organizations have been working on the issue for more than a decade. A national poll (C.S. Mott Children's Hospital 2009) asked parents with children in early education settings if they were aware of what their program does…

  19. Prevalence and Management of Dyslipidemia in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1998 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Roh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDyslipidemia is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the changing trends in the prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia among Korean adults.MethodsThe prevalence of dyslipidemia and the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were investigated in adults aged ≥20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys (KNHANES 1998 to 2010. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria was used, which define dyslipidemia as having one or more of the following lipid abnormalities: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or diagnosis of dyslipidemia or use of lipid-lowering drugs, hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL, hyper-low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterolemia (≥160 mg/dL or diagnosis of dyslipidemia or use of lipid-lowering drugs, and hypo-high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterolemia (<40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women.ResultsThe number of participants was 6,921, 4,894, 5,312, 2,733, 6,295, 6,900, and 5,738 in KNHANES 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Age-standardized prevalence rates of dyslipidemia were 54.0%, 65.8%, 66.5%, 60.6%, 58.7%, 58.9%, and 59.0% in 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia were the two most frequent lipid abnormalities. The overall prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia increased by 1.36- and 1.35-fold in 2010 compared with 2007, respectively. Awareness, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia improved over the period of surveys in both sexes. In 2010, about 30% of dyslipidemic patients who received lipid-lowering treatment reached target levels.ConclusionAlthough the management status of dyslipidemia has improved during recent years, effective strategy is required for achieving better prevention, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia.

  20. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  1. [Occupational allergies to phytase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2008-12-01

    Phytases are phosphatases that can break down the undigestible phytic acid (phytate). They are frequently used as an animal feed supplement - often in poultry and swine - to enhance the nutritive value of plant material by liberation of inorganic phosphate from phytate. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to phytases. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by phytases could be shown clearly by the presented studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific challenge tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  2. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Donaldson, Gavin; Hassi, Juhani; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among vulnerable groups is not well known. We therefore estimated the prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among the Finnish population and their associations with social and individual vulnerability factors. The data came from the National FINRISK 2007 Study, in which 4007 men and women aged 25-74 answered questions on heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the Oulu Cold and Heat Questionnaire 2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and model-predicted prevalence figures. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms was 12 %. It increased with age, from 3 % at the age of 25 years to 28 % at the age of 75 years. The symptoms were associated with pre-existing lung (OR 3.93; CI 3.01-5.13) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.27; 1.78-2.89); being a pensioner (OR 2.91; 1.65-5.28), unemployed (OR 2.82; 1.47-5.48), or working in agriculture (OR 2.27; 1.14-4.46) compared with working in industry; having only basic vs academic education (OR 1.98; 1.31-3.05); being female (OR 1.94; 1.51-2.50); being heavy vs light alcohol consumer (OR 1.89; 1.02-3.32); undertaking hard vs light physical work (OR 1.48;1.06-2.07); and being inactive vs active in leisure time (OR 1.97; 1.39-2.81). The adjusted prevalence of symptoms showed a wide range of variation, from 3 to 61 % depending on sex, age, professional field, education, and pre-existing lung and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms are commonly perceived among people with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular disease, agricultural workers, unemployed, pensioners, and people having only basic education. This information is needed for any planning and targeting measures to reduce the burden of summer heat.

  3. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred...... to vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....

  4. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts, soy, and wheat. Cow's milk (or cow's milk protein). Between 2% and 3% of children younger than ... on the market are cow's milk-based. Cow's milk protein allergy means that someone has an abnormal immune ...

  5. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... food group . Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  6. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Fibromyalgia in the 2012 National Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Most knowledge of fibromyalgia comes from the clinical setting, where healthcare-seeking behavior and selection issues influence study results. The characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population have not been studied in detail. Methods We developed and tested surrogate study specific criteria for fibromyalgia in rheumatology practices using variables from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the modification (for surveys) of the 2010 American College of Rhe...

  7. Demographic Predictors of Peanut, Tree Nut, Fish, Shellfish, and Sesame Allergy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ben-Shoshan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68, and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87, resp. while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72 and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61. Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83 and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91. Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31. There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04 and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95, but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.

  8. Past, Present, and Future of Allergy in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, You-Young

    2010-01-01

    Korean allergology has made great progress in keeping pace with global scientific advances in spite of a short history. Outstanding academic and scientific researches have been performed in a variety of allergy fields in Korea. Epidemiologic studies revealed increasing prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases and considerable morbidity and mortality in Korea. Novel inhalant allergens such as citrus red mite and two-spotted spider mite as causes of asthma and allergic rhinitis have been disc...

  9. National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: f indings from a dual‐frame omnibus survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, G. J.; Jackson, A. C.; Pennay, D. W.; Francis, K. L.; Pennay, A.; Lubman, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background, aims and design The increase in mobile telephone‐only households may be a source of bias for traditional landline gambling prevalence surveys. Aims were to: (1) identify Australian gambling participation and problem gambling prevalence using a dual‐frame (50% landline and 50% mobile telephone) computer‐assisted telephone interviewing methodology; (2) explore the predictors of sample frame and telephone status; and (3) explore the degree to which sample frame and telephone status moderate the relationships between respondent characteristics and problem gambling. Setting and participants A total of 2000 adult respondents residing in Australia were interviewed from March to April 2013. Measurements Participation in multiple gambling activities and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Findings Estimates were: gambling participation [63.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.4–66.3], problem gambling (0.4%, 95% CI = 0.2–0.8), moderate‐risk gambling (1.9%, 95% CI = 1.3–2.6) and low‐risk gambling (3.0%, 95% CI = 2.2–4.0). Relative to the landline frame, the mobile frame was more likely to gamble on horse/greyhound races [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4], casino table games (OR = 5.0), sporting events (OR = 2.2), private games (OR = 1.9) and the internet (OR = 6.5); less likely to gamble on lotteries (OR = 0.6); and more likely to gamble on five or more activities (OR = 2.4), display problem gambling (OR = 6.4) and endorse PGSI items (OR = 2.4‐6.1). Only casino table gambling (OR = 2.9) and internet gambling (OR = 3.5) independently predicted mobile frame membership. Telephone status (landline frame versus mobile dual users and mobile‐only users) displayed similar findings. Finally, sample frame and/or telephone status moderated the relationship between gender, relationship status, health and problem gambling (OR = 2.9–7.6). Conclusion Given expected future increases in the

  10. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus and related atherosclerotic complications in Korea: a National Health Insurance Database Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Koo

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and related macrovascular complications in Korea were estimated using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA database from 2007-2011, which covers the claim data of 97.0% of the Korean population.T2DM, coronary artery disease (CAD, cerebrovascular disease (CVD, and peripheral artery disease (PAD were defined according to ICD-10 codes. We used the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes provided by HIRA to identify associated procedures or surgeries. When calculating incidence, we excluded cases with preexisting T2DM within two years before the index year. A Poisson distribution was assumed when calculating 95% confidence intervals for prevalence and incidence rates.The prevalence of T2DM in Korean adults aged 20-89 years was 6.1-6.9% and the annual incidence rates of T2DM ranged from 9.5-9.8/1,000 person-year (PY during the study period. The incidence rates of T2DM in men and women aged 20-49 years showed decreasing patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001; by contrast, the incidence in subjects aged 70-79 years showed increased patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001. The incidence rates of CAD and CVD in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM were 18.84/1,000 PY and 11.32/1,000 PY, respectively, in the year of diagnosis. Among newly diagnosed individuals with T2DM who were undergoing treatment for PAD, 14.6% underwent angioplasty for CAD during the same period.Our study measured the national incidences of T2DM, CAD, CVD, and PAD, which are of great concern for public health. We also confirmed the relatively higher risk of CAD and CVD newly detected T2DM patients compared to the general population in Korea.

  11. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D.; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2). Prevalence did not differ significantly across sites, over time, or by inclusion of pregnancy termination. Laterality defects were more common among preterm cases compared to term cases, and in children born to mothers who were non-white or younger than 20 years compared to white mothers or those age 25–29 years. The distribution of associated cardiac and extracardiac defects, excluding the expected heterotaxy anomalies, varied by type of laterality defect. Cases with heterotaxy were significantly more likely than those with SIT to have double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular canal defects, pulmonary stenosis, non-tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, totally and partially anomalous pulmonary venous return; also more likely to have orofacial clefts, esophageal atresia, bowel atresias, and omphalocele, though not reaching statistical significance. Relatively more common among cases with SIT were Dandy-Walker malformation, anotia/microtia, and limb deficiency. The similarity in the demographic characteristics of heterotaxy and SIT supports the hypothesis that they are part of a continuum of abnormal left-right axis patterning. These findings on laterality defects may help guide clinical care, future research, and prevention strategies. PMID:25099286

  12. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading public health problem related to poor quality of life and premature death. As a resource for evidence-informed health policy-making, we evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease using the data of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥ 20 years (n = 15,319) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2013. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or an estimated glomerular filtration rate Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The total prevalence estimate of chronic kidney disease for adults aged ≥ 20 years in Korea was 8.2%. By disease stage, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was as follows: stage 1, 3.0%; stage 2, 2.7%; stage 3a, 1.9%; stage 3b, 0.4%; and stages 4-5, 0.2%. When grouped into three risk categories according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, the proportions for the moderately increased risk, high risk, and very high risk categories were 6.5%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Factors including older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, body mass indexes of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and chronic kidney disease. Based on this comprehensive analysis, evidence-based screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the Korean population should be developed to optimize prevention and early intervention of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors.

  13. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Marshall, Katherine L; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Erdman, Matthew M; Kopral, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples collected on sheep operations in the United States. Another objective was to compare the use of composite fecal samples with fecal samples collected from individual sheep as a tool for screening sheep flocks for Salmonella. Sheep fecal samples (individual and composite) were collected on operations in 22 states. Salmonella isolates were characterized with regard to species, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Most operations (72.1%) had at least one positive sample and overall 26.9% of samples were positive. The percentage of positive samples varied by animal age class. Composite and individual samples gave similar results. The majority of the isolates (94%) were Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serotype 61:-:1,5,7. Nearly all of the isolates (91.2%) tested for antimicrobial susceptibility were susceptible to all antimicrobials in the panel. The findings suggest that salmonellae typically associated with foodborne disease transmission are infrequently found on sheep operations in the United States.

  14. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Bilgic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC and aesthetic components (AC of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9% and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%. Moreover, increased (18% and reduced bites (14.%, and increased (25.1% and reversed overjet (10.% were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5 was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10 of orthodontic treatment according to the AC.

  15. Prevalence of STI related consultations in general practice: results from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Jan EAM; Kerssens, Jan J; Schellevis, Francois G; Sandfort, Theo G; Coenen, Ton J; Bindels, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background The role of the GP in the care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is unclear. Aim We studied the prevalence of STI related consultations in Dutch general practice in order to obtain insight into the contribution of the GP in STI control. Design of study A descriptive study. Setting The study took place within the framework of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice in 2001, a large nationally representative population-based survey. Method During 1 year, data of all patient contacts with the participating GPs were recorded in electronic medical records. Contacts for the same health problem were clustered into disease episodes and their diagnosis coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. All STI and STI related episodes were analysed. Results In total, 1 524 470 contacts of 375 899 registered persons in 104 practices were registered during 1 year and 2460 STI related episodes were found. The prevalence rate of STI was 39 per 10 000 persons and of STI/HIV related questions 23 per 10 000. More than half of all STIs were found in highly urbanised areas and STIs were overrepresented in deprived areas. Three quarters of all STIs diagnosed in the Netherlands are made in general practice. An important number of other reproductive health visits in general practice offer opportunities for meaningful STI counselling and tailored prevention. Discussion GPs contribute significantly to STI control, see the majority of patients with STI related symptoms and questions and are an important player in STI care. In particular, GPs in urban areas and inner-city practices should be targeted for accelerated sexual health programmes. PMID:16464323

  16. The association between contact allergy and hand eczema in 2 cross-sectional surveys 8 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil;

    2002-01-01

    Hand eczema is a recurrent chronic skin disease related to contact allergy and atopic dermatitis. When possible, efforts should be redoubled to eliminate provoking factors. Our objective was to assess changes in the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema and to evaluate the association between...... contact allergy and hand eczema among adult Danes before and after nickel exposure regulation in Denmark. In 1990 and 1998, random samples of 15-41-year-old persons were examined in 2 cross-sectional studies of the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. The studies included questionnaires, patch...... and prick testing. From 1990 to 1998 the prevalence of a history of hand eczema increased significantly. This increase did not appear to be fully explained by changes in the prevalence of flexural eczema, prick test reactivity, patch test reactivity, and nickel allergy. In 1990, nickel allergy and allergic...

  17. Urban environment adherence to the Mediterranean diet and prevalence of asthma symptoms among 10- to 12-year-old children: The Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulou, Dimitra; Priftis, Kostas N; Yannakoulia, Mary; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Yfanti, Konstantina; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed several associations between asthma symptoms and environmental and dietary factors, but the potential environment- diet interactions on asthma incidence have rarely been investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the interrelationships between urban/rural environment, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, the Mediterranean diet, and childhood asthma. A cross-sectional survey was performed and 1125 (529 boys), 10- to 12-year-old children were selected from 18 schools located in urban Athens area (n = 700) and from 10 schools located in rural areas of Ilia and Viotia (n = 425), Greece. Children and their parents completed standardized questionnaires, which evaluated, among others, environmental factors and dietary habits. Asthma was defined according to Phase II of the International Study on Allergies and Asthma in Childhood criteria. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean and Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) score. Living in urban areas was associated with higher odds of ever had asthma symptoms by 1.78 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.54) when compared with rural areas. In contrast, 1-unit increase in the KIDMED score was associated with 16% lower likelihood of having asthma symptoms (95% CI, 0.77-0.91), after adjusting for various confounders. When stratifying the analysis by area of living it was observed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower likelihood of asthma in both urban and rural areas (urban, odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.73-0.91; rural, OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00). Urban environment seems to increase the likelihood of childhood asthma, whereas adherence to the healthy Mediterranean dietary pattern could mediate the aforementioned association and confers significant protection.

  18. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2016-12-27

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.

  19. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  20. Latex allergy symptoms among health care workers: results from a university health and safety surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Carol; Duncan, Jacqueline; Archibong, Emma; Østbye, Truls; Pompeii, Lisa A; Dement, John

    2011-01-01

    We sought to describe risk factors for latex glove allergy symptoms among health care workers by combining data from an active clinical surveillance program and a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system. A total of 4,584 employers completed a latex allergy questionnaire. Six percent (n = 276) of subjects reported symptoms consistent with latex allergy. Years of latex glove use was a significant risk factor for latex allergy symptoms even after controlling for the effects of atopy, gender, age, race, fruit, and other allergies. Nurses, medical or lab technicians, physician's assistants, other clinical professionals, and housekeepers had the highest prevalence of latex glove allergy symptoms. Forty subjects (0.87%) who were confirmed as having latex sensitization. Sensitizsation may have been underestimated due to use of specific IgE antibody, less sensitive than skin-prick testing, and tiered design leading to laboratory assessment on a subset of the cohort. This surveillance program identified risk factors for latex allergy symptoms. Our findings provide a basis for tailoring future prevention strategies.

  1. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions.

  2. Asthma and Allergies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results From the CHARGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Van de Water, Judy; Ashwood, Paul; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-10-01

    Immune aberrations are often noted in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but whether asthma and allergy are related to ASD is not well defined. This study examined asthma and allergies in association with ASD and phenotypic subsets. Participants were 560 children with confirmed ASD and 391 typically developing children from the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study. Maternally reported child asthma and allergy was compared between cases and controls, and in association with cognitive and behavioral test scores. Prevalence of asthma and overall allergies did not differ between cases and controls, but overall allergy in children with ASD was associated with higher stereotypy scores as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In addition, reported food allergies were significantly associated with ASD (adjusted odds ratio = 2.23, 95% confidence interval 1.28, 3.89). Our results suggest food allergies and sensitivities may be more common in children with ASD, and that these issues may correlate with other behaviors.

  3. A European perspective on immunotherapy for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Food allergies are common, and frequently, the only treatment option is strict avoidance. Unfortunately, many patients accidentally ingest allergenic foods, which can result in severe anaphylactic reactions. Several immunotherapies are being developed for food allergies; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. Oral immunotherapy seems to be the most promising approach based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. However, it is a challenge to compare results among immunotherapy trials because of differences in protocols. Studies conducted thus far have tested the most prevalent food allergens: it is not clear whether their results can be extended to other allergens. Sublingual administration of immunotherapy has shown some efficacy and fewer side effects than oral administration in some trials, yet neither approach can be recommended for routine practice. Controlled studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to determine short- and long-term efficacy and side effects. In Europe immunotherapy trials for food allergies face many ethical and regulatory issues. Guidelines from the European Medicine Agency on the clinical development of products for specific immunotherapy of allergic diseases do not adequately address immunotherapy for food allergies, especially for therapies that orally administer native food or that include pediatric patients.

  4. Prevalence of delayed-type and immediate-type hypersensitivity in healthcare workers with hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, Kristina S; Jemec, Gregor B E; Garvey, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    in the study. Patch tests included baseline series plus selected allergens, and prick tests included standard inhalational allergens plus natural rubber latex and chlorhexidine. Levels of IgE specific for latex, chlorhexidine and ethylene oxide were measured. RESULTS: Of the participants, 53% had positive...... patch test reactions. The most frequent positive patch test reactions were to nickel, thiomersal, fragrances, rubber chemicals, and colophonium. The prevalence of natural rubber latex allergy as diagnosed by prick testing was 2.5%, and chlorhexidine allergy (both contact allergy and IgE-mediated allergy......) was found in natural rubber latex allergy is still important, but increased risks of chlorhexidine and ethylene oxide...

  5. Assessment of Allergy to Milk, Egg, Cod, and Wheat in Swedish Schoolchildren: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Winberg

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the prevalence of allergies to foods in childhood and adolescence is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of allergies to milk, egg, cod, and wheat using reported data, clinical examinations, and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges, and to describe the phenotypes of reported food hypersensitivity in a cohort of Swedish schoolchildren.In a population-based cohort of 12-year-old children, the parents of 2612 (96% of invited completed a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to foods were analyzed in a random sample (n=695. Children reporting complete avoidance of milk, egg, cod, or wheat due to perceived hypersensitivity and without physician-diagnosed celiac disease were invited to undergo clinical examination that included specific IgE testing, a celiac screening test, and categorization into phenotypes of food hypersensitivity according to preset criteria. Children with possible food allergy were further evaluated with double-blind challenges.In this cohort, the prevalence of reported food allergy to milk, egg, cod, or wheat was 4.8%. Food allergy was diagnosed in 1.4% of the children after clinical evaluation and in 0.6% following double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. After clinical examination, children who completely avoided one or more essential foods due to perceived food hypersensitivity were categorized with the following phenotypes: allergy (29%, outgrown allergy (19%, lactose intolerance (40%, and unclear (12%.There was a high discrepancy in the prevalence of allergy to milk, egg, cod and wheat as assessed by reported data, clinical evaluation, and double-blind food challenges. Food hypersensitivity phenotyping according to preset criteria was helpful for identifying children with food allergy.

  6. Food allergies: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines.

  7. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  8. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Shirima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic–wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288 and small ruminants (125 were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively. Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7, ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4–10. Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  9. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Gabriel M; Kunda, John S

    2016-05-24

    Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic-wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA) were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288) and small ruminants (125) were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively). Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7), ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4-10). Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  10. Prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafus, Brent H.; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    Information on disease presence can be of use to natural resource managers, especially in areas supporting threatened and endangered species that occur coincidentally with species that are suspected vectors for disease. Ad hoc reports may be of limited utility (Muths et al. 2009), but a general sense of pathogen presence (or absence) can inform management directed at T&E species, especially in regions where disease is suspected to have caused population declines (Bradley et al. 2002). The Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), a species susceptible to infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) (Bradley et al. 2002), and the non-native, invasive American Bullfrog (L. catesbeianus), a suspected vector for chytridiomycosis (Schloegel et al. 2012, Gervasi et al. 2013), both occur at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) and surrounding lands in southern Arizona. Efforts to eradicate the bullfrog from BANWR began in 1997 (Suhre, 2010). Eradication from the southern portion of BANWR was successful by 2008 but the bullfrog remains present at the Arivaca Cienega and in areas immediately adjacent to the refuge (Fig. 1). Curtailing the re-invasion of the bullfrog into BANWR will require vigilance as to ensure the health of Chiricahua Leopard Frog populations.

  11. TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and

  12. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  13. FOOD ALLERGY AND ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME. Part I. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy and intolerance are wide spread nowadays. However, the problem existed and was registered and described still by the ancients. It was fully understood and scientifically depicted in the 20th century after IgE and anaphylaxis were discovered, new diagnostic tests were initiated and the term “allergy” was introduced. There are some interesting aspects of the problem. Epidemiology is the first one – in the last two decades the number of people suffering from food allergy increased significantly and reached 4% of the population. Food allergy covers all ages, both sexes; atopic people and these with other allergic or digestive diseases are in the risk group also. There is certain influence of the eating habits as well. Etiology is rich and varied. It includes all foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, spices, honey, medicinal products - milk, eggs, meat, fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, etc. Pathogenesis is complex.

  14. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  15. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-valueHaiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions.

  16. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  17. Alcohol Related Disorders in Asia Pacific Region: Prevalence, Health Consequences and Impacts on the Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Asia Pacific (AP region, the exact picture of the alcohol use problems has remained relatively obscure. In this study, the profile of alcohol consumption and alcohol related disorders in AP countries are presented.     Methods: Official statistics on average alcohol consumption (alcohol per capita consumption, APC, alcohol related health variables, income group and alcohol policy of countries geographically related to Asia and Oceania continents were extracted from the 2014 edition of World Health Organization report on global status of alcohol and health. Results: The data of 57 AP countries were analyzed. Two-third of the countries did not establish comprehensive national monitoring systems (NMSs. Median of total APC in people aged 15 years and older was 2.4 (1-4.6 L during 2003 to 2005, while this indicator was 2.8 (1-5.5 L during 2008 to 2010 which accounts for about 0.4 L (in median increase in consumption. In 13 countries which were mostly located in South-east Asia and the Pacific region, APC was higher than average global consumption. Comparing the countries with and without total ban policy, the countries with total ban policy had significantly lower APC (P = 0.003, higher rate of abstainers (P = 0.002 and lower rate of alcohol related disorders (P < 0.001. Higher APC and higher rates of alcohol related disorders were observed in higher income countries. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in AP region is comparatively lower than global average. However, the status of some countries in Southeast Asia and Pacific region is alarming and needs serious attention. Moreover, establishment of comprehensive NMSs, proper data registry and holistic harm reduction and rehabilitation programs for users should receive meaningful governmental and public support.

  18. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Fibromyalgia in the 2012 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitt, Brian; Nahin, Richard L.; Katz, Robert S.; Bergman, Martin J.; Wolfe, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Background Most knowledge of fibromyalgia comes from the clinical setting, where healthcare-seeking behavior and selection issues influence study results. The characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population have not been studied in detail. Methods We developed and tested surrogate study specific criteria for fibromyalgia in rheumatology practices using variables from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the modification (for surveys) of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) preliminary fibromyalgia criteria. The surrogate criteria were applied to the 2012 NHIS and identified persons who satisfied criteria from symptom data. The NHIS weighted sample of 8446 persons represents 225.7 million US adults. Results Fibromyalgia was identified in 1.75% (95% CI 1.42, 2.07), or 3.94 million persons. However, 73% of identified cases self-reported a physician’s diagnosis other than fibromyalgia. Identified cases had high levels of self-reported pain, non-pain symptoms, comorbidity, psychological distress, medical costs, Social Security and work disability. Caseness was associated with gender, education, ethnicity, citizenship and unhealthy behaviors. Demographics, behaviors, and comorbidity were predictive of case status. Examination of the surrogate polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) of the 2010 ACR criteria found fibromyalgia symptoms extending through the full length of the scale. Conclusions Persons identified with criteria-based fibromyalgia have severe symptoms, but most (73%) have not received a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The association of fibromyalgia-like symptoms over the full length of the PSD scale with physiological as well as mental stressors suggests PSD may be a universal response variable rather than one restricted to fibromyalgia. PMID:26379048

  19. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Fibromyalgia in the 2012 National Health Interview Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    Full Text Available Most knowledge of fibromyalgia comes from the clinical setting, where healthcare-seeking behavior and selection issues influence study results. The characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population have not been studied in detail.We developed and tested surrogate study specific criteria for fibromyalgia in rheumatology practices using variables from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the modification (for surveys of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR preliminary fibromyalgia criteria. The surrogate criteria were applied to the 2012 NHIS and identified persons who satisfied criteria from symptom data. The NHIS weighted sample of 8446 persons represents 225.7 million US adults.Fibromyalgia was identified in 1.75% (95% CI 1.42, 2.07, or 3.94 million persons. However, 73% of identified cases self-reported a physician's diagnosis other than fibromyalgia. Identified cases had high levels of self-reported pain, non-pain symptoms, comorbidity, psychological distress, medical costs, Social Security and work disability. Caseness was associated with gender, education, ethnicity, citizenship and unhealthy behaviors. Demographics, behaviors, and comorbidity were predictive of case status. Examination of the surrogate polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD of the 2010 ACR criteria found fibromyalgia symptoms extending through the full length of the scale.Persons identified with criteria-based fibromyalgia have severe symptoms, but most (73% have not received a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The association of fibromyalgia-like symptoms over the full length of the PSD scale with physiological as well as mental stressors suggests PSD may be a universal response variable rather than one restricted to fibromyalgia.

  20. Multiple aspects of sexual orientation: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates in a New Zealand national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J Elisabeth; McGee, Magnus A; Beautrais, Annette L

    2011-02-01

    Sexual orientation consists of multiple components. This study investigated both sexual identity and same-sex sexual behavior. Data came from the New Zealand Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative community sample of New Zealanders aged 16 years or older, interviewed face-to-face (N = 12,992, 48% male). The response rate was 73.3%. Self-reported sexual identity was 98.0% heterosexual, 0.6% bisexual, 0.8% homosexual, 0.3% "Something else," and 0.1% "Not sure." Same-sex sexual behavior with a partner was more common: 3.2% reported same-sex sexual experience only and 1.9% reported both experience and a relationship. For analysis of childhood and lifecourse, five sexuality groups were investigated: homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual divided into those with no same-sex sexual experience, experience only, and experience and relationship. The non-exclusively heterosexual groups were more likely to have experienced adverse events in childhood. Educational achievement and current equivalized household income did not differ systematically across the sexuality groups. Only 9.4% of the exclusively heterosexual lived alone, compared with 16.7% of bisexuals and 19.0% of homosexuals. Heterosexuals were more likely than bisexuals or homosexuals to have ever married or had biological children, with differences more marked for males than for females. Heterosexuals with no same-sex sexual experience were more likely to be currently married than the other two heterosexual groups. Restricting comparisons to heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual identification ignores the diversity within heterosexuals. Differences between the bisexual and homosexual groups were small compared with the differences between these groups and the exclusively heterosexual group, except for sex (80.8% of bisexuals were female).

  1. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  2. Prevalence and features of ICF-disability in Spain as captured by the 2008 National Disability Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since 1986, the study of disability in Spain has been mainly addressed by National Disability Surveys (NDSs). While international attempts to frame NDS designs within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) have progressed, in general, the ICF has hardly been used in either the NDS or epidemiological studies. This study sought to identify ICF Activity- and Participation-related content in the most recent Spanish NDS, the 2008 Survey on Disabilities, Independence and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre discapacidades, autonomía personal y situaciones de Dependencia - EDAD 2008), and estimate the prevalence of such ICF-framed disability. Methods EDAD 2008 methods and questions were perused. Of the 51 EDAD items analysed, 29 were backcoded to specific d2-d7 domains of the ICF Checklist and, by rating the recorded difficulty to perform specific tasks with or without help, these were then taken as performance and capacity respectively. A global ICF score was also derived, albeit lacking data for d1, "Learning and applying knowledge", d8, "Major Life Areas" and d9, "Community, Social and Civic Life". Data were grouped by sex, age, residence and initial positive screening, and prevalence figures were calculated by disability level both for the general population, using the originally designed weights, and for the population that had screened positive to disability. Data for institutionalised persons were processed separately. Results Crude prevalence of ICF severe/complete and moderate disability among the community-dwelling population aged ≥6 years was 0.9%-2.2% respectively, and that of severe/complete disability among persons living in sheltered accommodation was 0.3%. Prevalence of severe/complete disability was: higher in women than in men, 0.8% vs. 0.4%; increased with age; and was particularly high in domains such as "Domestic Life", 3.4%, "Mobility", 1.8%, and "Self-care", 1.9%, in which prevalence decreased

  3. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its correlates among diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic at National Guard Hospital in Alhasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFehaid, Aneesah A.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases encountered in clinical practice. Diabetic nephropathy is a common consequence of long-standing diabetes mellitus; microalbuminuria (MA) is considered an early stage of diabetic nephropathy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of miciroalbuminuria in diabetic patients and factors associated with MA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the diabetic clinic of the primary health center of the National Guard Hospital. Diabetes type 2 patients between the ages of 20–60 years who attended the clinic in 2012 were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing medical records for demographic and disease-related variables. MA was detected by measuring the albumin to creatinine ratio, and MA was diagnosed if this ratio was between 30 and 300 mg/g on two occasions. RESULTS: MA was found in 37.4% of the sample and the rate was significantly higher among females (P < 0.027). MA was positively related to body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.002), the presence of hypertension (P < 0.000), duration of diabetes (P < 0.000), glycated hemoglobin (P < 0.000), fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.000), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P < 0.043). No statistically significant correlation was found between MA and age, creatinine level, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MA in patients with diabetes in this study was high. The study suggests the need to screen for MA early, and the active management of modifiable risk factors, in particular, hyperglycemia, hypertension, LDL, and BMI, to reduce the burden of future end-stage renal disease. PMID:28163568

  4. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  5. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  6. The diagnosis of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. METHODS: Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven...... databases were searched and international experts were contacted. Two reviewers independently identified studies, extracted data, and used QUADAS-2 to assess risk of bias. Where possible, meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Twenty-four (2831 participants) studies were included. For cows' milk allergy...... is limited and weak and is therefore difficult to interpret. Overall, SPT and sIgE appear sensitive although not specific for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergy....

  7. Allergy vaccines: dreams and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Reto

    2007-12-01

    Allergy, extrinsic asthma and atopic eczema derive from deregulated immune responses against innocuous antigens. The incidence of atopic diseases is actually affecting approximately 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of efficient symptomatic treatments for allergic diseases, the only curative treatment remains allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast to classical vaccines, which elicit strong host immune responses after one or a few injections, allergen-specific immunotherapy might require a long treatment time of 3-5 years with up to 80 injections to confer some protection. The reality is that 'allergy vaccines' achieve beneficial effects through immunomodulation, which takes a long time to establish. The dream would be to develop highly efficient allergy vaccines able to cure the disease with a few injections.

  8. Immunological treatments for occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, M; Senna, G; Marcer, G; Passalacqua, G

    2013-01-01

    Although avoidance of occupational triggers remains the primary step in the management of work-related allergies, immunological treatments (including biological agents and specific immunotherapy) can be regarded as potential therapeutic options for IgE-mediated diseases; for example, many studies with allergen-specific immunotherapy have been carried out on latex allergy, showing overall favorable results, at least with sublingual immunotherapy. On the other hand, only few case reports have suggested the efficacy of immunotherapy in baker's asthma as well as in laboratory animal-induced asthma. The new technologies, including component-resolved diagnosis and recombinant allergens, are expected to improve the quality and efficacy of specific immunotherapy in the future. Also the use of omalizumab may represent a suitable therapeutic choice in very selected cases of occupational allergy, as well as an approach to reduce side effects of venom immunotherapy in subjects with previous severe reactions to the treatment.

  9. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  10. Respiratory Health and Allergies from Chemical Exposures among Machining Industry Workers in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hui LIAW

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory health complaints, allergy symptom, lung functions, and the association between airborne concentrations of chromium and aluminium with respiratory health and allergy symptoms among machining industry workers in Selangor, Malaysia.Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional comparative study. The respiratory and allergy symptoms were obtained through the American Thoracic Society (ATS Adult Respiratory Questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78  modified questionnaire. Results: The MWFs unexposed group had significantly higher TWA8 airborne aluminum concentration (median = 0.24 µg/m3 than the exposed group (median = 0.13 µg/m3 (P=0.027. However, no significant difference was found in the airborne chromium between both groups. Significantly higher skin itchiness was reported by the MWFs exposed group. This was further supported by the serum total IgE concentrations which was significantly higher among MWFs exposed group than the unexposed group (P=0.024. The prevalence of total serum IgE was significantly higher for the exposed group (54.3% than the unexposed group (36.9%. The exposed group reported significantly higher prevalence of cough symptom, morning cough with sputum and health worries caused by metalworking fluids than the unexposed group. Conclusion: This study showed significantly higher allergy and respiratory symptoms among the MWFs exposed group than the unexposed group.   Keywords: Machining industry, Metalworking fluids, Allergy symptoms, IgE, Lung function

  11. Gender and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children: Analysis of Data from the National Disability Registry of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the…

  12. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015 : the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Wolock, Tim M.; Carter, Austin; Nguyen, Grant; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.; Mills, Edward J.; Trickey, Adam; Msemburi, William; Coates, Matthew M.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Fraser, Maya S.; Sligar, Amber; Salomon, Joshua; Larson, Heidi J.; Friedman, Joseph; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd El Razek, Mohamed Magdy; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed S.; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Al Artaman, Ali; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Assadi, Reza; Atique, Suleman; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Barnighausen, Till; Basu, Arindam; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhatia, Eesh; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Birlik, Sait Mentes; Bisanzio, Donal; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brown, Alexandria; Burch, Michael; Butt, Zahid A.; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chang, Jung-chen; Chavan, Laxmikant; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Dahiru, Tukur; Damtew, Solomon Abreha; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, Jose; de Jager, Pieter; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Ding, Eric L.; Doshi, Pratik Pinal; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Elshrek, Yousef Mohamed; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Sofia e Sa Farinha, Carla; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Ander; Foigt, Nataliya; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Gebre, Teshome; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Peter W.; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Glaser, Elizabeth; Goenka, Shifalika; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guimaraes, Mark D. C.; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Harun, Kimani M.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Hoek, Hans W.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Iyer, Veena J.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karletsos, Dimitris; Kasaeian, Amir; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kivipelto, Miia; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton; Lam, Jennifer O.; Langan, Sinead M.; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Makhlouf, Carla; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mckee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R.; Mikesell, Joseph; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mokdad, Ali H.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Murimira, Brighton; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Nash, Denis; Nawaz, Haseeb; Nejjari, Chakib; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Ngirabega, Jean De Dieu; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ota, Erika; Padukudru, Mahesh Anand; Park, Hye-Youn; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patil, Snehal T.; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pearson, Katherine; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Pereira, Claudia C.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pillay, Julian David; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prokop, David M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Rana, Saleem M.; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roy, Ambuj; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Sagar, Rajesh; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Santos, Itamar S.; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Sawhney, Monika; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silpakit, Naris; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Soti, David O.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tekle, Tesfaye; Shifa, Girma Temam; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thapa, Kiran; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen; Bach Xuan Tran,; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Tura, Abera Kenay; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wang, Linhong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Wong, John Q.; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Yu, Shicheng; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zoeckler, Leo; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral th

  13. Contact to cat or dog, allergies and parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian Joachim; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Whether or not associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy are homogeneous across social strata has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between animal contact (cat, dog) and allergy/atopy in 6-yr-old school beginners, stratified by parental educational level. A total of 30794, 6-yr old children participated in cross-sectional studies between 1991 and 2000 in Germany. Allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and symptoms and diagnoses of atopic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever) were the dependent variables. Contact with dog/cat were the independent variables. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. Analyses were stratified for parental education. Prevalences of hay fever, eczema, specific sensitization to pollen and house dust mite increased, while the prevalence of contact to cat and dog decreased with parental educational level. Globally significant positive associations between cat contact and sensitization to cat (interaction significant) and between dog contact and wheezing remained significant in the highest and medium/highest educational strata respectively. A globally significant inverse association between cat contact and hay fever remained significant in the highest educational stratum only. The inverse association of contact to dog with eczema was globally significant, but not in the strata. When estimating the associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy in children, effect modification by social status should be considered. Cat contact seems to increase the odds of sensitization to cat only in children whose parents have a high level of education.

  14. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  15. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  16. Acculturation and the Prevalence of Diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alos, Victor A.; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation— 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31–2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11–2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27–3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Conclusion Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos. PMID:25299982

  17. Examining impacts of allergic diseases on psychological problems and tobacco use in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hong Chun

    Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of posttrauma distorted beliefs: evaluating DSM-5 PTSD expanded cognitive symptoms in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Keith S; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2014-06-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) modified the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including expanding the scope of dysfunctional, posttrauma changes in belief (symptoms D2-persistent negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world, and D3-persistent distorted blame of self or others for the cause or consequences of the traumatic event). D2 and D3 were investigated using a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,498) recruited from an online panel. The prevalence of D2 and D3 was substantially higher among those with lifetime PTSD than among trauma-exposed individuals without lifetime PTSD (D2: 74.6% vs 23.9%; D3: 80.6% vs 35.7%). In multivariate analyses, the strongest associates of D2 were interpersonal assault (OR = 2.39), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.63), gender (female, OR = 2.11), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.88). The strongest correlates of D3 were interpersonal assault (OR = 3.08), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.57), gender (female, OR = 2.30), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.91). The findings suggested the expanded cognitive symptoms in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria better capture the cognitive complexity of PTSD than those of the DSM-IV.

  19. Prevalence and clinical presentation of headache in a National Neurofibromatosis 1 Service and impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Shazia K; Leschziner, Guy D; Ferner, Rosalie E

    2015-10-01

    In our clinical practice, we noticed a high frequency of headaches amongst NF1 patients. We sought to characterize the phenotype and prevalence of headache in our cohort of NF1 patients attending the London NF clinic and to determine the impact on quality of life. Participants over the age of 16 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for NF1 from the general NF1 outpatient clinics at Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and the nationally commissioned Complex NF1 service were asked to fill in a questionnaire during the clinic consultation. Data were recorded regarding the headache frequency, intensity, duration, and phenotype, and a validated quality of life questionnaire, HIT-6 was also completed by the participant. IHS (International Headache Society) criteria were used to diagnose migraine. One hundred fifteen patients (48 males, 67 females) completed the questionnaire. The age range of participants was 16-67 with a mean age of 36 years. Twenty-five reported no headaches. Seventy-five (65%) fulfilled IHS diagnostic criteria for migraine (15 with aura). The mean HIT-6 score was 56 (out of a maximum 78) implying a significant effect on quality of life. Migraine is common in our NF1 population and has a significant impact on quality of life. Patients may not volunteer information regarding headache and this should be actively sought during consultations and the headache phenotype should be carefully characterized.

  20. [Oral allergy syndrome among patients with birch pollinosis in Sapporo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo; Ogasawara, Hideki; Narita, Shin-Ichirou; Kataura, Akikatsu

    2004-04-01

    We evaluated the relationships between oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables (oral allergy syndrome) and birch pollinosis in 2003 in Sapporo. 1. Of 153 patients with birch pollinosis (seasonal nasal or ocular symptom and CAP positive [birch pollen CAP score 2 or more]), 65 patients (42%) have episode of oral allergy syndrome (OAS). And that rate in 2003 was higher than in 1992 and was equal to in 1998. 2. Among birch pollinosis patients, the higher the CAP score of birch pollen, the higher the prevalences of OAS were found to be. 3. Among birch pollinosis patients, female have OAS much more than male. 4. Among birch pollinosis patients in 1998, patients who visited to ENT clinic for medical consultation of birch pollinosis in March and April have OAS much more than patients who visited in May and June.