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Sample records for allergic contact sensitizing

  1. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud; Poulsen, Lars K.; Swindle, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased...... play a dominant role, B cells switch to IgE-production, a process that is more effective at young age. IgE-producing plasma cells have been shown to be long-lived, hiding in the bone-marrow or inflammatory tissues where they cannot easily be targeted by therapeutic intervention. Allergic sensitization...

  2. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  3. The Prevalence of Allergic Contact Sensitization of Practicing and Student Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kocabaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis (CD is a significant problem among nurses. Although there are reports about the prevalence of CD from different parts of the world, data about its frequency in Turkey and about allergic contact sensitization among nurses is insufficient.Objective: To define the frequency and patterns of allergic contact sensitization and related symptoms in practicing and student nurses.Methods: There were 123 nurses in our hospital practicing in the in-patient clinics. All were invited to participate in the study. 69 working-in nurses and 79 student nurses participated in the study. The main reason for refusal of nurses was that they were usually having a shower daily after a hard working day and they had to postpone having a bath for 3 days if they had a patch test on their back. A ready-to-use patch test system (TRUE test® with 29 standardized test substances was applied to all of the participants. History about symptoms of CD and allergic diseases was investigated by questionnaire.Results: While 34.8% (24/69 of practicing nurses had symptoms of CD, 19% (15/79 of student nurses reported the symptoms (p=0.039. The most prevalent positive reaction was to nickel sulfate followed by thimerosal. There was no difference for positive reaction rates between practicing and student nurses. Nurses who had symptoms of CD were older than those without symptoms (p=0.003. The participants with symptoms of CD were more frequently from practicing nurses (p=0.047.Conclusion: CD is more frequent in practicing nurses than student nurses; allergic contact sensitization is not. This may be attributed to the length of occupation that is also correlated well with the length of exposure to the occupational irritants.

  4. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  6. Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    exposure-effect relationships to be established with increased certainty. For prevention of allergic contact dermatitis it was a major step forward, with mandatory ingredient labelling of cosmetic products. However, improved labelling of the presence of contact allergens in household and industrial...... products is needed. For the identification of hazardous contact allergenic compounds, guinea pig or mice assays are still required. The local lymph node assay (LLNA), which is an objective and sensitive mouse assay has now been internationally validated and accepted....

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequent sensitizers in the general population also include fragrance, formaldehyde, lanolin (wool grease found in ointments and ... be helpful to avoid common triggers, such as fragrance, lanolin, nickel, etc. When to Seek Medical Care ...

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, D M; Watchorn, R B

    2000-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in dentistry may affect dentists and orthodontists, technicians, nurses and patients. Changes to dental practice in recent years have altered the reported frequencies of allergens causing ACD in both dental personnel and patients. Allergic contact dermatitis to medicaments, metals and glutaraldehyde were previously common allergens in dentistry; however, widespread adoption of rubber gloves by staff has resulted in a significant increase in ACD to glove allergens in both dental staff and their patients, while affording protection against the traditional allergens. Both public concerns about potential toxicity of metals in oral restorations and a greater demand for cosmetic dentistry, have resulted in greater use of acrylics and resins by dental personnel, exposing them to highly allergenic materials. Dermatologists need to be aware of the newer allergenic materials used in dentistry in order to correctly manage skin diseases in this high-risk group. PMID:10812698

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  10. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    An Goossens

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cos...

  11. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nripen S.; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; MAGUIRE, TIM J.; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensiti...

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasel, Narelle; Tate, Bruce; Rademaker, Marius

    2002-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from the topical use of essential oils is not widely recognized as an occupational hazard. Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis to essential oils occurring in three aromatherapists and one chemist with a particular interest in aromatherapy are described. All presented with predominantly hand dermatitis and demonstrated sensitization to multiple essential oils. One patient developed a recurrence of cutaneous symptoms following ingestion of lemongrass tea. Workers within this industry should be aware of the sensitization potential of these products and the risk of limiting their ability to continue employment. PMID:12121401

  13. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from octylisothiazolinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Frost, Simon; Ohlund, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen.......Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen....

  15. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...... infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing...

  16. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Kręcisz; Dorota Chomiczewska-Skóra; Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 mal...

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  18. Contact sensitization in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Contact dermatitis from irritant and allergic sources is the reason for 6% to 10% of all dermatologic visits with considerable morbidity and economic impact. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction and develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Aging is correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization because of "immunosenescence." The number of old people is growing around the world. This contribution reviews the main findings from published epidemiologic studies on contact allergy in elderly populations. In all examined studies, patch testing was performed in patients with cutaneous manifestations possibly related to contact dermatitis; the prevalence of contact dermatitis in the elderly was from 33% to 64%. Establishing the most frequent allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly is a hard task. The commonest allergens reported were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, diamino diphenylmethane, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400, quinoline mix, and balsam of Peru. We emphasize that allergens surveillance is needed to realize an "elderly series" for having a useful adjunct to contact allergy that may help the treatment of each patient. PMID:21146728

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact...

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether the...... prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy and...... ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to temporary tattoo by p-phenylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegas, J R P; Criado, P R; Criado, R F J; Vasconcellos, C; Pires, M C

    2002-01-01

    Temporary tattoos are widely applied today all over the world. The tattoo makers explain that they use "natural henna paint," although in fact they use "black henna," which includes a mixture of many substances, among them p-phenylenediamine (PPD). There have recently been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis because of temporary tattoo with PPD sensitization. We are adding a new case of temporary tattoo with black henna with an extensive reaction, in which a 12-year-old white boy showed contact dermatitis from PPD, followed by cutaneous eruption after corticosteroid topical treatment. PMID:12109535

  3. Langerhans cells in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchinda, P; Gaspari, A A

    2010-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that has significant socio-economic impact. ACD is mediated by a T-cell mediated inflammatory reaction. Langerhans cells (LCs) are an epidermal DCs subset specialized in antigen presentation. After hapten exposure, LCs play a major role as in induction adaptive immune response against allergens. LCs recognize, take up and process haptens and migrate to the local draining lymph nodes. However, LCs specific functions and the LCs migration to local draining lymph nodes are not yet clearly defined. Recent advance in the knowledge of LCs function has increased in the past decades including the evidence for a tolerogenic function of LCs. The present review will focus on the role for LCs response to contact allergens. PMID:21139551

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis in Danish children referred for patch testing - a nationwide multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard;

    2013-01-01

    -17 years, 25.1% had one or more positive patch test reactions. The associated relevance was 66.4%. The most common sensitizers were metals, fragrances, and hair dyes. The frequency of positive patch test reactions and allergic contact dermatitis was significantly higher among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic...

  5. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by etofenamate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, A; Zick, C; Hausen, B M

    1988-06-15

    We report on 3 cases of contact dermatitis following topical application of etofenamat. Each patient developed positive reactions in patch tests with etofenamat in concentrations of both 10% and 1%. After testing, one patient showed secondary inflammatory reactions at the original site of application. Considering the frequent administration of etofenamat, contact sensitization seems to be relatively rare. PMID:2970161

  6. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kręcisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332

  7. Angioedema-like allergic contact dermatitis related to black henna

    OpenAIRE

    Gokalp, Hilal; Kaya, Kismet

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis related to para-phenylendiamine (PPD) from temporary black henna tattoos and hair dyes has become an epidemic in recent years. Several cases of adverse skin reactions to PPD have been reported in the literature. Herein, we present a case of angioedema-like allergic contact dermatitis related to hair coloring with henna.

  8. EAACI Position Paper for practical patch testing in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Oranje, Arnold P

    2015-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold ...... allergens to be tested in children with suspected ACD. Additional tests should be performed only on specific indications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold...... standard diagnostic test. Based on consensus, the EAACI Task Force on Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Children produced this document to provide details on clinical aspects, the standardization of patch test methodology, and suggestions for future research in the field. We provide a baseline list of test...

  9. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar; Rekha Paulose

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common alle...

  10. Allergic skin diseases : Studies on mechanisms in experimental atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    LehtimÀki, Sari

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease, characterized by relapsing eczema, dry skin and chronic skin inflammation. A large proportion of AD patients develop other allergies or asthma later in life. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in turn, is one of the leading occupational diseases worldwide. Therefore, allergic skin diseases not only impair the quality of life of patients but also cause a great economical burden for the society. This thesis investigates some of the mechanisms b...

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  12. Allergic sensitization and the environment: latest update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases is still increasing both in developed and developing countries. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant allergens is common and, although not sufficient, a necessary step in the development of allergic diseases. Despite a small number of proteins from certain plants and animals being common allergens in humans, we still do not fully understand who will develop sensitization and to which allergens. Environmental exposure to these allergens is essential for the development of sensitization, but what has emerged clearly in the literature in the recent years is that the adjuvants to which an individual is exposed at the same time as the allergen are probably an equally important determinant of the immune response to the allergen. These adjuvants act on all steps in the development of sensitization from modifying epithelial barriers, to facilitating antigen presentation, to driving T-cell responses, to altering mast cell and basophil hyperreactivity. The adjuvants come from biogenic sources, including microbes and the plants and animals that produce the allergens, and from man-made sources (anthropogenic), including unintended by-products of combustion and chemicals now ubiquitous in modern life. As we better understand how individuals are exposed to these adjuvants and how the exposure influences the likelihood of an allergic response, we may be able to design individual and community-level interventions that will reverse the increase in allergic disease prevalence, but we are not there yet. PMID:25149167

  13. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS FROM FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE.

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Lyapina; Angelina Kisselova-Yaneva; Assya Krasteva; Mariana Tzekova–Yaneva; Maria Dencheva-Garova

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous chemical agent, a part of our outdoor and indoor working and residential environment. Healthcare workers in difficult occupations are among the most affected by formaldehyde exposure. Formaldehyde is an ingredient of some dental materials. Formaldehyde is well-known mucous membrane irritant and a primary skin sensitizing agent associated with both contact dermatitis (Type IV allergy), and immediate, anaphylactic reactions (Type I allergy). Inhalation exposure to f...

  14. [Contact allergic dermatitis caused by plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljacki, M; Paravina, M; Jovanović, M; Subotić, M; Duran, V

    1993-01-01

    In order to contribute to the setting of an accurate diagnosis and prophylaxis of phytodermatitis (PD) and to better understand eczematogenic characteristics of some plants, we present results of an allergologic analysis and review the plants which most commonly cause FD in our material. A total of 15 patients presenting with FD was examined. In all the cases we used a standard technique, patch test (PT); in cases supsective of contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) we used open PT, while photo PT was used for cases suspective of photo PD. We used fresh parts of the plants and standard allergen battery for epicutaneous testing (Department of Immunology, Zagreb). Depending on the profession of the subjects, tests with the material from working places with specific batteries of tests for specific professions were applied according to the recommendations of ICDRG. Tests with parts of the plants were carried out in 8 cases and in 5 controls. A total of 38 plants was examined. Positive PT was found for sisal, willow, parsnip, carrot, celery, spinach, green tomato, broomcorn, lemon skin, pyracantha, arborvitae, yucca, ficus, juniper tree, plane tree and greenhouse grass. In cases of positive PT for willow, carrot, celery, green tomato and grass, positive PT for Peru balsam (PB) was also detected, while in positive PT for lemon skin, a positive PT on turpentine was found as well. Negative results of PT for willow, carrot, celery, parsnip, green tomato, lemon and juniper tree and positive photo PT on greenhouse grass in controls, indicate that we have detected allergic PD on the above mentioned plants. PMID:7997217

  15. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, K; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Faurschou, A;

    2015-01-01

    potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: Nineteen MI-allergic subjects and 19 controls without MI allergy applied two liquid hand soaps five times per day on areas of 5 × 10 cm(2) on the ventral side of their forearms. One soap contained 100 ppm MI, the maximum allowed concentration in...... cosmetics, and was used by 10 allergic subjects and all controls. Another liquid soap with 50 ppm MI was used by nine allergic subjects. As the negative control, all subjects used a similar soap that did not contain MI. The repeated open applications proceeded until a positive reaction occurred or up to 21...... days. The study was conducted in a randomized and blinded fashion. RESULTS: Ten out of 10 MI-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the soap with 100 ppm and seven out of nine reacted to the 50 ppm soap, while none of the 19 controls had a positive reaction during 21 days of application. No...

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...... an aggravating effect on the dermatitis in spite of its immunosuppressive effects. The initial clinical appearance of the patient's widespread dermatitis was atypical with resemblance to subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Even though emulsifiers are widely used in topical products, contact allergic...

  17. The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bruze, M;

    2001-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis is dose dependent, but the time-concentration relationship for elicitation has not previously been described. In this study 27 isoeugenol-sensitive patients participated in serial dilution patch tests with isoeugenol and a double-blinded Rep...

  18. Induction of contact sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells taken from the draining lymph nodes of mice 1 day after painting with picryl chloride can induce contact hypersensitivity when injected into the footpads of normal recipients. Footpad injection of 5 x 106 1-day draining lymph node cells induced a similar degree of hypersensitivity to the original skin painting with picryl chloride but no antibody, as judged by anti-TNP splenic PFC and serum antibody, in constrast to the moderate antibody response found after skin painting. The apprarent inability to induce a response did, however, correlate with the finding that the draining lymph nodes of mice painted with picryl chloride had few PFC. Some effect of the cells on antibody was noted in that after mice were challenged on the ear to produce contact sensitivity reactions they produced an antibody response larger than that of mice not injected with cells. This was not a large phenomenon but was unusual because 2.5 x 106 cells was more effective than either 106 or 5 x 106 cells, even though 5 x 106 cells produced the largest contact sensitivity reactions. The augmentation was antigen specific and the same dose-response effect could be obtained with irradiated cells (2000 rad). It is suggested that these cells may have an important role in the immunogenicity of contact sensitizing agents, which can induce large delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions accompanied only by moderate antibody responses. (author)

  19. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Topkarci, Zeynep; Ozarmağan, Güzin

    2007-08-01

    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, propylene glycol, the patient's favourite lipstick and propyl gallate. No reaction was seen with Zovirax ophthalmic ointment and Zovirax tablet. The propylene glycol component of the Zovirax cream and the propyl gallate component of the lipstick were regarded as the responsible contact sensitizers. The differential diagnosis was challenging due to concomitant contact sensitization with these agents. PMID:17680974

  20. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in children - a review of current data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Sommerlund, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children was previously considered to be a rare occurrence. However, the growing number of case reports and cross-sectional studies through the past three decades indicate that ACD is, in fact, a highly relevant diagnosis in children. Furthermore, the frequency......, and provides an overview of the main findings. We found reported sensitization rates of 26.6-95.6% in selected groups of children. The associated relevance was 51.7-100%. The most common allergens were nickel, cobalt, thimerosal, and fragrance. Tailored patch testing increases the rate of relevant...... patch test reactions. Children with atopic dermatitis are as frequently sensitized as children with no history of atopic dermatitis, and there are no differences associated with sex. Children and adults can be tested with equal concentrations of patch test allergens. Our findings may support the notion...

  1. 367 Evaluation of Allergen Sensitivity in Patients with Contact Dermatitis in Antalya

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Hilmi, Cekin Ayhan; Gumuslu, Saadet; Polat, Hasan Hüseyin; Kose, Sukran; Cetinkay, Ramazan

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed type of induced sensitivity (allergy) resulting from cutaneous contact with a specific allergen to which the patient has developed a specific sensitivity. This allergic reaction causes inflammation of the skin manifested by varying degrees of erythema, edema, and vesiculation. In this study, the socio-demographic characteristics, patch test were evaluated in treated patients diagnosed with Allergic contact dermatitis Methods The study ...

  2. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  3. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...

  4. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58% of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76% patients. Face creams (20%, hair dyes (14%, and soaps (12% were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%, cetrimide (28%, and thiomersal (20%. Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal.

  5. Para-phenylenediamine and allergic sensitization : risk modification by N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemeke, B.; Brans, R.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Dickel, H.; Bruckner, T.; Hein, D. W.; Heesen, M.; Merk, H. -F.; Kawakubo, Y.; Blomeke, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a common contact sensitizer causing allergic contact dermatitis, a major skin problem. As PPD may need activation to become immunogenic, the balance between activation and/or detoxification processes may influence an individual's susceptibility. PPD is acety

  6. A CLINICAL STUDY ON ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS TO TURMERIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok babu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:- BACKGROUND: In south India it is a culture among ladies to use turmeric for beautiful white skin, to remove unwanted hair on the face, in this context I have encountered ladies coming with redness, itching, burning and vesiculation of skin after application of turmeric and also especially on forehead, hair parting after applicat ion of kumkum which is prepared from turmeric and which is traditionally followed by Hindu women. AIM : To evaluate incidence of allergic contact dermatitis due to turmeric in female by patch testi ng. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 clinical suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis in f emales of all age groups who were using turmeric were taken and also 20 females who were not using t urmeric were taken and patch testing was done with Indian standard series (ISS, kumkum, and prep ared turmeric allergens (ethanol extract, sediment, raw turmeric and commercial preparations . RESULTS: Out of 50 cases tested 44 cases were positive for different turmeric antigens (88% . The incidence of kumkum allergy is also high. All the 20 females who were not using turmeric were neg ative. Conclusion: Apart from immense beneficial effects of turmeric, allergic contact de rmatitis due to turmeric has been demonstrated and confirmed through patch testing in the present stud y.

  7. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis / Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aims of our study were to determine the frequency of positive patch reactions and the most common allergens in patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD and/or mucositis(M who underwent with T.R.U.E. “Thin-layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous” test and evaluate supplemantal series used with T.R.U.E. test effect on patch test results.Material and Method: In this study 161 ACD, 5 ACM, 1 ACD and ACM were enrolled. While 139 of all patients were patch tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,out of 28 patients were tested for T.R.U.E. test and also with supplemental series that included textile colours (9 of tested patients, plastic and glues (9, dental screening (6, backery (2, cosmetic (1 and plastic and glues and dental screening (1. Supplemental series were chosen according to patient’s occupation and clinic presentation. The data from our patients were analyzed as percentage. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic status was evaluated with Yate’s correlation x2 test.Results: Eighty-six male, 81 female were taken into this study. The median age was 36.5.While 25.9% of 139 patients tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,46.4% of 28 patients applied supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test showed positive reaction to one or more allergens. The most common allergens were nickel sulphate (14.4%, potassium dichromate (4.8%, fragrance mix (2.9% and colophony (2.9%. The most common supplemental allergens were octil gallat (50% in bakery and copper sulphate, goldsodiumthiosulphate (42.8% in dental screening. Positive patch reactions were detected 83.3% in 6 patients with AKM, 80% of these positive reactions was againts dental screening. The rate of contact sensitization between atopics and non-atopics was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: We suggest in presence of mucositis and/or occupational dermatoses using supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test would be more beneficial in identifing the

  8. [Allergic contact eczema to etofenamate and dwarf pine oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, R; Ulrich, R; Spallek, W

    1990-06-01

    A typical case of contact dermatitis following topical applications of etofenamat is reported and a short review of literature is given. Considering the frequent administration of etofenamat, contact sensitization is relatively rare. PMID:2143316

  9. Investigation of Frequency of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Due to Cosmetics in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Gürses Koç

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. While some cosmetic products can trigger acne, topical and cosmetic agents used in the treatment of acne may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, the choice of cosmetic products is very important for the patients. Limited number of studies have been found in literature investigating allergic contact dermatitis due to only topical drugs in patients with acne vulgaris.Material and Method: In this research, it is aimed to find out the frequency of allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics in patients with acne vulgaris. Fifty patients with acne vulgaris but without clinical signs of contact dermatitis and 50 control cases without contact dermatitis on admittance were included in the study. Skin patch tests of the European standard series (27 allergens and cosmetic series (45 allergens with IQ Chamber test materials were applied on the unlesional back of the patient and control groups. Materials with testing substances were taken out of skin 48 hours later and read after 30 minutes and at 72nd hour, as suggested by International Contact Dermatitis Research Group, and substances leading to reactions were recorded.Results: Sensitivity to sorbitan monooleate, in the cosmetic series, was found to be significantly higher in the patient group (p=0,022. While no statistical difference except for sorbitan monooleate was detected in the patient and control groups, it was found that the patient group reacted positively to more allergens than the controls. Conclusion: In conclusion, because of abundance of allergens detected with patch test in the patient group, it may be suggested that cosmetic products might be responsible for the development of allergic contact dermatitis in patients with acne vulgaris. In addition, we believe that furthering studies with groups of numerous patients are needed to support our results.

  10. Kaposi′s Varicelliform Eruption In Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old male having airborne allergic contact dermatitis suddenly developed high grade fever, chills and prostation on 7th day of admission. Two days later he developed generalized papulovescles which became haemorrhagic and crusted within one to two days. These lesions later evolved into grouped erosions. Simultaneously, he developed swelling of the face and generalized lymphadenopathy. Tzanck smear demonstrated giant cell and the patients was diagnosed as having kaposis’s varicelliform eruption. He responded to oral acycolvir. The case is reported for its rarity.

  11. Targeted testing with diethylthiourea often reveals clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis caused by neoprene rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Anne B-H; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Diethylthiourea is widely used in the rubber industry, particularly in neoprene rubber, and may cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, as thiourea allergens are not part of the European baseline series, the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds...... depends on clinical suspicion and aimed testing. Objectives. The aims of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of sensitization to diethylthiourea during a 19-year period by using data from the Allergen Bank database at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, and...... Bank. The records for patients with positive reactions were evaluated retrospectively. Results. One hundred and fifty-one patients were tested by 27 different dermatologists in private practice, and positive reactions were found in 16% (24/151) of the patients; 88 patients were tested at the...

  12. Patch Test Results of 775 Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Ada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis vary among countries and even between different geographical regions within the same country over time. It is of great importance to perform the patch test at certain intervals, to evaluate the results in different centers and to compare them afterwards. Our aim was to evaluate the patch test results in our patients with allergic contact dermatitis.Material and Method: The records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, who had been patch tested between May 1997 and March 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic features such as age and sex, localization of the contact dermatitis, and the patch test results were recorded. Results: Of the 775 patients, 581 (75.2% were females and 194 (25% males. Of all patients, 735 were patch tested with the European Standard Series, 318 - with both the European Standard Series and cosmetic series, and 40-with cosmetic series alone. Of the patients tested with the European Standard Series, 255 (34.7% had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent allergen in the European Standard Series was nickel sulfate (17.3%, followed by cobalt chloride (7.2%, potassium dichromate (3%, fragrance mix (2.9%, and p-phenylenediamine base (2.6%. Of the 358 patients tested with cosmetic series, 82 (22.9% had at least one positive reaction. The 5 most frequently observed cosmetic series allergens were octyl gallate (3.9%, thimerosal (2.2%, sorbitan sesquioleate (2%, Euxyl K 400 (2% and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.4%. Conclusion: Our study shows the contact allergen profile of our center over 12 years. The most common allergens and their frequency differ between centers in various cities in Turkey. Those geographical differences should be re-evaluated by further studies performed in the certain time period. The high frequency of reactions to octyl gallate is an important finding in patients suspected of cosmetic allergy

  13. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  14. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: review of the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Jacob, Sharon E

    2014-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. During the last decade, there has been a heightened awareness of this disease in the pediatric population. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred children with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6 %. The most common allergens in children in North America are nickel, neomycin, cobalt, fragrance, Myroxylon pereirae, gold, formaldehyde, lanolin/wool alcohols, thimerosal, and potassium dichromate. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up. PMID:24504525

  16. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  17. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD. PMID:18173214

  18. Contact sensitivity to oak moss

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F.; Gonçalo, Margarida

    1988-01-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components.

  19. The allergens causing contact sensitization in textile industry workers

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Su; Dilek Biyik Ozkaya; Serpil Pirmit; Hande Arda Ulusal; Nahide Onsun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Our aim was to determine the frequency of contact sensitization to textile materials and the most common textile allergens in patients who work in the textile industry and have been diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Materials and Methods: Fifty textile industry workers, who attended our outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of ACD, between October 2005-December 2009, were enrolled in this study. While 50 patients were tested with the Thin layer-Rapid-...

  20. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Klaus E

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-working fluids contain complex mixtures of chemicals and metal workers constitute a potential risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis. Case presentation Two metal workers developed allergic contact dermatitis on the hands and lower arms from exposure to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin in the standard series. Conclusions These cases emphasize that well-known contact allergens may show up from unexpected sources of exposure. Further, it can be a long-lasting, laborious process to detect an occupational contact allergen and cooperation from the patient and the manufacturer of the sensitizing product is essential.

  1. The clinical effect of percutaneous histamine on allergic contact dermatitis elicited to fragrance mix

    OpenAIRE

    Lijnen, R.L.P.; Joost, Theo

    1995-01-01

    textabstractHistamine (2-(4-imidazol)ethylamine) has been shown to downregulate cell-mediated reactions in vitro. However, the role of such downregulation in vivo has not yet extensively been studied in humans. In an attempt to gain more insight into this, we studied in vivo the effect of percutaneous histamine on an allergic contact reaction elicited to fragrance mix in 28 human volunteers with previously-known sensitization (patch tests) to this allergen. Histamine (0.1 mg/ml) was administe...

  2. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected. PMID:20233551

  3. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions: follicular spongiosis may be characteristic of early allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed no...

  4. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis from 5 fungicides in a vineyard worker. Cross-reactions between fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, P

    1996-05-01

    We report a patient with occupational contact dermatitis due to sensitization to mancozeb and perhaps metiram used in a vineyard. Patch testing showed strong allergic patch test reactions to 2 of the commercially available preparations used (Dithane Ultra and Polyram WG). Further patch tests showed allergic patch test reactions to mancozeb (0.5 and 1% pet.), a weak reaction to metiram (1% pet.) as well as to 4 other fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group (maneb, nabam, propineb and zineb), which had never been used in the vineyard. PMID:8807224

  5. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication. PMID:26236520

  6. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hawkey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports’ material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  7. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis among construction workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the important occupational hazards in construction workers and it often leads to poor quality of life of the workers with substantial financial loss. However, this is often a neglected entity. There are no past studies on the construction workers in Indian subcontinent. Objective: This pilot study has been done to assess the allergological profile among the workers engaged in construction of roads and bridges. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among the workers working on construction of a bridge, flyover, and roads in West Bengal, India. Sixteen workers were selected on clinical suspicion. Ten were selected randomly and patch tested with Indian standard battery of patch test allergens. Analysis of reactions and relevance of positive test was assessed as per standard guidelines. Results: All the workers were men. Average age of workers was 24.8 years (range, 19-34 years. Dermatitis affected exposed parts in 93.75% and covered areas in 62.5%. Total positive test was 24 and relevant 11. Most common allergens were chromate (relevant allergy/RA: in 60% of patch tested workers, epoxy resin (RA: 30%, cobalt (RA: 20%, nickel (RA: 20%, thiuram mixture (RA: 10% and black rubber mix (RA: 10%. Two cases (20% had irritant contact dermatitis. Conclusion: The result indicated that chromate is the most frequent allergen among construction workers in this part of India. High frequency of involvement of the covered areas as well as the exposed areas highlighted the fact that the allergens had access to most body parts of the workers.

  8. Clinical and allergic sensitization characteristics of allergic rhinitis among the elderly population in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ayse Bilge; Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; Olmez, Merve Ozata

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in elderly population in Turkey is not known. Studies on the prevalence and features of allergy in older adults are needed to identify safe and effective diagnostic/therapeutic methods for elderly AR patients. We aimed to identify the clinical and allergic characteristics of sensitization to aeroallergens among individuals aged ≥60 years with allergic rhinitis admitted to an allergy outpatient clinic in Istanbul. Of 109 patients, 33.9 % were atopic. Sixty-five percent of subjects were sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 17 % to a grass-pollen mixture, 8 % to Aspergillus fumigatus, and 8 % to Blattella germanica. There was no difference between mono- and polysensitized patients in terms of the duration of rhinitis and symptom severity. No significant difference was observed between the two groups according to age, sex, smoking status, AR onset (<40 or ≥40 years), or duration/severity of disease. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the prevalence of asthma and conjunctivitis, (p = 0.256). Atopic dermatitis/eczema was more prevalent in those with AR (p = 0.046). Clinical characteristics of AR in the elderly could be different from those in non-allergic patients, and the prevalence of allergy may be higher than expected. PMID:25680346

  9. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsunori Yamaura; Ayana Tomono; Eriko Suwa; Koichi Ueno

    2013-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induc...

  10. A Case of Psoriasis Replaced by Allergic Contact Dermatitis in a 12-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Browning, John C

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a significant clinical problem in children and one that the use of essential oils and natural remedies probably exacerbates. We report a case of chronic plaque psoriasis replaced by allergic contact dermatitis in a 12-year-old boy. We suspect that the immunologic response to a hapten in lavender oil disrupted the pathogenesis of psoriasis, causing the psoriasis to temporarily "disappear." PMID:26646574

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer. PMID:16364130

  12. Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract induces allergic sensitization and allergic airway inflammation

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    Arizmendi Narcy G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization to aeroallergens develops in response to mucosal exposure to these allergens. Allergic sensitization may lead to the development of asthma, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The objective of this study is to describe in detail a model of mucosal exposure to cockroach allergens in the absence of an exogenous adjuvant. Methods Cockroach extract (CE was administered to mice intranasally (i.n. daily for 5 days, and 5 days later mice were challenged with CE for 4 consecutive days. A second group received CE i.n. for 3 weeks. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR was assessed 24 h after the last allergen exposure. Allergic airway inflammation was assessed by BAL and lung histology 48 h after the last allergen exposure. Antigen-specific antibodies were assessed in serum. Lungs were excised from mice from measurement of cytokines and chemokines in whole lung lysate. Results Mucosal exposure of Balb/c mice to cockroach extract induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, AHR and cockroach-specific IgG1; however, AHR to methacholine was absent in the long term group. Lung histology showed patchy, multicentric damage with inflammatory infiltrates at the airways in both groups. Lungs from mice from the short term group showed increased IL-4, CCL11, CXCL1 and CCL2 protein levels. IL4 and CXCL1 were also increased in the BAL of cockroach-sensitized mice in the short-term protocol. Conclusions Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract in the absence of adjuvant induces allergic airway sensitization characterized by AHR, the presence of Th2 cytokines in the lung and eosinophils in the airways.

  13. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yamaura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1, with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1% for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1% and betamethasone (0.01% significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.

  14. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate after photodynamic therapy in 9 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Sølvsten, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    This report describes 9 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate used for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The risk of developing contact allergy to methyl aminolevulinate in PDT treated patients was calculated to 1% after an average of 7 treatments (range 2...

  17. Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine after temporary henna painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Nour-Eldin, Osama

    2003-11-01

    The use of temporary natural henna painting for body adornment and hair dyeing is very common in several countries of the Indian subcontinent, Middle East, and North Africa, and the fad is spreading in other parts of the world. Several cases of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) contaminated, temporary traditional/natural henna induced sensitization and acute allergic reaction have been reported, along with occasional serious long term and rare fatal consequences. We report here a 17-year-old girl with blisters over her hands of five-days duration that appeared within 72 hours of applying a temporary henna paint to her hands during a social occasion. Similar lesions were noted on her face. She had previously applied black henna only once, a year earlier without developing any lesions. Clinical diagnosis of acute allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was made. After a short course of oral corticosteroids, topical mometasone furaote 1.0% cream, and oral antihistamines, the lesions healed completely over the next four weeks leaving post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. Patch testing done with standard European battery, PPD 1% in petrolatum, and commercially available natural henna powder revealed a 3+ reaction to PPD at 48 hours. No reaction was seen at the natural henna site. Awareness of the condition among physicians and the public and regulation regarding warnings of the risks of using such products is urgently warranted. PMID:14684936

  18. Induction of formaldehyde contact sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Vølund, A;

    1985-01-01

    The sensitizing potential of aqueous formaldehyde was evaluated with the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) in two laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm) using different guinea pig strains. Six intradermal (0.01%-3%), and 6 topical (0.5%-20%) concentrations were used for induction, and formalde......The sensitizing potential of aqueous formaldehyde was evaluated with the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) in two laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm) using different guinea pig strains. Six intradermal (0.01%-3%), and 6 topical (0.5%-20%) concentrations were used for induction, and...... formaldehyde 1% and 0.1% was used for challenge. The incidence of contact sensitivity depended on the intradermal, but not on the topical induction dose. Statistical analyses showed a non-monotonous (non-linear) dose response relationship. The estimated maximal sensitization rate in Copenhagen was 80% after...... intradermal induction with 0.65% formaldehyde; in Stockholm it was 84% after induction with 0.34%. The data from the two laboratories could be described by parallel displaced dose response curves suggesting that the guinea pig strain used in Stockholm was significantly more susceptible to formaldehyde than...

  19. Gene transcripts as potential diagnostic markers for allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil;

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix GeneChip, the gene expression was analysed in PBMC cultures grown with 100 microg/ml CrCl3 or in media alone for 24 hr. A total of 26 genes were differentially expressed by more than twofold (P < 0.01) in allergen-activated PBMCs from patients compared with controls. 18 of these were upregulated......, whereas 8 were downregulated. The expression of 1 downregulated gene, CASP8, was also found specifically and significantly reduced in an expanded population including 4 additional chromium allergic patients and 1 additional control subject by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT......-PCR) analysis. The expression of 2 upregulated genes, ETS2 and CISH, correlated with a high-proliferative response following CrCl3 exposure. Additionally, real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the same gene expression changes are valid for nickel allergics, potentially making the expression profile more...

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hugh; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce

    2006-12-01

    Dexpanthenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid (the water-soluble vitamin B(5)). Although it is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, contact allergy is relatively uncommon. Cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate is a phospholipid complex derived from pure coconut oil, and contact allergy is rare. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion. PMID:17101018

  1. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Mrinal Gupta; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Pushpinder S Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M: F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Ind...

  2. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis: Three years retrospective results in Tekirdağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Erfan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to allergens in individuals who were sensitized with same allergens before. The causative allergens may change in time as well as vary among geographical and population based differences. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of 169 patients-107 (63.3% male, 62 (36.7% female, who patch tested between 2011- 2014 with allergic contact dermatitis diagnosis and test results were retrospectively analysed. Results: The mean age of all patients who had the most frequent occupation as service sector/house wife (26.6% were 41.06 years and the mean disease duration of all patients was 19.5 months. The most frequent localization of disease was hands (n: 105,%73 and %50.3 of patients had positivity with at least one allergen. The most frequent seven allergens with positivity were nickel sulfate (n: 50, %29.6, cobalt chloride (n: 23, %13.6, potassium dichromate (n: 22, %13, sesquiterpene lactone mix (n: 18, %10.7, thiuram (n: 10, %5.9, clioquinol mix (n: 10, %5.9 and 4-tert-butilfenol formaldehyde resin (n: 10, %5.9, respectively. On the other hand in all patients there were no positivity with N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, epoxy resin, balsam of peru, formaldehyde, quaternium-15, primin, tixocortol-21-pivalate, fragrance mix-2. Conclusion: In comparison of this study which first reports patch test results of patients in Tekirdağ-a city in Trakya region and other studies that report patch test results of different regions of our country; the mean age of patients of present study were older and there were similar results for occupations and localization of disease in between eastern region and present study. We believe that further studies are needed to specify allergen characteristics of Trakya region using multicenter studies, which include other cities as well.

  3. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26771600

  4. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Kumagai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  5. Filaggrin mutations are strongly associated with contact sensitization in individuals with dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan; Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although heterozygous filaggrin gene (FLG) mutation carriers seem to have an increased risk of atopic, irritant and allergic nickel dermatitis, it remains unclear whether the risk of contact sensitization to allergens other than nickel is also elevated in FLG mutation carriers...... mutations. Conclusion. FLG mutation carriers with self-reported dermatitis have an increased risk of contact sensitization to substances other than nickel, whereas FLG mutations alone may not, or may only slightly, increase the risk of sensitization....

  6. The Prevalence and Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in Isparta, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Aynali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of allergic sensitization in Isparta. Material and Method: Of the patients, 266 were children, 213 were women, and 119 were men. Serum specific IgE levels were analyzed by %uFB02uoroenzymeimmunoassay method (UniCAP, Pharmacia and Upjohn Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden. Results: Serum specific IgE levels were positive in 27.1% of the adults and in 26.3% of the children. Hypersensitivity to allergens was determined in 32.9% of boys, in 16.7% of girls, in 40.3% of men, and in 19.7% of women. There was no difference in allergy prevalence in terms of age (p> 0.05. However, the prevalence of allergic sensitization in males was found significantly higher than in the females (p< 0.05. The most frequently encountered allergens were as follows: Ambrosia trifida(31.6 %, honey bee (31.2 %, elm (27.6 %, nuts (18.5 %, cow epithelium (17.4%, Acarus siro (11.5 %, and penicillin G (4.2 %. Discussion: It was determined that the rates of sensitization against grass and weed pollens, tree pollens, and foods were high in Isparta and they exhibited an increased tendency in males.

  7. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate at a paint factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Thormann, Jens; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    3-Iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC) is a fungicide used in both industrial products and cosmetics. We report the first case of allergic contact dermatitis from airborne exposure to this preservative. A 34-year-old female production worker at a paint factory developed dermatitis on air...

  8. Sensitization patterns in Compositae-allergic patients with current or past atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background. An association between Compositae sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been suggested on the basis of case reports and clinical studies. Objectives. To describe the characteristics of sensitization in Compositae-allergic patients with current and/or past atopic dermatitis. Patients....../materials/methods. Consecutive Compositae-sensitive patients were selected for analysis if they had a history of (i) present and/or past atopic dermatitis or (ii) childhood flexural eczema or (iii) childhood eczema of any kind and a positive prick test result. Results. Fifty-one persons (35 females and 16 males) were included...... of non-atopics, except that dandelion was an important allergen in children. Cobalt allergy was the most frequent other contact allergy, occurring in 37%. Conclusions. Persons with current or past atopic dermatitis may become sensitized to Compositae at any age, both occupationally and non...

  9. Racial Differences in Allergic Sensitization: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Zoratti, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities are present in many facets of health and disease. Allergy and asthma are no exceptions. Secondary results from cross-sectional and cohort studies have provided information on the scope of racial disparities in allergic sensitization in the United States. African American/Black individuals tend to be sensitized more frequently than White individuals. Little is known about rates in other race groups. Genetics are unlikely to be the sole or major cause of the observed differences. Home dust allergen and endotoxin levels cannot explain the differences. Studies that have been designed to specifically address the sources of these racial disparities are needed. A “Multilevel Framework” that considers the roles of the individual, family and community presents an excellent approach to guide design of future studies of the causes of these disparities. Understanding the causes of the disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals. PMID:23435599

  10. Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Model of Inflammatory Itch and Pain in Human and Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of published observations from our laboratory on the psychophysics and neurobiology of the persistent itch and pain of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD is a clinically significant problem with many features characteristic of other pruritic disorders. Our approach was to produce ACD experimentally in humans and in the mouse. The goal was to use the mouse as an animal model for investigating the peripheral neural mechanisms of itch and pain of ACD in humans. Humans and mice were each sensitized by cutaneous topical application of squaric acid dibutyl ester, a hapten not encountered in the environment. Subsequent challenge at another cutaneous site produced local inflammation ("ACD") with humans reporting persistent itch (lasting up to a week) and mice exhibiting persistent itch- and pain-like behaviors directed toward the ACD site. Enhanced mechanically evoked itch and pain in surrounding skin in humans were reversibly blocked by numbing the ACD site with cold, suggesting dependence on ongoing activity from the site. In mice, in vivo recordings revealed spontaneous activity in a subset of pruriceptive, mechanoheat-sensitive nociceptors with unmyelinated axons innervating the ACD site. These and a larger subpopulation of acutely dissociated small-diameter neurons innervating the ACD site exhibited an upregulation of the receptor CXCR3 and excitatory responses to one of its ligands, the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10) that contributes to the pathogenesis of ACD. Preliminary findings point to possible therapeutic targets that could be investigated in inflammatory itch disorders in humans. PMID:26900060

  11. Gene expression time course in the human skin during elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil;

    2007-01-01

    Genes involved in the inflammatory response resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are only partly known. In this study, we introduce the use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling in human skin during the elicitation of ACD. Skin biopsies from normal and...... nickel-exposed skin were obtained from seven nickel-allergic patients and five nonallergic controls at four different time points during elicitation of eczema. Each gene expression profile was analyzed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Cluster analysis of 74 genes found to be...

  12. Peanut sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossny Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published data on peanut sensitization in Egypt and the problem of peanut allergy seems underestimated. We sought to screen for peanut sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to their phenotypic manifestations. Methods We consecutively enrolled 100 allergic children; 2-10 years old (mean 6.5 yr. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for site of allergy, possible precipitating factors, consumption of peanuts (starting age and last consumption, duration of breast feeding, current treatment, and family history of allergy as well as skin prick testing with a commercial peanut extract, and serum peanut specific and total IgE estimation. Children who were found sensitized to peanuts were subjected to an open oral peanut challenge test taking all necessary precautions. Results Seven subjects (7% were sensitized and three out of six of them had positive oral challenge denoting allergy to peanuts. The sensitization rates did not vary significantly with gender, age, family history of allergy, breast feeding duration, clinical form of allergy, serum total IgE, or absolute eosinophil count. All peanut sensitive subjects had skin with or without respiratory allergy. Conclusions Peanut allergy does not seem to be rare in atopic children in Egypt. Skin prick and specific IgE testing are effective screening tools to determine candidates for peanut oral challenging. Wider scale multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of peanut allergy and its clinical correlates in our country.

  13. Combined contact and photocontact allergic dermatitis to etofenamate in flogoprofen gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, J; Sánchez, T S; García-Díez, A

    2001-12-01

    We report a case of combined contact and photocontact allergic dermatitis to etofenamate in Flogoprofen gel (Chiesi Wasserman, Barcelona, Spain). Patch test results were positive at the nonirradiated site, but there was a stronger reaction at the irradiated site with etofenamate 0.05% in petrolatum (pet.) at d2 and d4. The use frequent of topical agents containing etofenamate and sun exposure can result in a predisposition to contact photoallergy. Clinical findings caused by etofenamate are uncommon. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most common cutaneous reaction reported. In American studies observed, no reactions were observed to etofenamate in subjects with photosensitivity because it was not included in the series of antigens used in testing. PMID:11753896

  14. The natural course of sensitization and allergic diseases from childhood to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Susanne P.; Kjaer, Henrik F; Høst, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal prospective population-based birth cohort studies of the natural history of sensitization and allergic diseases from childhood to adulthood are few. The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate the natural course of sensitization and allergic diseases in a random...

  15. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen Klaus E; Jensen Charlotte D

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Metal-working fluids contain complex mixtures of chemicals and metal workers constitute a potential risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis. Case presentation Two metal workers developed allergic contact dermatitis on the hands and lower arms from exposure to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added...

  16. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in adolescents: prevalence measures and associations. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence measures of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark, and to examine the associations with atopic dermatitis, inhalant allergy and hand eczema. Contact ...... the course and development of atopic diseases, hand eczema and contact dermatitis. Key words: school-...

  17. A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON VICHARCHIKA VIS-À-VIS ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C Mythrey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is becoming a common skin problem all over the world. It accounts for about 4-7% of all dermatological problems. This is due to a delayed hypersensitivity reaction following contact with antigens. Hypersensitivity to chemicals appears to become a serious health problem for the general population, particularly in their work environment it will be the most incapacitating condition as a consequence of skin being exposed to chemical agents. Allergic contact dermatitis is characterized by erythema, scaling, edema, vesiculation and oozing. Itching varies from mild to severe. These features can be correlated with vicharchika. So in order to manage vicharchika in terms of Allergic contact dermatitis, a comparative study was done to evaluate the effect of virechana and shamanaushadhis. Group A was given virechana followed by shamanoushadhis i.e., Laghu sootashekara vati and Nava kwatha along with Manjishtadi taila for external application for 30days. Group B was given only shamanoushadhis for 30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by noting the prime lakshanas of vicharchika like shyava varna, pidaka, kandu and srava before and after the treatment and statistically analysed using student ‘t’ test. After treatment it is observed that, both shodhana chikitsa and shamana chikitsa have their own role in the management of vicharchika. Even statistically, both are having highly significant values within the individual groups. But when both shodhana and shamana treatment are statistically compared, they show no significant values which means that both are effective with no significant difference between them.

  18. Study of the frequency of allergens in cosmetics components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis Estudo da frequência dos alérgenos da bateria de cosméticos em pacientes com suspeita de dermatite alérgica de contato

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Aparecida Silva; Marcia Regina Miras Bosco; Érika Mozer

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common dermatosis, especially in adults and professionals who handle them. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to cosmetics' components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis and to identify the main sensitizers related to occupational contact dermatitis. METHODS: During the period of January 2008 to June 2010, all the patients with a presumptive diagnosis of allergic contact der...

  19. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing. PMID:18353040

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  1. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan;

    2011-01-01

    relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened...... for chemical sensitivity with a standardised questionnaire dividing the participants into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity. Both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions--defined as irritative, follicular, or doubtful allergic reactions--were analysed in relationship with severity of...... chemical sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing...

  2. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Callesen, Michael; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2015-01-01

    exposure and allergic sensitization in a large group of 3-5 year old children: 300 random controls and 200 cases with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis as reported in questionnaires. The children were clinically examined to confirm their health status. Blood samples were analyzed for Ig...

  3. IL-23 and T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To investigate T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human beings with allergic contact dermatitis; in particular, the innate response of keratinocytes to contact allergen, the induction of allergen-specific T(H)17 cells, and the presence of T(H)17-related effector cells in inflamed skin. METHODS......-term ex vivo assay. Nickel patch test lesions and normal skin were analyzed for the expression of T(H)17-related cells and molecules by using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Keratinocytes were found to produce IL-23, but no detectable IL-12, in a response to nickel stimulation. Memory T cells isolated from...... peripheral blood of individuals with nickel allergy, but not healthy controls, contained T(H)17 and T(H)1 cells proliferating in response to nickel-pulsed DCs. Inflamed skin of nickel-challenged allergic individuals contained infiltrating neutrophils and cells expressing IL-17, IL-22, CCR6, and IL-22R...

  4. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis. PMID:26909810

  5. Contact Sensitivity and Bioavailability of Chlorocresol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn; Carlsen, Lars; Andersen, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Chlorocresol sensitization from 5 topical preparations was determined in guinea pigs using the cumulative contact enhancement test. Chlorocresol 5% in olive oil/acetone (4/1), and 5% in aqueous suspension stabilized with carbomer 941 were more sensitizing (55% and 60% of the animals positive, res....... No simple relationship between the sensitization rates and the calculated bioavailability was observed with the preparations tested....

  6. Pre-Emptive Avoidance Strategy (P.E.A.S.) - addressing allergic contact dermatitis in pediatric populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Golkar, Linda; Beck, Kristyn; Williams, Judith; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been increasingly recognized in the United States. Reported rates of positive patch tests in children referred for suspected ACD range between 27 and 95.6%. Many young children are becoming sensitized to contact allergens found in personal hygiene products. We reviewed five recent pediatric patch test studies to determine the top allergens associated with this source of ACD in children. The top ten allergens were neomycin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix, lanolin, cocamidopropylbetaine, formaldehyde, corticosteroids, methylchlorisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), propylene glycol, and benzalkonium chloride. We estimate that one third of children suffering from ACD could potentially benefit from a 'pre-emptive avoidance strategy' (P.E.A.S.) of the stated top 10 allergens. PMID:26764601

  7. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 10 loci influencing allergic sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Strachan, David P; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Linneberg, Allan; Curtin, John A; Warrington, Nicole M; Standl, Marie; Kerkhof, Marjan; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Bukvic, Blazenka K; Kaakinen, Marika; Sleimann, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schramm, Katharina; Baltic, Svetlana; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Simpson, Angela; St Pourcain, Beate; Coin, Lachlan; Hui, Jennie; Walters, Eugene H; Tiesler, Carla M T; Duffy, David L; Jones, Graham; Ring, Susan M; McArdle, Wendy L; Price, Loren; Robertson, Colin F; Pekkanen, Juha; Tang, Clara S; Thiering, Elisabeth; Montgomery, Grant W; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Husemoen, Lise L; Herder, Christian; Kemp, John P; Elliot, Paul; James, Alan; Waldenberger, Melanie; Abramson, Michael J; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Gupta, Ramneek; Thompson, Philip J; Holt, Patrick; Sly, Peter; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Blekic, Mario; Weidinger, Stephan; Hakonarsson, Hakon; Stefansson, Kari; Heinrich, Joachim; Postma, Dirkje S; Custovic, Adnan; Pennell, Craig E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koppelman, Gerard H; Timpson, Nicholas; Ferreira, Manuel A; Bisgaard, Hans; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgE (allergic sensitization) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the top SNP from 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association to allergic sensitization from three to 10, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2 and HLA-B. All the top-SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk variants at these 10 loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may provide novel insight into the etiology of allergic disease. PMID:23817571

  8. 233 The Evaluation of Allergen Sensitivity in Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Allergic Asthma Patients in Antalya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Polat, Hasan Hüseyin; Kamaci, Fulya; Bisgin, Atil; Gorczynski, Reginald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem which has 2 forms; seasonal and perennial. The prevalence and etiology of allergic rhinitis varies from region to region and affect 10 to 20% of the population approximately. The prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease were detected as 8.2%, 10.8% and 7.5% respectively in Antalya, the south coast of Turkey. Methods The study was conducted in Antalya between 10th of November 2009 and 20th of September 2010. 866 of 2862 patients who had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma were enrolled in the study due to having high total IgE levels in blood conducted at the Allergy-Immunology Division of Antalya Research and Training Hospital. Allergen-spesific subcutaneous immunotherapy was given 626 of 866 patients. Results Of the 866 patients studied, 66.1 % were females. Most of the cases had declaired that the rhinitis symptomes were due to pollens and house dust the second most common irritant. Also the cases have said that their symptoms got worse with exposure to dust, smoke, heavy odors, perfumes, and detergents. Most of the patients have said that air pollution was the most important factor that exacerbated the symptoms of rhinitis and asthma. While there is a comparison between the age and SPT positivity, Aspergillus fumigatus and Dpteronyssinus sensitivity was statistically different in the mites and fungal mixture dermal test groups. As a result, in the study group of 866 allergic rhinitis patients, only the Plantagolanceolata, Corylusavellana, Aspergillus fumigatus, Dpteronyssinus and cockroach sensitivity was significantly varies with the age. Conclusions In allergic diseases; we all know that allergens may have regional variations. That's why; the allergen profiles of the regions must be determined and the dermal Prick tests must be prepared accordingly. Mostly grass and cereal mixtures and mites are responsible from the allergic rhinitis cases due to our observations in our clinic

  9. Comparison of two in vitro dendritic cell maturation models for screening contact sensitizers using a panel of methacrylates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustemeyer, T.; Preuss, M; Blomberg - van der Flier, von B.M.E.; Das, PK; Scheper, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Allergen-induced emigration and maturation of dendritic cells (DC) are pivotal steps in sparking off allergic contact dermatitis. In vitro models, reflecting these steps, may provide tools for assessment of sensitizing capacities of putative contact allergens. Here, we evaluated the applicability of

  10. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  11. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are both common skin diseases having an immune pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest about their inter-relationships with regard to altered susceptibility. Recent investigations have shed new light on this important question, and in...... this article, we explore whether there is evidence that atopic dermatitis affects the risk of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The use of topical products to treat xerotic and inflamed skin in atopic dermatitis often results in a higher prevalence of sensitization to, for example......, fragrances and other ingredients in emollients. Moreover, the prevalence of metal allergy seems to be increased, probably due to compromised chelation of the metals in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, conversely, the T-helper cell 2 bias that characterizes immune responses in...

  12. Deodorants are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria S Vølund; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrances frequently cause contact allergy, and cosmetic products are the main causes of fragrance contact allergy. As the various products have distinctive forms of application and composition of ingredients, some product groups are potentially more likely to play a part in allergic...... reactions than others. Aim. To determine which cosmetic product groups cause fragrance allergy among Danish eczema patients. Method. This was a retrospective study based on data collected by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Participants (N = 17716) were consecutively patch tested with...... fragrance markers from the European baseline series (2005-2009). Results. Of the participants, 10.1% had fragrance allergy, of which 42.1% was caused by a cosmetic product: deodorants accounted for 25%, and scented lotions 24.4%. A sex difference was apparent, as deodorants were significantly more likely to...

  13. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M Craig; McAlexander, M Allen; Herrick, Christina A; Jordt, Sven E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1(-/-) mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  14. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis: an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T;

    2004-01-01

    double-blind, randomized repeated open application test (ROAT) using two coded liquid soaps with and without MDBGN. Areas of 50 cm2 on the lower arms were washed with the soaps twice a day for up to 28 days; two of the subjects continued for 34 days. The subjects were also patch tested with a dilution...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis due to rosin (colophony) in eyeshadow and mascara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A A

    1988-12-01

    Three patients are reported with allergic reactions to rosin in eye makeup: two to eyeshadow and one to mascara. In each instance, the dermatitis was bilateral and symmetrical. Several popular eyeshadow and mascara preparations contain rosin, while the Almay products are free of this ingredient. Rosin-sensitive patients should be instructed to read cosmetic ingredient labels before using any product and should realize that the European term "colophony" is a synonym for rosin. The numerous products that rosin-sensitive persons must avoid will be discussed in a future article. PMID:3229138

  16. Dermal Wound Fibroblasts and Matrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs: Their Possible Role in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine if allergic contact dermatitis (ACD alters the expression of MMPs in human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are the primary source for MMP and matrix production in skin. MMPs are known to involve in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Some published data indicated a gelatinase-like activity in acute and chronic phases of allergic contact dermatitis. However, no exact source of gelatinase activity was demonstrated. Moreover, little is known about the role of MMPs in immune responses.To study and predict the pathophysiological effects of (MMP-2 in allergic contact dermatitic (ACD patients, we established an in vitro tissue culture survey based on fibroblast explanted from ACD wounds and normal tissues respectively. We also employed a precise proliferation assay [i.e. MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] to analyze and compare three ACD vs. three normal cell strains. Parallel to MTT assay, we assessed the activity as well as the kinetics of gelatinase (MMP-2 in conditioned media using a zymogeraphy analysis. There was a significant difference in proliferation capacity between mean ACD fibroblast strains vs. mean normal cells, particularly in days 6 to 8 post explantation, 492.5±6.6 vs. 361.75±8.25 respectively. Zymoanalyses indicated significant differences between ACD cells and normal fibroblasts both in time-course and MMP-2 activity per cell fashions, 163.7±16.21 for mean ACD fibroblasts vs. 130±9.09 for normal cells respectively. These data suggest that fibroblasts overproliferated in the process of ACD.  Moreover, simultaneous overexpression of MMPs observed in ACD fibroblasts vs. normal strains, is indicative of altered fibroblast functionality in the process of allergic contactdermatitis. The activity per cell analysis showed that MMP-2 expression in ACD fibroblasts is independent of cell number, suggesting that either intra- or inter-cellular control

  17. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Matheson, Melanie C; Pers, Tune Hannes;

    2013-01-01

    top SNP at each of 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association with allergic sensitization from three to ten, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2...... and HLA-B. All the top SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk-associated variants at these ten loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may...

  18. Allergic skin inflammation induced by chemical sensitizers is controlled by the transcription factor Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ali, Zeina; Gerbeix, Cédric; Hemon, Patrice; Esser, Philipp R; Martin, Stefan F; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is induced by low-molecular weight electrophilic chemicals and metal ions. Chemical contact sensitizers trigger reactive oxygen species production and provoke electrophilic stress, leading to the accumulation of the transcription factor nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in innate immune cell types. The objective of this work was to identify the role of Nrf2 in the regulation of ACD. We used the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) to study the role of Nrf2 in both the sensitization and elicitation phase in nrf2 knockout (nrf2(-/-)) and wild-type (nrf2(+/+)) mice. Five chemicals were used: two compounds known to react with cysteine residues, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and cinnamaldehyde (CinA); one sensitizer known to exhibit mixed reactivity to cysteine and lysine residues, isophorone diisocyanate; and one reacting specifically with lysine residues, trimellitic anhydride and croton oil, a well-known irritant. In the MEST assay, DNCB (1 and 2%) induced a significant increase in ear thickness in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice, suggesting a role for Nrf2 in the control of the inflammatory process. When DNCB was used at 0.25 and 0.5% or when mice were treated with CinA, inflammation was found only in nrf2(-/-) mice. In the LLNA, all chemical sensitizers induced an increase of lymphocyte proliferation in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice for the same chemical concentration. These results reveal an important role for Nrf2 in controlling ACD and lymphocyte proliferation in response to sensitizers. PMID:23564646

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. PMID:26916211

  20. The association between alcohol consumption and contact sensitization in Danish adults: the Glostrup Allergy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Nielsen, N.H.; Linneberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Population-based epidemiological studies have indicated that alcohol consumption is associated with IgE-mediated immune diseases (i.e. allergic rhinitis, asthma and urticaria). These studies have been strongly supported by several immunological studies. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect...... of alcohol consumption on the development of delayed-type hypersensitivity has been shown in healthy controls. However, a possible association between contact sensitization and alcohol consumption in a general population has never been reported. Objectives To investigate whether alcohol consumption...

  1. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  2. Effect of 6'-acetylpaeoniflorin on dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiaodan; Jia, Xiaoyi; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Chun; Wei, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a classical experimental model of allergic inflammatory skin disease, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by hapten-specific T lymphocytes. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of 6'-acetylpaeoniflorin (6-AP) and the effect of 6-AP on the ACD model. 6-AP was synthesized from paeoniflorin (Pae) via acetylation, and the structure was confirmed. There were statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters including t 1/2α , t 1/2β , AUC, MRT and C max among the animals that were orally administered Pae and 6-AP. An ACD model was induced using immunization with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in BALB/c mice. The mice were orally administered 6-AP (35, 70 and 140 mg/kg/d), Pae (70 mg/kg/d) and prednisone (Pre, 5 mg/kg/d) from day 1 to day 7 after immunization. The results indicated that the topical application of DNCB to the skin provoked obvious inflammatory responses. 6-AP significantly inhibited ear swelling and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and epidermal keratinization. Additionally, 6-AP observably alleviated the hyperplasia of red pulp and germinal center appearance, decreased the spleen index and inhibited splenocyte proliferation in the ACD model compared to that of Pae. Furthermore, the study indicated that 6-AP could increase the IL-10 level, while simultaneously reducing the IL-17 level in splenocytes. In summary, these results suggest that 6-AP has a significantly higher anti-inflammatory effect than Pae and that 6-AP might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases. PMID:26798038

  3. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Dirksen, Asger;

    2011-01-01

    relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened...... chemical sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing...

  4. Contact sensitivity in palmar hyperkeratotic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minocha Y

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available 230 patients presenting with palmar hyperkeratotic dermatitis were investigated by patch tests against various antigens depending upon occupation of the patients. Contact sensitivity was detected in 130 patients comprising of housewives (55, businessmen (20, farmers (15, teachers / clerks / students (13, doctors and nurses (9, factory workers and labourers (8, massons (7 and motor mechanics (3. Vegetables were found to be the most common agents followed by detergents and metals predominantly affecting housewives. Among the vegetables, garlic and onion were the most potent sensitizers whereas nickel was a common sensitizer among metals. Occupational factors were seen to have some influence in relation to the causative agents as indicated by higher positivity of vegetables in housewives; detergents, metals, rubber, leather, plastics in businessmen, teachers, clerks and students; fertilizers or animal foods in farmers; drugs in doctors and nurses and chromium and cobalt in massons.

  5. [Facial allergic contact dermatitis. Data from the IVDK and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Uter, W

    2009-01-01

    The face is exposed to many foreign substances and may thus be a site of allergic contact dermatitis. Our aim is to elucidate the spectrum of factors associated with facial dermatitis by analyzing data of patients patch tested in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between 1995 and 2007. In 18,572 patients the main anatomical site of dermatitis was the face. Among these, the proportion of females and of patients with past or present atopic eczema was increased, while probable occupational causation was less common than in the overall group. Cosmetic allergens, as well as nickel, were significantly more common in women than men, including fragrance mix (10.8% vs. 8.3%), p-phenylenediamine (4.0% vs. 2.8%), lanolin alcohols (3.0% vs. 2.2%), Lyral(TM) (3.1% vs. 2.0%) and bufexamac (1.8% vs. 1.1%). In comparison, only epoxy resin contact allergy was diagnosed significantly more often in men than women: In patients with airborne contact dermatitis, over-represented allergens included sesquiterpene lactone mix, compositae mix, epoxy resin, (chloro-) methylisothiazolinone and oil of turpentine. In the clinical approach to patients with facial dermatitis, occupational airborne causation should be considered in addition to non-occupational (e.g., cosmetic) allergen exposure. PMID:19099269

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens. PMID:9293658

  7. Contact allergens in persons with leg ulcers: a Canadian study in contact sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Victoria; Alavi, Afsaneh; Coutts, Pat; Fierheller, Marjorie; Coelho, Sunita; Linn Holness, D; Sibbald, R Gary

    2008-09-01

    Individuals with chronic leg ulcers often develop contact allergic reactions to topical preparations used to treat their wounds and the surrounding skin. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive patch test responses to common allergens in patients with leg ulcers or venous disease. A case series of 100 consecutive, consenting patients with chronic venous disease and other causes of leg ulcers that were available for patch testing were enrolled. The patients were tested with 38 common allergens, including those most relevant to leg ulcers. A total of 46% of the patients had at least 1 positive patch test response. Multiple reactions in the same patient were common. The most frequent groups of sensitizers were fragrances, lanolin, antibacterial agents, and rubber-related allergens. Though the prevalence of positive patch test reactions is high in this population, it is lower than commonly reported. This may be the result of clinical practice that considered the avoidance of common sensitizers in the management of patients with leg ulcers. PMID:18757387

  8. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Western Black Sea Region: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rafet; Cevdet; Nilgün; Saniye; Sibel; Tuna

    2011-01-01

    Background and Design: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 304 patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), who were tested with the European Standard Series, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of positive reactions to different sensitizers in patients with ACD and to identify sex and age differences.Material and Method: We evaluated a total of 304 patients (195 (64.1%) female and 109 (35.9%) male) who applied to our clinic between the perio...

  9. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in Yozgat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen Özel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Patch testing is valuable in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD as well as in determining the causative agent and thus is helpful in prevention of the disease and also provides information for the patient Material and Method: Hundred and sixty-eight patients (94 female and 74 male with ACD were patch tested with European standard series. Patch test result were assessed according to suggestion of International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application. Results: Of the patients, 64.3% were between 16-45 years of age and majority of the lesions (57.1% were localized on the hands. A total of 86 (51.1% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (20.2% followed by potassium dichromate (8.3%, cobalt chloride (7.1%, fragrance mix (7.1%, paraphenylendiamine base (6%, paraben mix 3.6%, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (3.6%, wool alcohols (3.6%, formaldehyde (3.6%, quaternium-15 (3.6%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to neomycin sulfate, epoxy resin, 4-tert-butylphenolformaldehyde resin, sesquiterpenelactone mix, primin, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-1, budesonide, lyral were relatively low (1.2%, while no positive reaction was obtained to clioquinol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile in any case. Conclusion: Since no similar study has been previously performed in our area, this study provides information about contact allergen profile in patients underwent skin patch test with a diagnosis of AKD at Yozgat. The most frequent allergens detected with ASS and frequency rates may vary among different facilities at various cities of Turkey. A standard series for our country may be created after assessment of regional variability by new studies conducted in same time zone.

  10. Dietary nucleotide and nucleoside exposure in infancy and atopic dermatitis, recurrent wheeze, and allergic sensitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Theunisz, E.H.; Ewalds, D.; Thijs, C.; Mommers, M.; Arts, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that early life exposure to nucleotides and nucleosides lowers the risk of recurrent wheeze, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization among n = 429 children. Concentrations in breast milk were established by high-performance liquid chromatography; concentrations in formula milks

  11. Contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  12. Exposure to cats: update on risks for sensitization and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Lodge, Caroline L; Matheson, Melanie C; Campbell, Brittany; Lowe, Adrian J

    2012-10-01

    Cats are the pets most commonly implicated in the etiology of asthma and allergic disease. However, systematic reviews have concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the idea that cat exposure in early life increases the risk of allergic disease. Indeed, it appears most likely that cat exposure is protective against allergic diseases. Recent large prospective studies have shown that living with a cat during childhood, especially during the first year of a child's life, could be protective. However, any advice given to the parents should also incorporate how new acquisition of cats can affect other family members, especially those who are already sensitized. Research is urgently needed to determine whether the suggested impact of acquisition of cats in adult life is modified by the person's childhood pet ownership, to help parents who seek advice on whether or not to get a cat. PMID:22878928

  13. The Danish urban-rural gradient of allergic sensitization and disease in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N;

    2016-01-01

    allergens also decreased with decreasing degree of urbanized upbringing measured by sIgE to 4 common allergens as odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals with city as reference; town 0.60 (0.39-0.92), rural area 0.34 (0.22-0.52) and farm 0.31 (0.21-0.46). Furthermore, it was measured by SPT to 10 common...... allergens; town 0.52 (0.33-0.84), rural area 0.34 (0.21-0.53) and farm 0.29 (0.19-0.45). This urban-rural association was also seen for the risk of sensitization to specific allergens, rhinitis and allergic asthma. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show an urban-rural gradient of overall allergic......BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of allergic sensitization among children is lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the world. The aim was to investigate the urban-rural differences of allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens in adults depending on childhood exposure living in an...

  14. Molecular aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to plants. Recent progress in phytodermatochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benezra, C; Ducombs, G

    1987-01-01

    A classification of plants based on the chemical structures of their skin sensitizers is presented. A whole range of chemical structures of contact sensitizers exists in plants containing sesquiterpene lactones (Compositae, Frullania, Lauraceae etc.), tulipalin (Tulipa, Alstroemeria etc.), quinones (Primula and tropical woods), long chain phenols (Anacardiaceae, Ginkgoaceae) and miscellaneous structures such as aldehydes, ketones, terpene hydrocarbons etc. Knowledge of allergens in various plants allows prediction of cross-reactivity. PMID:3569049

  15. Two-year follow-up survey of patients with allergic contact dermatitis from an occupational cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring; Carøe, T K; Thomsen, S F;

    2014-01-01

    rubber chemicals and latex (ubiquitous allergens) and epoxy (nonubiquitous allergen), 2 years after recognition of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: From a cohort of all patients recognized as having occupational dermatitis by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries in 2010, 199...... patients with relevant rubber allergy (contact allergy to rubber chemicals or contact urticaria from latex) or epoxy allergy were identified. Follow-up consisted of a questionnaire covering current severity of eczema, employment, exposure and quality of life. RESULTS: The response rate was 75%. Clearance...

  16. 167 Allergen Sensitization in Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rigalt, Ann Michelle; Maselli, Juan Pablo; Alvarado, Ninotchka; Carpio, Paola; Chur, Víctor; Mayén, Patricia; Morán, Edgar; Pinto, Mario; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no previous studies published reporting allergen sensitizations in the population of most Central American countries, including Guatemala. There are many types of climates in different regions, with variable altitude, humidity, etc. The purpose of this study was to determine the most common allergen sensitizations in children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in 4 different regions. Methods The study was performed on 461 children aged 5 to 15 years, from 4 different regio...

  17. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  18. Pollen aero allergens and the climate in mediterranean region and allergen sensitivity in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Basaran, Saime; Bisgin, Atil; Polat, Hasan Huseyin; Gorczynski, Reginald M.

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the profiles of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma patients annually in Antalya, a Mediterranean coastal city in Turkey. Material/Methods We evaluated patients’ allergic clinical status, and recorded the climate and pollens in the city center air, investigating any correlation between pollination, climatic conditions and allergic disorders. The meteorological conditions and the pollen count/cm2 during every month of the year and the concordance of this with the p...

  19. 233 The Evaluation of Allergen Sensitivity in Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Allergic Asthma Patients in Antalya, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Polat, Hasan Hüseyin; Kamaci, Fulya; Bisgin, Atil; Gorczynski, Reginald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem which has 2 forms; seasonal and perennial. The prevalence and etiology of allergic rhinitis varies from region to region and affect 10 to 20% of the population approximately. The prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic eye disease were detected as 8.2%, 10.8% and 7.5% respectively in Antalya, the south coast of Turkey. Methods The study was conducted in Antalya between 10th of November 2009 and 20th of September 2010. 866 o...

  20. Clinico-allergological pattern of allergic contact dermatitis among 70 Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization, westernization of lifestyles, poor quality of objects available and extremely relaxed vigilance on adherence to ′product safety guidelines′ make any developing country like India highly susceptible to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD even in children. There has been no previous attempts to assess the magnitude of childhood ACD in India. Aims: To assess the clinico-allergological profile of ACD in Indian children. Methods: All consecutive children up to 15 completed years of age who were patch tested over the last 3 years were analyzed from the records. Results: A total of 70 children were studied (average age of disease onset 8.39±3.59 years [SD], range 1-15 years and average age of presentation 10.8 ± 2.99 years [SD], range 5-15 years. Relevant allergy was noted in 48.6% of the patients. Age and sex had no significant role on the prevalence of ACD. Common allergens were paraben (43%, potassium dichromate (27% and fragrance mix (26%. Most relevant allergens were potassium dichromate, paraben and fragrance. Foot was the most commonly involved site (25.7% of patients. Atopy was present in 18 patients (25.7%. A total of 22 irritant reactions were noted in 13 patients. Conclusion: This study reflects the current status of childhood ACD of this region.

  1. Selective depletion of Foxp3+ Treg during sensitization phase aggravates experimental allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, Abdul Mannan; Hartl, Andrea; Lahl, Katharina; Krishnaswamy, Jayendra Kumar; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Yildirim, Ali O; Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald; Behrens, Georg M N; Sparwasser, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies highlight the role of Treg in preventing unnecessary responses to allergens and maintaining functional immune tolerance in the lung. We investigated the role of Treg during the sensitization phase in a murine model of experimental allergic airway inflammation by selectively depleting the Treg population in vivo. DEpletion of REGulatory T cells (DEREG) mice were depleted of Treg by diphtheria toxin injection. Allergic airway inflammation was induced using OVA as a model allergen. Pathology was assessed by scoring for differential cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage, IgE and IgG1 levels in serum, cytokine secretion analysis of lymphocytes from lung draining lymph nodes and lung histology. Use of DEREG mice allowed us for the first time to track and specifically deplete both CD25(+) and CD25(-) Foxp3(+) Treg, and to analyze their significance in limiting pathology in allergic airway inflammation. We observed that depletion of Treg during the priming phase of an active immune response led to a dramatic exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation in mice, suggesting an essential role played by Treg in regulating immune responses against allergens as early as the sensitization phase via maintenance of functional tolerance. PMID:20544727

  2. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  3. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takuma, E-mail: katotaku@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Wang, Linan [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kuribayashi, Kagemasa [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  4. A STUDY ON DRUG PRESCRIPTION PATTERN IN ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS AT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a common inflammatory skin disease. Appropriate and effective drug therapy can ensure immense therapeutic benefit in patients suffering from ACD. The study was carried out to find out prescribing pattern in ACD at a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. METHODOLOGY: Patients of allergic contact dermatitis who attended Dermatology outpatient department of KVG Medical College and hospital were the subjects of study. Prescription patterns and other relevant findings were recorded in proforma for analysis and interpretation of data. RESULTS: 209 patients of ACD were included in the study group. Topical corticosteroids and antibiotics were prescribed as monotherapy and polytherapy. Corticosteroides, antibiotics, antihistaminics were prescribed as systemic monotherapy and polytherapy. Statistical analysis revealed p-value was > 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription patterns were in consensus with the general guidelines, with few changes perhaps, in the choice of established therapeutic agents.

  5. Contact sensitizers induce skin inflammation via ROS production and hyaluronic acid degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp R Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vitro and in vivo ROS production using fluorescent ROS detection reagents. HA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis. The influence of blocking ROS production and HA degradation by antioxidants, hyaluronidase-inhibitor or p38 MAPK inhibitor was analyzed in the murine CHS model. Here, we demonstrate that organic contact sensitizers induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a concomitant breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM component hyaluronic acid (HA to pro-inflammatory low molecular weight fragments in the skin. Importantly, inhibition of either ROS-mediated or enzymatic HA breakdown prevents sensitization as well as elicitation of CHS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data identify an indirect mechanism of contact sensitizer induced innate inflammatory signaling involving the breakdown of the ECM and generation of endogenous danger signals. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for anti-oxidants and hyaluronidase inhibitors in prevention and treatment of ACD.

  6. Improved detection of allergen-specific T-cell responses in allergic contact dermatitis through the addition of 'cytokine cocktails'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Helen; von Blomberg, Mary; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Scheper, Rik; Gibbs, Susan; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic hypersensitivity is skin patch testing with the suspected allergens. This diagnostic tool, however, has distinct disadvantages, and therefore the development of alternative or complementary in vitro tests is of great importance. In this study, we evaluate the applicability of an in vitro test method, as developed earlier for nickel allergy, to detect allergen-specific T cells in the blood of patients allergic to frequent sensitizers (chromate, cobalt, paraphenylenediamine, fragrances and chloromethyl-isothiazolinone). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of allergic patients and healthy controls were cultured in the absence or presence of allergen. Additionally, type 1 (IL-7 and IL-12) or type 2 (IL-7 and IL-4) stimulating cytokines were added; after 6-day proliferation, IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretions were determined. Without the addition of cytokines, consistent allergen-induced proliferation was observed in PBMCs of nickel-allergic patients only. By contrast, the addition of type 1 or type 2 stimulating cytokines resulted in a significantly enhanced allergen-specific proliferation for all allergens tested (sensitivity increased from 26 to 43% or 38%, respectively, P exploration of the application of this test to a broader set of allergens. PMID:16026586

  7. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Secor, Eric R.; Szczepanek, Steven M.; Castater, Christine A.; Adami, Alexander J.; Matson, Adam P.; Rafti, Ektor T.; Linda Guernsey; Prabitha Natarajan; McNamara, Jeffrey T.; Craig M. Schramm; Thrall, Roger S.; Silbart, Lawrence K.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr), a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). However, sBr's effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization...

  8. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment. Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M: F 47:33 consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet. Results: 54 Fifty-four (M: F 21:33 patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71% patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use.

  9. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, J M; Bindslev-Jensen, C;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are common in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological knowledge is sparse for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis in this age group. Furthermore, no population-based studies have evaluated the prevalence of atopic diseases and hand and contact...... dermatitis in the same group of adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence measures of atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, allergic rhinitis and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents in Odense municipality, Denmark. METHODS: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study among 1501 eighth grade...... associated. A considerable number of adolescents still suffers from AD, and a considerable sex difference was noted for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel allergy and perfume allergy were the major contact allergies. In the future this cohort of eighth grade school children will be followed...

  10. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Secor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD. However, sBr’s effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes. OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET+ cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c+ dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Crother

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate, but not a high dose (severe CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n. with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  13. Biological monitoring and allergic sensitization in traffic police officers exposed to urban air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Bisceglia, L; Tatò, I; Bellotta, M R; Russo, A; Martina, G; Daprile, C; Di Leo, E; Nettis, E; Assennato, G

    2006-01-01

    Urban air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the occupational exposure to urban pollution through biological monitoring of PAHs and CO airborne levels in 122 traffic wardens in Bari, Italy and to investigate sensitization to inhaled allergens in a subgroup of workers. After filling in a questionnaire on lifestyle habits and occupational history, a medical examination, spirometry were carried out and blood samples were taken; the measurement of exhaled CO and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) was performed and data on the air quality of Bari Municipality were obtained. Specific IgE dosage and skin prick tests were done on 18 workers giving altered values of spirometry or anamnestic allergic symptoms. Urinary 1-HOP showed median levels of 0.1 microMol/Mol(creat) (range 0.02-6.68) and was not influenced by smoking habits, work tasks, area of the city and environmental levels of PM10. Exhaled CO, with median value of 1 ppm (range 0-27), was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, while no other variable seemed to play a role in modifying the levels. Specific IgE production versus inhalant allergens was found in 6 cases. Positive skin prick test results were observed in 11 cases. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 6 cases. At least one of the allergometric tests performed was positive in 61 percent of the subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest the importance of introducing allergic status evaluation in this class of workers, exposed to several urban air pollutants. PMID:17291408

  14. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  15. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah [Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamri-Saad, Mohamad [Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Lajis, Nordin Hj [Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Israf, Daud Ahmad, E-mail: daud.israf@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  16. Raised interleukin-13 levels in cord blood increases the risk of allergic sensitization at 5 years of age.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin Uzuner; Arzu Babayigit Hocaoglu; Duygu Olmez Erge; Suna Asilsoy; Ozkan Karaman; Zekiye Altun; Abdullah Kumral; Ozlem Tufekci; Huray Islekel

    2013-01-01

    The identification of early markers of atopy in cord blood of newborns at delivery may offer prediction of future allergic sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cord blood interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and development of allergic diseases during the first five years of life. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery from 62 newborns. The families of these newborns were asked to complete a questionnaire abo...

  17. Evaluation of the impact of severity of itching symptoms on the level of depression in patients with allergic contact eczema (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Czarny-Działak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent skin disorders in the general population as well as among people who work professionally. Allergic contact allergens are simple chemical compounds. The most common are nickel and fragrance substances. Aim of the research : To estimate if and how the degree of itching in allergic contact dermatitis influences the development of depression. Material and methods: The treatment was conducted on a group of 17 people with allergic contact dermatitis. Each person was treated in order to estimate the level of depression using Becks scale and the level of itching. Next, it was estimated if the level of itching had any influence on the development of depression. Results: All skin diseases, including allergic contact eczema affect the biological and psychosocial functioning, and the quality of human. Five patients out of 17 showed features of depression: 3 mild (2 men and 1 woman, which is the most common state of transition, and 2 (women moderately-severe depressive symptoms. Both patients with moderately-severe depressive symptoms had a significant degree of severity of pruritus. Conclusions: It was stated that the level of itching has no influence on the development of depression.

  18. Recent trends in epidemiology, sensitization and legal requirements of selected relevant contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    last 5 years, a comprehensive review of methylisothiazolinone, chromium, cobalt, rubber accelerators and fragrance ingredients were conducted. Of each allergen we discuss in detail the temporal trend of prevalence, source of exposure, clinical manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis and...

  19. Sensitization and exposure to pet allergens in asthmatics versus non-asthmatics with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, A H; Holmen, T L; Bjermer, L

    2001-02-01

    In sensitized subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) or asthma, allergen exposure provokes symptoms. Among non-asthmatics with AR, an association between allergen sensitization, pollen season and lower airway inflammation has been demonstrated. Our aims were to compare AR and asthma with regard to patterns of allergen sensitization, the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and levels of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO). Finally, we wanted to relate our findings to previous or current exposure to household pets. Four hundred and thirty-one adolescents with different clinical phenotypes were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey. They were investigated with allergy screening, measurements of ENO and a methacholine bronchoprovocation test. Sensitization to pet allergens (cat, dog and horse) was associated with increased AHR and ENO both in asthmatics and non-asthmatics with AR. The risk of being sensitized to cat allergens was significantly reduced in those who had kept cats vs. those who had never kept them. Keeping dogs or horses did not influence the risk of being sensitized to the respective allergens. Only in steroid-naive, non-smoking asthmatics, a trend towards increased ENO in those sensitized and exposed to cat or dog allergens was seen. Although sensitization towards pet allergens was associated with inflammation in the lower airways irrespective of clinical phenotype, keeping pets did not increase the risk of being sensitized to pet allergens. PMID:11217908

  20. Contact sensitivity and bioavailability of chlorocresol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Carlsen, L; Egsgaard, Helge;

    1985-01-01

    % of the chlorocresol in aqueous suspension permeated the skin in contrast to 34% and 35% of the chlorocresol in olive oil/acetone (4/1) and propylene glycol, respectively. In spite of the same amount of chlorocresol absorption from the 2 latter preparations, they showed a significant difference in sensitizing capacity...

  1. High prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in children 4 yrs of age or younger with symptoms of allergic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Adriana Baatenburg; Dikkeschei, Lambert D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that sensitization to aeroallergens is rare in preschool children is based on population studies in which most subjects have little or no symptoms of atopic disease. We assessed the prevalence of atopic sensitization in children 0 to 4 yr of age presenting with symptoms of allergic di

  2. Patch Testing with Main Sensitizers Does Not Detect All Cases of Contact Allergy to Oxidized Lavender Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Christensson, Johanna Bråred

    2016-06-15

    Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained from lavender (Lavendula angustifolia). The main components linalool and linalyl acetate have been shown to autoxidize in contact with oxygen in the air, forming sensitizing hydroperoxides. Patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were consecutively patch-tested with oxidized lavender oil 6% pet., oxidized linalyl acetate 6% pet., and oxidized linalool 6% pet. to investigate the frequency of contact allergy to oxidized lavender oil, and the pattern of concomitant reactions to oxidized linalool and oxidized linalyl acetate. Positive reactions to oxidized lavender oil were found in 2.8% of the patients. Among those, 56% reacted to oxidized linalool and/or oxidized linalyl acetate, while 52% reacted to the fragrance markers of the baseline series. Oxidized lavender oil showed among the highest frequencies of contact allergy to studied essential oils. A well-standardized preparation of oxidized lavender oil could be a useful tool for diagnosis of contact allergy to fragrances. PMID:26671837

  3. Lower Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Sensitization among Children and Adolescents with a Two-Sided Migrant Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Schmitz, Roma; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2016-03-01

    In industrialized countries atopic diseases have been reported to be less likely in children and adolescents with a migrant background compared to non-migrants. This paper aimed at both examining and comparing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to specific IgE antibodies in children and adolescents with and without a migrant background. Using data of the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS;n = 17,450; 0-17 years), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of atopic diseases and point prevalence of 20 common allergic sensitizations were investigated among migrants compared to non-migrants. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of atopic disease and allergic sensitization with migrant background. In multivariate analyses with substantial adjustment we found atopic dermatitis about one-third less often (OR 0.73, 0.57-0.93) in participants with a two-sided migrant background. Statistically significant associations between allergic sensitizations and a two-sided migrant background remained for birch (OR 0.73, 0.58-0.90), soybean (OR 0.72, 0.54-0.96), peanut (OR 0.69, 0.53-0.90), rice (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.87), potato (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.85), and horse dander (OR 0.58, 0.40-0.85). Environmental factors and living conditions might be responsible for the observed differences. PMID:26927147

  4. The Prevalence of Contact Dermatitis Among Occupational and Work-related Diseases. Correlation between Atopy and Allergic or Irritative Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta-Dana Pitis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of contact dermatitis (CD in Europe varies between 6.7% and 10.6% depending on the sector of activity. Professional CD (PCD has an important economic impact − 30% of the budget compensation for occupational disease. In Romania, the prevalence of PCD is underestimated, with an even distribution of cases with respect to the allergic or irritative mechanism. A retrospective clinical study was conducted; target population being the patients admitted in Occupational Medicine Clinic Cluj-Napoca between 2003 and 2011. Objectives of study were: specifying the prevalence range of allergic CD (ACD / irritative CD (ICD among occupational/work-related diseases, the distribution of allergic/irritative CD (A/ICD for different sectors of activity and establishing the correlation between atopy and A/ICD. We have applied allergy skin tests - prick (environmental allergens and patch (occupational allergens. Inclusion criteria were: -documented occupational exposure at skin allergens/irritants; -the atopy state; -diagnostic established at discharge. Patients with recurrent chronic urticaria, angioedema, hypereosinophilic syndrome have been excluded. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. The study indicated a similar prevalence for A/ICD, with similar distribution. Prevalence above average has been recorded in the metallurgy sector (A/ICD, in health care sector (ACD, respectively, textile industry (ICD. The correlation atopy-ACD has proved to be lower compared to previous reports. Regarding ICD, the diagnostic was confirmed frequently to non-atopic persons. We strongly recommend the compliance with a multidisciplinary protocol for the management of A/ICD, individualized for specific activity sectors or even work stations.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Maio; Rodrigo Carvalho; Cristina Amaro; Raquel Santos; Jorge Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with t...

  6. Slow salivary secretory IgA maturation may relate to low microbial pressure and allergic symptoms in sensitized children

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin; Tomicic, Sara; Voor, Tiia; Björkstén, Bengt; Jenmalm, Maria

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown why allergic symptoms do not develop in all sensitized children. We analyzed prospectively the postnatal secretory IgA (SIgA) development and whether high SIgA levels would protect sensitized infants from developing allergic symptoms. Salivary total IgA and SIgA levels were determined by ELISA, and allergy development was investigated at 3, 6, and 12 mo and at 2 and 5 y in two birth cohorts in Estonia (n = 110) and Sweden (n = 91), two geographically adjacent countries with diff...

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances. PMID:20546226

  8. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  9. Fragrance contact allergic patients: strategies for use of cosmetic products and perceived impact on life situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysdal, Susan Hovmand; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients are a common cause of contact allergy. Very little is known about these patients' strategies to manage their disease and the effect on their daily lives. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if patients with diagnosed fragrance contact allergy used scented products, how th...

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate, a new cosmetic allergen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, H; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2001-01-01

    Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate (trade name Dragophos S 2/918501) was identified as a contact allergen in a herbal moisturizing cream causing severe acute contact dermatitis on the hands and face of a 41-year-old woman. Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate is a complex mixture of phosphate esters of d...

  11. Allergic contact cheilitis and perioral dermatitis caused by propolis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Vice; Brailo, Vlaho; Alajbeg, Ivan; Vučićević Boras, Vanja; Budimir, Jozo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of propolis allergy in an 18-year-old female patient. Medical history revealed self-prescribed topical use of propolis spray as a medication for gingival swelling caused by orthodontic molar bands. After 24 hours, the patient developed lip edema and erythema of the perioral skin accompanied by burning pain in her lips. Discrete erosions were present in the corners of her lips. Erythema of the right infraorbital region was also observed. The patient was prescribed betamethasone propionate cream two times daily. Complete recovery was observed after 10 days. Propolis allergy was confirmed by a patch test. We believe that the use of propolis for the treatment of oral diseases should be avoided due to sparse evidence of its efficacy and numerous cases of allergic reactions. PMID:23069305

  12. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Western Black Sea Region: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 304 patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD, who were tested with the European Standard Series, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of positive reactions to different sensitizers in patients with ACD and to identify sex and age differences.Material and Method: We evaluated a total of 304 patients (195 (64.1% female and 109 (35.9% male who applied to our clinic between the period of January 2003 and December 2008 and who were tested with patch test with the consideration of ACD. Patch test results were assessed according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application.Results: Lesions of ACD were found to be most frequent on the hands (65.5%. A total of 95 (31.3% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (14.8% followed by cobalt chloride (9.2%, potassium dichromate (6.6%, balsam of Peru (3.6%, fragrance mix (3.3%, mercaptobenzothiazole (3% and colophonium (2.3%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to lanolin, mercapto mix, epoxy resin, paraben mix and quaternium-15 were relatively low, while no positive reaction was obtained to formaldehyde in any case. In 51.6% of patients with positive reaction, the responsible allergen was detected by testing with the European Standard Series.Conclusion: Although this study shows that sensitization rate to metals and fragrance are still high in our region, as well as in our country, and are more frequent in females than in males, future prospective multicenter studies with large number of patients would point out the adequacy of the European Standard Series in our country. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 198-202

  13. Gold--a controversial sensitizer. European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, gold allergy was considered to be extremely rare. Gold has been used and worshipped for thousands of years without any obvious complaints of skin problems, either in those participating in mining and other ways of prospecting, or in those wearing jewellery. When studies on contact...... be applied for scientific purposes and when allergic contact dermatitis from gold is suspected....

  14. Electrode contact impedance sensitivity to variations in geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrode contact impedance is a crucial factor in physiological measurements and can be an accuracy-limiting factor when performing electroencephalography and electrical impedance tomography. In this work, standard flat electrodes and micromachined multipoint spiked electrodes are characterized with a finite-element method electromagnetic solver and the dependence of the contact impedance on geometrical factors is explored. It is found that flat electrodes are sensitive to changes in the outer skin layer properties related to hydration and thickness, while spike electrodes are not. The impedance as a function of the effective contact area, number of spikes and penetration depth has also been studied and characterized. (paper)

  15. Raised interleukin-13 levels in cord blood increases the risk of allergic sensitization at 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Nevin; Babayigit Hocaoglu, Arzu; Olmez Erge, Duygu; Asilsoy, Suna; Karaman, Ozkan; Altun, Zekiye; Kumral, Abdullah; Tufekci, Ozlem; Islekel, Huray

    2013-06-01

    The identification of early markers of atopy in cord blood of newborns at delivery may offer prediction of future allergic sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cord blood interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and development of allergic diseases during the first five years of life. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery from 62 newborns. The families of these newborns were asked to complete a questionnaire about age and education of parents, number of siblings, allergic diseases in family members, cigarette exposure during pregnancy and presence of pets in their house. The same subjects were evaluated when they were five years old. Venous blood samples were drawn and epidermal skin prick tests were performed. IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels were studied from the blood samples which were taken during birth and five years later. There was no significant relationship between gender, type of delivery, educational levels of parents, exposure to cigarette smoke, atopy in parents, presence of pets in the house and IL-13 and IFN-γ levels in cord blood and at five years. Higher levels of IL-13 in newborns and five years olds, were found significantly related to skin prick test positivity (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively) and presence of allergic diseases (p= 0.008 and p= 0.001, respectively). Levels of IFN-γ, both in cord blood and five years after, were not related with the future of allergic status of children. Higher levels of IL-13 in cord blood may be a predictor of future development of allergic sensitization. PMID:23754348

  16. Raised interleukin-13 levels in cord blood increases the risk of allergic sensitization at 5 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Uzuner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of early markers of atopy in cord blood of newborns at delivery may offer prediction of future allergic sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cord blood interleukin-13 (IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and development of allergic diseases during the first five years of life. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery from 62 newborns. The families of these newborns were asked to complete a questionnaire about age and education of parents, number of siblings, allergic diseases in family members, cigarette exposure during pregnancy and presence of pets in their house. The same subjects were evaluated when they were five years old. Venous blood samples were drawn and epidermal skin prick tests were performed. IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ levels were studied from the blood samples which were taken during birth and five years later. There was no significant relationship between gender, type of delivery, educational levels of parents, exposure to cigarette smoke, atopy in parents, presence of pets in the house and IL-13 and IFN-γ levels in cord blood and at five years. Higher levels of IL-13 in newborns and five years olds, were found significantly related to skin prick test positivity (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively and presence of allergic diseases (p= 0.008 and p= 0.001, respectively. Levels of IFN-γ, both in cord blood and five years after, were not related with the future of allergic status of children. Higher levels of IL-13 in cord blood may be a predictor of future development of allergic sensitization.

  17. Preventing carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation reduces antigen-specific sensitization and subsequent allergic reactions in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Kroker, Matthias; Sydlik, Ulrich; Autengruber, Andrea; Cavelius, Christian; Weighardt, Heike; Kraegeloh, Annette; Unfried, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure of the airways to carbonaceous nanoparticles can contribute to the development of immune diseases both via the aggravation of the allergic immune response in sensitized individuals and by adjuvant mechanisms during the sensitization against allergens. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these adverse pathways are not completely understood. We recently described that the reduction of carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation by the application of the compa...

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis: A comparison between atopic and non-atopic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of ACD in atopics in comparison to non-atopics in our community. Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Dermatology, King Edward Medical College/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from May 1998 to July 1999. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients, 34 with past or present atopic dermatitis (Group I), 88 with personal or familial atopy (Group II) and 128 non-atopic with contact dermatitis (Group III) were subjected to patch testing with European standard series. The results were interpreted according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group guidelines. Results: Positive reactions were seen in 50%, 70.4% and 67.8% of patients in the respective groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that atopics are equally affected with contact dermatitis as compared with non-atopics and recalcitrant cases of atopic dermatitis should be patch tested to find out aggravating factors. (author)

  19. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin...

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from a paper mill slimicide containing 2-bromo-4'-hydroxyacetophenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Slimicides are biocidal products used in paper mills to inhibit the proliferation of slime-forming microorganisms that would otherwise spoil the paper products. A laboratory technician working at a paper mill had recurring dermatitis related to contact with the slimicide Busan 1130. We report the...

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis in childrenwhich factors are relevant? (review of the literature)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Darsow, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The...

  2. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp R Esser; Wölfle, Ute; Dürr, Christoph; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed t...

  3. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, Philipp R.; Ute Wölfle; Christoph Dürr; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Thilo Jakob; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed ...

  4. Anti-allergic activity of R-phycocyanin from Porphyra haitanensis in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingmei; Wang, Youzhao; Cao, Minjie; Pan, Tzuming; Yang, Yang; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Lechang; Liu, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased in Asian countries. Marine algae have been proposed as the potential resource for anti-allergic therapeutics. The present study was aimed at isolating R-phycocyanin (RPC) from Porphyra haitanensis and determining the anti-allergy potential of RPC in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells. In animal experiments, RPC could effectively reduce tropomyosin (TM)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine levels, alleviate allergy symptoms and jejunum tissue inflammation in mice, and inhibit the expression and release of cytokines (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13) in peritoneal lavage fluid. In spleen lymphocyte experiments, high purity of RPC skewed the immunological function of CD4(+) T cells towards Th1 activity. A higher expression of interferon (IFN)-γ was induced by a synergistic effect of TM and RPC. Through the Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase 2 signaling pathways, IFN-γ synthesis was induced by RPC in combination with TM. Anti-allergic effect of RPC was evaluated in IgE-mediated rat mast RBL-2H3 cells. The results demonstrated that RPC inhibited allergy markers, including the release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine and ROS in antigen-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. RPC also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α). In conclusion, RPC decreased allergic sensitization against TM by blocking Th2 cell polarization as well as suppressed the release of allergic-mediators in antigen-stimulated mast cells. It may be used as a functional food component or active pharmaceutical ingredient for allergic patients. PMID:25746371

  5. Interplay of filaggrin loss-of-function variants, allergic sensitization, and eczema in a longitudinal study covering infancy to 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Ziyab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune specific genes as well as genes regulating the formation of skin barrier are major determinants for eczema manifestation. There is a debate as to whether allergic sensitization and filaggrin gene (FLG variants lead to eczema or FLG variants and eczema increase the risk of allergic sensitization. To investigate the time-order between eczema and allergic sensitization with respect to FLG variants, data from a large prospective study covering infancy to late adolescence were analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Repeated measurements of eczema and allergic sensitization (documented by skin prick tests at ages 1, 2, 4, 10, and 18 years were ascertained in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (n = 1,456. Three transition periods were analyzed: age 1-or-2 to 4, 4 to 10, and 10 to 18 years. FLG variants were genotyped in 1,150 participants. Over the three transition periods, in temporal sequence analyses of initially eczema-free participants, the combined effect of FLG variants and allergic sensitization showed a 2.92-fold (95% CI: 1.47-5.77 increased risk ratio (RR of eczema in subsequent examinations. This overall risk was more pronounced at a younger age (transition period 1-or-2 to 4, RR = 6.47, 95% CI: 1.96-21.33. In contrast, FLG variants in combination with eczema showed a weaker, but significant, risk ratio for subsequent allergic sensitization only up to 10 years of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking the time order into account, this prospective study demonstrates for the first time, that a combination of FLG variants and allergic sensitization increased the risk of eczema in subsequent years. Also FLG variants interacted with eczema and increased the risk of subsequent allergic sensitization, which, was limited to the younger age. Hence, early restoration of defective skin barrier could prevent allergic sensitization and subsequently reduce the risk of eczema development.

  6. Gigantic Enhancement in Sensitivity Using Schottky Contacted Nanowire Nanosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Te-Yu

    2009-12-09

    A new single nanowire based nanosensor is demonstrated for illustrating its ultrahigh sensitivity for gas sensing. The device is composed of a single ZnO nanowire mounted on Pt electrodes with one end in Ohmic contact and the other end in Schottky contact. The Schottky contact functions as a "gate" that controls the current flowing through the entire system. By tuning the Schottky barrier height through the responsive variation of the surface chemisorbed gases and the amplification role played by the nanowire to Schottky barrier effect, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 32 000% was achieved using the Schottky contacted device operated in reverse bias mode at 275 °C for detection of 400 ppm CO, which is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained using an Ohmic contact device under the same conditions. In addition, the response time and reset time have been shortened by a factor of 7. The methodology and principle illustrated in the paper present a new sensing mechanism that can be readily and extensively applied to other gas sensing systems. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of the consumer open skin allergy test as a method of prediction of contact dermatitis to hair dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Maya; Cottin, Martin; Cristaudo, Antonio; Lainé, Gérard; Nohynek, Gerhard; Orton, David; Toutain, Hervé; Severino, Vincenzo; Wilkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    To prevent contact dermatitis to oxidative hair colouring products, a consumer test (skin allergy test, SAT) consisting of the open application of the colourant base prior to mixing with the developer is recommended 48 hours before hair colouring. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the SAT to detect and prevent contact allergy to oxidative hair colouring products that contained a range of concentrations of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and corresponded to different shades (light, medium and dark). Test colouring products containing increasing concentrations of PPD (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5%) were applied to 34 PPD-positive hair dye-allergic individuals and to 49 non-allergic control subjects. Allergic reactions were elicited in all PPD-positive subjects whereas none occurred in control PPD-negative subjects. For each subject the eliciting concentration of PPD in the SAT was compared with the PPD concentration range of the group of commercial shades reported as causing reactions by the consumer. In all PPD-positive subjects the eliciting concentrations of PPD in the SAT was within or lower than the range of PPD concentrations in the reported eliciting colourant base of commercial products. In conclusion, our results confirm the excellent predictive value of the SAT over the entire range of PPD concentrations used in oxidative hair colouring products and suggest that the test is a suitable tool for the secondary prevention of contact allergic reactions to hair colouring products. PMID:15701588

  9. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Nielsen, Niels H; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  10. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil;

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  11. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible. PMID:22943875

  12. Urban Tree Canopy and Asthma, Wheeze, Rhinitis, and Allergic Sensitization to Tree Pollen in a New York City Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lovasi, Gina S.; O’Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P.M.; Lu, Jacqueline W.T.; Sheehan, Daniel; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; MacFaden, Sean W.; King, Kristen L.; Matte, Thomas; Miller, Rachel L.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urban landscape elements, particularly trees, have the potential to affect airflow, air quality, and production of aeroallergens. Several large-scale urban tree planting projects have sought to promote respiratory health, yet evidence linking tree cover to human health is limited. Objectives: We sought to investigate the association of tree canopy cover with subsequent development of childhood asthma, wheeze, rhinitis, and allergic sensitization. Methods: Birth cohort study data w...

  13. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001). Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a) intercultu...

  14. Circulating allergen-reactive T cells from patients with atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis express the skin-selective homing receptor, the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) is the major T cell ligand for the vascular adhesion molecule E-selectin, and it has been proposed to be involved in the selective targeting of memory T cells reactive with skin-associated Ag to cutaneous inflammatory sites. To further investigate the relation of CLA and cutaneous T cell responses, we analyzed the CLA phenotype of circulating memory T cells in patients with allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis (AD) alone vs in pat...

  15. Intestinal allergic inflammation in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to pollen season, IgE sensitization profile and gastrointestinal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzos, Georgios; Lundberg, Vanja; Stotzer, Per-Ove; Pullerits, Teet; Telemo, Esbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Background Birch pollen allergic patients frequently experience gastrointestinal upset accompanied by a local allergic inflammation in the small intestine especially during the pollen season. However, it is not known if the GI pathology is connected to the subjective symptoms of the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune pathology of the duodenal mucosa and the serum IgE antibody profiles in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to their gastrointestinal symptoms...

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (type IV hypersensitivity and type I hypersensitivity following aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils (Dhanwantharam thailam, Eladi coconut oil presenting as generalized erythema and pruritus with flexural eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (type IV hypersensitivity) and type I hypersensitivity following aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils (Dhanwantharam thailam, Eladi coconut oil) presenting as generalized erythema and pruritus with flexural eczema

    OpenAIRE

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-05-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  19. Detection of Fungi in Indoor Environments and Fungus-Specific IgE Sensitization in Allergic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Mitsuhiko; Kouno, Hisashi; Aihara-Tanaka, Maki; Shirai, Hideharu; Takatori, Kosuke

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between fungal colonization in the house and IgE sensitization to fungi, and to clarify the effects of house care in relation to fungi. Materials and Methods We measured levels of fungi in the houses of 52 allergic children. Of these, 32 children displayed detectable levels of IgE (≥ 0.35 UA/ml) to a combination of fungi (positive group). The remaining 20 children were not sensitized to fungi (negative group). Each fungus-specif...

  20. Early indoor aeroallergen exposure is not associated with development of sensitization or allergic rhinitis in high-risk children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie M; Chawes, Bo L K; Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Elfman, Lena B; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    aeroallergen exposure and sensitization and rhinitis to such allergens. METHODS: Allergic sensitization to cat, dog, and house dust mites was diagnosed longitudinally using skin prick tests and specific IgE measurements at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on...... Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort. Rhinitis was diagnosed at 7 and 13 years. Allergen exposure was defined as dog or cat in the home during the 3(rd) trimester of pregnancy or the first year of life and as allergen levels of dog, cat, and house dust mite in bed dust samples at 1 year. Associations...

  1. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W. Zuercher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA plus cholera toxin (CT by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase or after sensitization (management phase. Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and CCL17 (TARC in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.

  2. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers using flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of the chemicals responsible for respiratory and contact allergies in the industrial area is an important occupational safety issue. This study was conducted in mice to determine whether flow cytometry is an appropriate method to analyze and differentiate the specific immune responses to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and to the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) used at concentrations with comparable immunogenic potential. Mice were exposed twice on the flanks (days 0, 5) to 10% TMA or 1% DNCB and challenged three times on the ears (days 10, 11, 12) with 2.5% TMA or 0.25% DNCB. Flow cytometry analyses were conducted on draining lymph node cells harvested on days 13 and 18. Comparing TMA and DNCB immune responses on day 13, we found obvious differences that persisted for most of them on day 18. An increased proportion of IgE+ cells correlated to total serum IgE level and an enhancement of MHC II molecule expression were observed in the lymph node B lymphocytes from TMA-treated mice. The percentage of IL-4-producing CD4+ lymphocytes and the IL-4 receptor expression were clearly higher following TMA exposure. In contrast, higher proportions of IL-2-producing cells were detected in CD4+ and CD8+ cells from DNCB-treated mice. Both chemicals induced a significant increase in the percentage of IFN-γ-producing cells among CD8+ lymphocytes but to a greater proportion following TMA treatment. In conclusion, this study encourages the use of flow cytometry to discriminate between contact and respiratory sensitizers by identifying divergent expression of immune response parameters

  3. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001. Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a intercultural communication barriers, b gender roles, and c the cultural expressions statement. Strategies to improve the method validity are proposed.

  4. Contact sensitizing potential of pyrogallol and 5-amino-o-cresol in female BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair dye components such as pyrogallol and cresol have been shown previously to promote allergic reactions such as rashes, dermal inflammation, irritation and dermatitis. The objective of this study was to determine the contact sensitization potential of pyrogallol (PYR) and 5-amino-o-cresol (AOC) when applied dermally to female BALB/c mice. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response was initially accomplished using the local lymph node assay. For PYR, significant increases in the proliferation of lymph node cells were observed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/v) and higher. For AOC, borderline increases, albeit significant, in auricular lymph node cell proliferation were observed at 5% and 10%. Results from the irritancy assay suggested that PYR, but not AOC, was an irritant. To further delineate whether PYR was primarily an irritant or a contact sensitizer, the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was conducted. A significant increase in mouse ear thickness was observed at 72 h following challenge with 0.5% PYR in mice that had been sensitized with 5% PYR. In contrast, no effects were observed in the MEST in mice sensitized and challenged with the highest achievable concentration of AOC (10%). Additional studies examining lymph node subpopulations and CD86 (B7.2) expression by B cells further support the indication that PYR was a sensitizer in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrate that PYR is both a sensitizer and an irritant in female BALB/c mice. However, the contact sensitization potential of AOC is minimal in this strain of mouse

  5. Sensitization and cross-reaction patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    Results of aimed patch testing with constituents of sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens in 190 Compositae-allergic patients detected in an 8-year period are presented. Feverfew of CM elicited positive reactions most frequently, followed ...

  6. PILOT STUDY OF CONTACT SENSITIZATION OF FORMALDEHYDE-RELEASERS, FORMALDEHYDE AND GLUTARALDEHYDE IN DENTAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapina Maya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational allergic contact sensitization is common in dental personnel. Some of the most common occupational allergens in dental practice are some formaldehyde-releasers, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rate of contact sensitization to formaldehyde, quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, and to glutaraldehyde in students of dental medicine and dental patients. Material and methods: A total of 50 participants were included in the study: 40 students of dental medicine exposed to formaldehyde-releasers, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde during the course of their education; 10 dental patients without occupational exposure to the latter substances served as a control group. All of them were patch-tested with the studied allergens. Results: The sensitization rate to formaldehyde was significantly higher in the group of dental patients if compared to the one of dental students (χ2=5.37; p=0.021. Positive skin patch test reactions to quaternium-15 and to imidazolidinyl urea were observed only in the group of dental students. A significantly higher rate of sensitization to diazolidinyl urea, if compared to the one to imidazolidinyl urea (χ2=5.4; p=0.02 and to quaternium-15 (χ2=6.76; p=0.009, as well as to glutaraldehyde, if compared to the one to quaternium-15 (χ2=3.96; p=0.04 for the whole studied population was established. For the whole studied population, significantly increased rate of concomitant sensitization to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde (χ2=6.18 p=0.013, as well as to diazolidinyl urea and to glutaraldehyde was established (χ2=9.12 p=0.003. Conclusions: We consider the importance of exposure to diazolidinyl urea, quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea and glutaraldehyde during the course of practical education in dentistry for the onset of sensitization. The exposure to formaldehyde is ubiquitous and is difficult to distinguish the roles of

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of pet-specific immunoglobulin E sensitization and allergic symptomatology and household pet keeping in a birth cohort population

    OpenAIRE

    Ezell, Jerel M.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine C; Zoratti, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether family members with detectable specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and/or allergic symptoms to pets are more or less likely to reside in a household with pets. We cross-sectionally investigated potential relationships between family members' allergic sensitization and symptoms to dogs and cats and current household pet-keeping practices, using birth cohort data. Blood samples taken from children enrolled in a birth cohort and their biological mothers and fathers, when the c...

  8. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects. PMID:24754409

  9. [Development of allergic reactivity to Artemesia pollen during combined sensitization to pollen and microbes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermekova, R K

    1978-08-01

    Some regularities of formation of hypersensitivity of the immediate type to the pollen of Artemisia absinthium were studied under conditions of combined hypersensitivity to pollen and Brucella abortus 19-BA vaccine strain; the latter was administered 3, 12, and 28 days after the pollen. The degree of specific allergic reconstruction to the pollen was studied by passive skin anaphylaxis after Ovary, indirect degranulation of mast cells of healthy rats, and by general anaphylaxis in response to intravenous injection of the Artemisia absinthium pollen water-salt extract. Early formation of allergy to the pollen was observed in the groups of animals with combined hypersensitivity to the pollen and brucellae. The degree of allergic reactivity to the pollen allergen was more expressed in the groups with combined allergy than in those with pure pollen hypersensitivity at all the stages of this experiment. PMID:99195

  10. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products. PMID:20136876

  11. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor α expression and IL-2 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutet, Michèle, E-mail: michele.goutet@inrs.fr; Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4Rα can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4Rα and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4Rα levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4Rα and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ► Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ► There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ► We analyze immune responses induced

  12. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor α expression and IL-2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4Rα can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4Rα and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4Rα levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2+CD8+ cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4Rα and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ► Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ► There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ► We analyze immune responses induced in mice by a

  13. Association of VDR and CYP2R1 Polymorphisms with Mite-Sensitized Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Tian

    Full Text Available As recent studies have described an association between vitamin D and allergic rhinitis, we hypothesized that vitamin D pathway-related genes may be candidate genes for susceptibility to allergic rhinitis. Thus, we sought to evaluate whether polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR and CYP2R1 genes are associated with mite-sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis (PER in a Han Chinese population. A hospital-based case-control study consisting of 519 patients with mite-sensitized PER and 447 healthy controls was conducted. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in VDR and CYP2R1 were selected for genotyping. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs9729, rs2228570, rs1544410, and rs731236 in VDR as well as rs2060793 in CYP2R1 were not significantly associated with susceptibility to mite-sensitized PER. After stratification analyses, however, both the CT and CT/TT genotypes of rs2228570 in VDR exhibited a significantly decreased risk (CT: adjusted odds ratio (OR=0.58, 95% confidence intervals (CI=0.37-0.91;adjusted OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.40-0.93 of mite-sensitized PER, while the AA genotype of rs2060793 in CYP2R1 exhibited a significantly increased risk (adjusted OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.03-3.34 of PER in the age subgroup of <16 years old. Both the AG and AG/GG genotypes of rs731236 in VDR exhibited a significantly decreased risk (AG: adjusted OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.21-0.89;adjusted OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.23-0.94 of PER in the female subgroup. Analysis of the locus-locus interactions of VDR and CYP2R1 revealed two models that involved combined SNPs of VDR and CYP2R1 were statistically significant (P<0.05. Our data suggest that age and gender may have an impact on the association of three SNPs (rs2228570, rs731236, and rs2060793 in genes of the vitamin D pathway with the risk of mite-sensitized PER in this Chinese population. The VDR and CYP2R1 variants may be involved in genetic interactions in the pathogenesis of PER.

  14. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis diagnosed by a systematic stepwise exposure assessment of allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann;

    2013-01-01

    Information on the presence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Ingredient lists and Material Safety DataSheets (MSDSs) may be incomplete.......Information on the presence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Ingredient lists and Material Safety DataSheets (MSDSs) may be incomplete....

  15. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Vinod; Asati Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and i...

  16. Breastfeeding, aeroallergen sensitization and environmental exposures during infancy are determinants of childhood allergic rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Christopher D.; Levin, Levin; LeMasters, Grace K.; Ryan, Patrick; Reponen, Tiina; Villareal, Manuel; Burkle, Jeff; Lockey, James E.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Bernstein, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant predictors of early childhood allergic rhinitis (AR) are poorly understood. Objective Identify environmental exposures and host factors during infancy that predicts AR at age three. Methods High risk children from Greater Cincinnati were followed annually from ages one to three. Allergic rhinitis (AR) was defined as sneezing, runny or blocked nose in the prior 12 months and positive skin prick test (SPT) to one or more aeroallergens. Environmental and standardized medical questionnaires determined exposures and clinical outcomes. Primary activity area dust samples were analyzed for house dust endotoxin (HDE) and (1-3)-β-D-glucan. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) sampled at 27 monitoring stations was used to estimate personal elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) exposure by land use regression model. Results Of 361 children in this analysis, 116 had AR and 245 were non-atopic, non-symptomatic. Prolonged breastfeeding in African-American children (aOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.6–0.9) and multiple children in the home during infancy was protective of AR (aOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.8). Food SPT positivity and tree SPT positivity in infancy increased the risk of AR at age three (aOR 4.4; 95% CI 2.1–9.2) and (aOR 6.8; 95% CI 2.5–18.7), respectively. HDE exposure was associated with AR; the effect was dependent on exposure level. ECAT and ETS exposure showed no effect on AR. Conclusion Prolonged breastfeeding in African-Americans and multiple children in the home during infancy reduced the risk of AR at age three. SPT positivity to food and tree allergens enhanced risk. The HDE effect on AR was related to exposure. PMID:20392478

  17. Halting the allergic march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, Hugo P; Samuel, Sudesh T; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, has increased exponentially. In Singapore, the prevalence of asthma at all ages exceeds 20%, and around 50% of Singaporean children show features of an underlying allergy. The exact environmental causes for the increase of allergic diseases have not yet been identified, but most researchers agree that a decreased bacterial load in young children may be one of the reasons for the increase. However, the causes of allergy are multiple, and the development of an allergic disease is the result of complex interactions between genetic constitution and environmental factors. In this review article, different aspects of allergic sensitization are covered, including prenatal and postnatal sensitization. The phenomenon of the "allergic march" (switching from one clinical expression of allergy to another) and its underlying mechanisms are discussed. The last part of this review article is on prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, including the role of bacterial products (probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and the role of immunotherapy, including sublingual immunotherapy. PMID:23283392

  18. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasseville Denis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases.

  19. Severe systemic allergic reaction induced by accidental skin contact with cow milk in a 16-year-old boy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, G; De Falco, F; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2004-01-01

    The symptoms of food allergy are rarely induced by skin contact. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our Allergology Centre after an episode of systemic symptoms triggered by accidental skin contact with a drop of cow milk (CM) dripped from a sandwich containing fresh cheese. The patient had been allergic to CM from the age of 24 months and had experienced several episodes of urticaria-angioedema after the ingestion of tiny or "hidden" amounts of CM proteins. In vivo and in vitro diagnostic procedures showed intense sensitisation to all CM proteins (1/100 dilutions of allergenic extracts produced large wheals, and class 4 specific IgE antibodies. Total IgE antibodies were elevate (770.0 UI/). A moderate degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was found (PC20 metacholine: 3.90 milligrams). This case report suggests that patients with a high degree of sensitisation to CM proteins should be alert to the danger of skin contact and should beware of "hidden" CM allergens. PMID:15301310

  20. Immunologic principles of allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Marco; Gebhardt, Carl; Emmrich, Frank; Treudler, Regina; Simon, Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Allergy either results from a pathological excessive immune reaction, or from the defective induction of tolerance to otherwise harmless antigens. Allergic reactions are mounted by mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity. The development of an allergic response can be divided in sensitization and elicitation phases. Immediate type allergic reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis, urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis allergica, allergic asthma) are mediated by IgE antibodies which are produced by B cells stimulated by allergen-specific Th2 cells. Crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE on membrane surfaces of mast cells and basophilic granulocytes leads to release of soluble mediators which may cause systemic symptoms within minutes to hours. The following infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes and Th2 cells directs chronic inflammation. Humoral cytotoxic immune reactions (e.g. drug induced cytopenia) are mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies which are directed against membrane associated antigens. IgG and IgM antibodies directed against soluble antigens elicit immune complex mediated cytotoxicity (e.g.drug induced vasculitis). Delayed type immune reactions (e.g.contact dermatitis) are based on the activation of antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and need 24 h to 48 h to develop. Upon recurrent contact with identical antigens, recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells cause inflammation and cytotoxic induced apoptosis in target cells as well as cytokine mediated leukocyte infiltration. Subsequent immigration of CD4(+) Th2 cells provides anti-inflammatory mechanisms leading to resolution of the inflammatory response and tissue repair. PMID:17976144

  1. Basophil Sensitivity Decreases During the Updosing of SCIT in Subjects Allergic to Grass Pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    ).This corresponds to an approximately 14-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity. No significant changes were observed in the baseline, washed cells or control group. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the main mechanism leading to a reduction of basophil sensitivity is humoral. PII: S0091-6749(10)02749-1 doi:10.1016...

  2. Phase Transition Sensitive Schottky Barriers In Ga-Si(P Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Modi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and understanding of Schottky diodes continue to be interesting both for basic as well as technological points of view. Even now the evolutionary aspects of such contacts are not very clearly understood. In this paper it is shown that in respect of interfacial strain contribution to the barrier heights of such contacts semiconductor – liquid metal contacts are relatively better placed than solid semiconductor-solid metal contacts. Results on Ga-Si(p contact are discussed in this paper to show phase sensitive contribution to the barrier height of such Schottky contacts.

  3. The Role of IL-17 in the Association between Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Allergic Sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Hirohito Kita; Juhn, Young J.; Robin Patel; Rouse, Mark S.; Cheol-In Kang; Hongxia Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 17 is important in the development of asthma and host defense against pneumococci. We determined the role of IL-17 in the risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. We challenged mice intranasally with a bioluminescent Streptococcus pneumoniae strain after sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). We measured the levels of cytokines, including IL-17 (pg/mL), in the lung homogenate in experimental mice with and without OVA sensitization/challenge, as well as those with and with...

  4. INFLUENCE OF MODIFIED BIOFLAVONOIDS UPON EFFECTOR LYMPHOCYTES IN MURINE MODEL OF CONTACT SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Z. Albegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact sensitivity reaction (CSR to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB in mice is a model of in vivo immune response, being an experimental analogue to contact dermatitis in humans. CSR sensitization phase begins after primary contact with antigen, lasting for 10-15 days in humans, and 5-7 days, in mice. Repeated skin exposure to the sensitizing substance leads to its recognition and triggering immune inflammatory mechanisms involving DNFB-specific effector T lymphocytes. The CSR reaches its maximum 18-48 hours after re-exposure to a hapten. There is only scarce information in the literature about effects of flavonoids on CSR, including both stimulatory and inhibitory effects. Flavonoids possessed, predominantly, suppressive effects against the CSR development. In our laboratory, a model of contact sensitivity was reproduced in CBA mice by means of cutaneous sensitization by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. The aim of the study was to identify the mechanisms of immunomodulatory action of quercetin dihydrate and modified bioflavonoids, using the method of adoptive transfer contact sensitivity by splenocytes and T-lymphocytes. As shown in our studies, a 30-min pre-treatment of splenocytes and T-lymphocytes from sensitized mice with modified bioflavonoids before the cell transfer caused complete prevention of contact sensitivity reaction in syngeneic recipient mice. Meanwhile, this effect was not associated with cell death induction due to apoptosis or cytotoxicity. Quercetin dihydrate caused only partially suppression the activity of adaptively formed T-lymphocytes, the contact sensitivity effectors. It was shown that the modified bioflavonoid more stronger suppress adoptive transfer of contact sensitivity in comparison with quercetin dehydrate, without inducing apoptosis of effector cells. Thus, the modified bioflavonoid is a promising compound for further studies in a model of contact sensitivity, due to its higher ability to suppress transfer of CSR with

  5. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT blocks the allergic esophago-gastro-enteropathy induced by sustained oral exposure to peanuts in sensitized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Mondoulet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food allergy may affect the gastrointestinal tract and eosinophilia is often associated with allergic gastrointestinal disorders. Allergy to peanuts is a life-threatening condition and effective and safe treatments still need to be developed. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sustained oral exposure to peanuts on the esophageal and jejunal mucosa in sensitized mice. We also evaluated the effects of desensitization with epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT on these processes. METHODS: Mice were sensitized by gavages with whole peanut protein extract (PPE given with cholera toxin. Sensitized mice were subsequently exposed to peanuts via a specific regimen and were then analysed for eosinophilia in the esophagus and gut. We also assessed mRNA expression in the esophagus, antibody levels, and peripheral T-cell response. The effects of EPIT were tested when intercalated with sensitization and sustained oral peanut exposure. RESULTS: Sustained oral exposure to peanuts in sensitized mice led to severe esophageal eosinophilia and intestinal villus sub-atrophia, i.e. significantly increased influx of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa (136 eosinophils/mm(2 and reduced villus/crypt ratios (1.6±0.15. In the sera, specific IgE levels significantly increased as did secretion of Th2 cytokines by peanut-reactivated splenocytes. EPIT of sensitized mice significantly reduced Th2 immunological response (IgE response and splenocyte secretion of Th2 cytokines as well as esophageal eosinophilia (50 eosinophils/mm(2, p<0.05, mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines in tissue--eotaxin (p<0.05, IL-5 (p<0.05, and IL-13 (p<0.05--GATA-3 (p<0.05, and intestinal villus sub-atrophia (2.3±0.15. EPIT also increased specific IgG2a (p<0.05 and mRNA expression of Foxp3 (p<0.05 in the esophageal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: Gastro-intestinal lesions induced by sustained oral exposure in sensitized mice are efficaciously treated by allergen specific EPIT.

  6. Active sensitization and contact allergy to methyl 2-octynoate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria Vølund; Vigan, Martine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2010-01-01

    Methyl 2-octynoate is a synthetic fragrance which was first described to have sensitizing properties in 1935. It is one of the 26 fragrances to be labelled on the ingredient list according to current European cosmetics regulation.......Methyl 2-octynoate is a synthetic fragrance which was first described to have sensitizing properties in 1935. It is one of the 26 fragrances to be labelled on the ingredient list according to current European cosmetics regulation....

  7. Effects of early life paracetamol use on the incidence of allergic disease and sensitization: 5 year follow-up of an Ethiopian birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Amberbir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hypothesis that paracetamol, one of the most widely used medicines, may increase the risk of asthma and allergic disease is of obvious importance but prospective cohort data looking at dose and timing of exposure are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to investigate the role of paracetamol use in early life on the prevalence and incidence of wheeze, eczema, rhinitis and allergic sensitization, prospectively over 5 years in an Ethiopian birth cohort. METHODS: In 2005/6 a birth cohort of 1006 newborns was established in Butajira, Ethiopia. Questionnaire data on allergic disease symptoms, paracetamol use and numerous potential confounders were collected at ages 1, 3 and 5, and allergen skin sensitivity measured at ages 3 and 5. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent effects of paracetamol exposure on the incidence of each outcome between ages 3 and 5, and prevalence at age 5. FINDINGS: Paracetamol use in the first 3 years of life was reported in 60% of children and was associated with increased incidence of wheeze, eczema, rhinitis and allergic sensitisation between ages 3 and 5 which was statistically significant for wheeze and eczema. High exposure (reported use in the past month at age 1 and 3 was associated with a more than 3-fold increased risk of new onset wheeze (adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 9.90 compared to never users. Use in the past year at age 3 but not age 1 was associated with ORs at least as large as those for use in first year of life only. Significant positive dose-response effects of early life use were seen in relation to the prevalence of all outcomes at age 5. CONCLUSIONS: Use of paracetamol in early life is a strong risk factor for incident allergic disease in childhood.

  8. Contact sensitization to common haptens is associated with atopic dermatitis: new insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Engkilde, K;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: It has been much debated whether atopic dermatitis is associated with contact sensitization since past findings have conflicted. A positive association might change our clinical practice. Objective: To investigate the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization...... self-reported atopic dermatitis from this study mainly suffered from mild disease. However, clinicians should be aware of increased levels of contact sensitization in individuals with atopic dermatitis. Patch testing should therefore be considered at an early point in individuals with a history of...... atopic dermatitis and active disease. The fundamental relationship between atopic disease and environmental chemical exposure may be of a more complex and intimate nature than previously supposed....

  9. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Keun Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE on trimellitic anhydride (TMA-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE, protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE, caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE, and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE. Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  10. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26633349

  11. Training Racially Sensitive Family Therapists: Context, Content, and Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth V.; Laszloffy, Tracey A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the need to train racially sensitive family therapists as society becomes more racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Training program culture is analyzed in terms of curriculum, structural composition, and the clinical components of practice. Suggestions are made for therapist training programs. (SLD)

  12. High prevalence of lipid transfer protein sensitization in apple allergic patients with systemic symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gomez

    Full Text Available Apple allergy manifests as two main groups of clinical entities reflecting different patterns of allergen sensitization: oral allergy syndrome (OAS and generalized symptoms (GS.We analysed the sensitization profile to a wide panel of different components of food allergens (rMal d 1, Mal d 2, rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3, rBet v 1 and Pho d 2 for a population of Mediterranean patients with OAS and GS to apple.Patients (N = 81 with a history of apple allergy that could be confirmed by positive prick-prick test and/or double-blind-placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC, were included. Skin prick test (SPT and ELISA were performed using a panel of inhalant, fruit and nut allergens. ELISA and ELISA inhibition studies were performed in order to analyse the sensitization patterns.Thirty-five cases (43.2% had OAS and 46 (56.8% GS. SPT showed a significantly higher number of positive results with peach, cherry and hazelnut in those with GS. ELISA showed a significantly high percentage of positive cases to rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3 and Pho d 2 in patients with OAS and GS compared to controls, and to rBet v 1 in patients with OAS vs controls and between OAS and GS patients. Three different patterns of recognition were detected: positive to LTP (rMal d 3 or rPru p 3, positive to profilin (rMal d 4 and Pho d 2, or positive to both. There were also patients with rMal d 1 recognition who showed cross-reactivity to rBet v 1.In an apple allergy population with a high incidence of pollinosis different patterns of sensitization may occur. LTP is most often involved in those with GS. Profilin, though more prevalent in patients with OAS, has been shown to sensitise patients with both types of symptoms.

  13. Risks of allergic sensitization and diseases associated with tap and recreational water findings in epidemiological studies among young schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Voisin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Over the past three decades, most developed countries have witnessed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases, including eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis or food allergies. More than a simple progression, the temporal pattern and the development of the “atopic march” are strongly influenced by genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. These disorders may develop sequentially along an atopic pathway or there may be a causal link between eczema and these later-onset atopi...

  14. Skin irritants and contact sensitizers induce Langerhans cell migration and maturation at irritant concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.J.L.; Lehé, C.L.; Hasegawa, H.; Elliott, G.R.; Das, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Skin irritants and contact allergens reduce the number of Langerhans cells (LCs). It has been assumed that this reduction is due their migration to the draining lymph node (LN) for initiating immune sensitization in a host. Skin irritation, however, as opposed to contact allergy is not considered to

  15. A cross-sectional analysis of pet-specific immunoglobulin E sensitization and allergic symptomatology and household pet keeping in a birth cohort population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Jerel M; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine C; Zoratti, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether family members with detectable specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and/or allergic symptoms to pets are more or less likely to reside in a household with pets. We cross-sectionally investigated potential relationships between family members' allergic sensitization and symptoms to dogs and cats and current household pet-keeping practices, using birth cohort data. Blood samples taken from children enrolled in a birth cohort and their biological mothers and fathers, when the children were aged 18 years, were assessed for sIgE to dog and cat allergens. Interviews assessed subjects' self-reported pet exposure symptoms, current household pet-keeping practices, and socioeconomic characteristics. Overall, household dog or cat keeping was not associated with sIgE to these animals and/or self-reported allergic symptoms in the presence of these animals, even after controlling for factors such as education and household income. In subgroup analyses, current household dog keeping among dog-symptomatic teens (n = 40) was significantly lower than among teens who were not dog symptomatic (n = 289), at 48.8 and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.036). Current household cat keeping was significantly lower among cat-symptomatic mothers (n = 27) compared with mothers who were not cat symptomatic (n = 120), at 24.3 and 37.0%, respectively (p = 0.015). However, when considering those who were both sensitized and reported symptoms, only the mother and cat-keeping associations persisted (p = 0.049). When cat-sensitized mothers report allergic symptoms to cats, these pets may be less likely to be kept in homes. Elevated dog and cat allergen sIgE does not appear to be associated with the keeping of these pets. PMID:24169057

  16. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese;

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic...... ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a...

  17. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect. PMID:18404324

  18. Keratinocyte gene expression profiles discriminate sensitizing and irritating compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel, R.J. van de; Pennings, J.L.A.; Baken, K.A.; Pronk, T.E.; Boorsma, A.; Gottschalk, R.; Loveren, H. van

    2010-01-01

    Many chemicals can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Because evaluation of skin sensitizing potential by animal testing is prohibited for cosmetics, and screening of many chemicals is required within Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, urgent need exists for predi

  19. High proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells in neonates are positively associated with allergic sensitization later in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Strömbeck, A; Rabe, H.; Lundell, A-C; Andersson, K.; Johansen, S; Adlerberth, I; Wold, A E; Hesselmar, B; Rudin, A

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the prevention against sensitization and allergy development is controversial. Objective We followed 65 newborn Swedish children from farming and non-farming families from birth to 3 years of age and investigated the relation between CD4+ T cell subsets in blood samples and development of sensitization and allergic disease. Methods The proportions of FOXP3+CD25high, CTLA-4+CD25+, CD45RO+, HLA-DR+, CCR4+ or α4β7+ within the CD4+ T cell popula...

  20. Evaluation of human skin tests for potential dermal irritant and contact sensitizing products: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Jong WH de; Garssen J; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Prediction of human cutaneous irritation and sensitization in view of hazard identification has primarily relied on the use of laboratory animals. Such studies in laboratory animals have been very instrumental in the detection of potential contact sensitizing agents. There are however many uncertain

  1. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen. PMID:21198410

  2. Suppressive effect of ultraviolet-B-irradiation of epidermal cells on the induction of contact sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact sensitivity to trinitrophenyl (TNP) hapten was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of TNP-modified syngeneic spleen cells or epidermal cells (EC) (TNP-EC). Intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation of TNP-EC resulted in a comparable response, whereas i.p. administration of TNP-spleen cells or TNP-modified-ultraviolet (UV)-preirradiated EC (TNP-UV-EC) failed to induce TNP-contact sensitivity responses. The present study investigates the effect of UV-irradiation on the potential of EC for inducing the contact sensitivity response. Exposure of BALB/c mouse EC in vitro to 1600 J/m2 of UV-B before they were modified with TNP had no discernible effect on the Ia-positivity and viability of EC. Coexistence of TNP-UV-EC had no inhibitory effect upon the contact sensitivity response induced by TNP-EC via the i.p. route. The absence of suppressor cell generation was substantiated by the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from mice administered TNP-UV-EC i.p. to normal syngeneic mice. The effect of interleukin 1 (IL-1) or epidermal cellderived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF) in restoring the ability of TNP-UV-EC to induce contact sensitivity was examined. IL-1 or ETAF administered along with TNP-spleen cells i.p. induced a potent contact sensitivity response, whereas the same preparations of IL-1 or ETAF were unable to restore the contact sensitivity induction by TNP-UV-EC. The results are discussed in the context of UV-induced cell surface changes of the Langerhans cell population. (author)

  3. Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Temporary "Black Henna" Coloring of the Hair During Religious Cultural Celebrations: Three Different Cases, Same History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Rimon, Ayelet; Danino, Dana; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis after the application of temporary, paint-on, henna tattoos represents a well-known, potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 3 cases involving 3 children of the same age who developed a severe contact dermatitis with massive face and neck swelling after application of black henna to their hair during "Purim" celebrations. All 3 cases had a history of having applied henna tattoos in the previous year with mild local reactions. Their reactions are presumed to be due to sensitization to para-phenylenediamine. Although reactions to henna are being increasingly reported, reactions of this severity seem to be rare and could lead to permanent skin changes. PMID:24675548

  4. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Allergic Sensitization to Timothy Grass Pollen against Established Laboratory Methods and Skin Prick Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lucassen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I hypersensitivity is driven by allergen specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE and thus sIgE represents a marker for modern allergy diagnosis. Recently, a rapid assay for the detection of sIgE, termed as (Allergy Lateral Flow Assay ALFA, has been developed. The objective of our study is the evaluation of a scanner-based system for the semiquantitative interpretation of ALFA results. Agreement to Skin Prick Test (SPT, Allergopharma, ALLERG-O-LIQ System (Dr. Fooke, and ImmunoCAP (Phadia was investigated using 50 sera tested for specific IgE to timothy grass pollen (g6. 35/50 sera were positive by SPT, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP. Excellent agreement was observed between ALFA results and SPT, ImmunoCAP, and ALLERG-O-LIQ. Area under the curve (AUC values were found at 1.0, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was found versus all other methods. Visual- and scanner-based interpretation of the ALFA results revealed excellent agreement.

  5. Adelmidrol increases the endogenous concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide in canine keratinocytes and down-regulates an inflammatory reaction in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, S; Puigdemont, A; Della Valle, M F; Fusco, M; Verde, R; Allarà, M; Aveta, T; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential new target(s)/mechanism(s) for the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, adelmidrol, and its role in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis. Freshly isolated canine keratinocytes, human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, wild-type or transfected with cDNA encoding for N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA), were treated with adelmidrol or azelaic acid, and the concentrations of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and related mediators (PEA and oleoylethanolamide) were measured. The mRNA expression of PEA catabolic enzymes (NAAA and fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH), and biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1, was also measured. Brain or HEK-293 cell membrane fractions were used to assess the ability of adelmidrol to inhibit FAAH and NAAA activity, respectively. HaCaT cells were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2), was measured in the presence of adelmidrol. Adelmidrol increased PEA concentrations in canine keratinocytes and in the other cellular systems studied. It did not inhibit the activity of PEA catabolic enzymes, although it reduced their mRNA expression in some cell types. Adelmidrol modulated the expression of PEA biosynthetic enzyme, NAPE-PLD, in HaCaT cells, and inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-2 from stimulated HaCaT cells. This study demonstrates for the first time an 'entourage effect' of adelmidrol on PEA concentrations in keratinocytes and suggests that this effect might mediate, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound in veterinary practice. PMID:26639824

  6. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    An Goossens

    2015-01-01

    Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  7. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  8. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-ai; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specif...

  9. Contact allergy to sodium cocoamphoacetate present in an eye make-up remover

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, An; Bruze, M; Gruvberger, B.; Gielen, K; Stoskute, L

    2006-01-01

    This is a case report of a contact allergic reaction on the face due to a skin cleansing product containing the amphoteric surfactant sodium cocoamphoacetate, occurring in an atopic woman with multiple contact sensitivities. Because of its weak irritant properties, this surfactant is widely used in cosmetic products intended to be used for sensitive skin, including products for intimate, and baby hygiene.

  10. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded. PMID:20574602

  11. Risk assessment of contact allergens: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel AAJ van; LEO; LGM; LPI

    1996-01-01

    Skin sensitization, allergic contact dermatitis, is not a life-threatening condition but it can be very impairing. For that reason contemporary legislation prescribes the assessment of the skin sensitizing properties of substances like chemicals, house-hold and personel-care products. In general, sk

  12. The role of glutathione S-transferase and claudin-1 gene polymorphisms in contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, K; Linneberg, A; Johansen, J D;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact sensitization is frequent in the general population and arises from excessive or repeated skin exposure to chemicals and metals. However, little is known about its genetic susceptibility. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes...

  13. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  14. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese;

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic...... ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a...... modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...

  15. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    breast-feeding on the development of sensitization in preschool children. METHODS: Information on breast-feeding was gathered by interviews involving 335 children aged 1, 6, and 12 months from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort born to mothers with a history of...... asthma. Skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels against 12 common inhalant and 10 food allergens were assessed longitudinally at ages ½ year, 1½ years, 4 years, and 6 years. Eczema, wheeze/asthma, and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed at the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood...... clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization in...

  16. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Handa; Rahul Mahajan; Dipankar De

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continen...

  17. Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy History?

    OpenAIRE

    David Basketter; Emanuela Corsini

    2016-01-01

    Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory) sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears ...

  18. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with basophil activation tests (BAT). Methods: We have randomized 24 patients to a treatment (18) and an open control group (6). Repeated BAT were performed at baseline and througout treatment. Heparinized blood was centrifuged, plasma was removed, the cells washed twice, then...... be a cellular desensitisation after 1 year. Selected for presentation during the Poster Walk on Friday. (2011), Abstracts of the 11th Euroconference on Clinical Cell Analysis. Dublin, Ireland, 14–17 September 2011. Cytometry, 80B: 390–429. doi: 10.1002/cyto.b.20619...

  19. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  20. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...... dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed...

  1. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...... dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed...

  2. Low resistivity molybdenum thin film towards the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vuong Son; Tran Thi Ha; Luong T Thu Thuy; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Nguyen Duc Chien; Mai Anh Tuan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the molybdenum thin film electrode as the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The molybdenum thin film was grown on the glass substrate by direct current sputtering techniques of which the sputtering power was 150Wat 18 sccm flow rate of Ar. At such sputtering parameters, the Mo film can reach the lowest resistivity of 1.28E−6 cm at 400 nm thick. And the reflection of Mo membrane was 82%. This value is considered as a very good result for preparation of the back contact of DSSC.

  3. Study of the frequency of allergens in cosmetics components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis Estudo da frequência dos alérgenos da bateria de cosméticos em pacientes com suspeita de dermatite alérgica de contato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common dermatosis, especially in adults and professionals who handle them. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to cosmetics' components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis and to identify the main sensitizers related to occupational contact dermatitis. METHODS: During the period of January 2008 to June 2010, all the patients with a presumptive diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics were selected. The patients were submitted to the patch tests of cosmetics series, composed by ten substances. RESULTS: Among the 147 patients studied sensitization to cosmetics components occurred in 31,29% of the cases, 14 of those (19,18% equally corresponding to BHT and triethanolamine substances, 13 (17,81% to ammonium thioglycolate, 09 to sorbic acid (12,33%, 08 to tosilamida (10,95%, 06 to germall (8,22%. The other elements tested showed indices of 5% or less. A higher frequency of contact dermatitis to cosmetics was observed in women and the age most affected was concordant with the age range of greatest professional activity of the population. CONCLUSION: Allergic contact dermatitis was more frequently associated with Triethanolamine, BHT and ammonium thioglycolate, and the relation with occupational contact dermatitis was discreet.FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatite de contato por cosméticos é uma dermatose relativamente comum, sobretudo em adultos e em profissionais que os manipulam. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de positividade aos componentes de cosméticos, em pacientes com suspeita de dermatite alérgica; e identificar os principais sensibilizantes relacionados à dermatite de contato ocupacional. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a junho de 2010 foram selecionados todos os pacientes com hipótese de dermatite alérgica de contato a cosméticos. Os pacientes foram submetidos aos testes

  4. Hall effect enhanced low-field sensitivity in a three-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2012-06-06

    An extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device with a 3-contact geometry has been fabricated and characterized. A large enhancement of the output sensitivity at low magnetic fields compared to the conventional EMR device has been found, which can be attributed to an additional influence coming from the Hall effect. Output sensitivities of 0.19 mV/T at zero-field and 0.2 mV/T at 0.01 T have been measured in the device, which is equivalent to the ones of the conventional EMR sensors with a bias of ∼0.04 T. The exceptional performance of EMR sensors in the high field region is maintained in the 3-contact device.

  5. Highly sensitive contact pressure measurements using FBG patch in endotracheal tube cuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, R.; Blackman, O. R.; Hernandez, F. U.; Korposh, S.; Morgan, S. P.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; James, S. W.; Evans, D.; Norris, A.

    2016-05-01

    A method for measuring the contact pressure between an endotracheal tube cuff and the trachea was designed and developed by using a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) based optical fibre sensor. The FBG sensor is encased in an epoxy based UV-cured cuboid patch and transduces the transversely loaded pressure into an axial strain that induces wavelength shift of the Bragg reflection. The polymer patch was created by using a PTFE based mould and increases tensile strength and sensitivity of the bare fibre FBG to pressure to 2.10×10-2 nm/kPa. The characteristics of the FBG patch allow for continuous measurement of contact pressure. The measurement of contact pressure was demonstrated by the use of a 3D printed model of a human trachea. The influence of temperature on the measurements is reduced significantly by the use of a second FBG sensor patch that is not in contact with the trachea. Intracuff pressure measurements performed using a commercial manometer agreed well with the FBG contact pressure measurements.

  6. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    sensitization, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy...... associated inflammation. Only children with allergic rhinitis had increased bronchial responsiveness and elevated FeNO suggesting different endotypes of asthma symptoms in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. We also found bronchial hyperresponsiveness and raised values of FeNO in...... children with allergic rhinitis without asthma suggesting sub-clinical bronchial inflammation and supporting the allergic disease process to involve both upper and lower airways. In conclusion, these observations objectively show marked differences in nasal pathology in young children with allergic- and...

  7. Sensitization to Aeroallergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis%儿童过敏性鼻炎的吸入性过敏原

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛; 赵延明; 贺飞; 张罗

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查北京地区过敏性鼻炎儿童的主要吸入性过敏原.方法 采用21种标准化过敏原对北京地区458例3~18岁的过敏性鼻炎儿童进行皮肤点刺试验,描述过敏原的整体分布特征,并依据性别和年龄进行分层分析.比较不同年龄组在过敏原阳性率分布上的差异.结果 过敏原皮肤点刺实验阳性率前10位的过敏原分别为屋尘螨(83.6%)、粉尘螨(83.2%)、动物毛(15.7%)、大豚草(13.3%)、树1(13.3%)、藜(13.1%)、树2(12.0%)、交链孢霉属(9.6%)、刺槐(9.2%)和禾本科(9.2%).尘螨在男性和女性儿童中均为最常见过敏原.在377例尘螨过敏患儿中,强阳性者占87.0%.分别以阳性率最高点14岁以及强阳性率最高点11岁为界进行分组,尘螨过敏的强阳性率在组间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 尘螨是北京地区儿童过敏性鼻炎最重要的过敏原.%Objective To investigate which aeroallergens were prevalent in children with allergic rhinitis in Beijing region.Methods A total of 458 cases(aged from 3 to 18 years) who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, underwent a skin prick test with 21 standardized aeroallergeus, and the important sensitizing allergens were assessed.The stratified analysis for gender and age were also performed.Differences in SPT responses among the groups according to age were explored.Results The percent of patients with positive skin tests were as follows: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus ( 83.6% ), Dermatophagoides farinae ( 83.2% ), animal hair ( 15.7% ), giant ragweed( 13.3% ), Tree Ⅰ ( 13.3% ), Chenopodium album( 13.1% ), Tree Ⅱ ( 12.0% ), Alternaria alternate(9.6% ), Locust(9.2% )and Gramineae(9.2% ).The dust mite was the most popular allergen regardless of gender.The individuals who showed strong positive response to dust mite accounted for 87.0% among the 377 dust mite allergic subjects.There was no significantly higher sensitivity to dust mite among groups

  8. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Nemat Allah Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Iman Eftekharzadeh Mashhadi; Farahzad Jabari Azad; Jalil Tavakol Afshari; Mohammad-Taghi Shakeri

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test) and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methy...

  9. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Jeffrey L; Levy Michael B; Zacharisen Michael C; Kurup Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  10. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects : Current knowledge assembled at an international workshop at BfR, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiser, M; Tralau, T; Heidler, J;

    2012-01-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German 'Federal Institute for Risk Assessment' hosted an 'International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis'. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments in the...... field of contact dermatitis. This included the epidemiology and molecular biology of contact allergy, as well as the development of new in vitro methods. Furthermore, it considered regulatory aspects aiming to reduce exposure to contact sensitisers. An estimated 15-20% of the general population suffers...

  12. Is ascaridol het contact-allergeen in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Christoffers, W.A.; Blömeke, B.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil may result in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to ascaridole,

  13. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species. PMID:2971519

  14. Nickel contact sensitivity in the guinea pig. An efficient open application test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Rohold, A E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1992-01-01

    Nickel contact sensitivity was successfully induced in guinea pigs using an open epicutaneous application method. Immediately after pretreatment with 1% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate, upper back skin was treated daily for 4 weeks with 0.3%-3% nickel sulfate in either a 1% lanolin cream (Vaseline, p......H 5 SAD crème) or hydroxypropyl cellulose. Weekly intradermal injections with aluminium potassium sulfate were used as adjuvant. The animals were challenged twice with a one week interval, with nickel sulfate 2% in water and 1% in petrolatum, respectively. The response rates in the test groups treated...... with nickel sulfate 1% or 3% in the lanolin cream or 1% in hydroxypropyl cellulose were significantly different from the response rate in the control group. Considering both readings at both challenges, the frequency of sensitization was 57-93% (8 of 14 to 13 of 14 animals) in the group treated with 1...

  15. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Susan, E-mail: S.Gibbs@VUMC.nl [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, Dept of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Corsini, Emanuela [Laboratory of Toxicology, DiSFeB, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Spiekstra, Sander W. [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, Dept of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Galbiati, Valentina [Laboratory of Toxicology, DiSFeB, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Fuchs, Horst W. [CellSystems GmbH, Troisdorf (Germany); DeGeorge, George; Troese, Matthew [MB Research Labs, Spinnerstown, PA (United States); Hayden, Patrick; Deng, Wei [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Roggen, Erwin [3Rs Management and Consultancy (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low water solubility or stability. A protocol was developed using different 3D-epidermal models including in house VUMC model, epiCS® (previously EST1000™), MatTek EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic™ RHE and also the impact of different vehicles (acetone:olive oil 4:1, 1% DMSO, ethanol, water) was investigated. Following topical exposure for 24 h to 17 contact allergens and 13 non-sensitizers a robust increase in IL-18 release was observed only after exposure to contact allergens. A putative prediction model is proposed from data obtained from two laboratories yielding 95% accuracy. Correlating the in vitro EE sensitizer potency data, which assesses the chemical concentration which results in 50% cytotoxicity (EE-EC{sub 50}) with human and animal data showed a superior correlation with human DSA{sub 05} (μg/cm{sup 2}) data (Spearman r = 0.8500; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0061) compared to LLNA data (Spearman r = 0.5968; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0542). DSA{sub 05} = induction dose per skin area that produces a positive response in 5% of the tested population Also a good correlation was observed for release of IL-18 (SI-2) into culture supernatants with human DSA{sub 05} data (Spearman r = 0.8333; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0154). This easily transferable human in vitro assay appears to be very promising, but additional testing of a larger chemical set with the different EE models is required to fully evaluate the utility of this assay and to establish a definitive prediction model. - Highlights: • A potential epidermal equivalent assay to label and classify sensitizers • Il-18 release distinguishes sensitizers from non sensitizers • IL-18 release can rank sensitizer potency

  16. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low water solubility or stability. A protocol was developed using different 3D-epidermal models including in house VUMC model, epiCS® (previously EST1000™), MatTek EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic™ RHE and also the impact of different vehicles (acetone:olive oil 4:1, 1% DMSO, ethanol, water) was investigated. Following topical exposure for 24 h to 17 contact allergens and 13 non-sensitizers a robust increase in IL-18 release was observed only after exposure to contact allergens. A putative prediction model is proposed from data obtained from two laboratories yielding 95% accuracy. Correlating the in vitro EE sensitizer potency data, which assesses the chemical concentration which results in 50% cytotoxicity (EE-EC50) with human and animal data showed a superior correlation with human DSA05 (μg/cm2) data (Spearman r = 0.8500; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0061) compared to LLNA data (Spearman r = 0.5968; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0542). DSA05 = induction dose per skin area that produces a positive response in 5% of the tested population Also a good correlation was observed for release of IL-18 (SI-2) into culture supernatants with human DSA05 data (Spearman r = 0.8333; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0154). This easily transferable human in vitro assay appears to be very promising, but additional testing of a larger chemical set with the different EE models is required to fully evaluate the utility of this assay and to establish a definitive prediction model. - Highlights: • A potential epidermal equivalent assay to label and classify sensitizers • Il-18 release distinguishes sensitizers from non sensitizers • IL-18 release can rank sensitizer potency • EC50 (chemical concentration

  17. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema attending the contact dermatitis clinic of the institute were recruited over a two year period from 2004-05. Objective assessment was done using hand eczema severity index (HECSI and all the patients were patch tested using Indian standard series. Results: Unspecified type of hand eczema with no definite morphologic picture was seen in 62% followed by pompholyx in 14%. Hand eczema severity was not found to be statistically associated with age, sex, and atopic status of the patient. Positive patch test to one or more allergen was present in 65% of patients. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (25%, fragrance mix (16%, nickel sulphate (14%, and PPD (13%. There was no significant correlation between patch test positivity and hand eczema severity or atopic status of the patient. Among the morphological patterns pompholyx was strongly associated with an atopic status (P=0.004. Conclusions: Hand eczema was seen twice more commonly in men. Atopic and non-atopic patients of hand eczema had no difference in the severity of disease. Contact sensitivity to different allergens did not correlate with increased eczema severity.

  18. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologi...

  19. A STUDY ON CONTACT DERMATITIS TO HAIR DYE AND HENNA

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri; Asha Puri

    2013-01-01

    P- Phenylenediamine is an oxidative chemical that is frequently used as a permanent hair-coloring agent. It is added to henna to increase the intensity and longevity of the tattoo and expedites its drying time. Henna itself is a greenish brown vegetable coloring made from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and rarely causes allergic contact dermatitis. The addition of PPD causes the contact sensitization to black henna. Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tat...

  20. Triclocarban: evaluation of contact dermatitis potential in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, H; Bandmann, H J; Calnan, C D; Cronin, E; Fregert, S; Hjorth, N; Magnusson, B; Malten, K E; Meneghini, C L; Pirilä, V; Wilkinson, D S; Johannsen, F R

    1978-10-01

    Triclocarban was subjected to a profiling of its dermatitis producing potential including irritancy (21-day cumulative irritancy potential and application to 213 normal controls), phototoxicity (method of Marzulli), predictive contact sensitization (modified Draize method), predictive phototesting and battery screening in 2200 dermatitis patients, in an effort to define its relative dermatitis potential. The allergic contact dermatitis potential of triclocarban following bar soap use appears minimal. PMID:743875

  1. Cellular dynamics in the draining lymph nodes during sensitization and elicitation phases of contact hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Geisler, Carsten; Nielsen, Martin Weiss; Boding, Lasse; Von Essen, Marina; Hansen, Ann Kathrine; Skov, Lone; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2007-01-01

    immunological cells and by studying knockout mice lacking one or more of these immunological cell populations. OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for studying the collective cellular dynamics of immune cells in the draining lymph nodes during CHS in intact animals. PATIENTS/METHODS: Mice were sensitized and....../or challenged with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene or oxazolone. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry we determined the proliferation, activation state, and absolute number of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: The presented method can be applied...... to evaluate the effect of different contact allergens on various cell populations of the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: Our study support recent findings that several cell types seem to be involved in CHS....

  2. Inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves reduces pulmonary remodeling in guinea pigs with chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    C.M. Prado; G.Z. da Rocha; E.A. Leick-Maldonado; C.M. Starling; V.L. Capelozzi; M. A. Martins; I.F.L.C. Tibério

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary remodeling is an important feature of asthma physiopathology that can contribute to irreversible changes in lung function. Although neurokinins influence lung inflammation, their exact role in the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling remains to be determined. Our objective was to investigate whether inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves modulates pulmonary ECM remodeling in animals with chronic lung inflammation. After 14 days of capsaicin (50 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle administrat...

  3. Subcutaneous Allergic Sensitization to Protease Allergen Is Dependent on Mast Cells but Not IL-33: Distinct Mechanisms between Subcutaneous and Intranasal Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Seiji; Suzuki, Mayu; Hara, Mutsuko; Shimura, Sakiko; Ochi, Hirono; Maruyama, Natsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Ichikawa, Saori; Ikeda, Shigaku; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2016-05-01

    Protease activity of papain, a plant-derived occupational allergen homologous to mite major allergens, is essential to IgE/IgG1 production and lung eosinophilia induced by intranasal papain administration in mice, and IL-33 contributes to these responses. In this work, we investigate skin and Ab responses induced by s.c. papain administration into ear lobes and responses induced by subsequent airway challenge with papain. Subcutaneous papain injection induced swelling associated with increased epidermal thickness, dermal inflammation, serum IgE/IgG1 responses, and Th2 cytokine production in draining lymph node cells restimulated in vitro. These responses were markedly less upon s.c. administration of protease inhibitor-treated papain. Results obtained by using mast cell-deficient mice and reconstitution of tissue mast cells suggested the contribution of mast cells to papain-specific IgE/IgG1 responses and eosinophil infiltration. The responses were equivalent between wild-type and IL-33(-/-) mice. After the subsequent airway challenge, the s.c. presensitized wild-type mice showed more severe lung eosinophilia than those without the presensitization. The presensitized IL-33(-/-) mice showed modest lung eosinophilia, which was absent without the presensitization, but its severity and IgE boost by the airway challenge were markedly less than the presensitized wild-type mice, in which protease activity of inhaled papain contributed to the responses. The results suggest that mechanisms for the protease-dependent sensitization differ between skin and airway and that cooperation of mast cell-dependent, IL-33-independent initial sensitization via skin and protease-induced, IL-33-mediated mechanism in re-exposure via airway to protease allergens maximizes the magnitude of the transition from skin inflammation to asthma in natural history of progression of allergic diseases. PMID:27001956

  4. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. PMID:26289653

  5. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate and...... adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes. The...... overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  6. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  7. Evaluation of the sensitization rates and identification of IgE-binding components in wild and genetically modified potatoes in patients with allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seung-Hyun

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potato is one of the most common types of genetically modified (GM food. However, there are no published data evaluating the impact of genetic manipulations on the allergenicity of GM potatoes. To compare the allergenicity of GM potatoes with that of wild-type potatoes using in vivo and in vitro methods in adult allergy patients sensitized to potatoes. Methods A total of 1886 patients with various allergic diseases and 38 healthy controls participated in the study. Skin-prick testing and IgE-ELISA were carried out with extracts prepared from wild-type and GM potatoes. An ELISA inhibition test was used to confirm the binding specificity. IgE-binding components in extracts from the two types of potato were identified by SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting. The effects of digestive enzymes and heat on the allergenicity of the extracts was evaluated by preincubating the potatoes with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in the absence or presence of heat. Results Positive responses (ratio of the wheal size induced by the allergen to that induced by histamine (A/H ≥ 2+ to wild-type or GM potato extracts, as demonstrated by the skin-prick test, were observed in 108 patients (5.7%. Serum-specific IgE was detected in 0–88% of subjects who tested positively. ELISA inhibition tests indicated significant inhibition when extract from each type of potato was added. IgE-immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of 14 IgE-binding components within the wild-type potato and 9 within the GM potato. Furthermore, a common 45-kDa binding component that yielded similar IgE-binding patterns was noted in more than 80% of the reactions using sera from patients sensitized to wild-type or GM potato. Exposure to simulated gastric fluid and heat treatment similarly inhibited IgE binding by extracts from wild-type and GM potatoes, whereas minimal changes were obtained following exposure of the extracts to simulated intestinal fluid

  8. Remission of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    - to 69-year-old patients in 1990 were invited to a follow-up in 1998. Questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and serum for specific IgE (s-IgE) analyses were collected at both visits in 734 subjects (69% of those invited). Pollen AR was defined as rhinitis symptoms on pollen exposure within the last......BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) and sensitization are considered chronic conditions. However, few studies have reported remission rates in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the incidence of remission of AR during an 8-year period. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15...... observed in only 22% of remitting subjects yet was seen significantly more often than in nonremitting subjects (7.4%). Remission of sensitization occurred in 6% (HDM) to 11% (pollen-furry animal) and was predicted on the basis of low s-IgE levels (class 2) at baseline. CONCLUSION: Remission of AR symptoms...

  9. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  10. Pediatric contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K; Asati, Dinesh P

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control. PMID:20826990

  11. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. PMID:24395402

  12. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE2, TxB2 and PGD2), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE2 inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: → We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. → We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. → Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). → Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. → New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

  13. Interleukin-17 is a negative regulator of established allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Schnyder-Candrian, Silvia; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Couillin, Isabelle; Mercier, Isabelle; Brombacher, Frank; Quesniaux, Valérie,; Fossiez, Francois; Ryffel, Bernhard; Schnyder, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    T helper (Th)17 cells producing interleukin (IL)-17 play a role in autoimmune and allergic inflammation. Here, we show that IL-23 induces IL-17 in the lung and IL-17 is required during antigen sensitization to develop allergic asthma, as shown in IL-17R–deficient mice. Since IL-17 expression increased further upon antigen challenge, we addressed its function in the effector phase. Most strikingly, neutralization of IL-17 augmented the allergic response in sensitized mice. Conversely, exogenou...

  14. Estudio epidemiológico de la dermatitis de contacto en personas mayores de 65 años Epidemiological study of the allergic contact dermatitis in people over 65 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Azúa Blanco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La dermatitis de contacto (DAC es una de las patologías ocupacionales o no más frecuentes, pudiendo constituir del 3% al 5% de las consultas de dermatología. El diagnóstico se realiza en base a la clínica presentada y a la realización de pruebas epicutáneas, pudiéndose demostrar con éstas la sustancia causante de esta enfermedad y valorar la prevalencia y la relevancia de las positividades de los alérgenos estudiados para hacer una buena prevención. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados mediante la serie estándar GEIDC (Grupo Español de Investigación de Dermatitis de Contacto (29 alérgenos y con alérgenos homologados elaborados por Martitor España. La técnica de aplicación y lectura de los parches se realizó siguiendo las recomendaciones del GEIDC. Se estudiaron pacientes de 65 años y más, registrados durante 9 años en la sección de alergia HCU Lozano Blesa Área Sanitaria 3, con las siguientes variables: número de pacientes con pruebas (+, edad, sexo, patología presentada, localización de las lesiones, profesiones, positividades a cada alergia. Se estudiaron 1.559 pacientes y, de ellos, a 1.309 (el 83,96% se les diagnosticó DAC, 551 varones (42,1% y 758 mujeres (57,9%; de este grupo tan sólo 50 personas (el 3,8% tenían más de 64 años, 17 varones y 33 mujeres. Revisando los datos de este estudio vemos que la alergia más prevalente es a medicamentos tópicos en 39 pacientes (37,14%, 26 mujeres y 13 varones, usados para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones dermatológicas. Pensamos que estos datos son interesantes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta al prescribir un tratamiento al paciente geriátrico, ya que podemos evitar el uso de determinadas sustancias con capacidad sensibilizante intensa (caínas, neomicina, etc. sustituyéndolas por otros fármacos.Allergic Contact Dermatitis (CAD is one of the most common pathologies of an occupational or non-occupational nature, making up from 3% to 5% of all dermatology

  15. Exploring pH-Sensitive Hydrogels Using an Ionic Soft Contact Lens: An Activity Using Common Household Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; He, Yu-Chi; Yaung, Jing-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels of the so-called smart polymers or environment-sensitive polymers are important modern biomaterials. Herein, we describe a hands-on activity to explore the pH-responsive characteristics of hydrogels using a commercially available ionic soft contact lens that is a hydrogel of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-"co"-methacrylic…

  16. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bufalo, Aurélia; Bernad, José; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Françoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE(2,) TxB(2) and PGD(2)), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE(2) inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. PMID:21807015

  17. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    generalized diminished airway dimensions as a novel susceptibility factor for concurrent symptoms of asthma and rhinitis in early childhood and supports the notion of a common pathophysiology in asthma and rhinitis. The clinical interpretation of these findings is that all children presenting either rhinitis...... sensitization, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy...... associated inflammation. Only children with allergic rhinitis had increased bronchial responsiveness and elevated FeNO suggesting different endotypes of asthma symptoms in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. We also found bronchial hyperresponsiveness and raised values of FeNO in...

  18. Associations of allergic sensitization and clinical phenotypes with innate immune response genes polymorphisms are modified by house dust mite allergen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kurowski, Marcin; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Marek L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Polymorphisms within innate immunity genes are associated with allergic phenotypes but results are variable. These associations were not analyzed with respect to allergen exposure. We investigated associations of TLR and CD14 polymorphisms with allergy phenotypes in the context of house dust mite (HDM) exposure. Material and methods Children, aged 12-16 years (n=326), were recruited from downtown and rural locations and assessed by allergist. Skin prick tests, total and HDM-speci...

  19. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Maria; Schnoor Heidi J; Malling Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 ye...

  20. New highly efficient back contact solar cells with light sensitivity on both sides; Neuartige, hoechsteffiziente, rueckseitenkontaktierte Solarzellen mit beidseitiger Lichtempfindlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.

    2005-07-01

    In the presented work a highly efficient crystalline silicon solar cell with a simple process sequence was developed. This solar cell is rear contacted and bifacially sensitive. To so-called Back-OECO solar cell is based on a mechanically grooved rear side and on aluminium contacts obliquely evaporated under vacuum conditions. Al-Si-contacts were used for the base and Al/SiO{sub x}/n-Si tunnel contacts for the emitter. The special requirements of the Back-OECO-solar cell were analysed in detail and technological realisations were developed. The influence of the Si material quality, the front surface passivation and the rear surface passivation was investigated. Due to the grooved rear side the effective thickness of the Back-OECO solar cell can easily be adjusted to very low values. Therefore it is possible to produce high conversion efficiencies even with low quality silicon such as Czochralski- or multicrystalline-silicon. Rear collecting solar cells need excellent front surface passivation. A new stack of SiN{sub x}-films was developed with both excellent optical and electrical properties. Effective surface recombination velocities below 40 cm/s were received on textured 0.5 {omega}cm Si-substrate. In this work a new solar cell was developed that can significantly decrease the cost of solar generated electricity due to the simple process sequence, the high cell efficiency, the bifacial sensitivity and the simplified module assembly. (orig.)

  1. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  2. Is ascaridole a sensitizing degradation product in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tea tree oil is a natural oil, which contains a-terpinene. Degradation of a-terpinene results in the endoperoxide ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Objectives: To study the prevalence of sensitizations to ascaridole, the optimal patch test concentration, concomitan

  3. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize...... and elicit allergic contact dermatitis or develop tolerance. This review offers a general overview of human biomonitoring, including information about its typical application and methodology. Furthermore, studies that have attempted to perform simultaneous biomonitoring and patch testing are reviewed...

  4. [Occupational diseases caused by exposure to sensitizing metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Y

    1993-03-01

    Diseases caused by occupational exposure to sensitizing metals including platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), gold (Au), mercury (Hg), zirconium (Zr) and beryllium (Be) are reviewed. Allergic reactions induced by the metals are described according to the classification by Coombs and Gell. Metals with unproven sensitizing potential are not discussed if reports on these are either very rare or devoid of convincing evidence for allergic involvement. The sensitizing metals are haptens which are not themselves able to act as antigens. There is evidence that combination of the metals with circulating or tissue protein gives rise to new antigens. An alternative hypothesis is that these metals interfere with the antigen recognition step of the immune response. Immunomodulatory effects or immunotoxicity of the metals may be also involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity. Occupational exposure to Pt, Rh, Ni, Cr, and Co causes allergic asthma via type I allergic reaction in which serum from affected individuals shows specific IgE antibodies against mental-human serum albumin conjugates. Some rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with gold salt therapy develop glomerulonephritis, thrombocytopenia, or agranulocytosis, which arise from type II and/or type III allergic reactions. Occupational exposure to mercury causes glomerulonephritis in which involvement of type III reaction is suggested. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction of the skin also takes place following exposure to the metals: allergic contact dermatitis is evoked by exposure to Ni, Cr, Co, Rh, and Hg; cutaneous granuloma is formed by contact with Zr and Be. Be is also a sensitizer of the lungs, resulting in granulomatous disease. Diagnosis of metal-induced allergic diseases is made on the basis of allergological tests with metal antigens including skin tests, radioallergosorbent test for specific antibody, lymphocyte transformation test, macrophage migration inhibition test, and

  5. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  6. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  7. Associação de urticária de contato e dermatite alérgica de contato à borracha Association of contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis to rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohalis Luanda Fernadez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de uma profissional da área da saúde que desenvolveu reação de hipersensibilidade dos tipos I e IV à borracha. O quadro clínico mostrava dermatite eczematosa no dorso das mãos. O teste de contato foi positivo para o grupo tiuram, assim como o teste aberto com fragmento de luva após exposição de 20 minutos. A dosagem de IgE sérica (Rast mostrou-se relevante. As reações aos alérgenos da borracha são frequentes entre os profissionais da saúde, devido ao contato constante com esse material.We present a case of a healthcare professional that developed type I and IV hypersensitivity reactions to rubber. During the clinical examination the patient showed eczematous dermatitis of the hands. The patch test was positive for thiuram group and an open test with a piece of glove was positive after 20 minutes of exposure. Allergen-specific IgE test (RAST was relevant. Reactions to rubber allergens are frequent among healthcare professionals due to constant contact with this material.

  8. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Allergic Sensitization to Timothy Grass Pollen against Established Laboratory Methods and Skin Prick Test

    OpenAIRE

    Lucassen, R.; Schulte-Pelkum, J.; C. Csuvarszki; Kleine-Tebbe, J.; Fooke, M.; Mahler, M.

    2010-01-01

    Type I hypersensitivity is driven by allergen specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and thus sIgE represents a marker for modern allergy diagnosis. Recently, a rapid assay for the detection of sIgE, termed as (Allergy Lateral Flow Assay) ALFA, has been developed. The objective of our study is the evaluation of a scanner-based system for the semiquantitative interpretation of ALFA results. Agreement to Skin Prick Test (SPT, Allergopharma), ALLERG-O-LIQ System (Dr. Fooke), and ImmunoCAP (Phadia) was...

  9. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methylene Blue stain and culture in Sabourad dextrose agar. Severity of the disease was determined according to  the ARIA classification. Pearson chi-square test was applied to compare the proportional difference between the study groups for detection of Alternaria in the nasal cavity, and sensitization to Alternaria.Relation between detection of Alternaria and allergic rhinitis was significant [OR = 18.18 (4.02-82.50] In addition, sensitization to Alternaria showed a significant relation with the disease [OR  =  2.8 (2.1-3.8]. There  was a significant relation between the  presence  of Alternaria in the nasal cavity and sensitization to Alternaria [OR =  10.4 (3.8-28.3]. Both sensitization to  Alternaria and presence of Alternaria in the nasal cavity did not  have a significant relation with the severity of allergic rhinitis. This study suggests Alternaria as a major  allergen that  its  presence  in  the  nasal  cavity and  subsequent  development  of sensitization have significant role in the induction of allergic rhinitis.

  10. A highly sensitive flexible strain sensor based on the contact resistance change of carbon nanotube bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngsup; Lee, Jae-Ik; Pyo, Soonjae; Eun, Youngkee; Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2016-05-01

    A novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible strain sensor with the highest gauge factor of 4739 is presented. CNT-to-CNT contacts are fabricated on a pair of silicon electrodes fixed on a PDMS specimen for both flexibility and electrical connection. The strain is detected by the resistance change between facing CNT bundles. The proposed approach could be applied for diverse applications with a high gauge factor.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to turmeric in kumkum

    OpenAIRE

    Surendranath Lal M; Srinivas C

    2006-01-01

    A forty-three year old house-wife developed dermatitis over the center of forehead following application of kumkum, bindi and sticker (except one brand) since six months. Patch testing with various brands of kumkum and regularly available sticker used by the patient elicited positive reaction except one brand used by the patient. Kumkum is made by mixing turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder with small amount of lime (calcium hydroxide). She was patch tested with turmeric, to which she developed ...

  12. The effects of cordycepin on ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation by strengthening Treg response and suppressing Th17 responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianzhu, Zhang; Shihai, Yang; Juan, Du

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to use a mouse model of allergic asthma to investigate whether cordycepin has antiasthmatic effects, and if so, to determine the mechanism of these effects. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (Dex, 2 mg/kg), and cordycepin (20-40 mg/kg). Histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin staining, OVA-specific serum and BALF IgE levels and Treg/Th17 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and RORγt and Foxp3 were evaluated by western blot. Our study demonstrated that cordycepin inhibited OVA-induced increases in eosinophil count; IL-17A levels were recovered and increased IL-10 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that cordycepin substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Western blot study demonstrated that cordycepin increased Foxp3 and inhibited RORγt. These findings suggest that cordycepin may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma and could be used as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma. PMID:25417131

  13. A polarization-sensitive 4-contact detector for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarevich, Dmitry S; Watanabe, Makoto; Shiwa, Mitsuharu; Niehues, Gudrun; Nishizawa, Seizi; Tani, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    A light polarization angle-sensitive photoconductive detector for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is computer-modeled, microfabricated, and tested. The experimental results show good agreement with the linear angular response for an ideal detector. The detector's frequency, angular, and crosstalk responses are discussed in the context of theoretical and experimental considerations. PMID:24921735

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Fenoy

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+FoxP3(+ cells.

  15. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M;

    1991-01-01

    an effective way to prevent undesired T cell-mediated immune functions, such as playing a role in allograft reaction, autoimmune and allergic diseases. In the present study allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH) to nickel, currently presenting the most frequent contact allergy in man, was chosen to...... establish the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were...... interviewed by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced...

  16. A study of the enhanced sensitizing capacity of a contact allergen in lipid vesicle formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing focus on nanotechnology and the increased use of nano-sized structures, e.g. vesicles, in topical formulations has led to safety concerns. We have investigated the sensitizing capacity and penetration properties of a fluorescent model compound, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), when administered in micro- and nano-scale vesicle formulations. The sensitizing capacity of RBITC was studied using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the skin penetration properties were compared using diffusion cells in combination with two-photon microscopy (TPM). The lymph node cell proliferation, an indicator of a compounds sensitizing capacity, increased when RBITC was applied in lipid vesicles as compared to an ethanol:water (Et:W) solution. Micro-scale vesicles showed a slightly higher cell proliferative response compared to nano-scale vesicles. TPM imaging revealed that the vesicle formulations improved the skin penetration of RBITC compared to the Et:W solution. A strong fluorescent region in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis implies elevated association of RBITC to these skin layers when formulated in lipid vesicles. In conclusion, the results indicate that there could be an elevated risk of sensitization when haptens are delivered in vehicles containing lipid vesicles. Although the size of the vesicles seems to be of minor importance, further studies are needed before a more generalized conclusion can be drawn. It is likely that the enhanced sensitizing capacity is a consequence of the improved penetration and increased formation of hapten-protein complexes in epidermis when RBITC is delivered in ethosomal formulations. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  17. Allergic Conjunctivitis Exacerbates Corneal Allograft Rejection by Activating Th1 and Th2 Alloimmune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Niederkorn, Jerry Y.; Chen, Peter W.; Mellon, Jessamee; Stevens, Christina; Mayhew, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and airway hyperreactivity exacerbate corneal allograft rejection. Because AC and airway hyperreactivity are allergic diseases of mucosal tissues, we determined whether an allergic disease of a nonmucosal tissue would affect corneal allograft rejection and whether Th2 cells alone accounted for accelerated graft rejection in allergic mice. Hosts sensitized cutaneously with short ragweed pollen developed cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity but rejected corneal allo...

  18. A study of the enhanced sensitizing capacity of a contact allergen in lipid vesicle formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Carl; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Graneli, Annette;

    2011-01-01

    The growing focus on nanotechnology and the increased use of nano-sized structures, e.g. vesicles, in topical formulations has led to safety concerns. We have investigated the sensitizing capacity and penetration properties of a fluorescent model compound, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), when...... the improved penetration and increased formation of hapten-protein complexes in epidermis when RBITC is delivered in ethosomal formulations....

  19. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda;

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the...... literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allergy are reviewed: applications, exposure scenarios, legislation, patch testing problems, frequency of...... sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers. The...

  20. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  1. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  2. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  3. Allergic urticaria: A case report of rare skin allergy with a common mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viresh Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Compared to its ubiquitous use, allergic contact dermatitis from chlorhexidine has rarely been reported and so its sensitization rate seems to be low. Chlorhexidine has been used for more than 50 years but it was only in the last two decades, that reports of immediate- type reactions to chlorhexidine were seen. Reactions ranging from localized urticaria to anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reactions, including delayed hypersensitivity reactions such as contact dermatitis, fixed drug eruptions, and photosensitivity reactions, began to appear more frequently. However the prevalence of contact urticaria and anaphylaxis due to chlorhexidine remains to be unknown. In this case report we have reported a case of urticaria due to oral use of chlorhexidine. The adverse reaction was confirmed by a skin prick test.

  4. Cytokines and Chemokines in Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Haur Yueh Lee; Marco Stieger; Nikhil Yawalkar; Masato Kakeda

    2013-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a result of activated innate immune response to various external stimuli and consists of complex interplay which involves skin barrier disruption, cellular changes, and release of proinflammatory mediators. In this review, we will focus on key cytokines and chemokines involved in the pathogenesis of irritant contact dermatitis and also contrast the differences between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

  5. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-09-01

    In this article, contact allergy to, and the chemical composition of, tea tree oil (TTO) are reviewed. This essential oil is a popular remedy for many skin diseases, and may be used as neat oil or be present in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and household products. Of all essential oils, TTO has caused most (published) allergic reactions since the first cases were reported in 1991. In routine testing, prevalences of positive patch test reactions have ranged from 0.1% to 3.5%. Nearly 100 allergic patients have been described in case reports and case series. The major constituents of commercial TTO are terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, p-cymene, and α-pinene. Fresh TTO is a weak to moderate sensitizer, but oxidation increases its allergenic potency. The major sensitizers appear to be ascaridole, terpinolene, α-terpinene, 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, α-phellandrene, and limonene. The clinical picture of allergic contact dermatitis caused by TTO depends on the products used. Most reactions are caused by the application of pure oil; cosmetics are the culprits in a minority of cases. Patch testing may be performed with 5% oxidized TTO. Co-reactivity to turpentine oil is frequent, and there is an overrepresentation of reactions to fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, and other essential oils. PMID:27173437

  6. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  7. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of ... the Symptoms of an Allergy? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease InfoSearch: Asthma Johns Hopkins Medicine: ...

  9. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective survey of possible allergic reactions during anaesthesia was to investigate whether the cause suspected by anaesthetists involved corresponded with the cause found on subsequent investigation in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC). METHODS: Case...... notes and anaesthetic charts from 111 reactions in 107 patients investigated in the DAAC were scrutinized for either suspicions of or warnings against specific substances stated to be the cause of the supposed allergic reaction. RESULTS: In 67 cases, one or more substances were suspected. In 49 of these...... match, the right substance being suspected, but investigations showed an additional allergen or several substances, including the right substance being suspected. CONCLUSIONS: An informed guess is not a reliable way of determining the cause of a supposed allergic reaction during anaesthesia and may put...

  10. Contribution of Contact Sampling in Increasing Sensitivity of Poliovirus Detection During A Polio Outbreak-Somalia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, Edna; Mahmud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Farag, Noha; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gary, Howard; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Background.  In May 2013, a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak reported in Somalia provided an opportunity to examine the contribution of testing contacts to WPV detection. Methods.  We reviewed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case-patients and linked contacts reported in the Somalia Surveillance Database from May 9 to December 31, 2013. We restricted our analysis to AFP case-patients that had ≥3 contacts and calculated the contribution of each contact to case detection. Results.  Among 546 AFP cases identified, 328 AFP cases had ≥3 contacts. Among the 328 AFP cases with ≥3 contacts, 93 WPV1 cases were detected: 58 cases (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-72%) were detected through testing stool specimens from AFP case-patients; and 35 cases (38%; 95% CI, 28%-48%) were detected through testing stool specimens from contacts, including 19 cases (20%; 95% CI, 14%-30%) from the first contact, 11 cases (12%; 95% CI, 7%-20%) from the second contact, and 5 cases (5%; 95% CI, 2%-12%) from the third contact. Among the 103 AFP cases with ≥4 contacts, 3 (6%; 95% CI, 2%-16%) of 52 WPV1 cases were detected by testing the fourth contact. No additional WPV1 cases were detected by testing >4 contacts. Conclusions.  Stool specimens from 3 to 4 contacts of persons with AFP during polio outbreaks are needed to maximize detection of WPV cases. PMID:27419182

  11. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2015-01-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause...

  12. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment

  13. Mouse models of peanut allergy Contribution of oral and nasal sensitization to allergic reactions to peanut and cross-reactivity with food and environmental antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Romy

    2005-01-01

    Il n'est pas rare que les personnes souffrant d'une allergie alimentaire présentent des troubles gastriques ou respiratoires au contact de protéines végétales de la même famille botanique que celle responsable de l'allergie alimentaire ou appartenant à une famille botanique différente. Les réponses de type Th2 et les IgE sont reconnus depuis longtemps pour leur rôle dans ces réactions allergiques, mais des publications récentes soulignent que des interactions cellulaires et moléculaires plus ...

  14. A STUDY ON CONTACT DERMATITIS TO HAIR DYE AND HENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available P- Phenylenediamine is an oxidative chemical that is frequently used as a permanent hair-coloring agent. It is added to henna to increase the intensity and longevity of the tattoo and expedites its drying time. Henna itself is a greenish brown vegetable coloring made from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and rarely causes allergic contact dermatitis. The addition of PPD causes the contact sensitization to black henna. Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of hair dyes in this age group. With increased popularity of body art such as body piercing and tattooing, an increase in temporary henna tattoos has also occurred. Although the appeal of non-permanence exists for henna tattoos, dermatologists have begun to see numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis linked with a certain type of henna. We selected 50 patients using hair dye and henna for our study. Patch testing was done in all the patients using Indian standard series of antigens. Regarding to the side effects to hair dye and henna and itching was the commonest symptom seen in 16% patients, erythematous scaly plaques were seen in 10% patients, vesicular reactions were seen in 6% patients, angioneurotic oedema and contact urticaria was seen in 4% patients each and anaphylaxis and keloidal reaction was seen in 2% patients each.

  15. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer.

  16. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

  17. Periostin in Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  18. Ultraviolet laser ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for dye-sensitized back-contact solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, laser ablation of a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film on a glass substrate was conducted using a 355 nm Nd:YVO4 ultraviolet (UV) laser to obtain a 4 × 4 mm microstructure. The microstructure contains a symmetric set of interdigitated FTO finger electrodes of a monolithic back-contact dye-sensitized solar cell (BC-DSC) on a common substrate. The effects of UV laser ablation parameters (such as laser fluence, repetition frequency, and scanning speed) on the size precision and quality of the microstructure were investigated using a 4 × 4 orthogonal design and an assistant experimental design. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and the current–voltage characteristics of the BC-DSC base of the interdigitated FTO finger electrodes were also determined. The experimental results show that an FTO film microstructure with high precision and good quality can be produced on a glass substrate via laser ablation with high scanning speed, high repetition frequency, and appropriate laser fluence. - Highlights: ► The ablation width and depth generally depend on the laser fluence. ► The scanning speed and the repetition frequency must match each other. ► Slight ablation of the glass substrate can completely remove F-doped tin oxide

  19. Platelets promote allergic asthma through the expression of CD154

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jun; ZHU, TIANYI; Liu, Juan; Guo, Zhenhong; Cao, Xuetao

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activation is associated with multiple immune responses and the pathogenesis of various immune-related diseases. However, the exact role and the underlying mechanism of platelets in the progression of allergic asthma remain largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that during antigen sensitization, platelets can be activated by ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol via the upregulation of CD154 (CD40L) expression. Platelet transfer promoted allergic asthma progression by inducing more severe...

  20. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  1. Development and validation of animal-free test methods to predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Bauch, Caroline D.

    2013-01-01

    Skin sensitization is the development of the allergic contact dermatitis caused by chemicals. Regulatory accepted methods to assess skin sensitizing potential of chemicals are animal based tests, but increasing interest in animal welfare presses the development of animal-free methods. The aim of this work was the development, establishment and validation of several alternative methods to animal testing to predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. Therefore several methods reflectin...

  2. Occupational contact dermatitis due to croton (Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss var. pictum (Lodd.) Muell. Arg.). Sensitization by plants of the Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Schulz, K H

    1977-12-01

    One of today's most decorative and popular ornamental potted plants is Croton. Handling this plant over a period of 6 months produced contact eczema of the hands in a nursery gardener. Patch tests with Croton leaves were positive. Control tests remained negative. Sensitization experiments in guinea pigs with a methanolic extract of the leaves were successful. All results of the study indicate that: -latex of croton produces no primary irritant reaction -latex is able to induce a real contact allergy -contact allergens are constituents of the milky sap. Whether the di- and triesters of phorbol so far isolated as irritant and cocarcinogenic factors from the latex of various Euphorbiaceae species and sensitizers shall be investigated in further experiments. PMID:146585

  3. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetic

  4. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    OpenAIRE

    Trifunović Gordana; Plavec Goran; Tomić Ilija; Popović Lidija; Stefanović Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA) - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age) was admitted t...

  5. Allergénicité des Granules Cytoplasmiques de Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Chakra, Oussama

    2009-01-01

    Le pollen des Graminées est l'un des principaux vecteurs d'allergènes. Il contribue à l'apparition des allergies respiratoires comme l'asthme et la rhinite allergique. En contact avec l'eau de pluie ou des polluants atmosphériques, le pollen peut libérer des microparticules (

  6. Effect of Retinoic Acid in a Mouse Model of Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyang-Rim; Park, Yong-Jin; Kim, Soo-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) modulates immune responses by affecting T cells. Several studies have revealed that allergic inflammation of the lower airways is negatively associated with the vitamin A concentration. However, the role of ATRA in allergic inflammation of the upper airways is unclear. We investigated the effects of ATRA in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. Methods BALB/c mice except control groups (CON group) were sensitized with and challenged intra-nasally with Dermat...

  7. Is Vojvodina a risk area for contact weed allergies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poljački Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction After detecting erythema multiforme due to contact with weeds, dandelion (Taraxacum offwinale, Compositae and common chickweed (Stellaria media, Caryophyllaceae, which are ubiquitous plants in Vojvodina, and concerning properties of commercial screening allergens in detection of allergy to plants, we investigated contact allergy to dandelion and to common chick-weed, using their extracts. Material and methods Epicutaneous tests were performed using originally prepared ether extracts of these plants, 0.1% and 3% pet., in 263 individuals: 43 with extrinsic atopic dermatitis, 55 with allergic contact dermatitis, 118 with non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases and 47 healthy adults. Results Our results have shown that testing with both extracts (both concentrations represents a safe method, since no irritation or sensibilization occurred. The overall prevalence of allergy to dandelion extract was 1.14%, and for common chickweed extract 2.28%. Discussion Plant allergies (especially Compositae cannot always be detected by standard screening allergens. Additional testing with dandelion extract can detect most cases, which is in agreement with our results. Isolation of essential oil from common chick-weed proved the allergenic potential of this plant. The prevalence of detected allergy to dandelion as well as to common chickweed was higher than 1 %. Conclusion These ubiquitous weeds and high prevalence of detected allergies have included Vojvodina into a risk zone for getting contact sensitivity to dandelion and common chickweed. Dandelion extract should be considered for Compositae screening series and common chickweed extract for specific plant series in Vojvodina. .

  8. Contact Allergy to Special and Standard Allergens in Patients with Venous Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Tomljanović-Veselski, Mirna; Lipozenčić, Jasna Lipozen~i; Lugović, Liborija

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of contact sensitivity in patients with leg ulcers, and possible difference in the rate of contact hypersensitivity to standard series of allergens used in patch testing, and to particular topical agents used in local therapy of leg ulcers in special series, patients with and without atopy. The study included 60 patients, 45 female and 15 male, aged 37–85 (mean 68.37 female and 51.13 male), 30 of them with and 30 without allergic ...

  9. Contrasting effects of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet B exposure on induction of contact sensitivity in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Hansen, Henrik; Barker, J. N.;

    1997-01-01

    model of tumour antigens. Volunteers (n = 46) were randomly assigned to received no sensitization, sensitization with the allergen diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) on non-UV-exposed normal skin, or sensitization with DPCP on skin exposed to three minimal erythema doses (MED) of either UVA or UVB radiation...... 3 days before sensitization. Three weeks after sensitization all volunteers were challenged with five different concentrations of DPCP. The challenge reactions were scored clinically and the increase in skin thickness was measured using a micrometer. Sensitization on UVB-exposed skin reduced the...... immunization rate compared with sensitization on non-irradiated skin (P < 0.03) as previously described. In contrast, sensitization on skin exposed to three MED UVA radiation did not result in a decreased immunization rate compared with non-irradiated skin. These results indicate that in humans erythemagenic...

  10. Comparison of the sensitivities of the Buehler test and the guinea pig maximization test for predictive testing of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Vølund, A; Wahlberg, J E;

    2001-01-01

    dose-response model. To compare the sensitivity of the 2 test procedures the test conditions were kept identical and the following chemicals with a range of sensitization potentials were tested: chloraniline, chlorhexidine, eugenol, formaldehyde, mercaptobenzothiazole and neomycin sulphate....... Formaldehyde and neomycin sulphate were strong sensitizers in both tests. Mercaptobenzothiazole, eugenol and chloraniline were all strong sensitizers in the GPMT, eugenol and mercaptobenzothiazole were negative in the Buehler test and equivocal results were obtained with chloraniline. Chlorhexidine was...

  11. An ITAM-Syk-CARD9 signalling axis triggers contact hypersensitivity by stimulating IL-1 production in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yoshii, Chika; Nakaya, Mako; Ozaki, Naoko; Toda, Shuji; Kuroda, Etsushi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Yasuda, Tomoharu; Natsuaki, Yohei; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Iizasa, Ei'ichi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Kabashima, Kenji; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Takai, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takashi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Malissen, Bernard; Ohno, Naohito; Furue, Masutaka; Yoshida, Hiroki; Hara, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    A variety of reactive organic compounds, called haptens, can cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, the innate immune mechanisms by which haptens stimulate dendritic cells (DCs) to sensitize T cells remain unclear. Here we show that the coupling of ITAM-Syk-CARD9 signalling to interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion in DCs is crucial for allergic sensitization to haptens. Both MyD88 and Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) signalling are required for contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Naïve T cells require signals received through IL-1R1-MyD88 for effector differentiation, whereas DCs require CARD9 and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signalling for hapten-induced IL-1α/β secretion and their ability to prime T cells. DC-specific deletion of CARD9, DAP12, Syk or NLRP3, but not MyD88, is sufficient to abolish CHS. All tested haptens, but not irritants, can induce Syk activation, leading to both the CARD9/BCL10-dependent pro-IL-1 synthesis (signal1) and reactive oxygen species-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation (signal2), required for IL-1 secretion. These data unveil an innate immune mechanism crucial for allergic contact sensitization to chemical compounds. PMID:24806599

  12. Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Stahl Skov, P;

    1999-01-01

    tested; 58 of these were tested with HRT/Refix. Furthermore, 22 healthy controls were included and tested in vivo and in vitro. Cactus-related contact urticaria and/or rhinoconjunctivitis were reported by 37% of the cactus workers. Based on a combination of positive history, positive SPT, and positive...... HRT/ Refix to cactus, 8% of the cactus workers were allergic to cacti. No noncactus workers or controls were allergic to cacti by these criteria. Testing with fresh cactus material elicited positive SPT and negative HRT/Refix in 27 nursery workers and controls, of whom 12 had immediate-type skin and...

  13. Association between cancer and contact allergy: a linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Engkilde, Kaare; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contact allergy is a prevalent disorder. It is estimated that about 20% of the general population are allergic to one or more of the chemicals that constitute the European baseline patch test panel. While many studies have investigated associations between type I allergic disorders and cancer, few have looked into the association between cancer and contact allergy, a type IV allergy. By linking two clinical databases, the authors investigate the possible association between contact...

  14. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetics. In Europe, low frequencies of sensitization have been observed to all releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol 0.4-1.2%, diazolidinyl urea 0.5-1.4%, imidazolidinyl urea 0.3-1.4%, quaternium-15...

  15. Latex-allergic patients sensitized to the major allergen hevein and hevein-like domains of class I chitinases show no increased frequency of latex-associated plant food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Radauer, Christian; Adhami, Farzaneh; Fürtler, Irene; Wagner, Stefan; Allwardt, Dorothee; Scala, Enrico; Ebner, Christof; Hafner, Christine; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mari, Adriano; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Allergies to certain fruits such as banana, avocado, chestnut and kiwi are described in 30–70% of latex-allergic patients. This association is attributed to the cross-reactivity between the major latex allergen hevein and hevein-like domains (HLDs) from fruit class I chitinases. We aimed to assess the extent of cross-reactivity between hevein and HLDs using sera from latex-allergic patients with and without plant food allergy. Hevein and HLDs of latex, banana, and avocado chitinases were expr...

  16. PREVALENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajlaxmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS is a disease of young immune competent adults. Nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, nasal allergy and proptosis were the most common presentations. Initial diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis requires high index of suspicion in patients presenting with chronic rhino sinusitis, such cases should be properly evaluated. Differentiation from invasive forms of fungal sinus disease is crucial

  17. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on allergic asthma in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Habibian

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of MSCs on airway inflammation using mice model of allergic asthma. The mice were sensitized with OVA and compared to the results of dexamethasone administration. Our results demonstrated that administration of MSCs could be used as a potential therapeutic approach for the allergic asthma.

  18. Allergic reaction induced by dermal and/or respiratory exposure to low-dose phenoxyacetic acid, organophosphorus, and carbamate pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates, phenoxyacetic acid, and carbamate have a high risk of affecting human health, causing allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma-like diseases. We used our long-term sensitization method and a local lymph node assay to examine the allergic reactions caused by several types of pesticides. BALB/c mice were topically sensitized (9 times in 3 weeks), then challenged dermally or intratracheally with 2,4-D, BRP, or furathiocarb. One day post-challenge, the mice were processed to obtain biologic materials for use in assays of total IgE levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); differential cell counts and chemokine levels in BALF; lymphocyte counts and surface antigen expression on B-cells within regional lymph nodes (LNs); and, ex situ cytokine production by cells from these LNs. 2,4-D-induced immune responses characteristic of immediate-type respiratory reactions, as evidenced by increased total IgE levels in both serum and BALF; an influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, and chemokines (MCP-1, eotaxin, and MIP-1β) in BALF; increased surface antigen expression on B-cells IgE and MHC class II production) in both auricular and the lung-associated LNs; and increased Th2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) in both auricular and the lung-associated LN cells. In contrast, BRP and furathiocarb treatment yielded, at most, non-significant increases in all respiratory allergic parameters. BRP and furathiocarb induced marked proliferation of MHC Class II-positive B-cells and Th1 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) in only auricular LN cells. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a respiratory allergen and BRP and furathiocarb are contact allergens. As our protocol detected classified allergic responses to low-molecular-weight chemicals, it thus may be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related allergy.

  19. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  20. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of low molecular weight chemicals : employment of a regression method in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Och, Franciscus Martinus Maria van

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important allergic diseases caused by chemicals, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or skin sensitization, forms a serious problem for individuals experiencing such a reaction. The prevalence of CHS tends to grow proportionally to the increasing exposure to an expanding variety of chemicals. Predictive animal tests to identify sensitizing properties of chemicals are therefore carried out at a large scale. For a better risk assessment, a more quantitative assessment of the sensitiz...

  1. Preparation and investigation of burried metal/molecule contact interfaces with surface sensitive methods; Praeparation und Untersuchung verborgener Metall/Molekuel-Kontaktgrenzflaechen mit oberflaechensensitiven Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, Pavo

    2011-05-13

    The present thesis establishes an optimised concept of a delamination technique suitable for ultra high vacuum (UHV) with which model systems of buried interfaces were made accessible for surface sensitive methods which were applied to investigate their electronic and topographical properties. A primary focus of this work is on the question how buried interfaces could be accessed successfully for surface sensitive methods using buried metal/NTCDA and metal/PTCDA interfaces as model systems. Contacts of approximately 10 x 15 mm{sup 2} in size were accessed. The second focus of the thesis is on the investigation of the electronical and topographical properties of the buried interfaces, for which some similarities between delaminated metal (Au,Ag)/ PTCDA- and Ag/NTCDA interfaces were found: After the delamination of top-contacts there were inhomogeneous layers of molecules on the metal contacts. Whereas PTCDA covered metal contacts had thicker molecular layers (4-5 ML PTCDA on Ag), NTCDA covered contacts showed only one monolayer coverage over large areas of at least 2 mm in diameter. Regions with multilayer coverage showed smooth surfaces whereas metal surfaces showed a fissured, meander-like and rough surface. Both contact systems also had in common that the adhesive made PES investigations of valence states very difficult. Furthermore, it was possible to thin out the molecular layers thermally but afterwards no valence states could be measured. Investigating in-situ delaminated buried interfaces, the focus was on metal (Au,Ag)/PTCDA interfaces first. The molecular layers could be successfully desorbed thermally at 260 C to 1-3 monolayers so that valence states were investigated. The spectra of the in-situ delaminated and thermally desorbed Ag/PTCDA contact were noticeably broadened so that the positions of HOMO and FLUMO could only be estimated at 1.9 eV and 0.7 eV, respectively. Additionally, interfaces of Ag/NTCDA contacts were investigated. With UPS it was found

  2. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  3. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  4. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious. PMID:10524269

  5. Effect of Skin Sensitizers on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in Skin Dendritic Cells: Role of Different Immunosuppressive Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. T.; Neves, B. M.; Gonçalo, M; Figueiredo, A; C. B. Duarte; Lopes, M C

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, namely in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, the mechanism by which NO acts in ACD remains elusive. The present study focuses on the effects of different contact sensitizers (2,4-dinitrofluorbenzene, 1,4-phenylenediamine, nickel sulfate), the inactive analogue of DNFB, 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene, and two irritants (sodium dodecyl sulphate and benzalkonium chloride) on the expression of the i...

  6. Genetics of allergy and allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sparks, Rachel; Waage, Johannes;

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the specific genetic lesions in allergy has improved in recent years due to identification of common risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of rare, monogenic diseases. Large-scale GWAS have identified novel susceptibility loci and provided info...

  7. Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Basketter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.

  8. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes. PMID:25902841

  9. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jeffrey L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling a guinea pig. The second patient, a 24-year-old female, developed symptoms of isolated laryngeal edema after cleaning a guinea pig cage. Percutaneous skin testing, RAST, ELISA and ELISA inhibition testing with guinea pig extract were performed. Results Both patients had IgE-mediated allergy to guinea pig confirmed by ELISA and either RAST or skin testing. ELISA inhibition studies confirmed the specificity of the IgE reactivity to guinea pig. Conclusion Severe IgE-mediated reactions can occur following non-occupational guinea pig exposure. Physicians should be aware of this possibility.

  10. Occupational contact dermatitis from propacetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurko, C; Dompmartin, A; Michel, M; Castel, B; Leroy, D

    1996-11-01

    We report 4 cases of contact sensitization to propacetamol. They presented with lesions on the hands, forearms, crease of the elbows, and neck. They were all sensitized to multiple allergens and 2 of them were atopic. Patch tests to Pro-Dafalgan and propacetamol were positive; sodium citrate and paracetamol were negative. Our cases were similar to those published for the first time by Barbaud in 1995. The only allergen was propacetamol; patch tests with diethyglycine and paracetamol were negative. Propacetamol chlorhydrate is composed of a complex paracetamol-diethylglycine, which probably acts like a hapten capable of inducing cutaneous allergy. It is an occupational allergy affecting nurses who work in surgery departments or post-anesthesia recovery rooms, where high doses of analgesics are widely used. The patients were not allergic to oral paracetamol. Despite the usual precautions, the mixture of propacetamol chlorhydrate and solvent leaks onto the nurses' hands, suggesting that health care workers handling propacetamol chlorhydrate should wear gloves. PMID:9007376

  11. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  12. Role of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Pharmacological studies using CysLTs indicate that two classes of receptor exist: CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). The CysLT1R is a high-affinity leukotriene D4 receptor with lower affinity for leukotriene C4 that is sensitive to the CysLT1R antagonist currently used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. Our previous immunohistochemical and autoradiographic studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-CysLT1R antibodies labeled in eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages, neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells in human nasal mucosa. Furthermore, we have revealed that the novel radioactive CysLT1R antagonist [3H]-pranlukast bound specifically to CysLT1R in human inferior turbinates and its binding sites were localized to vascular endothelium and the interstitial cells. These data suggest that the major targets of CysLT1R antagonists in allergic rhinitis are the vascular bed and infiltrated leukocytes such as mast cells, eosinophils and macrophages. Clinical trials have demonstrated that CysLT1R antagonists are as effective as antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, they are less effective than intranasal steroids. The use of CysLT1R antagonists in combination with antihistamines has generally resulted in greater efficacy than when these agents were used alone. PMID:27115997

  13. Sphingolipids: A Potential Molecular Approach to Treat Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Y. Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic inflammation is an immune response to foreign antigens, which begins within minutes of exposure to the allergen followed by a late phase leading to chronic inflammation. Prolonged allergic inflammation manifests in diseases such as urticaria and rhino-conjunctivitis, as well as chronic asthma and life-threatening anaphylaxis. The prevalence of allergic diseases is profound with 25% of the worldwide population affected and a rising trend across all ages, gender, and racial groups. The identification and avoidance of allergens can manage this disease, but this is not always possible with triggers being common foods, prevalent air-borne particles and only extremely low levels of allergen exposure required for sensitization. Patients who are sensitive to multiple allergens require prophylactic and symptomatic treatments. Current treatments are often suboptimal and associated with adverse effects, such as the interruption of cognition, sleep cycles, and endocrine homeostasis, all of which affect quality of life and are a financial burden to society. Clearly, a better therapeutic approach for allergic diseases is required. Herein, we review the current knowledge of allergic inflammation and discuss the role of sphingolipids as potential targets to regulate inflammatory development in vivo and in humans. We also discuss the benefits and risks of using sphingolipid inhibitors.

  14. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetics. In Europe, low frequencies of sensitization have been observed to all releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol 0.4-1.2%, diazolidinyl urea 0.5-1.4%, imidazolidinyl urea 0.3-1.4%, quaternium-15 0.6-1.9% (for DMDM hydantoin no recent data are available). All releasers score (far) higher prevalences in the USA; the possible explanations for this are discussed. The relevance of positive patch test reactions has been insufficiently investigated. In the USA, approximately 20% of cosmetics and personal care products (stay-on products: 17%, rinse-off products 27%) contain a formaldehyde-releaser. The use of quaternium-15 is decreasing. For Europe, there are no comparable recent data available. In the second part of the article, the patch test relationship of the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy will be reviewed and it will be assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals who have contact allergy to formaldehyde. PMID:20136875

  15. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasricha J; Nandakishore Th

    1992-01-01

    A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems...

  16. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  17. Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reviews the current evidence indicating that comorbid allergic rhinitis may have clinically relevant effects on asthma. Discussion Allergic rhinitis is very common in patients with asthma, with a reported prevalence of up to 100% in those with allergic asthma. While the temporal relation of allergic rhinitis and asthma diagnoses can be variable, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis often precedes that of asthma. Rhinitis is an independent risk factor for the subsequent dev...

  18. Contact Allergy Caused by Fragrance Mix and Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam Of Peru), a Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Turčić, Petra; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Milavec-Puretić, Višnja; Marinović Kulišić, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Because of their widespread use, fragrances are among the most common causes of contact allergic dermatitis, second only to nickel. During a five-year period 3,065 patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested using a specific mix of fragrances. 509 (16.6%) patients were allergic to the fragrance mix, while 258 (8.4%) patients exhibited an allergic reaction to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). Between those 509 patients, 157 were patch tested with eight individual substanc...

  19. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances

  20. Diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Koch, C; Reimert, C M;

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be difficult to establish because ABPA shares many characteristics with coexisting atopy or other lung infections in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of...

  1. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: Mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer for a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Similar to other processes, the modelling of heat and mass transfer during food processing involves uncertainty in the values of input parameters (heat and mass transfer coefficients, evaporation rate parameters, thermo-physical properties, initial and boundary conditions) which leads to...... uncertainty in the model predictions. The aim of the current paper is to address this uncertainty challenge in the modelling of food production processes using a combination of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, where the uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis were applied to a heat and mass...

  2. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases wi...

  3. Cord blood lymphocyte responses to food antigens for the prediction of allergic disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shinoda, S; Kasahara, K.; Kameyama, T; Iwasa, S; Orii, T.

    1992-01-01

    Proliferative responses of cord blood lymphocytes (CBLs) to food antigens and cord blood IgE concentrations were measured in 37 full term newborn infants for the prediction of allergic disorders. In these 37 infants who were followed up for two years, allergic history of the family was found in four (sensitivity 57.1%) and cord blood IgE concentrations were greater than 0.5 IU/ml in three (sensitivity 42.9%) of seven infants who developed allergic disorders. When CBLs were stimulated twice by...

  4. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days fol...

  5. Multiple cutaneous sensitization to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, M A; Revenga, F

    1996-01-01

    The use of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is widespread (particularly in countries bordering the Mediterranean). Compared to their wide use, the incidence of published adverse cutaneous effects appears minimal, although they are increasing. Most of them are a form of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Multiple sensitization and/or cross-reactions are rarely reported. Interestingly, our patient presented ACD with diclofenac and etofenamate (both from different chemical groups) and, furthermore, patch tests were positive with bencydamine and indomethacin (both indolacetic acid derivatives), piroxicam and fepradinol. We think that our results could not be explained due to cross-reactivity, and that multiple sensitization was more likely. PMID:8864624

  6. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187516

  7. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  8. Local allergic rhinitis: A critical reappraisal from a paediatric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasi, Stefania; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-09-01

    The so-called local allergic rhinitis (LAR) has been proposed as a phenotype of rhinitis with Th2-driven prominent local allergic inflammation, nasal synthesis of specific IgE and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test, in the absence of 'systemic' atopy (negative skin prick test and serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies). To date, available data on LAR are mostly focused on adults. The purpose of this 'Rostrum' was to critically discuss data and implications of the 'LAR concept' in paediatrics. In the natural history of rhinitis due to IgE-mediated reactions triggered by exposure to allergens, a 'LAR' can be either the initial, transient stage of classical allergic rhinitis or a stable phenotype never evolving to 'systemic' IgE sensitization. Given the present difficulties in performing routinely nasal allergen provocation test in children, the development of sensitive and specific tests to detect IgE in the child's nasal secretions is a research priority. We suggest also the hypothetical role of allergen immunoprophylaxis or immunotherapy in LAR. Last, the term 'local allergic rhinitis' may be inappropriate, as rhinitis is always 'local', while IgE sensitization can be either 'local' or 'systemic'. PMID:27098888

  9. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  10. Contact allergy caused by methylisothiazolinone: the Belgian-French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Olivier; Goossens, An; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The chemical Kathon CG(®), a mixture of the preservatives methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI), was the leading cause of a worldwide epidemic of contact-allergic reactions in the eighties. From 2000 on, MI alone became allowed in industrial products and in 2005 authorities gave a green light for its use in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics up to a maximum concentration of 100 ppm (0.01%). Following initial occupational cases, a continuously increasing number of consumers sensitized to MI have been reported and both Belgian and French allergy groups decided to routinely test MI in their baseline series from 2010 onwards. Two multicenter studies, comprising 8,680 and 7,874 patients in Belgium and France respectively, both clearly show the rise in contact allergy caused by MI, with a spectacular sensitization rate of ∼ 6.0% in 2012, even increasing to 7.0% in 2013. Mostly middle-aged women, presenting with facial-and/or hand dermatitis, were affected, although very young children were reported as well. Furthermore, the data confirmed that sensitization is primarily caused by cosmetics (mostly leave-on, but also rinse-off), household detergents and water-based paint. This unprecedented outbreak of contact sensitization to a preservative agent in Europe, and beyond, should have alerted the authorities much sooner and meanwhile the need for safer use concentrations of MI in cosmetics, detergents and industrial products is becoming more urgent every day. PMID:26412037

  11. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    An Goossens

    2016-01-01

    This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015) in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested ...

  12. CD326(lo)CD103(lo)CD11b(lo) dermal dendritic cells are activated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin during contact sensitization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Sotaro; Roediger, Ben; Abtin, Arby; Shklovskaya, Elena; Fazekas de St Groth, Barbara; Yamane, Hidehiro; Weninger, Wolfgang; Le Gros, Graham; Ronchese, Franca

    2014-09-01

    The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is produced by epithelia exposed to the contact sensitizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and it is critical for the induction of Th2 immune responses by DBP-FITC. TSLP is thought to act on dendritic cells (DC), but the precise DC subsets involved in the response to TSLP remain to be fully characterized. In this study we show that a subset of CD326(lo)CD103(lo)CD11b(lo) dermal DC, which we termed "triple-negative (TN) DC," is highly responsive to TSLP. In DBP-FITC-treated mice, TN DC upregulated expression of CD86 and rapidly migrated to the draining lymph node to become the most abundant skin-derived DC subset at 24 and 48 h after sensitization. None of these responses was observed in TSLPR-deficient mice. In contrast, TN DC numbers were not increased after treatment with the allergen house dust mite or the bacteria Escherichia coli and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, which increased other DC subsets. In vivo, treatment with rTSLP preferentially increased the numbers of TN DC in lymph nodes. In vitro, TN DC responded to rTSLP treatment with a higher level of STAT5 phosphorylation compared with other skin-derived DC subsets. The TN DC subset shared the morphology, phenotype, and developmental requirements of conventional DC, depending on FLT3 expression for their optimal development from bone marrow precursors, and CCR7 for migration to the draining lymph node. Thus, TN DC represent a dermal DC subset that should be considered in future studies of TSLP-dependent contact sensitization and skin immune responses. PMID:25057004

  13. Characterization of allergic response induced by repeated dermal exposure of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic mice to low dose formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Yang, Seung-Yun; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Yong; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2014-01-01

    Although formaldehyde (FA) is known to be a major allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis, there are conflicting reports regarding correlation between FA exposure and interleukin (IL-4) expression. To investigate whether allergic responses including IL-4 expression were induced by repeated dermal exposure to low dose FA, alterations in the luciferase signal and allergic phenotypes were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice containing luciferase cDNA under control of the...

  14. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-07-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for. PMID:27126721

  15. Study of contact dermatitis due to topical medicaments and cosmetics by patch testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vij Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis is the most common immunological disorder encountered by the dermatologist and it arises when a person develops delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction to a substance coming in contact with his skin. The patch test is at present a helpful test for demonstrating contact type of allergy that identifies the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Aim: To study the common topical medicaments and cosmetics capable of producing contact dermatitis and value of patch testing in these situations. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients suspected of having contact sensitivity to topical medicaments and common cosmetics were subjected to patch testing with the finished commercial product being used by the patient and the antigens of the Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic series kit. Results: Positivity with patch test of 96.65% was observed in patients with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, whereas 85% of the patients with cosmetic dermatitis were tested positive. Among the cases with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, Neomycin was tested positive in more number of patients and among the patients with cosmetic dermatitis; Kum-Kum powder and Fairness cream were tested positive in more number of patients. Conclusion: It is well known that topical medicaments are known to produce contact dermatitis; the cosmetics that are claimed to be very safe by their manufacturers do not stay much behind in doing so.

  16. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  17. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2016-02-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause of scalp dermatitis, while in the other patient it was only the vehicle, thus permitting the patient to continue the treatment for FPHL. PMID:27172052

  18. [Contact allergy to essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvåg, E; Holm, J O; Thune, P

    1995-11-10

    Ethereal oils are widely used, in food, toothpaste, as flavouring agents in perfumes and cosmetics, and in dermatological treatment, as antiseptics, adstringenta, antipruritic tinctures, lotions and pomades. The use of ethereal oils seems to have increased in recent years, probably due to a growing interest in alternative medicine, and especially aromatherapy. By describing the cases of three patients with allergic contact dermatitis, we wish to point out possible unwanted side effects of using ethereal oils. PMID:7491578

  19. The role of fungi in allergic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta A.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, asthma, airborne dermatitis, or allergic conjunctivitis, can be caused or aggravated by components of bioaerosol from natural environment or from indoor environment in enclosed spaces, workplaces and homes. The main components of bioaerosol are fungi and their metabolites, which are common in the environment.

  20. radioactive survey on the contact zone (paleogene - neogene) in Ad-Daww basin of Syria, using alpha sensitive plastic film technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed radon survey has been carried out over the contact zone of marine Paleogene and continental Neogene Formations in Ad-Daww basin (Central Syria), for the purpose of uranium exploration. Radon measurements were performed in a grid pattern using alpha sensitive plastic film technique, type 1B CN-85. Radon concentrations in soil were monitored across the aforementioned zone for 1.5 year, from April 93 to July 94, and their average has been calculated. Alpha Track density was found to be varying from 81 to 227 T/mm2 in Qarytein station, 65 to 124 T/mm2 in Bardeh station and 101 to 196 T/mm2 in Tyas station. The results of this work showed that the anomalous radon values were found to be corresponded to the Oligocene-Miocene geological surface in the study area. These relatively high values are most likely related to scattered uranium mineralization precipitated on surface along a chemically reducing zone where surface water of terrestrial and marine origin intermingled. A comparison between gamma count rate and trak etch density revealed a fairly good correlation, which indicates that the uranium occurrences on the geological contact (Oli - Mio) in Ad-Daww basin are of surficial nature. However, this may give a preliminary indication of probable subsurface extension of these occurrences preserved at depth away from surfacial weathering. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AI...

  2. Determinants of allergic rhinitis in young children with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Moussu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens and environmental parameters were also collected. RESULTS: Forty one of the children (18.1% had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002; food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026; mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01 and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046. Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.

  3. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

  4. Alterations of the Murine Gut Microbiome with Age and Allergic Airway Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Vital; Harkema, Jack R; Mike Rizzo; James Tiedje; Christina Brandenberger

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of asthma. With advanced age the microbiome and the immune system are changing and, currently, little is known about how these two factors contribute to the development of allergic asthma in the elderly. In this study we investigated the associations between the intestinal microbiome and allergic airway disease in young and old mice that were sensitized and challenged with house dust mite (HDM). After challenge, the animals were sa...

  5. A CLINICAL STUDY ON ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS TO TURMERIC

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok babu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT:- BACKGROUND: In south India it is a culture among ladies to use turmeric for beautiful white skin, to remove unwanted hair on the face, in this context I have encountered ladies coming with redness, itching, burning and vesiculation of skin after application of turmeric and also especially on forehead, hair parting after applicat ion of kumkum which is prepared from turmeric and which is traditionally followed by Hindu women. AIM : To evaluate incide...

  6. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    symptom in both allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of the allergic diseases. In paper I, we studied nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency assessed by acoustic rhinometry in children with allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis and healthy controls......Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young...

  7. Undesirable Reactions from Contact with Marine Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Letot, Bernard; Kharfi, M.; Mandojana, R.; Pierard, Gérald

    2000-01-01

    The contact of some marine organisms with the skin may prove to be traumatic and sometimes very dangerous. Some coelenterates, fishes, urchins, sea snakes, cephalopods, molluscs and other sea organisms are responsible for dermatological lesions, associated or not with toxic or allergic reactions exhibiting systemic effects.

  8. Platelets promote allergic asthma through the expression of CD154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Zhu, Tianyi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Zhenhong; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-11-01

    Platelet activation is associated with multiple immune responses and the pathogenesis of various immune-related diseases. However, the exact role and the underlying mechanism of platelets in the progression of allergic asthma remain largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that during antigen sensitization, platelets can be activated by ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol via the upregulation of CD154 (CD40L) expression. Platelet transfer promoted allergic asthma progression by inducing more severe leukocyte infiltration and lung inflammation, elevated IgE production and strengthened T helper 2 (Th2) responses in asthma-induced mice. Accordingly, platelet depletion compromised allergic asthma progression. Cd154-deficient platelets failed to promote asthma development, indicating the requirement of CD154 for platelets to promote asthma progression. The mechanistic study showed that platelets inhibited the induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells both in vivo and in vitro at least partially through CD154, providing an explanation for the increase of Th2 responses by platelet transfer. Our study reveals the previously unknown role of platelet CD154 in the promotion of asthma progression by polarizing Th2 responses and inhibiting regulatory T-cell generation and thus provides a potential clue for allergic disease interventions. PMID:25418472

  9. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  10. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Paloma Poza Guedes; Inmaculada Sánchez Machín; Víctor Matheu; Víctor Iraola; Ruperto González Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a se...

  11. Heated Allergens and Induction of Tolerance in Food Allergic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Irmeli Penttila; Patrick Quinn; Michael Gold; Maria Makrides; Merryn Netting

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are one of the first manifestations of allergic disease and have been shown to significantly impact on general health perception, parental emotional distress and family activities. It is estimated that in the Western world, almost one in ten children have an IgE-mediated allergy. Cow’s milk and egg allergy are common childhood allergies. Until recently, children with food allergy were advised to avoid all dietary exposure to the allergen to which they were sensitive, in the tho...

  12. Dermatite de contato em idosos Contact dermatitis in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatite alérgica de contato é freqüente, com variações de acordo com o grupo estudado. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a freqüência da dermatite alérgica de contato em idosos; demonstrar os principais sensibilizantes nesse grupo; comparar os resultados dos testes epicutâneos com um grupo de adultos atendidos no mesmo período. PACIENTES: Durante o período 1998-2003, entre os pacientes submetidos aos testes de contato na Clínica de Dermatologia da Santa Casa de São Paulo, selecionaram-se idosos (>65 anos e adultos (20-65 anos. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 80 (9% idosos e 581 (63% adultos. Entre os idosos, 70 tiveram testes positivos, e 10, negativos. Nos adultos, 436 apresentaram testes positivos, e 145, negativos. A diferença entre os grupos em relação ao número de testes positivos e negativos foi estatisticamente significante (p= 0,02. Demonstrou-se maior freqüência de sensibilização nos idosos às seguintes substâncias - sulfato de níquel (p=0,001, perfume-mix (p=0,004, neomicina (p=0,0008, nitrofurazona (p=0,02, prometazina (p=0,03 e benzocaína (p=0,007. CONCLUSÕES: A dermatite alérgica de contato nos idosos é comum como em outras faixas etárias. As substâncias relacionadas aos medicamentos tópicos são importantes agentes etiológicos da dermatite alérgica de contato nesse grupo.BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent condition and varies according to the population studied. OBJECTIVES: To verify the frequency of allergic contact dermatitis in elderly patients; to demonstrate the main sensitizers in this age group; to compare the results of the contact tests with those of a group of adults seen in the same period. Patients: From 1998 to 2003, elderly (over 65 years, and adults (aged 20-65 years were selected among patients submitted to contact tests at the Dermatology Clinic of [Hospital] Santa Casa de Sao Paulo. RESULTS: Eighty (9% elderly and 581(63% adult patients were assessed; 70 elderly

  13. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The...

  14. 外阴接触性皮炎的发生及正确评估%Occurrence and evaluation of contact dermatitis of vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪连; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    Pruritus is the most common symptom of vulvar disorders reported in the literature. Dermatitis is one of the most frequently seen causes of vulval pruritus. This review mainly discusses the sensitivity of vulvar skin to irritant and allergen, the inci-dents of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD ) and allergic contact dermatitis ( ACD ), unusual patterns in contact dermatitis medicamentosa and the evaluation of vulvar contact dermatitis.%女性外阴瘙痒是皮肤科及妇产科门诊的常见症状,外阴接触性皮炎是最常引起外阴瘙痒症状的原因之一.文中就外阴皮肤对于接触性刺激及过敏的敏感性,刺激性接触性皮炎(irritant contact dermatitis,ICD)及过敏性接触性皮炎(allergic contact dermatitis,ACD)的发病情况,外阴药物接触性皮炎及如何正确认识和评估外阴接触性皮炎等方面进行综述.

  15. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.;

    Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  16. Immediate and delayed contact hypersensitivity to verbena plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potter, P C; Mather, S; Lockey, P;

    1995-01-01

    Plants from the Verbenaceae family may cause contact dermatitis of unknown nature. This report describes 2 cases of allergic reactions to the Verbena species. A teenage boy developed an anaphylactic allergic response following contact with the leaves of Verbena hybrida. Characterization of the...... patient's specific IgE response to Verbena hybrida, using Western blots and autoradiography, identified the specific 62000 Dalton allergen present in the verbena leaves to which the patient reacted. This is the first report of an IgE-mediated immediate contact hypersensitivity reaction to Verbena hybrida......, a common perennial in South African gardens. The other case was a 23-year-old female gardener who developed immediate and delayed-type contact dermatitis from Verbena elegans 'Cleopatra' produced in a Danish nursery. Prick tests to plant material were considered positive and of an allergic nature....

  17. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  18. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  19. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Scadding, G K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and ...

  20. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  1. Quinonoid constituents as contact sensitisers in Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon RBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Schmalle, H

    1981-01-01

    Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon RBR) is a valuable commercial timber that since 1925 has been incriminated as being injurious to health. In addition to toxic effects numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma have been observed in woodworkers. Several constituents have been identified in recent years, but none of them could be considered as aetiological factors. Sensitizing experiments performed with blackwood heartwood extracts corroborated the described sensitising properties. Chemical studies showed the occurrence of two or possibly three quinones that produced positive skin responses in the sensitised guinea pigs. The main contact allergens were isolated and identified by x-ray analysis. The first, a yellow quinone, was identified as 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone while the second, a red quinone, has the structure of 6-methoxy-2-methyl-3,5-dihydrobenzofurano-4,7-dion and was named acamelin. Whereas 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone is already known from natural sources, acamelin is new and belongs to the rate group of naturally occurring furanoquinones. Though the obtained sensitising capacity of A melanoxylon RBR in respect of its quinones is not high, it should be considered as a possible source of allergic contact dermatitis, especially as greater amounts of Australian blackwood may enter European countries in the near future. PMID:7236533

  2. A family with extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by wild city pigeons: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. du Marchie Sarvaas; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a family in which the mother died of unresolved lung disease and whose 5 children, some of whom had previous signs of asthma, were subsequently affected by extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by contact with wild city pigeon antigens. The children received

  3. Management of allergic Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, K D

    1984-05-01

    Twenty percent of the recent Australian Olympic athletes have had an allergic disorder. Because of the ban on all sympathomimetic drugs except some beta 2-agonists. Olympic team physicians have a major responsibility to ensure that no competitor is disqualified for infringing on the antidoping rules of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Inadvertent contravention of these regulations may occur because numerous banned sympathomimetics are available to athletes and their coaches without medical prescription and are frequently contained in combination preparations. The unbroken 24 yr in which asthmatics have won Olympic medals have been both before and after the introduction of drug tests. Currently a comprehensive range of preventive and therapeutic medications are available for asthmatics to compete with minimal respiratory disadvantage. It was, however, during a period of unnecessary restriction that an American swimmer forfeited his gold medal because of prerace ingestion of a banned sympathomimetic agent. Should adverse air quality be encountered during the Los Angeles Olympics, allergic competitors will be among the most inconvenienced . Athletes with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis will be the most disadvantaged because sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors remain banned. It is strongly recommended that the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee meet with an appropriate body of experts (i.e., the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology) to review this ban on vasoconstrictor agents. PMID:6715736

  4. Associations between multiple indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed allergic disease in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies, mainly questionnaires have reported associations between some indoor environmental factors and allergic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between objectively assessed indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed asthma...... environmental factors and allergic disease were found. Conclusion: Air change rates were insufficient in the majority of the homes, and low rates were associated with higher concentrations of HDM allergens and sensitization in children with asthma. Asthma was associated with higher levels of nicotine and......, rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Method: A crosssectional case-cohort study (n = 500) based on 2835 children, aged 3–5 years, responding to a questionnaire, consisted of 300 subjects randomly selected and 200 cases with at least two parentally reported doctor diagnosed allergic diseases (asthma, allergic...

  5. Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P J; Baumert, J L; Beyer, K; Boyle, R J; Chan, C-H; Clark, A T; Crevel, R W R; DunnGalvin, A; Fernández-Rivas, M; Gowland, M H; Grabenhenrich, L; Hardy, S; Houben, G F; O'B Hourihane, J; Muraro, A; Poulsen, L K; Pyrz, K; Remington, B C; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Venter, C; Worm, M; Mills, E N C; Roberts, G; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2016-09-01

    Anaphylaxis has been defined as a 'severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction'. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management. We review the evidence regarding factors that might be used to identify those at most risk of severe allergic reactions to food, and the consequences of misinformation in this regard. For example, a significant proportion of food-allergic children also have asthma, yet almost none will experience a fatal food-allergic reaction; asthma is not, in itself, a strong predictor for fatal anaphylaxis. The relationship between dose of allergen exposure and symptom severity is unclear. While dose appears to be a risk factor in at least a subgroup of patients, studies report that individuals with prior anaphylaxis do not have a lower eliciting dose than those reporting previous mild reactions. It is therefore important to consider severity and sensitivity as separate factors, as a highly sensitive individual will not necessarily experience severe symptoms during an allergic reaction. We identify the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to improve our ability to better identify those most at risk of severe food-induced allergic reactions. PMID:27138061

  6. ARE WE ALLERGIC TO OUR WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental materials and medicines possess high allergic potential. They provoke different allergic reactions in patients and staff. The sensibilization of the staff begins still in the dental school. There are several risk groups – the atopic individuals and these with other allergies. The aim of the study is to follow up the development and the connection between the allergic state and the professional etiology and to determine whether allergy is an obstacle for studying and practicing dental medicine.

  7. VITAMIN C STATUS IN ALLERGIC CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess vitamin C status in allergic children. Twenty-six allergic patients and 46 apparently healthy controls aged 7-16 years of both sexes were introduced. All patients were diagnosed being allergic based on their histories, physical examinations and laboratory findings. Blood samples were obtained between 09.00-11.00 to determine total serum immunoglobulin E, histamine, plasma vitamin C and complete blood cell count. Stool examinations and urinealysis were also ...

  8. Exosomes from bronchoalveolar fluid of tolerized mice prevent allergic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Noela; Marazuela, Eva G; Segura, Elodie; Fernández-García, Héctor; Villalba, Mayte; Théry, Clotilde; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2008-07-15

    Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from multivesicular bodies that are secreted by a variety of cell types. The dual capability of exosomes to promote immunity or to induce tolerance has prompted their clinical use as vehicles for vaccination against different human diseases. In the present study, the effect of allergen-specific exosomes from tolerized mice on the development of allergen-induced allergic response was determined using a mouse model. Mice were tolerized by respiratory exposure to the olive pollen allergen Ole e 1. Exosome-like vesicles were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the animals by the well-established filtration and ultracentrifugation procedure, characterized by electron microscopy, Western blot, and FACS analyses, and assessed in a prophylactic protocol. To this end, BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with tolerogenic exosomes or naive exosomes as control, 1 wk before sensitization/challenge to Ole e 1. Blood, lungs, and spleen were collected and analyzed for immune responses. Intranasal administration of tolerogenic exosomes inhibited the development of IgE response, Th2 cytokine production, and airway inflammation--cardinal features of allergy--and maintained specific long-term protection in vivo. This protective effect was associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of the regulatory cytokine TGF-beta. These observations demonstrate that exosomes can induce tolerance and protection against allergic sensitization in mice. Thus, exosome-based vaccines could represent an alternative to conventional therapy for allergic diseases in humans. PMID:18606707

  9. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported. PMID:27090934

  10. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  11. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

  12. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  13. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU and atopic dermatitis (AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%, insects (17.07%, fungus (12.20%, and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM (7.32%. The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%. Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD.

  14. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize......Humans are widely exposed to chemicals. Today, there is an increased acknowledgement of the importance of measuring human and environmental exposures to man-made or refined chemicals. Different approaches have been applied over time, but during the past 25 years, there has been a general trend...... and elicit allergic contact dermatitis or develop tolerance. This review offers a general overview of human biomonitoring, including information about its typical application and methodology. Furthermore, studies that have attempted to perform simultaneous biomonitoring and patch testing are reviewed...

  15. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  16. "Evaluation of Six Years Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis and Allergic Asthma "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Reza Farid

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergen immunotherapy involves the administration of gradually increasing quantities of specific allergens to patients with IgE-mediated conditions until a dose is reached that is effective in reducing disease severity from natural exposure. In the present study we evaluated a period of six years immunotherapy allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma patients with positive skin prick test of common aeroallergen. The immunotherapy was performed on 156 patients. One hundred twenty of the cases were allergic rhinitis (80%, 29 cases had allergic asthma and 7 cases were mixed (4.5%. 70% in allergic rhinitis group, 75% in allergic asthma group and 42.8% in mixed group completely improved. Immunotherapy, an older therapeutic method, has now been updated, and with appropriate indications, precautions and methods, has been clearly shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and in some cases of asthma and insect hypersensitivity.

  17. Allergic skin test reactivity to marijuana in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, G L

    1983-06-01

    In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109

  18. Effect and Mechanism of Anti-eczema Chinese Medicine on Mice Models with Marine Allergic Contact Dermatitis%中药抗湿疹制剂对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎的影响及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永慧; 朱晓芳; 胡荣; 卜平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨中药抗湿疹制剂亲诺婴儿百草益肤膏、亲诺婴儿百草益肤水对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎(ACD)的治疗作用及可能机制.方法 以2,4-二硝基氟苯(DNFB)建立诱发的小鼠ACD模型,外用亲诺婴儿百草益肤制剂及外用婴儿湿疹膏作对照观察分组给药后小鼠耳朵的肿胀度及组织病理变化,同时用ELISA及免疫组化方法 分别检测不同时相各组小鼠血清和耳上皮组织中白介素(IL)-2及干扰素(IFN)-γ表达水平.结果 亲诺婴儿百草益肤膏、亲诺婴儿百草益肤水及婴儿湿疹膏组均能降低耳肿度(P<0.05),下调小鼠血清及皮损中IL-2、IFN-γ浓度,且亲诺婴儿百草益肤膏作用更明显.结论 亲诺婴儿百草益肤膏能有效抑制小鼠ACD,其疗效优于亲诺婴儿百草益肤水组和婴儿湿疹膏组,作用机制可能与抑制IL-2,IFN-γ等炎症因子的释放有关.%Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of anti-eczema Chinese medicine including Yifu cream and Yifu lotion on murine allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Methods The mice models of murine ACD induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) were established. The effects of Yifu cream and lotion on murine ear swelling, histopathological changes were observed, and the levels of IL-2, IFN-γ in serum and in keratinocytes were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemical method respectively. Baby eczema cream group was used as control. Results Murine ear swelling and the expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in serum or skin lesions were markedly suppressed or down-regulated by Yifu cream, Yifu lotion and baby eczema cream (P<0.05), and the inhibiting effect of Yifu cream was more obvious. Conclusion Yifu cream has therapeutic effects on murine ACD. Its effect is better than that of Yifu lotion and baby eczema cream. It probably take effects through down-regulating the expressions of cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ.

  19. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, [No Value; Duivenvoorden, HJ; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, AJ; de Monchy, JGR; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, CAFM; van Wijk, R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy - allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) - shoul

  20. Rapid Relief Mechanism of Allergic Rhinosinositis after “Assisted Drainage” Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Rhinosinusitis is mostly affected by viral infections and allergy and resolves without antibiotics usage. However, antibiotics are still frequently used as drug of choice for rhinosinusitis. If conservative treatments failed, surgical procedures had to be done. Neurogenic inflammation is involved in rhinosinusitis. Possibly because rhinosinusitis-induced chronic gingivitis successfully relieved by the “assisted drainage therapy” (ADT. This new periodontal therapy consists of scaling and root planing followed by subgingival massage. However, the mechanism had not been clearly verified. Objective: To verify the mechanism of allergic rhinosinusitis symptoms relief by ADT. Methods: Randomized control time series design experimental study was conducted in two groups of Wistar rats. Allergic sensitization was performed by injections and inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA. Gingivitis was induced by synthetic Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS1435/1450. One group was subjected to ADT before inhalation and another groups without ADT. Immunohistochemistry for biomarkers of allergic reaction (LTC4 and ECP and neurogenic inflammation (CGRP and VIP performed. Results: After OVA inhalation, allergic reaction and neurogenic inflammation biomarkers had significantly lower in rats subjected to ADT before inhalation than without ADT (p=0.001. Conclusion: ADT significantly decreased nasal allergic reaction and neurogenic inflammation biomarkers, therefore could be proposed as an adjunct therapy of allergic rhinosinusitis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.135

  1. Amorphous silicon germanium carbide photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor with a base-contact and a continuous tunable high current gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bablich, A., E-mail: andreas.bablich@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Merfort, C., E-mail: merfort@imt.e-technik.uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Eliasz, J., E-mail: jacek.eliasz@student.uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Schäfer-Eberwein, H., E-mail: heiko.schaefer@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of High Frequency and Quantum Electronics, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Haring-Bolivar, P., E-mail: peter.haring@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of High Frequency and Quantum Electronics, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Boehm, M., E-mail: markus.boehm@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany)

    2014-05-02

    In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of an amorphous silicon germanium carbide (a-SiGeC:H) photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor (PS-BJT) with three terminals are presented. Whereas the current gain of similar transistor devices presented in the past (Wu et al., 1984; Hwang et al., 1993; Nascetti and Caputo, 2002; Chang et al., 1985a,b; Wu et al, 1985; Hong et al., 1990) can only be controlled with photo induced charge generation, the n–i–δp–i–n structure developed features a contacted base to provide the opportunity to adjust the current gain optically and electrically, too. Electron microscope-, current-/voltage- and spectral measurements were performed to study the PS-BJT behavior and calculate the electrical and optical current gain. The spectral response maximum of the base–collector diode has a value of 170 mA/W applying a base–collector voltage of − 1 V and is located at 620 nm. The base–emitter diode reaches a sensitivity of 25.7 mA/W at 530 nm with a base-emitter voltage of − 3 V. The good a-Si:H transport properties are validated in a μτ-product of 4.6 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2} V s, which is sufficient to reach a continuous base- and photo-tunable current gain of up to − 126 at a base current of I{sub B} = + 10 nA and a collector–emitter voltage of V{sub CE} = − 3 V. The transistor obtains a maximum collector current of − 65.5 μA (V{sub CE} = − 3 V) and + 56.2 μA (V{sub CE} = + 3 V) at 10,000 lx 5300 K white-light illumination. At 3300 lx, the electrical current gain reaches a value of + 100 (V{sub CE} = + 2 V) at I{sub B} = 10 nA. With a negative base current of I{sub B} = − 10 nA the electrical gain can be adjusted between 87 (V{sub CE} = + 2 V) and − 106 (V{sub CE} = -3 V), respectively. When no base charge is applied, the transistor is “off” for V{sub CE} > − 3 V. Reducing the base current increases the electrical current gain. Operating with a voltage V{sub CE} of just ± 2 V

  2. Amorphous silicon germanium carbide photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor with a base-contact and a continuous tunable high current gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of an amorphous silicon germanium carbide (a-SiGeC:H) photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor (PS-BJT) with three terminals are presented. Whereas the current gain of similar transistor devices presented in the past (Wu et al., 1984; Hwang et al., 1993; Nascetti and Caputo, 2002; Chang et al., 1985a,b; Wu et al, 1985; Hong et al., 1990) can only be controlled with photo induced charge generation, the n–i–δp–i–n structure developed features a contacted base to provide the opportunity to adjust the current gain optically and electrically, too. Electron microscope-, current-/voltage- and spectral measurements were performed to study the PS-BJT behavior and calculate the electrical and optical current gain. The spectral response maximum of the base–collector diode has a value of 170 mA/W applying a base–collector voltage of − 1 V and is located at 620 nm. The base–emitter diode reaches a sensitivity of 25.7 mA/W at 530 nm with a base-emitter voltage of − 3 V. The good a-Si:H transport properties are validated in a μτ-product of 4.6 × 10−6 cm2 V s, which is sufficient to reach a continuous base- and photo-tunable current gain of up to − 126 at a base current of IB = + 10 nA and a collector–emitter voltage of VCE = − 3 V. The transistor obtains a maximum collector current of − 65.5 μA (VCE = − 3 V) and + 56.2 μA (VCE = + 3 V) at 10,000 lx 5300 K white-light illumination. At 3300 lx, the electrical current gain reaches a value of + 100 (VCE = + 2 V) at IB = 10 nA. With a negative base current of IB = − 10 nA the electrical gain can be adjusted between 87 (VCE = + 2 V) and − 106 (VCE = -3 V), respectively. When no base charge is applied, the transistor is “off” for VCE > − 3 V. Reducing the base current increases the electrical current gain. Operating with a voltage VCE of just ± 2 V, the device presented in this paper obtains no optical gain with an incident

  3. The incidence of Common Allergens in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Referred to Shahid Mofatteh Clinic, Yasuj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nabavizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Background & Aim: Allergic diseases are one of the most common diseases which are more prevalent in certain seasons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory and food allergies to common allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 184 patients including 120 males and 64 females referred to the Shahid Mofatteh Clinic with the respiratory allergy symptoms including rhinitis, sneezing and coughing during 2012-2013. Data collection, checklist registered, including demographic information and data associated with sensitivity of skin prick test of 21 allergens were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical. Results: A number of 153 patients (83.2% were allergic to one or more of the 21 allergens tested, whereas 31 patients (16.8 of them showed no sensitivity. The most common allergic reactions to insect allergens were 73 cases (47.7%, grass and turf 58 cases (37.9% percent, Beetle 55 cases (35.9%, wheat flour, 51 (33.3% walnuts, 37 (24.4% and cat fur 36 (5/23.5% respectively.. Conclusion: Susceptibility to insects, beetles and grass had the highest prevalence in patients with allergic rhinitis referred to Super Specialized clinic in Yasuj. Because susceptibility to allergens depends on the environment, therefore, being aware of them can lead to avoidance and control allergic reactions. Key words: Allergic Disease, Skin Prick Test, Rhinitis

  4. Participação da sensibilidade atópica em pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite alérgica primaveril Participation of atopic sensitivity in patients with vernal allergic keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Atique Goulart

    2004-06-01

    acometimento ocular nos indica que a conjuntivite alérgica nada mais é que uma das formas de expressão da atopia, assim como são a rinite, a bronquite e a dermatite.PURPOSE: To study the response to skin prick tests in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and compare with the allergic population without ocular disease. METHODS: We performed skin prick tests in 48 patients with VKC (10 with limbal form, 19 with palpebral and 19 with both. Controls were 52 patients from Allergy Clinic of the Santa Casa de São Paulo, with systemic allergy but without ocular disease. Skin prick tests were performed in 48 patients from the Ocular Allergy Sector at the Ophthalmology Department of the Santa Casa de São Paulo's Hospital, from July 2001 to September 2002. We studied responses to the following allergens: house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronissynus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Blomia tropicalis, Rhizopus spp, Penicilium, Alternaria alternata and rye grass. RESULTS: Male sex was the most frequent, with 32 patients (66.6% in the study group, and 27 (51.9% in controls. Mean age was 10.0 ± 4.7 years in the study group and 6.83 ± 3.6 in controls. The most frequent allergen was Dermatophagoides pteronissynus, followed by Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, house dust mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Rhizopus spp. CONCLUSIONS: The resemblance of the results in the control group indicates that allergic conjunctivitis is nothing else but another form of atopy, just as rhinitis, bronchitis and dermatitis.

  5. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  6. 〈Originals〉 Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Muneharu; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Hairdressers frequently have irritant and /or allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. They work under excessively wet conditions and repeatedly use shampoos, rinses, hair dyes, and permanent wave solutions containing irritating substances and /or allergens. Here, we describe (i) the background of occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers and hairdressing apprentices, (ii) occupational contact dermatitis and the main allergens, and (iii) strategies for preventing occupati...

  7. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  8. Non-allergic rhinitis: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Lew D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhinitis is characterized by rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, nasal itch and/or postnasal drip. Often the first step in arriving at a diagnosis is to exclude or diagnose sensitivity to inhalant allergens. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR comprises multiple distinct conditions that may even co-exist with allergic rhinitis (AR. They may differ in their presentation and treatment. As well, the pathogenesis of NAR is not clearly elucidated and likely varied. There are many conditions that can have similar presentations to NAR or AR, including nasal polyps, anatomical/mechanical factors, autoimmune diseases, metabolic conditions, genetic conditions and immunodeficiency. Here we present a case of a rare condition initially diagnosed and treated as typical allergic rhinitis vs. vasomotor rhinitis, but found to be something much more serious. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining an appropriate differential diagnosis for a complaint routinely seen as mundane. The case presentation is followed by a review of the potential causes and pathogenesis of NAR.

  9. Anti-Allergic Properties of Curine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ribeiro-Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chondrodendron platyphyllum (Menispermaceae. Recent findings have shed light on the actions of curine in different models of allergy and inflammation. Here we review the properties and mechanisms of action of curine focusing on its anti-allergic effects. Curine pre-treatment significantly inhibited the scratching behavior, paw edema and systemic anaphylaxis induced by either ovalbumin (OVA in sensitized animals or compound 48/80, through mechanisms of mast cell stabilization and inhibition of mast cell activation to generate lipid mediators. In addition, oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophil recruitment and activation, as well as, OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the production of IL-13 and eotaxin, and of Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, curine exhibit anti-allergic effects in models of lung, skin and systemic allergy in the absence of significant toxicity, and as such has the potential for anti-allergic drug development.

  10. Telocyte's contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TC) are an interstitial cell type located in the connective tissue of many organs of humans and laboratory mammals. By means of homocellular contacts, TC build a scaffold whose meshes integrity and continuity are guaranteed by those contacts having a mechanical function; those contacts acting as sites of intercellular communication allow exchanging information and spreading signals. Heterocellular contacts between TC and a great variety of cell types give origin to mixed networks. TC, by means of all these types of contacts, their interaction with the extracellular matrix and their vicinity to nerve endings, are part of an integrated system playing tissue/organ-specific roles. PMID:26826524

  11. Prevalence of and factors influencing sensitization to corticosteroids in a Danish patch test population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, Dina; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2011-01-01

    Corticosteroids are used to treat dermatoses, including allergic contact dermatitis, but can also cause contact allergy. The frequency of corticosteroid allergy varies between studies and is influenced by treatment traditions and availability.......Corticosteroids are used to treat dermatoses, including allergic contact dermatitis, but can also cause contact allergy. The frequency of corticosteroid allergy varies between studies and is influenced by treatment traditions and availability....

  12. The high risk factors of allergen sensitization among 518 children with allergic rhinitis symptoms%具有变应性鼻炎症状的518例儿童变应原致敏性高危因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴伟利; 葛文彤; 张杰; 张亚梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the high risk factors of allergen sensitization among 1-16 years old children with allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms.Methods Medical history was collected from 518 children with AR symptoms aged 1 to 16 years old between April 2011 and November 2012,including five aspects:basic information,disease characteristics,associated with other allergic diseases,growth and development history and genetic history and so on.The allergens were determined by UniCAP 100 system.The high risk factors of allergen sensitization(sIgE ≥ grade Ⅲ) among 1-16 years old children with AR symptoms were analyzed.The data processing and statistical analysis were conducted by SPSS 17.0 software.Results Three hundred and thirty of 518 patients (63.7%) could be diagnosed as AR.The primary allergen was mixed fungal(52.4%).The highest percentage of allergen sIgE ≥ grade Ⅲ accounted for the corresponding allergen positive cases was 71.1% (mixed fungal).Single factor analysis of clinical characteristics in the groups of AR and non AR showed that the history of months (x2 =-3.591),concomitant allergic conjunctivitis (x2 =12.325) and cats or dogs at home (x2 =5.615) were statistically significant between the two groups(all P < 0.05).In children with AR,single factor analysis of clinical characteristics in the groups of whether positive allergen level ≥ grade Ⅲ showed that the concomitant asthma (x2 =4.097),breastfeeding(x2 =4.186),the housing situation (x2 =4.360) and the bedroom toward (x2 =4.656) were statistically significant between the two groups (all P < 0.05).In children with AR,single factor analysis of clinical characteristics in different age groups showed that the history of months(x2 =64.999),concomitant eczema (x2 =24.056),concomitant insect bite dermatitis (x2 =9.148),cats or dogs at home (x2 =8.529) and mother suffered from AR (x2 =9.565) were statistically significant in different age groups (all P < 0.05).Conclusion The study revealed that the

  13. Active or passive exposure to tobacco smoking and allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Saulyte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions.We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR or relative risk (RR estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR, allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92-1.15], but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06-1.15]. Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14-1.29] and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03-1.12]. In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24-1.59 and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04-1.14]. Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17-1.46] and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01-1.11]. Food allergy was associated with SHS (1

  14. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Chaisri, Urai; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-01-01

    Cats (Felis domesticus) are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen) in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE). BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L)-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1), L-cCE), or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions) towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35) and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β). In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients. PMID:26954254

  15. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Ihler, Martin CanisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp. is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by

  16. Pattern of occupational allergic dermatitis in the Dermatology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohna, R; Ganesapillai, T; Salbiah, D; Zaiton, I

    1999-03-01

    A two years retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed as contact allergic dermatitis with positive patch test attending the Dermatology clinic was performed. Of the 346 patients with a positive patch test, 14% had occupational dermatitis. This condition affected mainly young and inexperienced workers. An inverse relationship was seen between age and prevalence of occupational allergic dermatitis. Allergic hand dermatitis was the commonest presentation in occupational allergic dermatitis. This was followed by dermatitis of the exposed skin (face, neck, hands and forearms). The common sensitising agents identified were rubber chemicals and nickel. The two main groups at risk were factory workers and medical personnel. The common allergens found in factory workers were epoxy resin, pewter, nickel and rubber chemicals. Exposure dermatitis occurred in patients working in the pewter industry. Two thirds of medical personnel with hand dermatitis were allergic to rubber gloves. One year follow up after patch testing showed that 19% of patients still suffered from chronic dermatitis. Dermatitis improved in 34% of patients. Forty-seven percent were cured and stopped attending the clinic after patch testing and adequate counselling. PMID:10972018

  17. Studies on Treating Eczema by Chinese Herbal Medicine with Anti-Type Ⅳ Allergic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine with type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear swelling, ear flake weight, dermal inflammatory infiltration cell count and plasma level of calcitonin gene related peptide ( CGRP) were examined in mice with dinitrofluorobenzene induced dermatitis. The prescription, Composite Poria Decoction was formulated and made into granule form, which was used to treat 63 cases of eczema (atopic dermatitis was excluded), and compared with 59 cases treated with antihistaminic that was aimed at the type I allergic reaction. Results: Experimental study showed that all the 4 Chinese prescriptions had the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction, among them, the formula for cooling blood and removing Heat, Wind and Dampness evil possessed the most potent effect in suppressing murine dermatitis, and it was also able to up-regulate the plasma CGRP concentration. The clinical cure rate of Composite Poria Granule treatment was 47.6%, and that of the control was 22.0%. The difference was significant between the two groups (u=2.9555, P<0.01). Conclusions: Chinese herbal medicine has the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Composite Poria Granule has good effect in treating eczema.

  18. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Kumar; Kiran Bylappa; Ramesh AC; Swetha Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD). With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility o...

  19. Systemic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th (Th1 and Th2, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens’ distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease.

  20. Immunopathology and Immunogenetics of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Knutsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is a Th2 hypersensitivity lung disease in response to Aspergillus fumigatus that affects asthmatic and cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Sensitization to A. fumigatus is common in both atopic asthmatic and CF patients, yet only 1%–2% of asthmatic and 7%–9% of CF patients develop ABPA. ABPA is characterized by wheezing and pulmonary infiltrates which may lead to pulmonary fibrosis and/or bronchiectasis. The inflammatory response is characterized by Th2 responses to Aspergillus allergens, increased serum IgE, and eosinophilia. A number of genetic risks have recently been identified in the development of ABPA. These include HLA-DR and HLA-DQ, IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4RA polymorphisms, IL-10 −1082GA promoter polymorphisms, surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2 polymorphisms, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR mutations. The studies indicate that ABPA patients are genetically at risk to develop skewed and heightened Th2 responses to A. fumigatus antigens. These genetic risk studies and their consequences of elevated biologic markers may aid in identifying asthmatic and CF patients who are at risk to the development of ABPA. Furthermore, these studies suggest that immune modulation with medications such as anti-IgE, anti-IL-4, and/or IL-13 monoclonal antibodies may be helpful in the treatment of ABPA.

  1. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  2. Contact sensitizer nickel sulfate activates the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 and increases the expression of nitric oxide synthase in a skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. Teresa; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Américo; Carvalho, Arsélio P.; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, M. Celeste

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed signaling molecules known to regulate the transcription of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, namely the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In this study, we demonstrate that a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) produces nitric oxide (NO) in response to the contact sensitizer nickel sulfate (NiSO4) and increases the ...

  3. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Wagtmann, Valery R; Hansen, Soren;

    2015-01-01

    (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass, and birch pollen. Conclusions: Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation...... cell recall responses towards Bet v 1, Phl p 5 and Der p 1 in vitro, suggesting that AECs-DC contact in vivo constitute a key element in mucosal homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Arsenic-induced alterations in the contact hypersensitivity response in Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies in our laboratory indicate that arsenic alters secretion of growth promoting and inflammatory cytokines in the skin that can regulate the migration and maturation of Langerhans cells (LC) during allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that arsenic may modulate hypersensitivity responses to cutaneous sensitizing agents by altering cytokine production, LC migration, and T-cell proliferation. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the induction and elicitation phases of dermal sensitization. Mice exposed to 50 mg/l arsenic in the drinking water for 4 weeks demonstrated a reduction in lymph node cell (LNC) proliferation and ear swelling following sensitization with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), compared to control mice. LC and T-cell populations in the draining lymph nodes of DNFB-sensitized mice were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting; activated LC were reduced in cervical lymph nodes, suggesting that LC migration may be altered following arsenic exposure. Lymphocytes from arsenic-treated animals sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) exhibited reduced proliferative responses following T-cell mitogen stimulation in vitro; however, lymphocyte proliferation from nonsensitized, arsenic-treated mice was comparable to controls. Arsenic exposure also reduced the number of thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages and circulating neutrophils. These studies demonstrate that repeated, prolonged exposure to nontoxic concentrations of sodium arsenite alters immune cell populations and results in functional changes in immune responses, specifically attenuation of contact hypersensitivity

  5. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet. PMID:18173213

  6. Black rubber sensitization by bicycle handgrips in a child with palmar hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-01-01

    Black rubber is mainly an occupational source of contact sensitization; however, several unusual causes of non-occupational black rubber allergy are reported in the literature. A 10-year-old nonatopic Turkish boy with palmar hyperhidrosis developed acute vesicular bilateral palmar dermatitis following 2 to 3 weeks of intensive use of a new bicycle. The handgrips of the bicycle were made of black rubber. Patch testing showed a strong positive reaction to N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine (the main sensitizer in black rubber) and questionable papular reactions to pieces of the black rubber handgrip. Additional cross-sensitization was found to p-phenylenediamine. There was no previous contact with black rubber or with any material that would contain p-phenylenediamine (eg, black henna dye). In conclusion, this was an unusual pediatric case of non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine in black rubber bicycle handgrips. The young age of the patient and the development of contact sensitization within a relatively short period were striking. The release of the sensitizer from black rubber and the skin penetration were possibly enhanced by continuous friction and the accompanying hyperhidrosis, suggesting that the black rubber bicycle handgrip was the primary source of sensitization. PMID:21781633

  7. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient. PMID:18413115

  8. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  9. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  10. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  11. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Mahendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures.

  12. Assessment of disease control in allergic rhinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Demoly, Pascal; Calderon, Moises; Casale, Thomas; Scadding, Glenis; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Delaisi, Bertrand; Haddad, Thierry; Malard, Olivier; Trébuchon, Florence; Serrano, Elie

    2013-01-01

    International audience The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative has had a significant impact, by raising awareness of allergic rhinitis (AR) and improving the diagnosis and treatment of AR sufferers. ARIA classifies the severity of AR as "mild" or "moderate/severe" on the basis of "yes"/"no" answers to four questions. This two-point classification has been criticized as providing little guidance on patient management; patients with "mild" AR are unlikely to consult ...

  13. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  14. Severe allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2006-01-01

    Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD) sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of...... hair dyes in this age group. This investigation reports PPD sensitization in children with regard to cause of sensitization, clinical presentation and consequences. Clinical history and patch test results for consecutive children below 16 years of age with suspected hair dye allergic reactions and...... positive patch tests to PPD were collected over 2 years in 2 Danish dermatology clinics. 8 children aged 12-15 years were collected, and they all reacted to several hair dye ingredients. 5 of the patients were hospitalized, 1 in the intensive care unit. 6 of the patients gave a history of prior reaction to...

  15. Neonatal bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination inhibits de novo allergic inflammatory response in mice via alteration of CD4+CD25+T-regulatory cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian LI; Hua-hao SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The hygiene hypothesis suggests a lack of bacterial infections would favor the development of allergic diseases. My-cobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection can inhibit allergen-induced asthma reactions, but the underly-hag mechanism of this infection on the immunological responses is unclear. T-regulatory (Treg) cells are thought to play a role as a crucial immunoregulatory cells that are capable of regulating adaptive immune responses. We conducted this study to investigate whether the protective effect of the BCG vaccination on allergic pulmonary inflammation is associated with the alteration of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in a murine asthma model and the mechanisms of Treg cells. Methods: Newborn C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated 3 times with BCG on d 0, 7, and 14 and subsequently sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Eosinophil infiltration was investigated. The frequencies of spleen CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and the expression of specific transcriptional factor Foxp3 were assayed. The cytotoxic lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA)-4 expression and cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels were measured. Results: We showed that treatment of mice with BCG inhibited de novo allergic inflammatory response in a mouse model of asthma. BCG treatments are associated with the increase of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and Foxp3 expression, accompanied by an increased CTLA-4 expression and cytokine IL-10 and TGF-β levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: Neonatal BCG vaccinations ameliorate de novo local eosinophilic inflammation induced by allergen and in-crease the numbers of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and Foxp3 expression. The cell-cell contact inhibition and regulatory cytokine production may be involved in the regulatory mechanism.

  16. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Young Jang; Ah-Yeoun Jung; Young Hyo Kim

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during ...

  17. Clinical Distinctness of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Allergy to Molds

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk; Andrzej Bozek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Molds are a very diverse group of allergens. Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic rhinitis (AR). Objective. The natural course of allergic rhinitis was compared between a group of patients with allergy to molds and patients with AR to other allergens as the control groups. Material and Methods. The study group consisted of 229 patients, with a mean age of 27.4 ± 6.5 yrs. The study group was compared to groups of AR ...

  18. Effects of vitamin E on mitochondrial dysfunction and asthma features in an experimental allergic murine model

    OpenAIRE

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Aich, Jyotirmoi; Leishangthem, Geeta Devi; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Balaram

    2009-01-01

    We showed recently that IL-4 causes mitochondrial dysfunction in allergic asthma. IL-4 is also known to induce 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), a potent candidate molecule in asthma. Because vitamin E (Vit-E) reduces IL-4 and inhibits 12/15-LOX in vitro, here we tested the hypothesis that Vit-E may be effective in restoring key mitochondrial dysfunctions, thus alleviating asthma features in an experimental allergic murine model. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged male BALB/c mice showed...

  19. New roles for mast cells in modulating allergic reactions and immunity against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alison M; Abraham, Soman N

    2009-12-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have primarily been associated with mediating the pathological secondary responses to allergens in sensitized hosts. In view of the recent evidence for a MC role in modulating primary immune responses to pathogens, the likelihood for a role of MCs in influencing primary immune response to allergens has grown. New evidence suggests that MCs drive the development of Th2 responses to allergens, particularly when allergen exposure occurs concomitantly with exposure to pathogen products present in the environment. These new roles for MCs in allergy and infection suggest additional drug targets to prevent the development of allergic disease and allergic exacerbations of established disease. PMID:19828301

  20. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; Castro, Paulo Carrara de

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  1. Nickel, palladium and rhodium induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production as assessed by in vitro ELISpot-analysis in contact dermatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensoli Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and dentistry. The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the potential for an allergic response to nickel, palladium and rhodium on the basis of antigen-specific induction of inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, and to characterize, according to the cytokine profiles, the nature of simultaneous positive patch tests elicited in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from 40 patients with different patch test results were kept in short term cultures in the presence of optimized concentrations of NiSO4 × 6H2O, PdCl2 and Rh(CH3COO2. The production of IFN-γ and IL-10 elicited by metal compounds were analyzed by the ELISpot assay. Results We found a specific IFN-γ response by PBMC upon in vitro stimulation with nickel or palladium in well recognized allergic individuals. All controls with a negative patch test to a metal salt showed an in vitro IL-10 response and not IFN-γ production when challenged with the same compound. Interestingly, all subjects with positive patch test to both nickel and palladium (group 3 showed an in vitro response characterized by the release of IFN-γ after nickel stimulation and production of IL-10 in response to palladium. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the different cytokine profiles elicited in vitro reflect different immune responses which may lead to the control of the allergic responses or to symptomatic allergic contact dermatitis. The development of sensitive and specific in vitro assays based on the determination of the cytokine profiles in response to contact allergens may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications and may prove extremely useful in complementing the diagnostic limits of traditional patch testing.

  2. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders. PMID:27251783

  3. Pollen-induced antigen presentation by mesenchymal stem cells and T cells from allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mauli B; Gavrilova, Tatyana; Liu, Jianjun; Patel, Shyam A; Kartan, Saritha; Greco, Steven J; Capitle, Eugenio; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising cellular suppressor of inflammation. This function of MSCs is partly due to their licensing by inflammatory mediators. In cases with reduced inflammation, MSCs could become immune-enhancer cells. MSCs can suppress the inflammatory response of antigen-challenged lymphocytes from allergic asthma. Although allergic rhinitis (AR) is also an inflammatory response, it is unclear if MSCs can exert similar suppression. This study investigated the immune effects (suppressor vs enhancer) of MSCs on allergen-stimulated lymphocytes from AR subjects (grass or weed allergy). In contrast to subjects with allergic asthma, MSCs caused a significant (Pcells (antigen-presenting cells (APCs)). This correlated with increased production of inflammatory cytokines from T cells, and increased expressions of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II and CD86 on MSCs. The specificity of APC function was demonstrated in APC assay using MSCs that were knocked down for the master regulator of MHC-II transcription, CIITA. The difference in the effects of MSCs on allergic asthma and AR could not be explained by the sensitivity to the allergen, based on skin tests. Thus, we deduced that the contrasting immune effects of MSCs for antigen-challenged lymphocytes on AR and allergic asthma could be disease specific. It is possible that the enhanced inflammation from asthma might be required to license the MSCs to become suppressor cells. This study underscores the need for robust preclinical studies to effectively translate MSCs for any inflammatory disorder. PMID:25505949

  4. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition

    OpenAIRE

    Haahtela Tari; Jeffery Peter K

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist. Discussion In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cy...

  5. 55 cases of allergic reactions to hair dye: a descriptive, consumer complaint-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2002-01-01

    themselves, and adverse reactions to hair dye may not necessarily be recorded by the health care system, unless the reactions are especially severe. Based on this assumption, we suspected that hair dye dermatitis was occurring more frequently than reported in the literature. Consumer complaint-based data...... in the health care system. The frequency of allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye is likely to be underestimated. New methods to survey the frequency of adverse reactions should be considered....

  6. Adjuvant and anti-inflammatory properties of cigarette smoke in murine allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Nancy J; Botelho, Fernando M; Bauer, Carla M T; Fattouh, Ramzi; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    The impact of cigarette smoke on allergic asthma remains controversial both clinically and experimentally. The objective of this study was to investigate, in a murine model, how cigarette smoke affects immune inflammatory processes elicited by a surrogate allergen. In our experimental design, mice were concurrently exposed to cigarette smoke and ovalbumin (OVA), an innocuous antigen that, unless introduced in the context of an adjuvant, induces inhalation tolerance. We show that cigarette smoke exposure has adjuvant properties, allowing for allergic mucosal sensitization to OVA. Specifically, concurrent exposure to cigarette smoke and OVA for 2 weeks led to airway eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia. In vivo OVA recall challenge 1 month after the last smoke exposure showed that concurrent exposure to OVA and cigarette smoke induced antigen-specific memory. Robust eosinophilia and OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE characterized the ensuing inflammatory response. Mechanistically, allergic sensitization was, in part, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) dependent, as a significant reduction in BAL eosinophilia was observed in mice treated with an anti-GM-CSF antibody. Of note, continuous smoke exposure attenuated the OVA recall response; decreased airway eosinophilia was observed in mice continuously exposed to cigarette smoke compared with mice that ceased the smoke exposure protocol. In conclusion, we demonstrate experimentally that while cigarette smoke acts as an adjuvant allowing for allergic sensitization, it also attenuates the ensuing eosinophilic inflammatory response. PMID:18635815

  7. Surfactant and allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Carla; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of unique proteins and lipids that covers the airway lumen. Surfactant prevents alveolar collapse and maintains airway patency by reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, it provides a defence against antigen uptake by binding foreign particles and enhancing cellular immune responses. Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway inflammation and presents with episodes of airway narrowing. The pulmonary inflammation and bronchoconstriction can be triggered by exposure to allergens or pathogens present in the inhaled air. Pulmonary surfactant has the potential to interact with various immune cells which orchestrate allergen- or pathogen-driven episodes of airway inflammation. The complex nature of surfactant allows multiple sites of interaction, but also makes it susceptible to external alterations, which potentially impair its function. This duality of modulating airway physiology and immunology during inflammatory conditions, while at the same time being prone to alterations accompanied by restricted function, has stimulated numerous studies in recent decades, which are reviewed in this article. PMID:23896983

  8. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  9. Hyaluronan fragments as mediators of inflammation in allergic pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A; Dorsam, Glenn P; Schuh, Jane M

    2015-05-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen, leading to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to allergens may experience a greater degree of tissue injury followed by airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. In addition, turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a hallmark of tissue injury and repair. This review focuses on the role of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the ECM, in pulmonary injury and repair with an emphasis on allergic asthma. Both the synthesis and degradation of the ECM are critical contributors to tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmented HA accumulates during tissue injury and functions in ways distinct from the larger native polymer. There is gathering evidence that HA degradation products are active participants in stimulating the expression of inflammatory genes in a variety of immune cells at the injury site. In this review, we will consider recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that are associated with HA accumulation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the asthmatic lung. PMID:25582403

  10. Helpful Contacts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data used to populate the Helpful Contacts database is available for public usage. This functionality is primarily used by health policy researchers and the...

  11. Contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type. It can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps and detergents , fabric softeners, ... dyes, and permanent wave solutions Nickel or other metals (found in jewelry, watch straps, metal zips, bra ...

  12. Contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Galin, Lev Aleksandrovich

    2008-01-01

    L.A. Galin's book on contact problems is a remarkable work. Actually there are two books: the first, published in 1953 deals with contact problems in the classical theory of elasticity; this is the one that was translated into English in 1961. The second book, published in 1980, included the first, and then had new sections on contact problems for viscoelastic materials, and rough contact problems; this section has not previously been translated into English. In this new translation, the original text and the mathematical analysis have been completely revised, new material has been added, and the material appearing in the 1980 Russian translation has been completely rewritten. In addition there are three essays by students of Galin, bringing the analysis up to date.

  13. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    means to produce nanoscale device elements, such as carbon nanotube transistors [5] and high-density memory crossbar circuits [6]. Recently, the use of scanning tunnelling microscopes has broached a new field of research, which is currently attracting enormous interest—single molecule detection. In issue 25 of Nanotechnology researchers in Houston reported unprecedented sensitivities using localized surface plasmon resonance shifts of gold bipyramids to detect concentrations of substances down to the single molecule level [7]. In issue 26 a collaboration of researchers from the US and Czech Republic describe a different approach, namely tunnelling recognition. In their topical review they describe hydrogen-bond mediated tunnelling and the associated experimental methods that facilitate the detection of single molecules in a tunnel junction using chemically functionalized electrodes [8]. The nanoworld depicted by scanning probe microgaphs over 20 years ago may have looked as extraterrestrial as any science fiction generated alien terrain, but though study and analysis these nano-landscapes have become significantly less alien territory. The work so far to unveil the intricacies of electronic contact has been a story of progress in investigating this new territory and manipulating the mechanisms that govern it to formulate new devices and delve deeper into phenomena at the nanoscale. References [1] Binning G, Rohrer H, Gerber Ch and Weibel E 1982 Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 57-61 [2] X D Cui, X Zarate, J Tomfohr, O F Sankey, A Primak, A L Moore, T A Moore, D Gust, G~Harris and S M Lindsay 2002 Nanotechnology 13 5-14 [3] Martin C A, van Ruitenbeek J M and van der Zant S J H 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265201 [4] Davis J J and Hanyu Y 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265302 [5] Tans S J, Verschueren A R M and Dekker C 1998 Nature 393 49-52 [6] Chen Y, Jung G-Y, Ohlberg D A A, Li X, Stewart D R, Jeppesen J O, Nielsen K A, Stoddart J F and Williams R S 2003 Nanotechnology 14 462-8 [7] Mayer K M

  14. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria expressing allergic-chimers for prevention of allergic poly-sensitization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarate, P.; Heinl, S.; Daniel, C.; Kozáková, Hana; Grabherr, R.; Schabussova, I.; Wiedermann, U.

    Wroclaw: Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Science, 2015. s. 28. ISBN 978-83-928488-4-4. [Polish-Czech Probiotics Conference Microbiology, Immunology &Allergy /2./. 24.05.2015-26.05.2015, Bielawa] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  15. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fishman, S.J. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Furuta, G.; Nurko, S. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  16. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  17. Prevention of allergic disease in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    The development and phenotypic expression of atopic diseases depends on a complex interaction between genetic factors, environmental exposure to allergens,and non-specific adjuvant factors, such as tobacco smoke, air pollution and infections. Preventive measures may include both exposure to aller...... review was to evaluate possible preventive measures as regards prevention of development of allergic disease in childhood--primary prevention--and also some aspects of the effect of specific allergy treatment as regards secondary prevention in children with allergic asthma and allergic...... allergic manifestations e.g. CMA and atopic dermatitis can be reduced significantly by simple dietary measures for the first4 months of life. In all infants breastfeeding should beencouraged for at least 4-6 months, and exposure to tobacco smoke should be avoided during pregnancy and early childhood. In HR......-specific treatment may influence both the symptoms and the prognosis. Allergen avoidance can reduce the need for pharmacological treatment, SIT may have the potential for preventing the development of asthma in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. and it may be possible to interfere with the natural course of...

  18. Associated Markers for Adult-onset Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Bedolla-Barajas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical behavior of asthma varies with age at onset. This study was undertaken to identify associated markers of adult-onset allergic asthma (age ≥20 years.This cross-sectional study compared two groups: 58 patients with asthma onset at <20years and 66 with onset at ≥20 years. They were compared depending on results of clinical history, and body mass index (BMI, aeroallergen sensitization, total serum IgE, eosinophil count, asthma control test, and asthma severity level.Ages at first asthma episode were 10.0 ± 6.6 and 33.4 ± 10.5 (p <0.001 in the <20 and≥20 group, respectively. BMI was higher in adult asthmatic subjects (29.8 versus 27.1, P=0.017, but BMI ≥30 kg/m2 was not associated with asthma onset in ≥20 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.759 to 3.211; p= 0.227. After multivariate analysis, allergic rhinitis and IgE ≥150 IU/mL were negatively correlated with asthma onset in ≥20 years old (OR adjusted [ORa] = 0.255, 95% CI 0.078 to 0.837,  P= 0.024, and ORa =0.385, 95% CI 0.175 to 0.849,  p= 0.018, respectively.Adult-onset allergic asthma was not different from early-onset asthma. 

  19. Contact sensitizer nickel sulfate activates the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 and increases the expression of nitric oxide synthase in a skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, MT; Gonçalo, Margarida; A. Figueiredo; Carvalho, AP; Duarte, CB

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed signaling molecules known to regulate the transcription of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, namely the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In this study, we demonstrate that a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) produces nitric oxide (NO) in response to the contact sensitizer nickel sulfate (NiSO(4)) and increases the expression of the i...

  20. The Serine Protease Inhibitor, 4-(2-aminoethyl) Benzene Sulfonyl Fluoride Hydrochloride, Reduces Allergic Inflammation in a House Dust Mite Allergic Rhinitis Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Boo-Young; Park, Hyang Rim; Shin, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Jin Hee; Park, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Whan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Serine protease inhibitors are involved in immune development, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and tissue repair. In the present study, the serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzene sulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) was evaluated for its prophylactic and therapeutic applications in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups: contol (CON), Dermatophagoides farinae (Derf), AR mice treated with AEBSF before sensitization (S), AR m...