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Sample records for allergic contact sensitizing

  1. Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Francisco; Ramos, Tania; Las Heras, Paloma; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant allergic reactions to multiple drugs are uncommon. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. It is notable that one of the reactions was caused by oral nystatin, which generally is not considered to be allergenic due to its poor intestinal absorption. Diagnoses were confirmed on patch testing with histologic examination along with oral challenge testing. We also used challenge testing to rule out cross-reactivity among nystatin and other macrolide drugs, both antifungals and antibiotics.

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem Önder

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenific...

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

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    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  6. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  7. The Prevalence of Allergic Contact Sensitization of Practicing and Student Nurses

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    C Kocabaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis (CD is a significant problem among nurses. Although there are reports about the prevalence of CD from different parts of the world, data about its frequency in Turkey and about allergic contact sensitization among nurses is insufficient.Objective: To define the frequency and patterns of allergic contact sensitization and related symptoms in practicing and student nurses.Methods: There were 123 nurses in our hospital practicing in the in-patient clinics. All were invited to participate in the study. 69 working-in nurses and 79 student nurses participated in the study. The main reason for refusal of nurses was that they were usually having a shower daily after a hard working day and they had to postpone having a bath for 3 days if they had a patch test on their back. A ready-to-use patch test system (TRUE test® with 29 standardized test substances was applied to all of the participants. History about symptoms of CD and allergic diseases was investigated by questionnaire.Results: While 34.8% (24/69 of practicing nurses had symptoms of CD, 19% (15/79 of student nurses reported the symptoms (p=0.039. The most prevalent positive reaction was to nickel sulfate followed by thimerosal. There was no difference for positive reaction rates between practicing and student nurses. Nurses who had symptoms of CD were older than those without symptoms (p=0.003. The participants with symptoms of CD were more frequently from practicing nurses (p=0.047.Conclusion: CD is more frequent in practicing nurses than student nurses; allergic contact sensitization is not. This may be attributed to the length of occupation that is also correlated well with the length of exposure to the occupational irritants.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Gober, Michael D; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a classic example of a cell mediated hypersensitivity reaction in the skin. This occurs as a result of xenobiotic chemicals penetrating into the skin, chemically reacting with self proteins, eventually resulting in a hapten-specific immune response. It is precisely because of this localized immune response that allergic signs and symptoms occur (redness, edema, warmth and pruritus). It has been known for years that conventional T-cells (CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells that express a T-cell receptor alpha/Beta) are critical effectors for this reaction. There is emerging evidence that innate immune lymphocytes such as invariant Natural killer T-cells and even Natural killer cells may play important role. Other T-cell types such as Tregulatory cells and the IL-10 secreting Tregulatory cells type I are likely to be important in the control (resolution) of allergic contact dermatitis. Other cell types that may contribute include B-cells and hapten-specific IgM. Additionally, epidermal Langerhans cells have been ascribed an indispensable role as an antigen presenting cell to educate T-cells of the skin immune system. Studies of mice that lack this cell type suggest that Langerhans cells may be dispensible, and may even play a regulatory role in allergic contact dermatitis. The identity of the antigen presenting cells that complement Langerhans cells has yet to be identified. Lastly, Keratinocytes play a role in all phases of allergic contact dermatitis, from the early initiation phase with the elaboration of inflammatory cytokines, that plays a role in Langerhans cell migration, and T-cell trafficking, through the height of the inflammatory phase with direct interactions with epidermotrophic T-cells, through the resolution phase of allergic contact dermatitis with the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tolerogenic antigen presentation to effector T-cells. As the understanding of allergic contact dermatitis continues to improve, this will

  9. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from tylosin in pharmacy compounders and cross-sensitization to macrolide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaiyandi, Viba; Houle, Marie Claude; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Tylosin is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic that is restricted to veterinary use. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by tylosin has been reported in the literature from the farming industry and veterinary medicine. It is also reported as the most common antibiotic to cause ACD in the previously mentioned occupational settings. We present 2 cases of airborne ACD from tylosin among veterinary pharmaceutical compounding technicians. To our knowledge, only one other case of patch test-confirmed tylosin ACD has been reported in the manufacturing setting. Based on our results, cross-sensitization to other clinically relevant macrolides does not appear to be a concern. Our cases highlight the importance of patch testing among pharmaceutical compounders where the incidence of an airborne contact may be greater, given that the exposure is to the powdered form of potential allergens.

  10. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    of allergic inflammation and display more plasticity in their cytokine profiles. At present, these include Th9, Th17, Th22, and Treg, in addition to Th1 and Th2. The spectrum of co-stimulatory signals coming from DCs determines which subset-characteristics will dominate. When IL-4 and/or IL-13 play a dominant...

  11. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

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    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  13. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromso, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromso, Northern Norway. METHODS: A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administe...

  14. Immunology of allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Tončić, Ružica Jurakić; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Martinac, Ivana; Gregurić, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a T-cell mediated skin inflammation caused by repeated skin exposure to contact allergens. This review summarizes current knowledge on the immunology of ACD. Different phases in ACD are distinguished, i.e. sensitization, elicitation and resolution phases. We discuss contact allergen presentation and the central role of antigen presenting cells during sensitization phase. There is an extremely complex interaction of different kinds of immune cells, such as antigen presenting cells, T, B, NK lymphocytes, keratinocytes (KCs), endothelium, mast cells (MCs) and platelets, and this complex interaction is guided through orchestration of numerous cytokines and chemokines. The role of adaptive immunity has been recognized in contact hypersensitivity but we also discuss the important role of some parts of innate immunity such as natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT) and complement system. Cooperation of innate and adaptive immunity, in this case NK cells and B cells, initiates elicitation phase by complement cascade activation, vasoactive substance release and endothelial activation. KCs are not only innocent bystanders, on the contrary, they are involved in all phases of ACD, from the early phase of initiation through sending "danger" signals and activation of innate immunity, through their role in Langerhans cells (LCs) migration, T-cell trafficking, through the height of the inflammatory phase with direct interactions with epidermotropic T-cells, and finally through the resolution phase with the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tolerogenic presentation to effector T-cells. Th-1 and Th-17 cells are the main effector cells responsible for tissue damage. At the end, we point out several subsets of T regulatory cells, which exert down-regulatory function and regulate the magnitude and duration of inflammatory reaction.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

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    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

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    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  17. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by isocyanates.

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    Goossens, A; Detienne, T; Bruze, M

    2002-11-01

    Between 1978 and 2001, 22 patients were diagnosed with occupation-related allergic contact dermatitis from isocyanates and/or polyurethanes in our clinic. 13 had a positive reaction to the isocyanates, of whom 10 also reacted to diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), which is used in the production or processing of isocyanates and polyurethanes; 9 reacted only to MDA. The object of the present study was to identify the trades and industries responsible for the development of contact allergy to these resins. Such patients must be patch tested with the isocyanates contacted at work, and account must be taken of positive reactions to MDA as a marker for isocyanate sensitivity.

  18. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.

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    Nosbaum, Audrey; Vocanson, Marc; Rozieres, Aurore; Hennino, Anca; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are common inflammatory skin diseases induced by repeated skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals, called xenobiotics or haptens. Although both diseases may have similar clinical presentations, they can be differentiated on pathophysiological grounds. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a non-specific inflammatory dermatitis brought about by activation of the innate immune system by the pro-inflammatory properties of chemicals. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) corresponds to a delayed-type hypersensitivity response with a skin inflammation mediated by hapten-specific T cells. Recent progress in the pathophysiology of chemical-induced skin inflammation has shown that ICD and ACD are closely associated and that the best way to prevent ACD is to develop strategies to avoid ICD. The immunological diagnosis of ICD or ACD requires investigation of the presence (ACD) or absence (ICD) of antigen-specific T cells. The detection of T cells can be performed in the skin (collected from ACD lesions or positive patch tests) and/or in the blood, particularly by using the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). This method, recently developed in ACD to metals, offers a new biological tool enabling the immunobiological diagnosis of ACD.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

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    Lee SJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, dorzolamide, side effects

  20. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to nitromethane.

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    Webb, Kelli G; Fowler, Joseph F

    2002-12-01

    Nitromethane has wide industrial and commercial application as a polar solvent for adhesives and acrylics as well as explosive fuel. Allergic contact dermatitis to this chemical has not been described previously. The authors documented allergic contact hand dermatitis in 4 coworkers who similarly handled an adhesive solvent containing nitromethane. All 4 cases were confirmed by patch testing and resolved after allergen avoidance.

  1. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

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    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  2. Topical glucocorticoid augments both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions in mice when applied at the afferent stage of contact sensitivity

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    Ken Igawa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a murine model, topical application of glucocorticoid ([GC], 50 μg diflucortolone valerate in ethanol on a sensitized site (flank skin for 7 times before and 2 times after sensitization on alternate days, augmented expression of contact sensitivity reactions on the challenged site (ear skin. This augmentation was due to the systemic effect of percutaneously absorbed GC, because topical GC also augmented the skin reaction in mice that had been sensitized on a separate site from that of the GC application. In contrast, topical application of GC inhibited the contact sensitivity skin reaction when applied on the challenged sites. Intraperitoneal injection of the same dose of GC also failed to augment the skin reactions. Glucocorticoid augmented the contact sensitivity skin reactions and these persisted for 96 h after the control skin reactions subsided. Early phase (1–6 h skin reactions were also induced or augmented when dinitrofluorobenzene or trinitrochlorobenzene but not oxazolone were used as the sensitizer; GC also augmented the non-specific reactions to croton oil or to suboptimal concentration of hapten in normal mice. The numbers of Langerhans cells (LC were reduced in both the GC-application and challenged sites. Haptenated LC from GC-treated skin showed a rather weak sensitizing ability, which was not statistically significant. Transfer of lymph node cells and/or spleen cells or serum from GC-pre-treated mice failed to induce a contact sensitivity reaction in normal recipient mice. These results suggest that topical GC might augment cutaneous inflammation through a possible modulation of local cytokine production, regardless of the number of LC or the presence of sensitized lymphocytes.

  3. Participation of complement 3a receptor (C3aR) in the sensitization phase of Th2 mediated allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Niebuhr, Margarete; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Kietzmann, Manfred; Wichmann, Katja; Heratizadeh, Annice; Werfel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The complement system has emerged as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. An involvement of C3aR has been described during skin inflammation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of C3a in a mouse model of allergic skin inflammation, such as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) which is a clinical manifestation of contact sensitivity (CS). The sensitization phase was studied using the local lymph node test: Mice were sensitized on three consecutive days by application of non-irritant concentrations of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI; 0.5%) onto the ear skin. On day 5, auricular draining lymph nodes were obtained. The elicitation phase was investigated by sensitization with TDI on the depilated and tape-stripped abdominal skin and challenge with TDI on the ear skin and measuring of ear swelling in vivo and cytokine secretion in activated splenocytes in vitro respectively. Complement 3a receptor deficient (C3aRKO) mice showed increased cytokine responses (interleukin[IL]-5, IL-6, IL-17, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in the sensitization phase of ACD to TDI. However, no differences in CS responses to TDI were observed in C3aR KO mice compared with WT controls in the elicitation phase of ACD as assessed by measuring of ear swelling in vivo and cytokines in skin and in activated splenocytes in vitro, namely IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These findings provide a new insight into the participation of C3a in the sensitization phase of CS immune responses.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

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    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  5. [Allergic contact eczema from epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, Leticia; Ortiz-de Frutos, Francisco J; del Prado Sánchez-Caminero, María; Galera, Carmen María; Valverde, Ricardo; Vanaclocha, Francisco

    2005-11-01

    Epoxy resins are plastics that are widely used as electrical insulation, in coatings, and as adhesives and paints. They have strong sensitizing power and are one of the main causes of allergic contact eczema, both in the workplace and elsewhere. We present the case of a worker at a plastics/chemical plant, who handled aeronautical components in the process of manufacturing fuselage parts. He consulted his physician because of eczematous lesions on his fingers, hands and forearms which had developed over a two-year period and were clearly related to his work. The standard battery of skin tests was performed, along with the plastics and adhesives series and tests using the products from his workplace. Positivity was shown to epoxy resins (standard battery) and to the products from his workplace, which included different fiberglass and carbon fiber sheets impregnated with epoxy resins and epoxy adhesives.

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

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    Uffe Nygaard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

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    An Goossens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future.

  8. Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    -effect relationships to be established with increased certainty. For prevention of allergic contact dermatitis it was a major step forward, with mandatory ingredient labelling of cosmetic products. However, improved labelling of the presence of contact allergens in household and industrial products is needed...

  9. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from octylisothiazolinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Frost, Simon; Ohlund, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen.......Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen....

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

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    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  12. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role...... of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing...

  13. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

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    Kobzik Lester

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  14. Why does allergic contact dermatitis exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J P; Puangpet, P; Basketter, D A; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I

    2013-04-01

    The skin immune system's propensity to produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to harmless chemicals, while otherwise being an efficient defence system, represents a dermatological paradox. We postulate that a major role in signalling in ACD is played by Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4, and arises from their activation by extracellular danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Ligand activation of TLR4/2 results in the expression of interleukins (ILs) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18 and IL-23, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-α. These cytokines promote acquisition of sensitization, and facilitate elicitation of contact allergy via multiple mechanisms, including the recruitment of CD4+ Th1 and Th17 cells. As Th1 cells secrete large amounts of DAMPs, a DAMP immune circuit (positive-feedback loop) is created. This is an important driver of skin sensitization and skin inflammation. Pathogenic extracellular bacteria, but not commensal bacteria, produce pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules, which stimulate the expression of Th1- and Th17-promoting cytokines via TLR2 and TLR4. This also induces an immune circuit. The ability of the skin immune system to activate host defence mechanisms and to distinguish between pathogenic bacteria and commensals provides an explanation for why skin sensitization and ACD develop, as they are processes that rely on the same biological pathways. These pathways may also shed light on the pathogenesis of chronic pustular inflammatory dermatoses (e.g. acne vulgaris). The existence of safety signals from commensal bacteria, which prevent initiation of these pathways, may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  15. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  16. Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatty Ravitasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cheilitis is a common problem of unknown etiology. A possible cause of cheilitis is contact allergy. Drugs, lipsticks, sunblock and toothpaste are the most common implicated allergens. Allergic contact cheilitis is a chronic superficial inflammatory disorder of the vermilion borders characterized by desquamation due to delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Purpose: We report a management of Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipsticks. Case: A 21-year-old woman had a history of atopic allergy to eggs, milk, and chicken presented with sore, dry, fissured, scaled and sometimes bleeding lip, over a 3-month period after application of a lipstick. Her symptoms persisted despite treatments with hydrocortisone cream. The patient provided a detailed history and underwent physical examination and patch tests to cosmetic components and patch test to her own lipstick. The patient had strongly-positive result to the tested lipstick. A diagnosis of allergic contact cheilitis was made based on the history and clinical findings. Case management: Patient was advised to avoid wearing lipstick. To relieve symptoms, treatment was initiated with combined topical corticosteroid, antibiotic, and moisturizer. Conclusion: Contact allergy patients should be tested for both cosmetic component series and their own lipsticks to exclude exfolliative cheilitis, infection, or light actinic cheilitis as causal agents.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact...... dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place....

  19. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    . Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products...... tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. SUMMARY: Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic...... contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  1. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-03-01

    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  3. An overview of parabens and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and industrial products. However, since the 1960s, controversy has surrounded its use and safety as a potential cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite the cloud of suspicion that has hovered over parabens ever since, these ubiquitous compounds have withstood four decades of extensive skin testing conducted by a variety of organizations, both North American and European, and now, it seems parabens have shown to be one of the least sensitizing preservatives in commercial use. Of the very limited reports of paraben-induced allergic contact dermatitis, these cases are often attributable to the application of parabens on damaged skin.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis from falcarinol isolated from Schefflera arboricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L; Hammershøy, O; Boll, P M

    1986-02-01

    From the plant Schefflera arboricola, which has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis, we have isolated and determined the elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis as falcarinol, heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-3-ol. Three polyacetylenes closely related to falcarinol, namely falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone were tested simultaneously. Falcarinol, but not falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, elicited allergic contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old female plant-nursery worker.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An;

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...... from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates....

  6. Gene transcripts as potential diagnostic markers for allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil;

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis is to perform a patch test. Because this has several disadvantages, the development of a new in vitro test system would be of immense value. Gene transcripts that distinguish allergics from non-allergics may have the potential...

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  8. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to silver and colophonium in a jeweler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjay; Gawkrodger, David J

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine any occupationally relevant allergic contact sensitizations in hand dermatitis in a jeweler. Patch test with European Standard, vehicle, medicaments, and metal series (Finn chambers on Scanpor) was performed. Readings were taken on day 2 and day 4. Allergic positive reaction to colophonium 20% pet and silver nitrate 0.5% aq was detected. The contact sensitivities to silver and colophonium seem to be occupationally relevant in this case.

  9. Excipients in Oral Antihistamines Can Perpetuate Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocci, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Amanda; Belazarian, Leah; Foley, Elizabeth; Wiss, Karen; Silvestri, Dianne L

    2015-01-01

    Propylene glycol is a well-documented causative agent of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It is also reported to cause systemic dermatitis after ingestion of foods or medicines containing it and after intravenous injection of a medicine with propylene glycol in its base. We describe two adolescents with sensitivity to propylene glycol confirmed by patch testing whose dermatitis improved dramatically after cessation of oral antihistamines containing propylene glycol. We report these cases to alert providers to the potential for worsening of ACD due to systemic exposure to propylene glycol in patients with a cutaneous sensitivity to the allergen.

  10. [Allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; In-Nami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Compression stockings are used for patients under general anesthesia to prevent occurrence of deep venous thrombosis. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings. A 53-year-old house wife had a history of sensitivity like skin eruption and disstasis to rubber products such as rubber band. Left nephrectomy for rupture of renal angiomyolipoma was scheduled under general and epidural anesthesia. Further examination for gum allergy was not performed before the operation, although latex allergy was suspected. The operation was performed uneventfully under latex-safe environment in the operating room under guideline for latex allergy. Postoperatively, ringed edematous erythema and wheal occurred in her bilateral thighs compressed with the upper part of compression stockings. The skin symptoms continued for more than four days. After disappearance of the skin symptoms, she was discharged from the hospital on the ninth day after the operation. Synthetic rubber, neoprene, in the upper part of compression stockings to prevent slipping down might cause allergic contact dermatitis. We should take care of occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings in patients with rubber allergy.

  11. Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsak, Meliha; Gaffal, Evelyn; Date, Rahul; Wang-Eckhardt, Lihua; Rehnelt, Jennifer; Petrosino, Stefania; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Steuder, Regina; Schlicker, Eberhard; Cravatt, Benjamin; Mechoulam, Raphael; Buettner, Reinhard; Werner, Sabine; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Tüting, Thomas; Zimmer, Andreas

    2007-06-08

    Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 5% of men and 11% of women in industrialized countries and is one of the leading causes for occupational diseases. In an animal model for cutaneous contact hypersensitivity, we show that mice lacking both known cannabinoid receptors display exacerbated allergic inflammation. In contrast, fatty acid amide hydrolase-deficient mice, which have increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, displayed reduced allergic responses in the skin. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists exacerbated allergic inflammation, whereas receptor agonists attenuated inflammation. These results demonstrate a protective role of the endocannabinoid system in contact allergy in the skin and suggest a target for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kręcisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332

  13. Contact sensitisation and allergic contact dermatitis: immunobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peter S

    2006-03-15

    The dose-response relationships of the human immune system can be defined using the induction and elicitation of lymphocyte mediated allergic reactions to experimental contact sensitisers such as dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Five groups of healthy volunteers received a sensitising dose of DNCB applied to a 3 cm diameter circle on the volar forearm. Doses applied were 62.5 microg, 125 microg, 250 microg, 500 microg and 1,000 microg. Four weeks later a concentration series of 3.125 microg, 6.25 microg, 12.5 microg and 25 microg was applied to the upper inner arm on 1cm paper discs which were removed after 6h. Forty-eight hours later the responses were scored clinically and thickness measured with callipers. The proportion of people reacting to the challenge doses showed a sigmoid log-dose-response curve, 100% reacting to 500 microg. The responses to challenge also showed a log-dose-reponse. As sensitising dose increased so more people were sensitised to a proportionately greater degree. These dose-response relationships reflect the effects of increasing the concentration of sensitiser on a fixed area. The effect was examined of keeping the concentration per sq cm constant but of varying the total area. When 35.4 microg/cm(2), which sensitised 80% of people when applied to a circle 3 cm diameter (area 7.1cm(2)), was applied on a 1.5 cm diameter circle or 4.5 cm diameter, there were no differences in the proportions sensitised or their degree of reactivity. This was clearly on the plateau for the sensitising effect. However, when the same concentration per cm(2) was applied on a 3mm diameter area much weaker sensitisation was obtained. This shows the concentration of sensitiser per unit area is the critical determinant of whether sensitisation occurs, whereas the total dose may be varied over a wide range, but if the concentration per unit area is constant there is no effect on sensitising potency. In other words few Langerhans cells presenting many antigen molecules

  14. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikov Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. Case report. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Conclusion. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and benzocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazo, Juan Luis Anguita; Morera, Blanca Sáenz de San Pedro; Colom, Luis Palacios; Gálvez Lozano, José Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl chloride (EC) or chloroethane (C2H5Cl) is a volatile halogenated hydrocarbon. Reports of contact sensitivity to this gas are infrequent considering its widespread use as a local anesthetic, and it may have a relatively low sensitization potential. Benzocaine is another local anesthetic derivative of the ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid, previously reported as a causative agent of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We present a patient who developed a generalized itching dermatitis after the application of a medical aerosol containing EC, as well as facial angioedema and tongue swelling after the local application of benzocaine. Patch-test results were positive for EC "as is" (++), benzocaine 5% in petrolatum (++), and caine mix (+++) at 96 hours (day 4). The possibility of cross-sensitization between both drugs would not have been chemically plausible. We report the first published clinical case of contact allergic dermatitis from two chemically unrelated local anesthetics (EC and benzocaine) in the same patient.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis: immune system involvement and distinctive clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbesi, S; Minciullo, P L; Isola, S; Gangemi, S

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is drawing the attention to the contact dermatitis, an inflammatory skin condition due to pro-inflammatory and toxic factors able to activate the skin innate immunity (irritant contact dermatitis) or caused by a T-cell- mediated hypersensitivity reaction (allergic contact dermatitis). The immune system involvement and a variety of clinical pictures are described in order to better diagnose, prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergi...

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: understanding the chemistry will help our diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Muñoz, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Pujol, R M; Giménez-Arnau, A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families.

  19. [Allergic contact dermatitis to common ivy (Hedera helix L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, C; Schneider, L A; Hinrichs, R; Staib, G; Weber, L; Weiss, J M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2003-10-01

    Common ivy (Hedera helix L.) is a ubiquitous plant in Europe whose major allergen falcarinol has moderate allergic potential. It is not related to poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.). There are no cross reactions between the allergens of common ivy (falcarinol) and poison ivy (urushiol). Contact with common ivy or falcarinol may lead to sensitization and then a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. There are only few cases described in the literature. We report on a male hobby gardener with appropriate clinical history and positive patch test. The pathogenic mechanism is a type IV reaction following a sensitization exposure. Gardeners and landscape architects with frequent exposure to common ivy and thus a high risk of sensitization should wear appropriate protective clothing.

  20. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  2. Contact allergic dermatitis to gold in a tattoo: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Tuchinda, P; Persechino, S; Gaspari, A

    2011-01-01

    The art of tattooing has increasing in recent decades. Allergic sensitivity to one of the pigments is the most frequent cause of dermatological reactions at the site of the tattoo. Gold is a new pigment used in tattooing, because of its bright yellow color and luster. Allergy to this metal is uncommon. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to gold in a tattoo.

  3. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, K; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Faurschou, A

    2015-01-01

    the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: Nineteen MI-allergic subjects and 19 controls without MI allergy applied two liquid hand soaps five times per day on areas of 5 × 10 cm(2) on the ventral side of their forearms. One soap contained 100 ppm MI, the maximum allowed concentration...... in cosmetics, and was used by 10 allergic subjects and all controls. Another liquid soap with 50 ppm MI was used by nine allergic subjects. As the negative control, all subjects used a similar soap that did not contain MI. The repeated open applications proceeded until a positive reaction occurred or up to 21...... days. The study was conducted in a randomized and blinded fashion. RESULTS: Ten out of 10 MI-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the soap with 100 ppm and seven out of nine reacted to the 50 ppm soap, while none of the 19 controls had a positive reaction during 21 days of application...

  4. [Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, M C; Goday-Buján, J J; Almagro, M; Fonseca, E

    2009-05-01

    Diethylthiourea, like other thioureas, is often used by the rubber industry and in the manufacture of neoprene. We present a patient who suffered allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader and who required admission to hospital and systemic treatment. We review the literature on allergy to diethylthiourea. Thioureas are not included in the standard GEIDAC (Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group) battery of patch tests. In these cases, it is necessary to use a special battery of rubber allergens, which includes thiourea compounds, for diagnosis of the disease and to ensure that cases of contact allergic dermatitis to thioureas do not go undiagnosed.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis: pathophysiology applied to future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lily Y; Cruz, Ponciano D

    2004-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common reason for patient visits to primary-care clinics and represents up to 7% of all dermatologic consultations in the US. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the pathophysiology of contact dermatitis, particularly the allergic form. A better understanding of pathologic mechanisms has led to improved management of cases and will continue to advance treatment modalities. The present paper reviews the pathogenesis and current treatment of allergic contact dermatitis and speculates on the prospects for improved future therapy.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...

  7. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in children - a review of current data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children was previously considered to be a rare occurrence. However, the growing number of case reports and cross-sectional studies through the past three decades indicate that ACD is, in fact, a highly relevant diagnosis in children. Furthermore, the frequency...... reactions. Children with atopic dermatitis are as frequently sensitized as children with no history of atopic dermatitis, and there are no differences associated with sex. Children and adults can be tested with equal concentrations of patch test allergens. Our findings may support the notion...

  8. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS FROM FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous chemical agent, a part of our outdoor and indoor working and residential environment. Healthcare workers in difficult occupations are among the most affected by formaldehyde exposure. Formaldehyde is an ingredient of some dental materials. Formaldehyde is well-known mucous membrane irritant and a primary skin sensitizing agent associated with both contact dermatitis (Type IV allergy, and immediate, anaphylactic reactions (Type I allergy. Inhalation exposure to formaldehyde was identified as a potential cause of asthma. Quite a few investigations are available concerning health issues for dental students following formaldehyde exposure. Such studies would be beneficial for early diagnosis of hypersensitivity, adequate prophylactic, risk assessment and management of their work.

  9. EAACI Position Paper for practical patch testing in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold...... allergens to be tested in children with suspected ACD. Additional tests should be performed only on specific indications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    disease. Novel tools to predict severe outcomes and to plan for allergen-specific treatment are necessary, and because only a small amount of blood is needed to test for a multitude of allergens and allergenic components, component resolved diagnostics is promising. A drawback is the risk of overdiagnosis......Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergic...... and misinterpretation of the complex results of such tests. Also, the practical use and selection of allergenic components need to be evaluated in large studies including well-characterized patients and healthy, sensitized controls and with representation of different geographical regions....

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine in cosmetic blush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kayoko; Hirokawa, Keiko; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many reported cases of immediate allergy after ingestion of foods containing cochineal, there are few reports of allergic contact dermatitis from carmine. We present a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis due to carmine. A 52-year-old female presented with an itchy erythema on her cheeks at the site where blush had been applied. Patch-tested with her cosmetics, she showed a positive reaction to the blush (30% in petrolatum) and to 0.2% (but not 0.1%) carmine in petrolatum. In this case, the optimum patch-test concentration of carmine was 0.2% in petrolatum.

  12. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Topkarci, Zeynep; Ozarmağan, Güzin

    2007-08-01

    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, propylene glycol, the patient's favourite lipstick and propyl gallate. No reaction was seen with Zovirax ophthalmic ointment and Zovirax tablet. The propylene glycol component of the Zovirax cream and the propyl gallate component of the lipstick were regarded as the responsible contact sensitizers. The differential diagnosis was challenging due to concomitant contact sensitization with these agents.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to methacrylates in ECG electrode dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Georgina; Nixon, Rosemary

    2013-02-01

    Acrylates are used widely in acrylic nails, dental restorative materials, paint, varnish, printing ink, adhesives, glue, orthopaedic prostheses, bone cement and diathermy pads. This is the first case of allergic contact dermatitis to methacrylates in electrocardiogram electrode dots reported in the literature.

  14. [Allergic contact eczema because of diethylthiourea in neoprene rubber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Sanne Krogsbøll; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-03-11

    Three cases are reported of acute allergic contact dermatitis caused by diethylthiourea in the neoprene rubber used in a diving suit and orthopedic braces. Patch testing should be done with the specific thiourea compounds, because testing with material from the suspected products may be negative. Cross-reactivity between thiourea compounds is uncommon.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to turmeric in kumkum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendranath Lal M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty-three year old house-wife developed dermatitis over the center of forehead following application of kumkum, bindi and sticker (except one brand since six months. Patch testing with various brands of kumkum and regularly available sticker used by the patient elicited positive reaction except one brand used by the patient. Kumkum is made by mixing turmeric (Curcuma longa powder with small amount of lime (calcium hydroxide. She was patch tested with turmeric, to which she developed positive reaction. Subsequently she was patch tested with turmeric powder boiled and air-dried and also the acetone-extract and precipitate of the powder. She tested positive to all the extracts and precipitates, but the turmeric powder which was dried by boiling did not elicit positive reaction. She was advised to use boiled and dried turmeric to make kumkum for use. However, the kumkum powder prepared following boiling had lost its adhesive property and hence was unacceptable. She was offered Castellani′s paint and eosin with starch for application. Both were acceptable for 2 months, but she subsequently developed irritant reaction to the paint with starch. She continues to use the non-allergic sticker (Kanchan sticker kumkum while we are trying to find other alternatives to kumkum.

  16. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

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    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  17. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-09-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1-like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future.

  18. Contact Allergic Cheilitis Secondary to Latex Gloves: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of allergic chelitis secondary to latex in an elderly diabetic patient. There are very few reported cases of allergic cheilitis in literature. Most of the reported cases of allergic chelitis were secondary to cosmetics, tooth pastes or impression materials. Few cases of rubber dam induced allergic cheilitis and stomatitis reported.Methods: Since the patient was diabetic on insulin therapy and belonged to the elderly age group, utmost caution was observed while performing diagnostic tests and treatment procedures. The use test was performed to detect the allergen (latex because of short contact time to the skin surface.Results: The patient was followed-up for a period of eight months, complete healing of the lesions was witnessed. The patient has not reported of any lesions later.Conclusions: Appropriate diagnostic test and interdisciplinary approach in consultation with medical specialists would be ideal for the management of allergic cheilitis especially in diabetic elderly patients.

  19. [Allergic contact eczema due to 'tea tree' oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, P G; de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J; Weijland, J W

    1994-04-16

    In four patients, three women aged 45, 29 and 52 years and a man aged 45 years, allergic contact dermatitis due to 'tea tree' oil was diagnosed. The case of the man was published before. 'Tea tree' oils are essential oils distilled from the leaves of myrtaceous trees and shrubs occurring in Australia and South-East Asia. The 'tea tree' oil available in the Netherlands is distilled from the Melaleuca alternifolia and mainly contains eucalyptol. Eucalyptol is probably the most important allergen.

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY ON ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS TO TURMERIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok babu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:- BACKGROUND: In south India it is a culture among ladies to use turmeric for beautiful white skin, to remove unwanted hair on the face, in this context I have encountered ladies coming with redness, itching, burning and vesiculation of skin after application of turmeric and also especially on forehead, hair parting after applicat ion of kumkum which is prepared from turmeric and which is traditionally followed by Hindu women. AIM : To evaluate incidence of allergic contact dermatitis due to turmeric in female by patch testi ng. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 clinical suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis in f emales of all age groups who were using turmeric were taken and also 20 females who were not using t urmeric were taken and patch testing was done with Indian standard series (ISS, kumkum, and prep ared turmeric allergens (ethanol extract, sediment, raw turmeric and commercial preparations . RESULTS: Out of 50 cases tested 44 cases were positive for different turmeric antigens (88% . The incidence of kumkum allergy is also high. All the 20 females who were not using turmeric were neg ative. Conclusion: Apart from immense beneficial effects of turmeric, allergic contact de rmatitis due to turmeric has been demonstrated and confirmed through patch testing in the present stud y.

  1. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis / Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aims of our study were to determine the frequency of positive patch reactions and the most common allergens in patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD and/or mucositis(M who underwent with T.R.U.E. “Thin-layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous” test and evaluate supplemantal series used with T.R.U.E. test effect on patch test results.Material and Method: In this study 161 ACD, 5 ACM, 1 ACD and ACM were enrolled. While 139 of all patients were patch tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,out of 28 patients were tested for T.R.U.E. test and also with supplemental series that included textile colours (9 of tested patients, plastic and glues (9, dental screening (6, backery (2, cosmetic (1 and plastic and glues and dental screening (1. Supplemental series were chosen according to patient’s occupation and clinic presentation. The data from our patients were analyzed as percentage. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic status was evaluated with Yate’s correlation x2 test.Results: Eighty-six male, 81 female were taken into this study. The median age was 36.5.While 25.9% of 139 patients tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,46.4% of 28 patients applied supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test showed positive reaction to one or more allergens. The most common allergens were nickel sulphate (14.4%, potassium dichromate (4.8%, fragrance mix (2.9% and colophony (2.9%. The most common supplemental allergens were octil gallat (50% in bakery and copper sulphate, goldsodiumthiosulphate (42.8% in dental screening. Positive patch reactions were detected 83.3% in 6 patients with AKM, 80% of these positive reactions was againts dental screening. The rate of contact sensitization between atopics and non-atopics was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: We suggest in presence of mucositis and/or occupational dermatoses using supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test would be more beneficial in identifing the

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from carvone in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quertermous, James; Fowler, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    Carvone has occasionally been reported as an allergen, usually in flavorings. Isomers of carvone have been either a mint or a rye flavor and aroma. We report a woman with positive patch-test reactions to carvone (newly added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series) and dermatitis on the head. She had used a hair conditioner with a "mint" scent, and the dermatitis resolved when she discontinued using this product. While the manufacturer would not confirm carvone as an ingredient, the clinical course, patch-test results, and ingredient list strongly suggest that this was a relevant allergen in this case of allergic contact dermatitis.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis in childrenwhich factors are relevant? (review of the literature)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Darsow, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic...... dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply...... defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow...

  4. Early immune events in the induction of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel H; Igyártó, Botond Z; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2012-01-13

    The skin is a barrier site that is exposed to a wide variety of potential pathogens. As in other organs, pathogens that invade the skin are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Recently, it has been recognized that PRRs are also engaged by chemical contact allergens and, in susceptible individuals, this elicits an inappropriate immune response that results in allergic contact dermatitis. In this Review, we focus on how contact allergens promote inflammation by activating the innate immune system. We also examine how innate immune cells in the skin, including mast cells and dendritic cells, cooperate with each other and with T cells and keratinocytes to initiate and drive early responses to contact allergens.

  5. SKIN SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (BASIC COURSE): THE GLOBAL REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE; 1 OF 4 SPEAKERS FOR AN SOT BASIC COURSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  6. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkey, S.; S. Ghaffar

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash o...

  7. Kaposi′s Varicelliform Eruption In Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old male having airborne allergic contact dermatitis suddenly developed high grade fever, chills and prostation on 7th day of admission. Two days later he developed generalized papulovescles which became haemorrhagic and crusted within one to two days. These lesions later evolved into grouped erosions. Simultaneously, he developed swelling of the face and generalized lymphadenopathy. Tzanck smear demonstrated giant cell and the patients was diagnosed as having kaposis’s varicelliform eruption. He responded to oral acycolvir. The case is reported for its rarity.

  8. Patch Test Results of 775 Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Ada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis vary among countries and even between different geographical regions within the same country over time. It is of great importance to perform the patch test at certain intervals, to evaluate the results in different centers and to compare them afterwards. Our aim was to evaluate the patch test results in our patients with allergic contact dermatitis.Material and Method: The records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, who had been patch tested between May 1997 and March 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic features such as age and sex, localization of the contact dermatitis, and the patch test results were recorded. Results: Of the 775 patients, 581 (75.2% were females and 194 (25% males. Of all patients, 735 were patch tested with the European Standard Series, 318 - with both the European Standard Series and cosmetic series, and 40-with cosmetic series alone. Of the patients tested with the European Standard Series, 255 (34.7% had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent allergen in the European Standard Series was nickel sulfate (17.3%, followed by cobalt chloride (7.2%, potassium dichromate (3%, fragrance mix (2.9%, and p-phenylenediamine base (2.6%. Of the 358 patients tested with cosmetic series, 82 (22.9% had at least one positive reaction. The 5 most frequently observed cosmetic series allergens were octyl gallate (3.9%, thimerosal (2.2%, sorbitan sesquioleate (2%, Euxyl K 400 (2% and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.4%. Conclusion: Our study shows the contact allergen profile of our center over 12 years. The most common allergens and their frequency differ between centers in various cities in Turkey. Those geographical differences should be re-evaluated by further studies performed in the certain time period. The high frequency of reactions to octyl gallate is an important finding in patients suspected of cosmetic allergy

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  10. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  11. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Rind

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition.

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Rind; Naoki Oiso; Ayaka Hirao; Akira Kawada

    2010-01-01

    Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: review of the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Jacob, Sharon E

    2014-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. During the last decade, there has been a heightened awareness of this disease in the pediatric population. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred children with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6 %. The most common allergens in children in North America are nickel, neomycin, cobalt, fragrance, Myroxylon pereirae, gold, formaldehyde, lanolin/wool alcohols, thimerosal, and potassium dichromate. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up.

  15. Skin homing and recruitment of leukocytes in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrakchi, Slaheddine; Turki, Hamida

    2008-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disorder that has a high socio-economic impact with regard to the increasing number of industrial allergens that has potential harmful effect on the skin of manual workers. Its management relies on the use of topical anti-inflammatory drugs as well as the avoidance of the allergens inducing the disease. However, with regard to the ubiquitous character of many chemicals in the environment, treatment of the disease remains unsatisfactory. Understanding the molecular basis of the disease is of major importance in prospect of designing new therapeutic modalities. In this article, the various stages of the disease are reviewed as well as the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the disease that would help to conceive new concepts for drug intervention. The article also reviews some of the recent patent relevant to the field.

  16. [Allergic reaction after contact with Hura crepitans (sandbox tree)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, E J; Bayerl, C; Goerdt, S

    2002-03-01

    We describe a 36-year-old female patient with angioedema-like swellings and rhinoconjunctivitis for 1 year occurring exclusively at her home. The clinical history revealed no correlation with foods, food additives, drugs, or aeroallergens. The complaints always started immediately after contact with the sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) placed in her apartment. Scratch testing resulted in a two-fold positive reaction towards leaves and stem, while five controls remained negative. Thus we suggest the reaction of the patient to be allergic in nature. Hura crepitans belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae, whose largest genera are Euphorbia and Croton. The toxic reactions to the milky sap, the so-called latex, of these plants are caused by ingredients such as phorbol esters, croton oil, lectins, and terpens. Various terpens are also well known as allergens. Phytotoxic and phytoallergic reactions are growing increasingly important and should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis in dermatology.

  17. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the lit...

  18. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected.

  19. Early inflammatory markers in elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraio María

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD is regarded as a T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. We studied the kinetics of the expression of CS-1 fibronectin, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (CCL17/ TARC and different chemokine receptors (CR in skin biopsies from individuals suffering from back problems, with the antigen responsible of their contact dermatitis and an irrelevant antigen. Methods Samples were taken at 2, 10, and 48 hours for histological and immunohistochemical studies using monoclonal antibodies against human CS-1 fibronectin, CCL17, CD3, CD68, CD49d, CXCR3, CCR5, and CCR3. Results At positive antigen stimulated sites there was an early expression of CS-1 fibronectin (2 hours, followed by CCL17 and a later accumulation of alplha4/beta1+ (CD49d, CD3+, CD68+, CXCR3+ and CCR5+ mononuclear cells. At 48 hours, approximately 59 % of infiltrating cells were CXCR3+, 42% CCR5+, and only 14 % CCR3+. Conclusions These results showed for the first time a very early expression of CS-1 fibronectin which preceded production of CCL17 in blood endothelial cells (BCEs from patients' skin with ACD. The role of these molecules in recruitment of monocytes and effector T cells in ACD is discussed.

  20. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions: follicular spongiosis may be characteristic of early allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    1999-01-01

    differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  1. Evaluation of contact sensitivity to topical drugs in patients with contact dermatitis

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    Bilge Bülbül Şen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Topical drugs are an important group of contact allergens. The present study aimed to evaluate contact sensitivity to topical drugs in patients with contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Between 2003 and 2008, 129 patients were followed up at the Department of Dermatology at Ankara University School of Medicine with clinically suspected contact sensitivity to topical drugs. In this study, the patch test reactions to the European Standard Battery and topical drugs used by the patients and medicament patch test results were evaluated. Results: Positive patch test reaction to one or more allergens was found in 80 (62.0% of 129 patients included in the study. Sixty-one of the 80 patients (61/129, 47.3% had positive patch test reaction to medicaments. Medicament sensitivity was detected in 37.9% (49/129 of subjects. Nitrofurazone was found to be the most common allergen (18.6%. Discussion: The present study showed that topical drugs are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, the probability of contact sensitivity to topical drugs should also be considered in patients with the clinical diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis and, suspected cases should be evaluated further with patch testing in order to find the responsible allergens.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to gamma-irradiated WEBCOL alcohol prep pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Elnaz F; Turnbull, Rowena K; Loomis, Cynthia A; Brownell, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to WEBCOL(®) alcohol prep pads in a healthy 17-year-old girl who showed no reaction to the individual components of the prep pads upon provocative use testing. Although several case reports have described allergic contact dermatitis to isopropyl alcohol, there have been no reports of allergic contact dermatitis to alcohol prep pads sterilized with gamma irradiation, a common sterilization technique capable of producing volatile products in this type of alcohol prep pad.

  3. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  4. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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    S. Hawkey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports’ material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  5. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis among construction workers in India

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    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the important occupational hazards in construction workers and it often leads to poor quality of life of the workers with substantial financial loss. However, this is often a neglected entity. There are no past studies on the construction workers in Indian subcontinent. Objective: This pilot study has been done to assess the allergological profile among the workers engaged in construction of roads and bridges. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among the workers working on construction of a bridge, flyover, and roads in West Bengal, India. Sixteen workers were selected on clinical suspicion. Ten were selected randomly and patch tested with Indian standard battery of patch test allergens. Analysis of reactions and relevance of positive test was assessed as per standard guidelines. Results: All the workers were men. Average age of workers was 24.8 years (range, 19-34 years. Dermatitis affected exposed parts in 93.75% and covered areas in 62.5%. Total positive test was 24 and relevant 11. Most common allergens were chromate (relevant allergy/RA: in 60% of patch tested workers, epoxy resin (RA: 30%, cobalt (RA: 20%, nickel (RA: 20%, thiuram mixture (RA: 10% and black rubber mix (RA: 10%. Two cases (20% had irritant contact dermatitis. Conclusion: The result indicated that chromate is the most frequent allergen among construction workers in this part of India. High frequency of involvement of the covered areas as well as the exposed areas highlighted the fact that the allergens had access to most body parts of the workers.

  6. Allergic Sensitization, Rhinitis and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in US Adults.

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    Josef Shargorodsky

    Full Text Available Tobacco exposure has been linked with sinonasal pathology and may be associated with allergic sensitization. This study evaluates the association between exposure to active smoking or secondhand smoke (SHS and the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization in the US adult population.Cross-sectional study in 4,339 adults aged 20-85 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Never smoking was defined as reported lifetime smoking less than 100 cigarettes and serum cotinine levels 10 ng/mL. Self-reported rhinitis was based on symptoms during the past 12 months, and allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to any of the 19 specific IgE antigens tested.Almost half of the population (43% had detectable levels of IgE specific to at least one inhaled allergen and 32% reported a history of rhinitis. After multivariate adjustment, there was a statistically significant association between the highest serum cotinine tertile and rhinitis in active smokers (OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.00-2.00. The association between active smoking and rhinitis was stronger in individuals without allergic sensitization (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.44-4.23. There was a statistically significant association between increasing cotinine tertiles and decreased odds of inhaled allergen sensitization (p-trend <.01.Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms, but not with allergic sensitization. The results indicate that the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and sinonasal pathology in adults may be independent of allergic sensitization.

  7. Induction of formaldehyde contact sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Vølund, A

    1985-01-01

    intradermal induction with 0.65% formaldehyde; in Stockholm it was 84% after induction with 0.34%. The data from the two laboratories could be described by parallel displaced dose response curves suggesting that the guinea pig strain used in Stockholm was significantly more susceptible to formaldehyde than......, and formaldehyde 1% and 0.1% was used for challenge. The incidence of contact sensitivity depended on the intradermal, but not on the topical induction dose. Statistical analyses showed a non-monotonous (non-linear) dose response relationship. The estimated maximal sensitization rate in Copenhagen was 80% after...

  8. Association between atopy and allergic contact dermatitis in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta

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    Fitria Retno Danarti Hardyanto Soebono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Association between atopy and development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD remains controversial. T cell disfunctions in a patient with atopy complicate the process of nickel sensitization. On the other, the decrease of the skin barrier function and overexpression of Langerhans cells in the patient facilitate the sensitization.  This study aimed to evaluate the association between atopy and incidence of nickel ACD. A case-control study was carried out in Allergic and Immunology Sub Department of Dermato-Venereology Policlinic, Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, involving 54 nickel ACD patients as case group and 74 healthy subjects as control group. All subjects underwent prick test allergens i.e. house dust, dust mite, cockroach, mixed fungi, nuts and egg white. The skin reaction was considered as a positive result if a wheal diameter of at least 3 mm larger than the negative control or a minimum of half of the positive control. The relationship between atopy and the nickel ACD incidence was analyzed using Chi-Square test with confidence interval (CI of 95%. A significant association between atopy and the nickel ACD incidence was observed in this study. Subjects with atopy to  ≥1 allergen had risk of nickel ACD 3.74 higher than subjects without atopy (odds ratio/OR=3.74; 95%CI = 1.64-8.53.  Furtheremore, subjects with atopy to  ≥2 allergens had risk of nickel ACD 3.74 higher than subjects without atopy (OR=2.08; 95%CI = 1.01-4.29. In conclusion, atopy is a risk factor of nickel ACD. Key words: atopy - allergic contact dermatitis - nickel allergy – prick test – allergen

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

  10. Allergic Diseases and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Inchul; Kim, Inah; Park, Hye Jung; Roh, Jaehoon; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a clinical syndrome representing multi-organ and psychological symptoms caused by chronic exposure to various chemicals in low concentrations. We evaluated the prevalence and related factors of MCS targeting Korean adults using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI©). Methods A total of 446 participants were recruited from Severance Hospital. Participants underwent a questionnaire interview including questions on sociodemographic factors, occupational and environmental factors, allergic diseases, and the QEESI©. Among them, 379 participants completed the questionnaire and the QEESI©. According to the QEESI© interpretation results, participants were divided into very suggestive (VS) group and less suggestive (LS) group. Results The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher in allergic patients than non-allergic participants (19.7% and 11.3%, respectively, P=0.04). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, ages of 30-39 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.25-6.95) and those of 40-49 (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.02-6.21) were significantly related to MCS compared to those aged less than 30 years. Female sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.18), experience of dwelling in a new house (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03), and atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04-3.69) were also significantly related to MCS. However, only age of 30-39 in the allergic group was significant in the stratified analysis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher among allergic patients than non-allergic participants. People with experience of dwelling in a new house and atopic dermatitis were more at risk of being intolerant to chemicals. Further studies to provide the nationally representative prevalence data and clarify risk factors and mechanisms of MCS are required. PMID:25228997

  11. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

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    Katsunori Yamaura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1, with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1% for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1% and betamethasone (0.01% significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.

  12. Mechanisms of chemical-induced innate immunity in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S F; Esser, P R; Weber, F C; Jakob, T; Freudenberg, M A; Schmidt, M; Goebeler, M

    2011-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most prevalent occupational skin diseases and causes severe and long-lasting health problems in the case of chronification. It is initiated by an innate inflammatory immune response to skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals that results in the priming of chemical-specific, skin-homing CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17 and CD4(+) Th1/Th17 cells. Following this sensitization step, T lymphocytes infiltrate the inflamed skin upon challenge with the same chemical. The T cells then exert cytotoxic function and secrete inflammatory mediators to produce an eczematous skin reaction. The recent characterization of the mechanisms underlying the innate inflammatory response has revealed that contact allergens activate innate effector mechanisms and signalling pathways that are also involved in anti-infectious immunity. This emerging analogy implies infection as a potential trigger or amplifier of the sensitization to contact allergens. Moreover, new mechanistic insights into the induction of ACD identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention. We summarize here the latest findings in this area of research.

  13. Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract induces allergic sensitization and allergic airway inflammation

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    Arizmendi Narcy G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization to aeroallergens develops in response to mucosal exposure to these allergens. Allergic sensitization may lead to the development of asthma, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The objective of this study is to describe in detail a model of mucosal exposure to cockroach allergens in the absence of an exogenous adjuvant. Methods Cockroach extract (CE was administered to mice intranasally (i.n. daily for 5 days, and 5 days later mice were challenged with CE for 4 consecutive days. A second group received CE i.n. for 3 weeks. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR was assessed 24 h after the last allergen exposure. Allergic airway inflammation was assessed by BAL and lung histology 48 h after the last allergen exposure. Antigen-specific antibodies were assessed in serum. Lungs were excised from mice from measurement of cytokines and chemokines in whole lung lysate. Results Mucosal exposure of Balb/c mice to cockroach extract induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, AHR and cockroach-specific IgG1; however, AHR to methacholine was absent in the long term group. Lung histology showed patchy, multicentric damage with inflammatory infiltrates at the airways in both groups. Lungs from mice from the short term group showed increased IL-4, CCL11, CXCL1 and CCL2 protein levels. IL4 and CXCL1 were also increased in the BAL of cockroach-sensitized mice in the short-term protocol. Conclusions Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract in the absence of adjuvant induces allergic airway sensitization characterized by AHR, the presence of Th2 cytokines in the lung and eosinophils in the airways.

  14. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  15. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-04-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the literature but an erythema multiforme-like presentation is rare.

  16. Myeloid differentiation-2 is a potential biomarker for the amplification process of allergic airway sensitization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Koyama

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest MD-2 is a critical regulator of the establishment of allergic airway sensitization to HDM in mice. Serum MD-2 may represent a potential biomarker for the amplification of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation.

  17. Update of immune events in the murine contact hypersensitivity model: toward the understanding of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tetsuya; Egawa, Gyohei; Grabbe, Stephan; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common skin diseases, consisting of sensitization and elicitation phases. With the advancement of technology and the discovery of new types of immune cells, our knowledge of the immunological mechanisms of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) as a murine model of ACD has expanded significantly in the past decade. For example, by introducing regulatory T cells, CD4(+) T-helper 17 cells, and Langerin-positive dermal dendritic cells, the initiation and termination mechanism of CHS has been revealed. In addition, the role of mast cells in CHS, long a matter of debate, has become apparent by developing conditional mast cell-deficient mice. Moreover, the role of the innate immunity system, such as that of Toll-like receptor signaling, has made a breakthrough in this field. In this review, we will integrate the recent advancement of immunological mechanisms of both the sensitization and elicitation phases of CHS into the classic view, and we will discuss updated mechanisms on its development and future directions.

  18. [The role of regulatory T cells in allergic contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecisz, Beata; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in the regulatory mechanisms of immune system. They are responsible for the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance. They are also involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and allergic diseases and implicated in transplant rejection and immunopathology of cancers. Treg cells constitute the population of lymphocytes heterogeneous in their phenotype. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells are most important among Treg subsets. Modification of Treg actvity may be useful in the therapy of different diseases, including allergic disorders.

  19. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnelykke, Klaus; Matheson, Melanie C.; Pers, Tune H.; Granell, Raquel; Strachan, David P.; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Linneberg, Allan; Curtin, John A.; Warrington, Nicole M.; Standl, Marie; Kerkhof, Marjan; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Bukvic, Blazenka K.; Kaakinen, Marika; Sleimann, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schramm, Katharina; Baltic, Svetlana; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Simpson, Angela; St Pourcain, Beate; Coin, Lachlan; Hui, Jennie; Walters, Eugene H.; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Duffy, David L.; Jones, Graham; Ring, Susan M.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Price, Loren; Robertson, Colin F.; Pekkanen, Juha; Tang, Clara S.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Montgomery, Grant W.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Husemoen, Lise L.; Herder, Christian; Kemp, John P.; Elliot, Paul; James, Alan; Waldenberger, Melanie; Abramson, Michael J.; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Knight, Julian C.; Gupta, Ramneek; Thompson, Philip J.; Holt, Patrick; Sly, Peter; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Blekic, Mario; Weidinger, Stephan; Hakonarsson, Hakon; Stefansson, Kari; Heinrich, Joachim; Postma, Dirkje S.; Custovic, Adnan; Pennell, Craig E.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Timpson, Nicholas; Ferreira, Manuel A.; Bisgaard, Hans; Henderson, A. John

    2013-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (present in allergic sensitization) has a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the t

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis in patients with atopic dermatitis: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronically relapsing dermatitis with no known cure. Due to the chronic nature of the condition, frequent and long term topical therapy is used. This may lead to sensitization, resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. AIMS: The aim of the study was to observe the frequency of ACD in atopic patients in this part of the country using Indian standard battery. METHODS: A total number of 30 cases of AD were taken for the study. Diagnosis of AD cases was based on the criteria of Hannifin and Rajka (1980. All the selected cases of AD had mild to moderate grade of severity. All these cases were treated and patch tested during the remission period. The duration of the study was 12 months. RESULTS: Out of the 30 AD cases, 7 cases showed positive ACD with patch test allergens. CONCLUSION: This study shows that ACD is not uncommon amongst atopic individuals.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from exotic woods: importance of patch-testing with patient-provided samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjasek, Joshua O; Cook-Norris, Robert H; Richardson, Donna M; Drage, Lisa A; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Exotic woods from tropical and subtropical regions (eg, from South America, south Asia, and Africa) frequently are used occupationally and recreationally by woodworkers and hobbyists. These exotic woods more commonly provoke irritant contact dermatitis reactions, but they also can provoke allergic contact dermatitis reactions. We report three patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to exotic woods. Patch testing was performed and included patient-provided wood samples. Avoidance of identified allergens was recommended. For all patients, the dermatitis cleared or improved after avoidance of the identified allergens. Clinicians must be aware of the potential for allergic contact dermatitis reactions to compounds in exotic woods. Patch testing should be performed with suspected woods for diagnostic confirmation and allowance of subsequent avoidance of the allergens.

  2. Two cases with nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia: a rare clinical form of allergic contact stomatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Esen; Babuna, Goncagül

    2011-03-15

    Allergic contact stomatitis (ACS) can occur with variable clinical presentations such as erythematous, erosive, and lichenoid forms. Burning mouth symptoms may also be a result of allergic contact stomatitis. Additionally, gingival hyperplasia has been reported in exceptional cases of ACS caused by dental metals. Here, two rare cases are presented of nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia with gingival and upper palatal involvement from metal-porcelain crowns and metal-acrylic upper denture, respectively. In both cases the diagnosis was made on the basis of the positive patch test results to nickel sulfate and the regression of the lesions after removing the nickel containing dental materials. Nickel-induced ACS should be borne in mind in every case of oral mucosal hyperplasia appearing after dental procedures, especially in the presence of previous allergies and sensitization risks such as ear piercing. It might be further suggested to include this variant within the clinical forms of ACS.

  3. Deodorants are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2011-01-01

    Fragrances frequently cause contact allergy, and cosmetic products are the main causes of fragrance contact allergy. As the various products have distinctive forms of application and composition of ingredients, some product groups are potentially more likely to play a part in allergic reactions...

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate after photodynamic therapy in 9 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohwy, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Sølvsten, Henrik; Sommerlund, Mette

    2007-11-01

    This report describes 9 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate used for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The risk of developing contact allergy to methyl aminolevulinate in PDT treated patients was calculated to 1% after an average of 7 treatments (range 2-21).

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) cream used in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Matthew J; Street, Gill; Gilmour, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Lesley E; Beck, Michael H

    2007-02-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used in the treatment of superficial skin malignancies including actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Contact allergy to the prodrug is rarely reported. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate cream used in PDT.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate after photodynamic therapy in 9 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Sølvsten, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    This report describes 9 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate used for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The risk of developing contact allergy to methyl aminolevulinate in PDT treated patients was calculated to 1% after an average of 7 treatments (range 2...

  7. Propylene glycol: an often unrecognized cause of allergic contact dermatitis in patients using topical corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jasser, M; Mebuke, N; de Gannes, G C

    2011-05-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is considered to be a ubiquitous formulary ingredient used in many personal care products and pharmaceutical preparations. It is an organic compound commonly found in topical corticosteroids (CS). Cutaneous reactions to PG are mostly irritant, but allergic contact dermatitis to PG is well-documented. Cosensitization to PG and topical CS can occur, making it challenging to choose the appropriate topical CS in a PG-allergic patient. This review is aimed at guiding clinicians in the selection of a suitable topical corticosteroid when presented with patients allergic to PG.

  8. Contact sensitivity in patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Masuda, Koji; Ueda, Sachiko; Nakamura, Naomi; Hotta, Eri; Hattori, Junko; Minamiyama, Rina; Yamazaki, Akiko; Katoh, Norito

    2015-07-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis are usually responsive to conventional treatment such as topical steroids; however, they are sometimes refractory to the treatment. The influence of contact sensitivities on the course of patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether contact sensitivities affect the course of patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. We evaluated 45 patients with atopic dermatitis who had failed conventional therapy. Patch testing was performed with the Japanese standard series, metal series and/or suspected items. A total of 15 patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one allergen. The most common allergens were nickel, topical drugs and rubber accelerators. Avoidance of products or food containing allergic substances greatly or partially improved skin symptoms in nine patients. These results suggest that contact allergens and metals may be critical factors causing eczematous lesions in patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis.

  9. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

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    Ruta Dubakiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558 established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers.

  10. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians.

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    Ingrida Šaulienė

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT, which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05. Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008. Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  11. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šaulienė, Ingrida; Greičiuvienė, Jūratė; Šukienė, Laura; Juškevičiūtė, Neringa; Benner, Christian; Zinkevičienė, Auksė; Ripatti, Samuli; Donner, Kati; Kainov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS) in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT), which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases) and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05). Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008). Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  13. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis: Three years retrospective results in Tekirdağ

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    Gamze Erfan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to allergens in individuals who were sensitized with same allergens before. The causative allergens may change in time as well as vary among geographical and population based differences. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of 169 patients-107 (63.3% male, 62 (36.7% female, who patch tested between 2011- 2014 with allergic contact dermatitis diagnosis and test results were retrospectively analysed. Results: The mean age of all patients who had the most frequent occupation as service sector/house wife (26.6% were 41.06 years and the mean disease duration of all patients was 19.5 months. The most frequent localization of disease was hands (n: 105,%73 and %50.3 of patients had positivity with at least one allergen. The most frequent seven allergens with positivity were nickel sulfate (n: 50, %29.6, cobalt chloride (n: 23, %13.6, potassium dichromate (n: 22, %13, sesquiterpene lactone mix (n: 18, %10.7, thiuram (n: 10, %5.9, clioquinol mix (n: 10, %5.9 and 4-tert-butilfenol formaldehyde resin (n: 10, %5.9, respectively. On the other hand in all patients there were no positivity with N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, epoxy resin, balsam of peru, formaldehyde, quaternium-15, primin, tixocortol-21-pivalate, fragrance mix-2. Conclusion: In comparison of this study which first reports patch test results of patients in Tekirdağ-a city in Trakya region and other studies that report patch test results of different regions of our country; the mean age of patients of present study were older and there were similar results for occupations and localization of disease in between eastern region and present study. We believe that further studies are needed to specify allergen characteristics of Trakya region using multicenter studies, which include other cities as well.

  14. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  15. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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    Kenichi Kumagai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  16. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

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    Sevim Baysak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient’s knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported.

  17. Targeted testing with diethylthiourea often reveals clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis caused by neoprene rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Anne B-H; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Diethylthiourea is widely used in the rubber industry, particularly in neoprene rubber, and may cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, as thiourea allergens are not part of the European baseline series, the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds......, and positive reactions were found in 15% (13/88). Thus, 15% (37/239) had positive patch test reactions to diethylthiourea, all with current clinical relevance and all strong. Conclusion. Clinical suspicion of neoprene rubber allergy and subsequent aimed patch testing with diethylthiourea give a high yield...

  18. The Prevalence and Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in Isparta, Turkey

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    Ayse Aynali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of allergic sensitization in Isparta. Material and Method: Of the patients, 266 were children, 213 were women, and 119 were men. Serum specific IgE levels were analyzed by %uFB02uoroenzymeimmunoassay method (UniCAP, Pharmacia and Upjohn Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden. Results: Serum specific IgE levels were positive in 27.1% of the adults and in 26.3% of the children. Hypersensitivity to allergens was determined in 32.9% of boys, in 16.7% of girls, in 40.3% of men, and in 19.7% of women. There was no difference in allergy prevalence in terms of age (p> 0.05. However, the prevalence of allergic sensitization in males was found significantly higher than in the females (p< 0.05. The most frequently encountered allergens were as follows: Ambrosia trifida(31.6 %, honey bee (31.2 %, elm (27.6 %, nuts (18.5 %, cow epithelium (17.4%, Acarus siro (11.5 %, and penicillin G (4.2 %. Discussion: It was determined that the rates of sensitization against grass and weed pollens, tree pollens, and foods were high in Isparta and they exhibited an increased tendency in males.

  19. Induction of allergic contact dermatitis by astigmatid mite-derived monoterpene, alpha-acaridial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Toshio; Hirano, Yunosuke; Maeda, Sayaka; Matsunaga, Isamu; Otsuka, Atsushi; Morita, Daisuke; Nishida, Ritsuo; Nakayama, Hideo; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Sugita, Masahiko; Mori, Naoki

    2008-10-24

    alpha-Acaridial [2(E)-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)butenedial] is a novel monoterpene secreted from the house dust mites. Because of its molecular nature of a highly reactive, small lipidic compound, we addressed whether alpha-acaridial might function as a haptenic allergen that induced allergic contact dermatitis. Mice sensitized with alpha-acaridial were challenged by the same antigen on the ear skin. After 2 days, significant ear swelling with a prominent infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes was observed. In vitro, alpha-acaridial exhibited an outstanding ability to quickly interact with and chemically modify a reference protein. Virtually all cysteine residues and a sizable fraction of lysine residues were found to be selectively modified, suggesting that alpha-acaridial could potentially interact with any proteins. Previously, numerous mite-derived proteinaceous allergens have been associated with contact dermatitis. Our study now emphasizes that small lipidic compounds released from mites comprise a new class of mite allergens, and therefore, is of significant medical implications.

  20. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from xanthates and carbamates in mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, Denis; Muhn, Channy Y; Al-Sowaidi, Mowza

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this article is to describe allergic contact dermatitis from sodium isopropyl xanthate, potassium amyl xanthate, and carbamates in a geotechnician, to discuss possible cross-reactions, and to report the widespread use of carbamates and mercaptobenzothiazole in mining processes.

  1. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate at a paint factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Thormann, Jens; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    3-Iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC) is a fungicide used in both industrial products and cosmetics. We report the first case of allergic contact dermatitis from airborne exposure to this preservative. A 34-year-old female production worker at a paint factory developed dermatitis on air...

  2. Innate and adaptive immune responses in allergic contact dermatitis and autoimmune skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edele, Fanny; Esser, Philipp R; Lass, Christian; Laszczyk, Melanie N; Oswald, Eva; Strüh, Christian M; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Martin, Stefan F

    2007-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is induced by chemicals or metal ions. A hallmark of this T cell mediated skin disease is the activation of the innate immune system by contact allergens. This immune response results in inflammation and is a prerequisite for the activation of the adaptive immune system with tissue-specific migration of effector and regulatory T cells. Recent studies have begun to address in detail the innate immune cells as well as the innate receptors on these cells and the associated signaling pathways which lead to skin inflammation. We review here recent findings regarding innate and adaptive immune responses and immune regulation of contact dermatitis and other skin diseases as well as recent developments towards an in vitro assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals. The elucidation of the innate inflammatory pathways, cellular components and mediators will help to identify new drug targets for more efficient treatment of allergic contact dermatitis and hopefully also for its prevention.

  3. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F

    1992-05-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  4. Occupational skin allergies: testing and treatment (the case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D Linn

    2014-02-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, including occupational allergic contact dermatitis, is one of the most common occupational diseases. Making a timely and accurate diagnosis is important to improving the outcome. Taking a work history and patch testing are essential elements in the diagnostic process. Management, based on an accurate diagnosis, must include both medical treatment to address the disease and workplace modifications as appropriate to reduce exposure the causative agents.

  5. Detection of contact hypersensitivity to corticosteroids in allergic contact dermatitis patients who do not respond to topical corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Gül, Ulker

    2005-08-01

    The delayed hypersensitivity development against topical corticosteroids which are used in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) treatment is an important clinical problem. In our study, 41 ACD patients who did not show any response to topical corticosteroid treatment were patch tested with corticosteroid series and the commercial preparations of corticosteroids and their vehicles. In corticosteroid series, there were budesonide, bethametasone-17-valerate, triamcinolone acetonide, tixocortol pivalate, alclomethasone-17-21-dipropionate, clobetasole-17-propionate, dexamethasone-21-phosphate disodium and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate. We detected positive reaction to corticosteroids in 9 of our cases (22%) (5 single and 4 multiple). The sensitivity was mostly produced by tixocortol pivalate (6 patients). This was followed by triamcinolone acetonide (2 patients) budesonide (2 patients), alclomethasone dipropionate (2 patients), dexamethasone 21 phosphate disodium (2 patients) and betamethasone-17-valerate (1 patient). As a result, it should not be forgotten that the corticosteroids used to treat ACD patients may cause ACD themselves. In ACD patients who did not respond to corticosteroid treatment, routinely applying patch test with corticosteroids should be helpful in directing the treatment.

  6. Predicting allergic contact dermatitis: a hierarchical structure activity relationship (SAR) approach to chemical classification using topological and quantum chemical descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Subhash C.; Mills, Denise; Hawkins, Douglas M.

    2008-06-01

    A hierarchical classification study was carried out based on a set of 70 chemicals—35 which produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 35 which do not. This approach was implemented using a regular ridge regression computer code, followed by conversion of regression output to binary data values. The hierarchical descriptor classes used in the modeling include topostructural (TS), topochemical (TC), and quantum chemical (QC), all of which are based solely on chemical structure. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity are reported. The model based on the TC descriptors was found to be the best, while the TS model was extremely poor.

  7. Metals Are Important Contact Sensitizers: An Experience from Lithuania

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    Kotryna Linauskienė

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metals are very frequent sensitizers causing contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis worldwide; up-to-date data based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of a problem. Objectives. In this retrospective study prevalence of contact allergy to metals (nickel, chromium, palladium, gold, cobalt, and titanium in Lithuania is analysed. Patients/Methods. Clinical and patch test data of 546 patients patch tested in 2014–2016, in Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, was analysed and compared with previously published data. Results. Almost third of tested patients (29.56% were sensitized to nickel. Younger women were more often sensitized to nickel than older ones (36% versus 22.8%, p=0.0011. Women were significantly more often sensitized to nickel than men (33% versus 6.1%, p<0.0001. Younger patients were more often sensitized to cobalt (11.6% versus 5.7%, p=0.0183. Sensitization to cobalt was related to sensitization to nickel (p<0.0001. Face dermatitis and oral discomfort were related to gold allergy (28% versus 6.9% dermatitis of other parts, p<0.0001. Older patients were patch test positive to gold(I sodium thiosulfate statistically significantly more often than younger ones (44.44% versus 21.21%, p=0.0281. Conclusions. Nickel, gold, cobalt, and chromium are leading metal sensitizers in Lithuania. Cobalt sensitization is often accompanied by sensitization to nickel. Sensitivity rate to palladium and nickel indicates possible cross-reactivity. No sensitization to titanium was found.

  8. Gene expression time course in the human skin during elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Genes involved in the inflammatory response resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are only partly known. In this study, we introduce the use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling in human skin during the elicitation of ACD. Skin biopsies from normal...... and nickel-exposed skin were obtained from seven nickel-allergic patients and five nonallergic controls at four different time points during elicitation of eczema. Each gene expression profile was analyzed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Cluster analysis of 74 genes found...

  9. The combined diagnosis of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in a retrospective cohort of 1000 consecutive patients with occupational contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferløv Schwensen, Jakob; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis is an accepted subdiagnosis for hand dermatitis, and it is often considered in a patient with contact dermatitis, a positive and relevant patch test result, and wet work exposure. We therefore hypothesize....... OBJECTIVES: To find the statistically expected number of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis cases in 1000 patients, and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. METHODS: One thousand consecutive patients with occupational contact dermatitis from a hospital unit in Denmark were...... assessed. RESULTS: The expected number of cases with the diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was 0.33%, as compared with the observed number of 6.4%. Females occupied in wet occupations were often diagnosed with combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis (p 

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from a paper mill slimicide containing 2-bromo-4'-hydroxyacetophenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-03-01

    Slimicides are biocidal products used in paper mills to inhibit the proliferation of slime-forming microorganisms that would otherwise spoil the paper products. A laboratory technician working at a paper mill had recurring dermatitis related to contact with the slimicide Busan 1130. We report the first case of allergic contact dermatitis from the slimicide Busan 1130. Diagnostic patch testing was performed with solutions of Busan 1130 and its active ingredient, 2-bromo-4'-hydroxyacetophenone (BHAP). Twenty-five controls were also tested. The patient showed a ++ reaction to 0.1% Busan 1130 aqueous solution and 0.01% BHAP in ethanol. All controls were negative. The patient had recurrent allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to BHAP contained in the slimicide Busan 1130.

  11. Influence of degree of specific allergic sensitivity on severity of rhinitis and asthma in Chinese allergic patients

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    Zhao Changqing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between sensitizations and severity of allergic diseases is controversial. Objective This study was to investigate the association between severity of asthma and rhinitis and degree of specific allergic sensitization in allergic patients in China. Method A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6304 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis from 4 regions of China. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire documenting their respiratory and allergic symptoms, their impact on sleep, daily activities, school and work. They also underwent skin prick tests with 13 common aeroallergens. Among the recruited subjects, 2268 provided blood samples for serum measurement of specific IgE (sIgE against 16 common aeroallergens. Results Significantly higher percentage of patients with moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis were sensitized to outdoor allergens while percentage of patients sensitized to indoor allergens was increased with increasing severity of asthma. Moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis was associated with the skin wheal size and the level of sIgE to Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisifolia (p Dermatophagoides (D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae (p Conclusions Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisifolia sensitizations are associated with the severity of intermittent rhinitis and D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae sensitizations are associated with increasing severity of asthma in China. Increase in number of allergens the patients are sensitized to may also increase the severity of rhinitis and asthma.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

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    Maria Quaranta

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14 to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Maria; Eyerich, Stefanie; Knapp, Bettina; Nasorri, Francesca; Scarponi, Claudia; Mattii, Martina; Garzorz, Natalie; Harlfinger, Anna T; Jaeger, Teresa; Grosber, Martine; Pennino, Davide; Mempel, Martin; Schnopp, Christina; Theis, Fabian J; Albanesi, Cristina; Cavani, Andrea; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Ring, Johannes; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14) to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  14. The allergens causing contact sensitization in textile industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Su

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Our aim was to determine the frequency of contact sensitization to textile materials and the most common textile allergens in patients who work in the textile industry and have been diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. Materials and Methods: Fifty textile industry workers, who attended our outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of ACD, between October 2005-December 2009, were enrolled in this study. While 50 patients were tested with the Thin layer-Rapid-Use-Epicutaneous (TRUE test, 36 patients were tested with the TRUE test and textile series allergen. The results were analyzed as percentage and statistically. Results: Of the 50 patients, 34 (68% were men, 16 (32% were women. The mean of the subjects was 37.4 years. In 38.8 of the patients in whom TRUE test and textile series allergens applied together, at least one allergic reaction was seen. Of the 36 patients applied textile series in addition to the TRUE test, 33.3% of patients had positive reaction to only textile allergens, 2.7% to only standard series allergens, and 2.7% of subjects had positive reaction to both textile series and standard series allergens. 76.9% of these reactions were to dyes, 15.3% to resins and 7.6% of them were to both of them. Disperse blue 106 (8.3%, acid red 359 (8.3% and disperse red 17 (5.5% were the most positive reaction seen dyes. 18% of 50 patients tested with TRUE test alone showed at least one positive reaction. The most common standard series allergens were nickel sulphate (6% and ethylenediamine dihydrocloride (6%. Both the relationship between atopy and contact sensitization and also the relationship with hand localization and contact sensitization to textile allergens were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In occupational textile dermatitis, contact sensitization is common and especially seen to disperse dyes. For the contact sensitization to textile materials, standard series allergens cannot be adequate in

  15. Cytokines and Langerhans cells in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, M L; Olasz, E; Jacob, S E

    2008-06-01

    Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a dendritic cell (DC)-dependent T-cell mediated cutaneous inflammatory reaction elicited by epicutaneous exposure to reactive chemicals, known as haptens, from cosmetic products or through environmental and occupational exposures. The best-studied haptens are low molecular weight chemicals (contact dermatitis. Haptens penetrate the skin and bind to self proteins to form complete antigens which are taken by antigen presenting cells to start a cascade of actions resulting in a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Larger molecules such as proteins induce response involving the humoral immune system. The environment at the time of antigen presentation affects the innate immune system which in turn influences the expression of CHS. The subsequent immunologic response (or lack thereof) is a result of complex interaction between both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. This interaction results in either an inflammatory immune response or tolerance.

  16. Extract of Rhus verniciflua Bark Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to regenerated oxidized cellulose contained in a matrix employed for wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Conserva, Anna; Angelini, Gianni

    2007-07-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old non-atopic woman with recurrent leg ulcers because of the factor V Leiden mutation who developed a severe eczematous lesions of the skin surrounding an ulcer of the right leg after the use of a protease-modulating matrix (Promogran, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, Skipton, UK). The patient was patch tested with the SIDAPA (Italian Society of Allergological, Occupational and Environmental Dermatology) standard series, a piece of the device as is, of the bovine collagen (Zyderm, Collagen Corporation, Palo Alto, CA, USA) as is, a piece of the gauze containing only regenerated oxidized cellulose (Tabotamp, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, North Yorkshire, UK) and of a fold towels in pure cellulose (Foscart, Bassano del Grappa, Italy). Patch tests gave a positive reactions to nickel sulphate and Promogran as is. We showed that the sensitizing agent was regenerated oxidized cellulose, a substance the treatment of ulcers and as is in and in combination with collagen in surgery for intraoperative hemostasis. The case reported suggests that regenerated oxidized cellulose can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

  18. A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON VICHARCHIKA VIS-À-VIS ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C Mythrey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is becoming a common skin problem all over the world. It accounts for about 4-7% of all dermatological problems. This is due to a delayed hypersensitivity reaction following contact with antigens. Hypersensitivity to chemicals appears to become a serious health problem for the general population, particularly in their work environment it will be the most incapacitating condition as a consequence of skin being exposed to chemical agents. Allergic contact dermatitis is characterized by erythema, scaling, edema, vesiculation and oozing. Itching varies from mild to severe. These features can be correlated with vicharchika. So in order to manage vicharchika in terms of Allergic contact dermatitis, a comparative study was done to evaluate the effect of virechana and shamanaushadhis. Group A was given virechana followed by shamanoushadhis i.e., Laghu sootashekara vati and Nava kwatha along with Manjishtadi taila for external application for 30days. Group B was given only shamanoushadhis for 30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by noting the prime lakshanas of vicharchika like shyava varna, pidaka, kandu and srava before and after the treatment and statistically analysed using student ‘t’ test. After treatment it is observed that, both shodhana chikitsa and shamana chikitsa have their own role in the management of vicharchika. Even statistically, both are having highly significant values within the individual groups. But when both shodhana and shamana treatment are statistically compared, they show no significant values which means that both are effective with no significant difference between them.

  19. Case of allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Atsuko; Ito, Akiko; Masui, Yukiko; Ito, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Butylene glycol (1,3-BG) is widely used in cosmetics, including low-irritant skin care products and topical medicaments, as an excellent and low-irritation humectant. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-BG. A 28-year-old woman suffered from an itchy erythematous eruption on her face. By 2 days of closed patch testing, her own cosmetics and many of the hypo-irritant skin care products showed positive results. A second patch testing showed positive reaction to 1,3-BG (1% and 5%). 1,3-BG was a common component in most of the products that had elicited a positive reaction in the first patch testing. Although allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-BG is not so common, we have to consider 1,3-BG as a possible contact allergen in the patients presenting with allergic contact dermatitis due to various cosmetics.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-01-02

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  2. The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bruze, M

    2001-01-01

    and was 15 days for the 0.05% solution. There was a highly significant correlation between the patients' patch test threshold and the number of days until a positive ROAT. In conclusion, the time until an isoeugenol allergic individual reacts in a ROAT depends on the individual sensitivity as well...

  3. IL-23 and T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To investigate T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human beings with allergic contact dermatitis; in particular, the innate response of keratinocytes to contact allergen, the induction of allergen-specific T(H)17 cells, and the presence of T(H)17-related effector cells in inflamed skin. METHODS......-term ex vivo assay. Nickel patch test lesions and normal skin were analyzed for the expression of T(H)17-related cells and molecules by using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Keratinocytes were found to produce IL-23, but no detectable IL-12, in a response to nickel stimulation. Memory T cells isolated from...... peripheral blood of individuals with nickel allergy, but not healthy controls, contained T(H)17 and T(H)1 cells proliferating in response to nickel-pulsed DCs. Inflamed skin of nickel-challenged allergic individuals contained infiltrating neutrophils and cells expressing IL-17, IL-22, CCR6, and IL-22R...

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to benzocaine: the importance of concomitant positive patch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Gutiérrez-Paredes, E M; Revert Fernández, Á; Jordá-Cuevas, E

    2013-03-01

    Local anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice, and adverse effects are not uncommon. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are among the most common effects, but immediate-type reactions may also occur. Patch testing should be considered in patients with hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to benzocaine that was detected incidentally by patch testing and highlight the importance of correctly interpreting patch test results when there are concomitant positive reactions.

  5. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the value of patch testing with dandelion (Compositae) extract in addition to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in selected patients. After we detected a case of contact erythema multiforme after patch testing with dandelion and common chickweed (Caryophyllaceae), additional testing with common chickweed extract was performed. A total of 235 adults with a mean age of 52.3 years were tested. There were 66 men and 169 women: 53 consecutive patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 43 with atopic dermatitis (AD); 90 non-atopics suffering from non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases; 49 healthy volunteers. All were tested with SL mix 0.1% petrolatum (pet.) and diethyl ether extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 0.1 and 3.0% pet. and from Stellaria media (common chickweed) 0.1 and 3% pet. A total of 14 individuals (5.9%) showed allergic reaction (AR) to at least 1 of the plant allergens, 4 (28.6%) to common chickweed extract, and 11 (78.6%) to Compositae allergens. These 11 persons made the overall prevalence of 4.7%: 8 (3.4%) were SL-positive and 3 (1.3%) reacted to dandelion extract. 5 persons (45.5%) had AD, 2 had ACD, 2 had psoriasis and 2 were healthy controls. The Compositae allergy was relevant in 8 cases (72.7%). The highest frequency of SL mix sensitivity (9.3%) was among those with AD. Half the SL mix-sensitive individuals had AD. ARs to dandelion extract were obtained only among patients with eczema. A total of 9 irritant reactions (IRs) in 9 individuals (3.8%) were recorded, 8 to SL mix and 1 to common chickweed extract 3.0% pet. No IR was recorded to dandelion extract (P = 0.007). Among those with relevant Compositae allergy, 50.0% had AR to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and colophonium. SLs were detected in dandelion but not in common chickweed. Our study confirmed the importance of 1 positive reaction for emerging, not fully established, Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall

  6. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.

  7. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact...

  8. Comparison of two in vitro dendritic cell maturation models for screening contact sensitizers using a panel of methacrylates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustemeyer, T.; Preuss, M; Blomberg - van der Flier, von B.M.E.; Das, PK; Scheper, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Allergen-induced emigration and maturation of dendritic cells (DC) are pivotal steps in sparking off allergic contact dermatitis. In vitro models, reflecting these steps, may provide tools for assessment of sensitizing capacities of putative contact allergens. Here, we evaluated the applicability of

  9. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper

    2011-06-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances. The aetiology is unknown, but chemical related respiratory symptoms have been found associated with positive patch test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened for chemical sensitivity with a standardised questionnaire dividing the participants into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity. Both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions--defined as irritative, follicular, or doubtful allergic reactions--were analysed in relationship with severity of chemical sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing and the two most severe groups of self-reported sensitivity to airborne chemicals. When adjusting for confounding, associations were weakened, and only non-allergic cutaneous reactions were significantly associated with individuals most severely affected by inhalation of airborne chemicals (odds ratio = 2.5, p = 0.006). Our results suggest that individuals with self-reported chemical sensitivity show increased non-allergic cutaneous reactions based on day 2 readings of patch tests.

  10. Gold--a controversial sensitizer. European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    for the questioning may have been confusion in differentiating between contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. To arrive at a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 steps have, in principle, to be fulfilled: (i) establishment of contact allergy; (ii) demonstration of present exposure; (iii) assessment...... of clinical relevance, i.e., causing or aggravating a contact dermatitis. In this paper, these steps are discussed with regard to gold. With our present knowledge of contact allergy-allergic contact dermatitis, we do not recommend including gold sodium thiosulfate in the standard series. It should be applied...... for scientific purposes and when allergic contact dermatitis from gold is suspected....

  11. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions.

  12. Black-spot poison ivy dermatitis. An acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon an allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D

    1984-08-01

    A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.

  13. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    the relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened...... for chemical sensitivity with a standardised questionnaire dividing the participants into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity. Both allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions--defined as irritative, follicular, or doubtful allergic reactions--were analysed in relationship with severity of chemical...... most severe groups of self-reported sensitivity to airborne chemicals. When adjusting for confounding, associations were weakened, and only non-allergic cutaneous reactions were significantly associated with individuals most severely affected by inhalation of airborne chemicals (odds ratio = 2.5, p = 0...

  14. Contact sensitivity and bioavailability of chlorocresol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Carlsen, L; Egsgaard, Helge

    1985-01-01

    Chlorocresol sensitization from 5 topical preparations was determined in guinea pigs using the cumulative contact enhancement test. Chlorocresol 5% in olive oil/acetone (4/1), and 5% in aqueous suspension stabilized with carbomer 941 were more sensitizing (55% and 60% of the animals positive......% of the chlorocresol in aqueous suspension permeated the skin in contrast to 34% and 35% of the chlorocresol in olive oil/acetone (4/1) and propylene glycol, respectively. In spite of the same amount of chlorocresol absorption from the 2 latter preparations, they showed a significant difference in sensitizing capacity...

  15. Contact Sensitivity and Bioavailability of Chlorocresol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn; Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Chlorocresol sensitization from 5 topical preparations was determined in guinea pigs using the cumulative contact enhancement test. Chlorocresol 5% in olive oil/acetone (4/1), and 5% in aqueous suspension stabilized with carbomer 941 were more sensitizing (55% and 60% of the animals positive......% of the chlorocresol in aqueous suspension permeated the skin in contrast to 34% and 35% of the chlorocresol in olive oil/acetone (4/1) and propylene glycol, respectively. In spite of the same amount of chlorocresol absorption from the 2 latter preparations, they showed a significant difference in sensitizing capacity...

  16. Toll-like receptor 3 increases allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naomi; Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Katoh, Norito

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in noninfectious inflammatory diseases, but the function of TLR3 in inflammatory skin diseases is unclear. We investigated the functions of TLR3 in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). The contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was lower in Toll-like receptor 3 knockout (Tlr3 KO) mice, and was greater in TLR3 transgenic (Tg) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after challenge with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene. Adoptive transfer of immunized lymph node cells from Tlr3 KO mice induced CHS in WT recipients. In contrast, adoptive transfer of those from WT mice did not fully induce CHS in Tlr3 KO recipients. The ICD reaction following croton oil application was lower in Tlr3 KO mice, and was greater in TLR3 Tg mice than in WT mice. Maturation, migration, and antigen presentation of dendritic cells and proliferation of lymphocytes between WT mice and Tlr3 KO mice were comparable. These results show that TLR3 enhances antigen-independent skin inflammation in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis and in ICD.

  17. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from epoxy resin in a golf club repairman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Möller, Halvor; Pontén, Ann

    2008-01-01

    A golfer presented with facial and hand eczema. He had exacerbations of his hand eczema prior to golf tournaments. Being an authorized golf club repairman, he had been working with a two-part glue containing an epoxy resin (ER) based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and the hardener diethylenetriamine (DETA) for approximately 4 years before he developed any skin problems. He was patch-tested with the standard, which contains an ER based on DGEBA (DGEBA-R), epoxy (containing DETA), and rubber glove series and had positive reactions to DGEBA-R only. Other work materials (a latex glove, a golf glove made of leather, and part of the handle of his own golf club "as is" and in a methyl tert-butyl ether extract) were tested, with negative results. Allergic contact dermatitis from ER affects the skin by direct contact; the dermatitis is usually localized to the hands and forearms. If the face and eyelids are involved, the dermatitis may be due to exposure to airborne hardeners or reactive diluents, exposure to airborne dust from residual monomers, or ectopic allergic reactions. Our repairman had sandpapered an old glued surface, which may have led to possible airborne dust formation, thus explaining the facial eczema. Therefore, a worker with contact allergy to ER may continue working provided the skin is protected from contamination.

  18. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  19. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Contact Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Api, Anne Marie; Belsito, Donald; Bickers, David;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Contact hypersensitivity quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients is being used to establish new international standards for all fragrance ingredients that are potential skin sensitizers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the retrospective clinical data...... on three fragrance ingredients in order to provide a practical assessment of the predictive value of the QRA approach. It is important to have data to assess that the methodology provides a robust approach for primary prevention of contact sensitization induction for fragrance ingredients identified...... as potential sensitizers. Methods: This article reviews clinical data for three fragrance ingredients cinnamic aldehyde, citral, and isoeugenol to assess the utility of the QRA approach for fragrance ingredients. Results: This assessment suggests that had the QRA approach been available at the time standards...

  20. Allergic Sensitization at School Age is a Systemic Low-grade Inflammatory Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L.; Stokholm, J.; Schoos, A.-M. M.

    2017-01-01

    not univariately associated with sensitization, but multiparametric PCA suggested a specific inflammatory response among sensitized children. Inflammatory markers at age 6 months were not associated with subsequent development of sensitization phenotypes. Conclusions Elevated hs-CRP is associated with allergic...... allergic sensitization. Methods High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective...... Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) birth cohort. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant and food allergens was determined longitudinally at ages ½, 1½, 4 and 6 years by specific IgE assessments and skin prick tests. Associations between inflammatory biomarkers and sensitization...

  1. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis: an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    in a double-blind, randomized repeated open application test (ROAT) using two coded liquid soaps with and without MDBGN. Areas of 50 cm2 on the lower arms were washed with the soaps twice a day for up to 28 days; two of the subjects continued for 34 days. The subjects were also patch tested with a dilution...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...

  2. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in adolescents: prevalence measures and associations. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence measures of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark, and to examine the associations with atopic dermatitis, inhalant allergy and hand eczema. Contact...... allergy to a standard series allergen was found in 15.2% of schoolchildren. The point prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis was 0.7% and the lifetime prevalence 7.2%, predominantly in girls. The most common contact allergens were nickel (8.6%) and fragrance mix (1.8%). Nickel allergy was clinically...... relevant in 69% and fragrance allergy in 29% of cases. A significant association was found between contact allergy and hand eczema while no association was found between contact allergy and atopic dermatitis or inhalant allergy. In the future this cohort of schoolchildren will be followed with regard...

  3. Pustular psoriasis and the Kobner phenomenon caused by allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Ho-Sun; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kwon, Kyung-Sool

    2005-03-01

    Zinc pyrithione is a shampoo ingredient that has been shown to be safe and effective for dandruff and scalp psoriasis. It is thought to decrease the cell turnover rate in hyperproliferative dermatoses such as psoriasis, and also has fungistatic and antimicrobial activity, although its exact mode of action is unknown. In psoriasis, external factors, such as trauma, infection and drugs, may provoke aggravated manifestations of psoriatic skin lesions. Rarely, irritant or allergic mechanisms are likely causes of psoriatic flare and Kobnerization. A patient had had stable psoriasis for 25 years and no any other skin disease. Within 20 days, she developed an aggravated scaly erythematous patch on the scalp, where a shampoo had been applied, and simultaneously developed pustular psoriasis on both forearms. Patch testing showed a relevant sensitization to zinc pyrithione, and we observed symptomatic aggravation by provocation testing with zinc pyrithione shampoo. We report a rare case of psoriasis aggravated by the induction of allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione after using antidandruff shampoo.

  4. Dermal Wound Fibroblasts and Matrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs: Their Possible Role in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine if allergic contact dermatitis (ACD alters the expression of MMPs in human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are the primary source for MMP and matrix production in skin. MMPs are known to involve in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Some published data indicated a gelatinase-like activity in acute and chronic phases of allergic contact dermatitis. However, no exact source of gelatinase activity was demonstrated. Moreover, little is known about the role of MMPs in immune responses.To study and predict the pathophysiological effects of (MMP-2 in allergic contact dermatitic (ACD patients, we established an in vitro tissue culture survey based on fibroblast explanted from ACD wounds and normal tissues respectively. We also employed a precise proliferation assay [i.e. MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] to analyze and compare three ACD vs. three normal cell strains. Parallel to MTT assay, we assessed the activity as well as the kinetics of gelatinase (MMP-2 in conditioned media using a zymogeraphy analysis. There was a significant difference in proliferation capacity between mean ACD fibroblast strains vs. mean normal cells, particularly in days 6 to 8 post explantation, 492.5±6.6 vs. 361.75±8.25 respectively. Zymoanalyses indicated significant differences between ACD cells and normal fibroblasts both in time-course and MMP-2 activity per cell fashions, 163.7±16.21 for mean ACD fibroblasts vs. 130±9.09 for normal cells respectively. These data suggest that fibroblasts overproliferated in the process of ACD.  Moreover, simultaneous overexpression of MMPs observed in ACD fibroblasts vs. normal strains, is indicative of altered fibroblast functionality in the process of allergic contactdermatitis. The activity per cell analysis showed that MMP-2 expression in ACD fibroblasts is independent of cell number, suggesting that either intra- or inter-cellular control

  5. Dermal Wound Fibroblasts and Matrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs): Their Possible Role in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Falak, Reza; Pezeshki, Mohammad; Safavifar, Farnaz; Mansouri, Parvin; Ghahary, Aziz; Saadat, Farshid; Varshokar, Kamran

    2004-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine if allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) alters the expression of MMPs in human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are the primary source for MMP and matrix production in skin. MMPs are known to involve in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Some published data indicated a gelatinase-like activity in acute and chronic phases of allergic contact dermatitis. However, no exact source of gelatinase activity was demonstrated. Moreover, little is known about the role of MMPs in immune responses.To study and predict the pathophysiological effects of (MMP-2) in allergic contact dermatitic (ACD) patients, we established an in vitro tissue culture survey based on fibroblast explanted from ACD wounds and normal tissues respectively. We also employed a precise proliferation assay [i.e. MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] to analyze and compare three ACD vs. three normal cell strains. Parallel to MTT assay, we assessed the activity as well as the kinetics of gelatinase (MMP-2) in conditioned media using a zymogeraphy analysis. There was a significant difference in proliferation capacity between mean ACD fibroblast strains vs. mean normal cells, particularly in days 6 to 8 post explantation, 492.5+/-6.6 vs. 361.75+/-8.25 respectively. Zymoanalyses indicated significant differences between ACD cells and normal fibroblasts both in time-course and MMP-2 activity per cell fashions, 163.7+/-16.21 for mean ACD fibroblasts vs. 130+/-9.09 for normal cells respectively. These data suggest that fibroblasts overproliferated in the process of ACD. Moreover, simultaneous overexpression of MMPs observed in ACD fibroblasts vs. normal strains, is indicative of altered fibroblast functionality in the process of allergic contactdermatitis. The activity per cell analysis showed that MMP-2 expression in ACD fibroblasts is independent of cell number, suggesting that either intra- or inter-cellular control signals are also

  6. Dental allergic contact dermatitis: an interesting case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, Carly; Pratt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    When patients have persistent oral complaints, it is important to consider allergic contact dermatitis to dental components. We present 3 cases seen at the Ottawa Hospital Patch Test Clinic between 2007 and 2009 with persistent oral lesions. Mercury, methacrylate, and beryllium were found to be the responsible allergens after patch testing. Of note, our case is the fourth reported dental contact dermatitis case to beryllium. Subsequently, a literature review and an examination of reported cases and management strategies were done. There is debate over the necessity of changing dental work after a positive patch-test result. We conclude that it is necessary to do your best to uncover all of the materials used in dental work. Often, material safety sheets do not include all allergens present in products. We advocate that if a positive reaction is found and deemed relevant, then appropriate replacement of the offending agent should be recommended.

  7. Allergic contact sensitization in an adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;

    2001-01-01

    In 1990 and 1998 15-41-year-old people were patch-tested in 2 cross-sectional studies of random samples of the population in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. In 1990, 290 subjects and in 1998, 469 subjects were patch-tested. The participation rates were 69% and 51%, respectively...

  8. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P; McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are both common skin diseases having an immune pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest about their inter-relationships with regard to altered susceptibility. Recent investigations have shed new light on this important question, and in this article, we explore whether there is evidence that atopic dermatitis affects the risk of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The use of topical products to treat xerotic and inflamed skin in atopic dermatitis often results in a higher prevalence of sensitization to, for example, fragrances and other ingredients in emollients. Moreover, the prevalence of metal allergy seems to be increased, probably due to compromised chelation of the metals in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, conversely, the T-helper cell 2 bias that characterizes immune responses in atopic dermatitis appears to lower the risk of contact sensitization compared to healthy controls. Based on these observations, we conclude that multiple factors affect the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization, and that these need to be appreciated in the clinical management of atopic dermatitis patients.

  9. Contact sensitivity in palmar hyperkeratotic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minocha Y

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available 230 patients presenting with palmar hyperkeratotic dermatitis were investigated by patch tests against various antigens depending upon occupation of the patients. Contact sensitivity was detected in 130 patients comprising of housewives (55, businessmen (20, farmers (15, teachers / clerks / students (13, doctors and nurses (9, factory workers and labourers (8, massons (7 and motor mechanics (3. Vegetables were found to be the most common agents followed by detergents and metals predominantly affecting housewives. Among the vegetables, garlic and onion were the most potent sensitizers whereas nickel was a common sensitizer among metals. Occupational factors were seen to have some influence in relation to the causative agents as indicated by higher positivity of vegetables in housewives; detergents, metals, rubber, leather, plastics in businessmen, teachers, clerks and students; fertilizers or animal foods in farmers; drugs in doctors and nurses and chromium and cobalt in massons.

  10. Occupational allergic airbone contact dermatitis and delayed bronchial asthma from epoxy resin revealed by bronchial provocation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H; Jolanki, R

    2000-08-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resins belong to the most common causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. DGEBA has on rare occasions caused occupational asthma. Here we present a patient who first developed occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by a single accidental exposure to DGEBA. Then, on continued occupational exposure to DGEBA, the patient developed occupational asthma from DGEBA, in addition to ACD. A bronchial provocation test with DGEBA caused a 36% drop in the peak expiratory flow, reflecting a delayed type of occupational asthma. This bronchial provocation test caused a strong dermatitis of the exposed skin of the face, in accordance with airborne ACD from DGEBA.

  11. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers.

  12. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  13. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  14. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  15. IL-31 and IL-33 circulating levels in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, F; Minciullo, P L; Mannucci, C; Calapai, F; Saitta, S; Cannavò, S P; Gangemi, S

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced IL-31 expression in skin biopsies is present in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). IL-33 expression is induced in keratinocytes and in skin of ACD patients. This overexpression is present in both allergic and irritant conditions. The aim of this work was to test the systemic involvement of IL-31 and IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls. IL-33 serum levels, on the contrary, were similar in patients and controls. This work shows a possible systemic involvement of IL-31 and the absence of a systemic involvement of IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels do not seem related to the allergen involved, and did not change on the strength of the allergen involved. More likely, IL-31 levels are related to the itch. IL-33, instead, is secreted from damaged or inflamed tissue and might function as an early warning system at the site of skin damage. In the future, IL-31 could be a possible therapeutic target of all pruritic skin diseases resistant to conventional therapies.

  16. Acrylate-induced allergic contact dermatitis in a car windscreen repairer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremlin, G; Sansom, J

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an allergic skin reaction to ultraviolet-cured acrylates in a windscreen repair worker. The patient presented with a 6 month history of fingertip dryness, vesicles and desquamation. He had worked as a self-employed car windscreen repairer for 19 years. Previous management with vinyl glove protection and treatment with clobetasol propionate ointment had produced little improvement. He was patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard and preservatives series and to the two acrylates used in his work environment, identified using safety data sheets, methyl methacrylate 2% pet and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) 2% pet. A positive reaction was seen at Day 4 to 2-HEMA, but all other patch tests were negative. An occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2-HEMA was diagnosed. The patient was given avoidance advice and advised to use nitrile gloves. Although he was unable to give up his current work, he has continued his job using nitrile gloves with marked improvement.

  17. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, J M; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are common in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological knowledge is sparse for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis in this age group. Furthermore, no population-based studies have evaluated the prevalence of atopic diseases and hand and contact...... or past allergic contact dermatitis was found in 7.2% (girls 11.3% vs. boys 2.5%). Contact allergy was most common to nickel (8.6%) and fragrance mix (1.8%). CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence figures were found for atopic diseases, hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis, and the diseases were closely...

  18. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in children - a review of current data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    of ACD in children seems to be increasing. In 1999, a review of the literature reported prevalence rates of 14.5-70% in selected paediatric populations. The current paper reviews the studies on the prevalence of positive patch test reactions and ACD in the paediatric population during the past decade...... reactions. Children with atopic dermatitis are as frequently sensitized as children with no history of atopic dermatitis, and there are no differences associated with sex. Children and adults can be tested with equal concentrations of patch test allergens. Our findings may support the notion...

  19. Two-year follow-up survey of patients with allergic contact dermatitis from an occupational cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring; Carøe, T K; Thomsen, S F;

    2014-01-01

    to rubber chemicals and latex (ubiquitous allergens) and epoxy (nonubiquitous allergen), 2 years after recognition of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: From a cohort of all patients recognized as having occupational dermatitis by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries in 2010, 199...

  20. Allergic contact stomatitis from bisphenol-a-glycidyl dimethacrylate during application of composite restorations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Dexton A; Hemaraj, Sajna; Varoli, Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins have revolutionized the field of esthetic dentistry. They are safe to use and usually do not cause any untoward reactions. Allergies to composites are rare, but they do occasionally occur as patients are briefly exposed to the resin before it is polymerized and becomes non-allergenic. Here, we present a case of allergic contact stomatitis due to bis-GMA.

  1. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens.

  3. Absence of contact sensitization to Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, N; Issa, A; Hawranek, T; Schuster, C; Aberer, W; Kofler, H; Fritsch, P; Hausen, B M

    2005-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used as a cosmetic and medical remedy since ancient times and has gained increasing popularity in recent years. Despite its widespread use, reports of allergic reactions are rare. We patch tested 702 consecutive patients with an oily extract from the leaves, Aloe pulvis from the entire plant and concentrated Aloe vera gel. A specially designed questionnaire was used for the use of Aloe vera, reasons and location of application, adverse reactions, occupation, hobbies and atopy. None of the subjects showed any reaction to one of the preparations. 2 components of the plant have to be distinguished: the bark of the leaves contains anthrachinones with pro-peristaltic and potential antibiotic and anticancer properties. Constraints have been imposed due to their considerable toxic potential. Today, mostly the Aloe gel from the center of the leaves is processed. It almost exclusively consists of carbohydrates to which also many medical effects have been attributed. Carbohydrates are not likely to induce contact sensitization, which might explain the outcome of our study. However, this does not justify unrestrained promotion of Aloe products, as scientific studies investigating the claims on its constitutional effects are few in number, and the majority of them have been unable to diminish the intuitive scepticism against miracle cures, like Aloe seems to be.

  4. Assessment of sensitization to insect aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd City, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The  frequency of  allergic diseases such  as allergic rhinitis is considerable in general population. Insect aeroallergens are important allergens which can induce airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to insect aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Yazd as a desert city in Iran.A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 95 allergic rhinitis patients who were referred to allergy clinic of Yazd city. Skin prick tests (SPT by standard extracts of three insect aeroallergens including Mosquito,  Corn  moth,  Cockroach  and  two  species of  mites  as common  aeroallergens in allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoid  Farina, Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus were done.SPT results showed that the most common insect aeroallergens were: mosquito (32.6% followed by corn  moth  (26.3% and cockroach (13.7%.The prevalence of SPT positive response to Dermatophagoid Peteronysinus, Dermatophagoid Farina were 8.4% and 7.4%, respectively. These  results  demonstrated  that  sensitization  to  insect  aeroallergens was significantly more common compared to mites in patients with allergic rhinitis in Yazd city, a city surrounded by deserts.High prevalence of skin reactivity to mosquito and corn moth as insect aeroallergens in Yazd city with hot and dry climate in contrast to humid regions such as north of Iran, where mites are more frequent, indicates differences in the prevalence of aeroallergen reactivity in various areas with different climates. Our  study could highlight the importance of insect aeroallergens for clinicians for better  diagnosis and management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

  5. Routes of allergic sensitization and myeloid cell IKKβ differentially regulate antibody responses and allergic airway inflammation in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnegarde-Bernard, Astrid; Jee, Junbae; Fial, Michael J; Steiner, Haley; DiBartola, Stephanie; Davis, Ian C; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Tomé, Daniel; Boyaka, Prosper N

    2014-01-01

    Gender influences the incidence and/or the severity of several diseases and evidence suggests a higher rate of allergy and asthma among women. Most experimental models of allergy use mice sensitized via the parenteral route despite the fact that the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major sites of allergic sensitization and/or allergic responses. We analyzed allergen-specific Ab responses in mice sensitized either by gavage or intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin together with cholera toxin as adjuvant, as well as allergic inflammation and lung functions following subsequent nasal challenge with the allergen. Female mice sensitized intraperitoneally exhibited higher levels of serum IgE than their male counterparts. After nasal allergen challenge, these female mice expressed higher Th2 responses and associated inflammation in the lung than males. On the other hand, male and female mice sensitized orally developed the same levels of allergen-specific Ab responses and similar levels of lung inflammation after allergen challenge. Interestingly, the difference in allergen-specific Ab responses between male and female mice sensitized by the intraperitoneal route was abolished in IKKβΔMye mice, which lack IKKβ in myeloid cells. In summary, the oral or systemic route of allergic sensitization and IKKβ signaling in myeloid cells regulate how the gender influences allergen-specific responses and lung allergic inflammation.

  6. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in Yozgat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen Özel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Patch testing is valuable in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD as well as in determining the causative agent and thus is helpful in prevention of the disease and also provides information for the patient Material and Method: Hundred and sixty-eight patients (94 female and 74 male with ACD were patch tested with European standard series. Patch test result were assessed according to suggestion of International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application. Results: Of the patients, 64.3% were between 16-45 years of age and majority of the lesions (57.1% were localized on the hands. A total of 86 (51.1% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (20.2% followed by potassium dichromate (8.3%, cobalt chloride (7.1%, fragrance mix (7.1%, paraphenylendiamine base (6%, paraben mix 3.6%, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (3.6%, wool alcohols (3.6%, formaldehyde (3.6%, quaternium-15 (3.6%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to neomycin sulfate, epoxy resin, 4-tert-butylphenolformaldehyde resin, sesquiterpenelactone mix, primin, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-1, budesonide, lyral were relatively low (1.2%, while no positive reaction was obtained to clioquinol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile in any case. Conclusion: Since no similar study has been previously performed in our area, this study provides information about contact allergen profile in patients underwent skin patch test with a diagnosis of AKD at Yozgat. The most frequent allergens detected with ASS and frequency rates may vary among different facilities at various cities of Turkey. A standard series for our country may be created after assessment of regional variability by new studies conducted in same time zone.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  8. Histamine suppresses regulatory T cells mediated by TGF-β in murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaka, Kyoko; Seike, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Tamio; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress effector T cells and ameliorate contact hypersensitivity (CH); however, the role of Tregs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) has not been assessed. Repeated elicitation of CH has been used to produce CACD models in mice. We previously showed that the presence of histamine facilitates the creation of eczematous lesions in this model using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) (-/-) mice. Therefore, the effects of histamine on Tregs in the CACD model were investigated in this study. CACD was developed by repeated epicutaneous application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) murine skin to assess the effects of histamine in CACD. Histamine aggravated CACD in the murine model and suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin. Histamine also suppressed the level of TGF-β1 in this model. Recombinant TGF-β1 or anti-TGF-β1 antibody was injected into the dorsal dermis of HDC (+/+) mice daily just before TNCB challenge to determine the effects of histamine-regulated TGF-β on the Treg population in CACD. Recombinant TGF-β1 injection promoted the infiltration of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10; however, anti-TGF-β1 antibody injection suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10. Histamine suppresses the number of Tregs in CACD, and this effect is mediated by TGF-β.

  9. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Mundhenk, Lars; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Lademann, Jürgen; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.

  10. Allergic sensitization is associated with inadequate anti-oxidant responses in mice and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsch, Lara; Folisi, Caterina; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Logiantara, Adrian; van de Pol, Marianne A; van der Zee, Jaring S; Krop, Esmeralda J M; Lutter, René; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergies arise from aberrant Th2 responses to allergens. The processes involved in the genesis of allergic sensitization remain elusive. Some allergens such as derived from house dust mites, have proteolytic activity which can induce oxidative stress in vivo. A reduced capacity of the h

  11. Allergic sensitization enhances the contribution of Rho-kinase to airway smooth muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, D.; Gosens, Reinout; Bos, I.S.T.; Meurs, Herman; Zaagsma, Hans; Nelemans, Herman

    2004-01-01

    1 Repeated allergen challenge has been shown to increase the role of Rho-kinase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. We considered the possibility that active allergic sensitization by itself, that is, without subsequent allergen exposure, could be sufficient to enhance Rho-kinase-mediated ASM

  12. Meta-analysis of air pollution exposure association with allergic sensitization in European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruzieva, Olena; Gehring, Ulrike; Aalberse, Rob; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Behrendt, Heidrun; Bellander, Tom; Birk, Matthias; de Jongste, Johan C.; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoek, Gerard; Kluemper, Claudia; Koppelman, Gerard; Korek, Michal; Kraemer, Ursula; Lindley, Sarah; Moelter, Anna; Simpson, Angela; Standl, Marie; van Hage, Marianne; von Berg, Andrea; Wijga, Alet; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the long-term effects of air pollution exposure on childhood allergy is limited. Objective: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and allergic sensitization to common allergens in children followed prospectively during the first 10 years of life. Meth

  13. Allergic sensitization at school age is a systemic low-grade inflammatory disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L. K.; Stokholm, J.; Malby-Schoos, A.-M.;

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation has been demonstrated in a range of the frequent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as a possible shared mechanism, but is largely unexplored in relation to allergic sensitization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible association between systemic low-grade...

  14. Molecular aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to plants. Recent progress in phytodermatochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benezra, C; Ducombs, G

    1987-01-01

    A classification of plants based on the chemical structures of their skin sensitizers is presented. A whole range of chemical structures of contact sensitizers exists in plants containing sesquiterpene lactones (Compositae, Frullania, Lauraceae etc.), tulipalin (Tulipa, Alstroemeria etc.), quinones (Primula and tropical woods), long chain phenols (Anacardiaceae, Ginkgoaceae) and miscellaneous structures such as aldehydes, ketones, terpene hydrocarbons etc. Knowledge of allergens in various plants allows prediction of cross-reactivity.

  15. Contact sensitizers induce skin inflammation via ROS production and hyaluronic acid degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp R Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vitro and in vivo ROS production using fluorescent ROS detection reagents. HA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis. The influence of blocking ROS production and HA degradation by antioxidants, hyaluronidase-inhibitor or p38 MAPK inhibitor was analyzed in the murine CHS model. Here, we demonstrate that organic contact sensitizers induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a concomitant breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM component hyaluronic acid (HA to pro-inflammatory low molecular weight fragments in the skin. Importantly, inhibition of either ROS-mediated or enzymatic HA breakdown prevents sensitization as well as elicitation of CHS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data identify an indirect mechanism of contact sensitizer induced innate inflammatory signaling involving the breakdown of the ECM and generation of endogenous danger signals. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for anti-oxidants and hyaluronidase inhibitors in prevention and treatment of ACD.

  16. The Danish urban-rural gradient of allergic sensitization and disease in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, G; Linneberg, A; Husemoen, L L N;

    2016-01-01

    allergens also decreased with decreasing degree of urbanized upbringing measured by sIgE to 4 common allergens as odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals with city as reference; town 0.60 (0.39-0.92), rural area 0.34 (0.22-0.52) and farm 0.31 (0.21-0.46). Furthermore, it was measured by SPT to 10 common...... allergens; town 0.52 (0.33-0.84), rural area 0.34 (0.21-0.53) and farm 0.29 (0.19-0.45). This urban-rural association was also seen for the risk of sensitization to specific allergens, rhinitis and allergic asthma. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show an urban-rural gradient of overall allergic......BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of allergic sensitization among children is lower in rural areas than in urban areas of the world. The aim was to investigate the urban-rural differences of allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens in adults depending on childhood exposure living...

  17. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  19. Clinico-allergological pattern of allergic contact dermatitis among 70 Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization, westernization of lifestyles, poor quality of objects available and extremely relaxed vigilance on adherence to ′product safety guidelines′ make any developing country like India highly susceptible to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD even in children. There has been no previous attempts to assess the magnitude of childhood ACD in India. Aims: To assess the clinico-allergological profile of ACD in Indian children. Methods: All consecutive children up to 15 completed years of age who were patch tested over the last 3 years were analyzed from the records. Results: A total of 70 children were studied (average age of disease onset 8.39±3.59 years [SD], range 1-15 years and average age of presentation 10.8 ± 2.99 years [SD], range 5-15 years. Relevant allergy was noted in 48.6% of the patients. Age and sex had no significant role on the prevalence of ACD. Common allergens were paraben (43%, potassium dichromate (27% and fragrance mix (26%. Most relevant allergens were potassium dichromate, paraben and fragrance. Foot was the most commonly involved site (25.7% of patients. Atopy was present in 18 patients (25.7%. A total of 22 irritant reactions were noted in 13 patients. Conclusion: This study reflects the current status of childhood ACD of this region.

  20. Caged fluorescent haptens reveal the generation of cryptic epitopes in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Carl; Andersson, Sofia I; Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Bergström, Jörgen; Bauer, Brigitte; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Ericson, Marica B; Broo, Kerstin S

    2011-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most prevalent form of human immunotoxicity. It is caused by skin exposure to haptens, i.e., protein-reactive, low-molecular-weight chemical compounds, which form hapten-protein complexes (HPCs) in the skin, triggering the immune system. These immunogenic HPCs are elusive. In this study a series of thiol-reactive caged fluorescent haptens, i.e., bromobimanes, were deployed in combination with two-photon fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and proteomics to identify possible hapten targets in proteins in human skin. Key targets found were the basal keratinocytes and the keratins K5 and K14. Particularly, cysteine 54 of K5 was found to be haptenated by the bromobimanes. In addition, elevated levels of anti-keratin antibodies were found in the sera of mice exposed to bromobimanes in vivo. The results indicate a general mechanism in which thiol-reactive haptens generate cryptic epitopes normally concealed from the immune system. In addition, keratinocytes and keratin seem to have an important role in the mechanism behind ACD, which is a subject for further investigations.

  1. Non-allergic cutaneous reactions in airborne chemical sensitivity--a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan;

    2011-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances. The aetiology is unknown, but chemical related respiratory symptoms have been found associated with positive patch test. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between cutaneous reactions from patch testing and self-reported severity of chemical sensitivity to common airborne chemicals. A total of 3460 individuals participating in a general health examination, Health 2006, were patch tested with allergens from the European standard series and screened...... sensitivity. Associations were controlled for the possible confounding effects of sex, age, asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psychological and social factors, and smoking habits. In unadjusted analyses we found associations between allergic and non-allergic cutaneous reactions on patch testing and the two...

  2. B-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal sensitization and promotes steroid-resistant TH2/TH17 responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundAllergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the mechanism by which fun...

  3. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment. Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M: F 47:33 consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet. Results: 54 Fifty-four (M: F 21:33 patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71% patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use.

  4. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takuma, E-mail: katotaku@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Wang, Linan [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kuribayashi, Kagemasa [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  5. Ultrastructural studies of allergic contact dermatitis in man. Infiltrating cells at the earliest phase of spongiotic bulla formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, J; Oguchi, M; Aoshima, T; Ofuji, S

    1980-01-01

    The kind and fine structure of mononuclear cells appearing in the epidermis at about 6 h of allergic contact dermatitis were examined by electron microscopy. They were monocytes and lymphocytes, the number being about equal. The ultrastructure of monocytes was that described for normal ones in blood, and apparently actively moving, streching the intercellular connections of the keratinocytes. Lymphocytes displayed a round or oval nucleus with some electron-dense cytoplasm which contained ribosomes and polysomes but only occasional mitochondria and Golgi complexes.

  6. Contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps and detergents , ...

  7. 变应性接触性皮炎的免疫机制%Immune Mechanism of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏若尧; 赵作涛; 陈天成; 刁颖; 李挚; 高虹; 孙劲旅

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis ( ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity which is mediated by hapten-specific T cell.The pathogenesis of ACD is divided into sensitization and elicitation phases.The first contact of skin with haptens lead to binding of the hapten to endogenous proteins in skin, forming immunogenic hapten-carrier complexes in sensitization phase.The hapten-carrier complex is captured by antigen-presenting cells ( APCs) , which migrate from the epidermis to lymph node.The haptenated peptides is presented to naive T cells which are activated subsequently.The newly activated T cells proliferate and migrate into circulation from the lymph node.Re-exposure of the skin to the hapten activates the specific T cells in the dermis and produces various chemical mediators, which induce antigen-specific inflammation in elicitation phase.Molecular and cellular pathways in the pathogenesis of ACD, progress and novel knowledge of other cell such as B1 cells, natural killer ( NK) T cells and NK cells involved in ACD were summarized, while the characteristics of the mouse dermatitis models was also summarized in this review.%变应性接触性皮炎(allergic contact dermatitis, ACD)是由半抗原-特异性T细胞介导、在过敏原接触皮肤后激发产生的迟发型超敏反应(Ⅳ型超敏反应),包含致敏期和激发期。在致敏阶段,半抗原和皮肤中的内源性蛋白组成具有免疫性的抗原蛋白复合体,复合体被抗原提呈细胞( antigen presenting cells, APCs)捕获后,随APCs从表皮迁移至淋巴结。随后,抗原蛋白复合体活化初始T细胞。活化的T细胞在淋巴结中增殖并分化成为抗原特异性效应T细胞并迁移至循环中。在激发阶段,效应T细胞被皮肤中的APCs再次激活,分泌多种化学介质并引起抗原特异性炎症反应。本文介绍ACD发展过程中的分子和细胞通路以及机制研究的新进展,探索肥大细胞、 B细胞、自然杀

  8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Matheson, Melanie C; Pers, Tune Hannes

    2013-01-01

    the top SNP at each of 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association with allergic sensitization from three to ten, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2...

  9. Mouse models to unravel the role of inhaled pollutants on allergic sensitization and airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Nemery Benoit; Vanoirbeek Jeroen AJ; Cataldo Didier D; Lanckacker Ellen A; Provoost Sharen; Maes Tania; Tournoy Kurt G; Joos Guy F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as well as exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) could promote allergic sensitization or aggravate symptoms of asthma, suggesting a role for these inhaled pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mouse models are a valuable tool to study the potential effects of these pollutants in the pathogenesis o...

  10. Imunopatologia da dermatite de contato alérgica Immunopathology of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Agner Machado Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dermatite de contato alérgica é consequência de uma reação imune mediada por células T contra químicos de baixo peso molecular, denominados haptenos. É uma condição frequente que ocorre em todas as raças e faixas etárias e afeta a qualidade de vida de seus portadores. O mecanismo imunológico desta doença vem sendo revisto nas últimas décadas com significativo avanço no seu entendimento. A metabolização e o caminho dos haptenos, bem como a formação e o mecanismo de ação das células responsáveis tanto pela reação quanto pelo seu término, são discutidos neste artigoAllergic contact dermatitis is the consequence of an immune reaction mediated by T cells against low molecular weight chemicals known as haptens. It is a common condition that occurs in all races and age groups and affects the quality of life of those who present it. The immunological mechanism of this disease has been reviewed in recent decades with significant advance in its understanding. The metabolism and pathway of the haptens as well as the activation and mechanism of action of the cells responsible for both the immune reaction and its completion are discussed in this article

  11. Anaphylaxis, contact urticaria, and allergic asthma caused by persulfates in hair bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schuttelaar, M.L.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persulfate salts are potent oxidizing agents in hair bleach products that accelerate the bleaching process. Ammonium and potassium persulfates may cause delayedtype and immediate skin reactions. Also allergic asthma and rhinitis have been described. Objectives: Ammonium and potassium per

  12. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Callesen, Michael; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2015-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that phthalates can function as adjuvants, increasing the potency of allergens. Meanwhile, epidemiological studies have produced inconsistent findings regarding relationships between phthalate exposures and allergic disease in humans. The present study examined phthala...

  13. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-03-12

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty.

  14. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Eric R; Szczepanek, Steven M; Castater, Christine A; Adami, Alexander J; Matson, Adam P; Rafti, Ektor T; Guernsey, Linda; Natarajan, Prabitha; McNamara, Jeffrey T; Schramm, Craig M; Thrall, Roger S; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr), a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). However, sBr's effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes). OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET(+) cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c(+) dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  15. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Secor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD. However, sBr’s effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes. OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET+ cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c+ dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  16. Consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy and development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring: role of maternal atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Mauro; Alessandri, Claudia; Sopo, Stefano Miceli; Panetta, Valentina; Pingitore, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Salvatore; Zappalà, Daniela; Zicari, Anna Maria

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that changes in dietary habits, particularly increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and decreased consumption of omega-3 PUFAs may explain the increase in atopic disease seen in recent years. Furthermore, it seems possible that it is mainly prenatal or very early life environmental factors that influence the development of allergic diseases. It has also been suggested that intrauterine risk factors may act differently if mother themselves suffer from allergic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy might influence the development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring. The study population was divided into the offspring of allergic and non-allergic mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study enrolling 295 offspring of allergic mothers and 693 of non-allergic mothers. Information regarding maternal intake of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy as well as other prenatal and perinatal confounding factors were retrospectively assessed by parental report via a standardized questionnaire. Atopy was determined by skin-prick tests (SPT) to eight prevalent inhalant allergens and two foods. In the allergic mothers' group there is no clear correlation between maternal intakes of fish, butter and margarine and sensitizations to food or inhalants. In the non-allergic mothers' group there was no correlation between butter and margarine intake and food or inhalant sensitizations. On the contrary, a protective effect of fish intake on SPT positivity was observed. In particular, frequent maternal intake ('2-3 times/wk or more') of fish reduced the risk of food sensitizations by over a third (aOR 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.69). A similar trend, even if not significant, was found for inhalants. Finally, even in the whole study population, i.e. allergic group plus non-allergic group, there was a similar trend between increased consumption of

  17. Recent trends in epidemiology, sensitization and legal requirements of selected relevant contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the last 5 years, a comprehensive review of methylisothiazolinone, chromium, cobalt, rubber accelerators and fragrance ingredients were conducted. Of each allergen we discuss in detail the temporal trend of prevalence, source of exposure, clinical manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis...

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Crother

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate, but not a high dose (severe CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n. with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of severity of itching symptoms on the level of depression in patients with allergic contact eczema (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Czarny-Działak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent skin disorders in the general population as well as among people who work professionally. Allergic contact allergens are simple chemical compounds. The most common are nickel and fragrance substances. Aim of the research : To estimate if and how the degree of itching in allergic contact dermatitis influences the development of depression. Material and methods: The treatment was conducted on a group of 17 people with allergic contact dermatitis. Each person was treated in order to estimate the level of depression using Becks scale and the level of itching. Next, it was estimated if the level of itching had any influence on the development of depression. Results: All skin diseases, including allergic contact eczema affect the biological and psychosocial functioning, and the quality of human. Five patients out of 17 showed features of depression: 3 mild (2 men and 1 woman, which is the most common state of transition, and 2 (women moderately-severe depressive symptoms. Both patients with moderately-severe depressive symptoms had a significant degree of severity of pruritus. Conclusions: It was stated that the level of itching has no influence on the development of depression.

  1. Factors related to allergic sensitization to aeroallergens in a cross-sectional study in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2001-01-01

    number of siblings, a positive family history of hay fever and never smoking, were independently associated with both SPT positivity and specific IgE positivity. Furthermore, SPT positivity was positively associated with alcohol consumption (dose-response relationship only), and negatively associated......-response relationship. CONCLUSION: Being male, young age, a positive family history of hayfever, low number of siblings and never smoking, were independently associated with allergic sensitization. In addition, the results indicated a possible relationship of alcohol consumption, body mass index and previous keeping...

  2. [Clinical characterization of allergic patients sensitized to Chamaecyparis obtusa--using AlaSTAT system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, M; Nishioka, K; Nagano, T; Ohta, N; Masuda, Y

    1994-09-01

    Clinical characterization of patients with allergy to Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cypress) pollen and their specific IgE antibody was investigated by using AlaSTAT assay, a new method for measurement of antigen-specific IgE antibody. Positive rate of antigen-specific antibody in patients with allergic pollinosis was 83.5% for Japanese cedar pollen and 80.0% for Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. 76.4% of patients were sensitized both to Japanese cedar and Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen, however, 7.9% were sensitized only to the latter. As for clinical symptoms, duration of attack was short and severity was mild or moderate in the patients sensitized only to Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. Patients who visited hospital in April, in that Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen disseminated in the air predominantly, showed significant elevation in AlaSTAT scores compared with patients who visited in February and March (p < 0.05).

  3. High prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in children 4 yrs of age or younger with symptoms of allergic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Adriana Baatenburg; Dikkeschei, Lambert D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that sensitization to aeroallergens is rare in preschool children is based on population studies in which most subjects have little or no symptoms of atopic disease. We assessed the prevalence of atopic sensitization in children 0 to 4 yr of age presenting with symptoms of allergic di

  4. Sensitization and elicitation of an allergic reaction to wheat gliadins in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinier, M; Leroy, M; Ah-Leung, S; Blanc, F; Tranquet, O; Denery-Papini, S; Wal, J-M; Adel-Patient, K

    2009-02-25

    We developed a mouse model of allergy to wheat flour gliadins, a protein fraction containing major wheat allergens. We compared the antibody responses (i.e., specific IgE and IgG1) and the profiles of cytokines secreted by reactivated splenocytes induced after intraperitoneal injections of gliadins in three strains of mice, namely, Balb/cJ, B10.A, and C3H/HeJ. The intensities of the allergic reactions elicited by intranasal challenge were also compared. Both the sensitization and elicitation were the highest in Balb/cJ mice, whereas weak or no reaction was observed in the others strains. Interestingly, the specificity of the mouse IgE against the different gliadins (i.e., alpha-, beta-, gamma-, omega 1,2-, and omega 5-gliadin) was similar to that observed in children allergic to wheat flour. Balb/cJ mice may thus provide a relevant model for the study of sensitization and elicitation by wheat gliadins and for improving our understanding of the specific role and mechanisms of action of the different classes of gliadins.

  5. Contact sensitizers decrease 33D1 expression on mature Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herouet, C; Cottin, M; Galanaud, P; Leclaire, J; Rousset, F

    1999-01-01

    Langerhans cells play a critical role in allergic contact hypersensitivity. In vivo, these cells capture xenobiotics that penetrate the skin and transport them through the lymphatic vessels into regional lymph nodes for presentation to T cells. During this migration step, Langerhans cells become mature dendritic cells according to their phenotype and their high immunostimulatory capacity. In vitro, when isolated from the skin and cultured for 3 days, Langerhans cells undergo similar phenotypic and functional maturation. In this study, the capacity of sensitizers, irritants and neutral chemicals to modulate the surface marker expression and morphology of pure mature murine Langerhans cells in vitro was examined. Contact with 4 sensitizers (2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfate, 4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one, p-phenylenediamine, mercaptobenzo-thiazole) resulted in a rapid, specific, marked fall in 33D1 expression, a murine specific dendritic cell marker. No effect was observed with 2 neutral chemicals (sodium chloride, methyl nicotinate) or 2 irritants (dimethyl sulfoxide, benzalkonium chloride). Nevertheless, sodium lauryl sulfate, a very irritant detergent, altered morphology and down-regulated all membrane markers. These preliminary data suggest that in vitro modulation of 33D1 expression by strong sensitizers may be an approach to the development of an in vitro model for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization and to distinguish them as far as possible from irritants.

  6. Two Cases of Occupational Contact Urticaria Caused by Percutaneous Sensitization to Parvalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyo Sano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, it has been proposed that the primary mechanism for the development of food allergies is percutaneous sensitization. Since 2010, in Japan, the number of immediate-type wheat allergy due to hydrolyzed wheat protein has dramatically increased among those who have been using soap containing hydrolyzed wheat. This incidence supports the hypothesis that food allergens arise through percutaneous sensitization. Clinical Summary: A 25-year-old man (case 1 and an 18-year-old girl (case 2 with atopic dermatitis visited our Department because of food allergy and hand eczema. After starting their work with fish, severe itchy eczema appeared on their hands. They subsequently started to experience oral allergic symptoms, intraoral itchiness and dyspnea after eating fish. Specific IgE antibodies were detected for many fishes, and skin prick tests showed positive reactions for a variety of fishes in both cases. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensities of specific IgE antibodies against parvalbumin from various types of fish in microarray immunoassay analysis showed positive reactions. We diagnosed them as contact urticaria caused by percutaneous sensitization to parvalbumin through job-related physical contact with fish. Conclusion: The patients' histories and findings indicate the possibility of percutaneous sensitization through occupational exposure to parvalbumin, leading to food allergy.

  7. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and offspring allergic sensitization and lung function at 20 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Strøm, M; Olsen, S F;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with asthma medication use and self-reported symptoms, but associations with lung function and allergic sensitization have been minimally explored. The aim of the study was to examine the associations...... between prenatal exposures to POPs and allergic sensitization and lung function in 20-year-old offspring. METHODS: In a Danish cohort of 965 pregnant women established in 1988-1989, six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were...... function [forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] (n = 414). RESULTS: There were no associations between maternal concentrations of POPs and offspring allergic sensitization at 20 years of age. Maternal concentrations of POPs were, however, positively associated...

  8. The Prevalence of Contact Dermatitis Among Occupational and Work-related Diseases. Correlation between Atopy and Allergic or Irritative Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta-Dana Pitis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of contact dermatitis (CD in Europe varies between 6.7% and 10.6% depending on the sector of activity. Professional CD (PCD has an important economic impact − 30% of the budget compensation for occupational disease. In Romania, the prevalence of PCD is underestimated, with an even distribution of cases with respect to the allergic or irritative mechanism. A retrospective clinical study was conducted; target population being the patients admitted in Occupational Medicine Clinic Cluj-Napoca between 2003 and 2011. Objectives of study were: specifying the prevalence range of allergic CD (ACD / irritative CD (ICD among occupational/work-related diseases, the distribution of allergic/irritative CD (A/ICD for different sectors of activity and establishing the correlation between atopy and A/ICD. We have applied allergy skin tests - prick (environmental allergens and patch (occupational allergens. Inclusion criteria were: -documented occupational exposure at skin allergens/irritants; -the atopy state; -diagnostic established at discharge. Patients with recurrent chronic urticaria, angioedema, hypereosinophilic syndrome have been excluded. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. The study indicated a similar prevalence for A/ICD, with similar distribution. Prevalence above average has been recorded in the metallurgy sector (A/ICD, in health care sector (ACD, respectively, textile industry (ICD. The correlation atopy-ACD has proved to be lower compared to previous reports. Regarding ICD, the diagnostic was confirmed frequently to non-atopic persons. We strongly recommend the compliance with a multidisciplinary protocol for the management of A/ICD, individualized for specific activity sectors or even work stations.

  9. Aerobiological importance and allergic sensitization to Amaranthaceae under arid climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Zapata, Juan J; Miralles, Juan C; Moreno, José M; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Negral, Luis; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2017-04-01

    Species of the Amaranthaceae family are abundant in the Southeast of Spain, one of the driest areas in Europe. The Amaranthaceae include species of interest from the point of view of allergic diseases. With the expansion of aridity, many species belonging to this family will be favoured. The objectives of this study were: first, to define the prevalence of sensitization to Amaranthaceae pollen in allergic patients in the Southeast of Spain; second, to present the aerobiological features of this taxon; and, finally, to demarcate those periods of increased risk of suffering allergic symptoms with the aim of improving the diagnosis and prevention of hay fever. Skin prick tests with extracts of pollen were performed on patients with symptoms of respiratory allergy referred for consultation for the first time in Almería and Murcia. Samples of the atmospheric bioaerosol were taken using a Lanzoni VPPS 2000 volumetric sampler, samples treatment and subsequent counts being carried out according to the methodology approved by the Spanish Aerobiological Network. The statistical significance of the correlation between aerobiological and meteorological data from this arid region in 2010-2014 was determined. The aerobiological study revealed the presence of two distinct peaks responsible for pollen symptoms. The flowering of this taxon is especially noteworthy in the city of Cartagena, where it supposes 94% of the total pollen collected in these periods. This situation converts Amaranthaceae pollen in the second leading cause of hay fever in the Southeast of Spain. With the expansion of aridity, an increase in the presence of these species is expected. Bearing in mind their prevalence in the spring and summer/autumn periods and their extensive presence in the bioaerosol, this makes data from Southeastern Spanish a benchmark with respect to the aerobiology of this type of pollen.

  10. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in a general population in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) due to common cosmetic allergens in standard series has been extensively studied; however, the prevalence of contact allergy to other cosmetic allergens other than those in standard series is largely unknown. In this study, the frequency of contact sensitization to a European cosmetic series of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Vellinge, Sweden) in healthy university student volunteers were detected in Beijing. Of 201 students studied, fifty-eight exhibited positive results, and 9 of them reported had cosmetics related dermatitis previously. The total positivity rate was not correlated to gender. The leading allergens were thimerosal (19.4%), shellac (3.0%), cocamidopropyl betaine (2.0%), hexamethylenetetramine (1.5%), dodecyl gallate (1.5%), hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (1.0%) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.0%). The positivity rate of thimerosal patch test in men (9.8%) was lower than that of women (23.6%, P  0.05, Chi square test). These results suggested that some cosmetic-related contact allergies may be missed by just testing patients with the European standard series or T.R.U.E. test system only, we recommend shellac, cocamidopropyl betaine, hexamethylenetetramine and dodecyl gallate as the additionally candidates for patch testing in patients with suspected CACD.

  11. The association between alcohol consumption and contact sensitization in Danish adults: the Glostrup Allergy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Nielsen, N.H.; Linneberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    % confidence interval 0.98-4.61) during a 8-year follow-up period. A positive trend among women was detected (P = 0.045). Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption leads to IgE-mediated immune responses rather than delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. It is probable......Background Population-based epidemiological studies have indicated that alcohol consumption is associated with IgE-mediated immune diseases (i.e. allergic rhinitis, asthma and urticaria). These studies have been strongly supported by several immunological studies. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect...... of alcohol consumption on the development of delayed-type hypersensitivity has been shown in healthy controls. However, a possible association between contact sensitization and alcohol consumption in a general population has never been reported. Objectives To investigate whether alcohol consumption...

  12. A nurse-led clinic in chronic and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maureen H

    It has generally been acknowledged that the incidence and prevalence of contact dermatitis has increased in recent years. It can develop at any stage of a person's life span (rare before puberty), and in many different circumstances and occupations. The demand on consultant dermatologists for contact dermatitis services has resulted in the depletion of some essential components to the investigation process, and patient outcomes have been affected. In recent years it has also resulted in the development of nurse-led contact dermatitis services. The traditional role of the dermatology nurse in contact dermatitis is to carry out patch testing. Nurse-led services require the wider acquisition of skills and knowledge in relation to contact dermatitis. This article is an attempt to introduce the complexities of contact dermatitis, and nurse-led services.

  13. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-09-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p 6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  14. Allergic inflammation in the upper respiratory tract of the rat upon repeated inhalation exposure to the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triel, J.J. van; Arts, J.H.; Muijser, H.; Kuper, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was identified as a sensitizer by inhalation in BALB/c mice; in addition, DNCB induced a lymphocytic infiltrate in the larynx of dermally sensitized Th1-prone Wistar rats upon a single inhalation challenge. In the present study, repeated i

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate, a new cosmetic allergen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, H; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2001-01-01

    Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate (trade name Dragophos S 2/918501) was identified as a contact allergen in a herbal moisturizing cream causing severe acute contact dermatitis on the hands and face of a 41-year-old woman. Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate is a complex mixture of phosphate esters of d...

  16. Fragrance contact allergic patients: strategies for use of cosmetic products and perceived impact on life situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysdal, Susan Hovmand; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients are a common cause of contact allergy. Very little is known about these patients' strategies to manage their disease and the effect on their daily lives. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if patients with diagnosed fragrance contact allergy used scented products, how th...

  17. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Western Black Sea Region: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 304 patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD, who were tested with the European Standard Series, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of positive reactions to different sensitizers in patients with ACD and to identify sex and age differences.Material and Method: We evaluated a total of 304 patients (195 (64.1% female and 109 (35.9% male who applied to our clinic between the period of January 2003 and December 2008 and who were tested with patch test with the consideration of ACD. Patch test results were assessed according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application.Results: Lesions of ACD were found to be most frequent on the hands (65.5%. A total of 95 (31.3% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (14.8% followed by cobalt chloride (9.2%, potassium dichromate (6.6%, balsam of Peru (3.6%, fragrance mix (3.3%, mercaptobenzothiazole (3% and colophonium (2.3%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to lanolin, mercapto mix, epoxy resin, paraben mix and quaternium-15 were relatively low, while no positive reaction was obtained to formaldehyde in any case. In 51.6% of patients with positive reaction, the responsible allergen was detected by testing with the European Standard Series.Conclusion: Although this study shows that sensitization rate to metals and fragrance are still high in our region, as well as in our country, and are more frequent in females than in males, future prospective multicenter studies with large number of patients would point out the adequacy of the European Standard Series in our country. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 198-202

  18. A STUDY OF ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION TO EIGHT COMMON ALLERGENS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH NASOBRONCHIAL ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This observational study was done in Department of Pediatrics to see the sensitization pattern among 128 allergic children clinically identified. Eight common Allergens were selected for Skin Prick Testing (SPT. Results were analysed and correlated with other clinical factors. Overall, SPT positivity to one or more Allergen was found in 85.71% of study population. All common Allergen in decreasing order of proportion of sensitivity were cockroach(61.71%, house dust (58.59%, holoptelea (52.34%, prosposis (52.34%, parthenium (47.65%, A. fumigates (48.43%, A. alternate (42.96%, A. niger (38.28%. It was also found that 111 (86.7% patients had positive response to atleast 1 Allergen and poly - sensitization was more common, observed in 78.9% patients. As Burlingtonent clinical score increase from 8, there is increase in SPT positivity with different Allergens, but there is no rational trend between higher scores (8 - 12, 13 - 20 and >20 and SPT positivity. Group of patients, who shows seasonal variation of symptoms, family history of Allergy and residing in industrial areas etc, also showed variable SPT sensitization pattern.

  19. Sensitization patterns in Compositae-allergic patients with current or past atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    -atopics, except that dandelion was an important allergen in children. Cobalt allergy was the most frequent other contact allergy, occurring in 37%. Conclusions. Persons with current or past atopic dermatitis may become sensitized to Compositae at any age, both occupationally and non-occupationally. They should...... be screened for Compositae allergy on equal terms with non-atopics, except that dandelion extract should always be tested in children. Co-sensitization to cobalt was frequent, but probably not related to the plant allergy....

  20. Gigantic Enhancement in Sensitivity Using Schottky Contacted Nanowire Nanosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Te-Yu

    2009-12-09

    A new single nanowire based nanosensor is demonstrated for illustrating its ultrahigh sensitivity for gas sensing. The device is composed of a single ZnO nanowire mounted on Pt electrodes with one end in Ohmic contact and the other end in Schottky contact. The Schottky contact functions as a "gate" that controls the current flowing through the entire system. By tuning the Schottky barrier height through the responsive variation of the surface chemisorbed gases and the amplification role played by the nanowire to Schottky barrier effect, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 32 000% was achieved using the Schottky contacted device operated in reverse bias mode at 275 °C for detection of 400 ppm CO, which is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained using an Ohmic contact device under the same conditions. In addition, the response time and reset time have been shortened by a factor of 7. The methodology and principle illustrated in the paper present a new sensing mechanism that can be readily and extensively applied to other gas sensing systems. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Screening active components from Yu-ping-feng-san for regulating initiative key factors in allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dandan; Xie, Xuejian; Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation.

  2. PKU-related dysgammaglobulinaemia: the effect of diet therapy on IgE and allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Fiocchi, A; Agostoni, C; Biasucci, G; Sala, M; Banderali, G; Luotti, D; Giovannini, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of diet on the development of immunoallergic signs and symptoms in children with phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated. Immunological indices of 58 children with PKU treated with diets were compared to the immunological indices of 58 healthy (non-PKU) children. In the PKU group, 39 children had been placed on diet therapy within the first month of life; 19 children had been placed on diet therapy after 6 months of age. Total circulating lymphocytes; CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ circulating lymphocytes; and serum IgA, IgM, IgG and total IgE levels were measured for each child. Skin prick tests were performed for common inhalant and food allergens. Every 3 months over the 2-year period of this study, the signs and symptoms of eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma were recorded. The PKU group had lower IgG levels (p = 0.004) and higher total IgE levels (p = 0.0001) than the control group. Significantly lower IgE levels were found in children started on diet therapy within the first month of life compared with those started on diet therapy after 6 months of age (p = 0.0001). Allergic sensitization was significantly more frequent in the PKU group (24/58 vs 13/58, z = 2.00, p Asthma was less frequent in the PKU group than in the control group (5/58 vs 14/58, z = 2.09, p < 0.05). Thus, diet appeared to prevent the development of immunoallergic signs and symptoms.

  3. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil;

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  4. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 2-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Line; Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring; Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen

    2016-01-01

    results and the results of natural rubber latex protein allergy after 2 years. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-nine patients diagnosed with relevant occupational epoxy or rubber chemical contact allergy, or allergy to natural rubber latex protein, were invited to participate in a questionnaire study about...... >60 years (p natural rubber latex proteins, 50% remembered this correctly. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of patch testing depends on the patients' ability to understand and remember the results...... their knowledge of contact allergies after 2 years. RESULTS: The response rate was 75%. Of the respondents, 13% did not remember their occupational contact allergy to rubber chemicals or epoxy. Ability to remember was not significantly influenced by sex or Dermatology Life Quality Index, but was decreased by age...

  5. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in Danish children referred for patch testing - a nationwide multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although contact allergy among children was previously considered to be rare, data from the past decade have shown that it is common among children and that the prevalence may be increasing. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics of all children referred for patch testing in Denmark...

  7. Update on allergic contact dermatitis due to methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Salinas, M; Francés, L; Silvestre, J F

    2014-11-01

    The combination of methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, household, and industrial products. Furthermore, MI at a concentration of 100 ppm has been permitted in cosmetic products since 2005. Recently, a considerable increase in cases of contact dermatitis to both MCI and MI have been noted, and this warrants closer monitoring by relevant authorities and, probably, stricter legislation. In fact, MI at a test concentration of 2000 ppm was recently included in the European baseline patch test series. The clinical manifestations of allergy to MCI/MI and MI are highly variable and diagnosis is often missed. In the standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), MCI/MI is tested at 100 ppm, but at this concentration, up to 50% of cases might go undetected. Furthermore, our data indicate that MCI/MI at 200 ppm would make it possible to diagnose more cases of contact allergy to MI. To improve the diagnosis of contact allergy to MCI/MI and MI, we believe that the test concentration of MCI/MI should be increased to 200 ppm in the GEIDAC standard series and that MI should be added in the GEIDAC standard series.

  8. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin...

  9. Plasma contact system activation drives anaphylaxis in severe mast cell-mediated allergic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala-Cunill, Anna; Björkqvist, Jenny; Senter, Riccardo; Guilarte, Mar; Cardona, Victoria; Labrador, Moises; Nickel, Katrin F; Butler, Lynn; Luengo, Olga; Kumar, Parvin; Labberton, Linda; Long, Andy; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Kenne, Ellinor; Jämsä, Anne; Krieger, Thorsten; Schlüter, Hartmut; Fuchs, Tobias; Flohr, Stefanie; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Cumin, Frederic; McCrae, Keith; Maas, Coen; Stavrou, Evi; Renné, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially lethal, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mast cell-derived mediators into the circulation. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We report here that a plasma protease cascade, the factor XII-driven contact system, critically contributes to

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from a paper mill slimicide containing 2-bromo-4'-hydroxyacetophenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Slimicides are biocidal products used in paper mills to inhibit the proliferation of slime-forming microorganisms that would otherwise spoil the paper products. A laboratory technician working at a paper mill had recurring dermatitis related to contact with the slimicide Busan 1130. We report...

  11. Mouse models to unravel the role of inhaled pollutants on allergic sensitization and airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemery Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS as well as exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP could promote allergic sensitization or aggravate symptoms of asthma, suggesting a role for these inhaled pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mouse models are a valuable tool to study the potential effects of these pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma, with the opportunity to investigate their impact during processes leading to sensitization, acute inflammation and chronic disease. Mice allow us to perform mechanistic studies and to evaluate the importance of specific cell types in asthma pathogenesis. In this review, the major clinical effects of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust exposure regarding to asthma development and progression are described. Clinical data are compared with findings from murine models of asthma and inhalable pollutant exposure. Moreover, the potential mechanisms by which both pollutants could aggravate asthma are discussed.

  12. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol in common ivy (Hedera helix L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Bröhan, J; König, W A; Faasch, H; Hahn, H; Bruhn, G

    1987-07-01

    Experimental and chemical investigations revealed that common ivy (Hedera helix susp. helix) contains 3 compounds which are powerful irritants and moderate sensitizers. Only 2 of these constituents, falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol, are present in the plant during the whole year. Besides Panax ginseng and Schefflera arboricola, this is the third species of the Araliaceae in which these polyacetylenic sensitizers have been found. Falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol also occur in Hedera helix subsp. canariensis. 4 patients have been patch tested. Even in low concentrations (0.03%), the main allergen falcarinol elicited strong reactions in all of them. One of the authors became sensitized during the investigations.

  13. Interplay of filaggrin loss-of-function variants, allergic sensitization, and eczema in a longitudinal study covering infancy to 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Ziyab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune specific genes as well as genes regulating the formation of skin barrier are major determinants for eczema manifestation. There is a debate as to whether allergic sensitization and filaggrin gene (FLG variants lead to eczema or FLG variants and eczema increase the risk of allergic sensitization. To investigate the time-order between eczema and allergic sensitization with respect to FLG variants, data from a large prospective study covering infancy to late adolescence were analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Repeated measurements of eczema and allergic sensitization (documented by skin prick tests at ages 1, 2, 4, 10, and 18 years were ascertained in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (n = 1,456. Three transition periods were analyzed: age 1-or-2 to 4, 4 to 10, and 10 to 18 years. FLG variants were genotyped in 1,150 participants. Over the three transition periods, in temporal sequence analyses of initially eczema-free participants, the combined effect of FLG variants and allergic sensitization showed a 2.92-fold (95% CI: 1.47-5.77 increased risk ratio (RR of eczema in subsequent examinations. This overall risk was more pronounced at a younger age (transition period 1-or-2 to 4, RR = 6.47, 95% CI: 1.96-21.33. In contrast, FLG variants in combination with eczema showed a weaker, but significant, risk ratio for subsequent allergic sensitization only up to 10 years of age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking the time order into account, this prospective study demonstrates for the first time, that a combination of FLG variants and allergic sensitization increased the risk of eczema in subsequent years. Also FLG variants interacted with eczema and increased the risk of subsequent allergic sensitization, which, was limited to the younger age. Hence, early restoration of defective skin barrier could prevent allergic sensitization and subsequently reduce the risk of eczema development.

  14. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  15. Severe respiratory syndrome induced by allergic mono-sensitization to European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) in a older woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, G; Senna, G; Piccolo, A; Salzillo, A; Foglia, M; De Napoli, I; D'Amato, G

    2008-05-01

    Although the increase in the rate of hamster ownership, no report of allergic sensitization to common hamster (Cricetus cricetus)-derived allergens as a consequence of domestic exposure has been published in Italy. A 64-year-old woman was referred to our Allergy Centre for the recent onset of conjunctival and severe respiratory symptoms (rhinitis, cough, wheezing and dyspnea). About three months ago she had purchased a common hamster as home pet. Another hamster had lived at patient's home for about four months nine years ago. The results of SPT revealed allergic sensitization to Cricetus cricetus dander only (wheal 6x7 mm, positive control 7x7 mm). Total IgE were 59.3 kU/L. Specific IgE only to Cricetus cricetus epithelia (2.10 kUA/L), were also detected. Spirometry revealed a moderate degree of bronchial obstruction. Some important considerations can be drawn from our report: a) few months of hamster ownership are probably sufficient to induce an allergic sensitization and clinical symptoms, b) older age of sensitization in comparison to other studies, c) rapid remission of clinical symptoms after the removal of hamster d) skin prick tests and/or evaluation of specific IgE for hamster allergens should be performed in all potentially susceptible individuals.

  16. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.

  17. Sensitization to Mites and Total IgE in Allergic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia López Ramírez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence and prevalence of allergic diseases during childhood have significantly increased in developed countries over the last 20 to 30 years. The role of the inhalant allergens in exacerbating respiratory allergies has been demonstrated. House dust mites are the main causative agents. Environmental pollution and climate changes, along with other factors, have contributed to the increase of these diseases. Among such conditions the most frequent in children are respiratory allergies, particularly allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. The current article presents a review on allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and IgE levels in children, emphasizing on epidemiology and trigger factors.

  18. IL-10 is necessary for the expression of airway hyperresponsiveness but not pulmonary inflammation after allergic sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, M. J.; Kanehiro, A.; Borish, L.; Dakhama, A.; Loader, J.; Joetham, A.; Xing, Z.; Jordana, M.; Larsen, G. L.; Gelfand, E. W.

    2000-05-01

    Cytokines play an important role in modulating inflammatory responses and, as a result, airway tone. IL-10 is a regulatory cytokine that has been suggested for treatment of asthma because of its immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. In contrast to these suggestions, we demonstrate in a model of allergic sensitization that mice deficient in IL-10 (IL-10/) develop a pulmonary inflammatory response but fail to exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness in both in vitro and in vivo assessments of lung function. Reconstitution of these deficient mice with the IL-10 gene fully restores development of airway hyperresponsiveness comparable to control mice. These results identify an important role of IL-10, downstream of the inflammatory cascade, in regulating the tone of the airways after allergic sensitization and challenge.

  19. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, E S; Lee, H; Suh, Y K; Tang, W; Qi, M; Yin, S; Remick, D G; Ulich, T R

    1996-10-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations.

  20. Occupational allergic rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by bishop's weed (Ammi majus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiistala, R; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Heikkinen, K; Rinne, J; Haahtela, T

    1999-06-01

    Bishop's weed (Ammi majus) has been known to induce toxic phytophotodermatitis. We now describe IgE-mediated rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by exposure to bishop's weed in a 31-year-old atopic female florist. A skin prick-prick test with bishop's weed flowers gave an 8-mm wheal, and the bishop's weed-specific IgE level in the patient's serum was 9.7 PRU/ml (RAST class 3). In an immunoblotting experiment with the patient's serum, nine IgE-binding protein bands with the molecular weights 19, 34, 39-41 (doublet), 52-61 (doublet), and >67 (triplet) kDa were detected in bishop's weed extract. The patient became symptomless after she had ceased to work as a florist.

  1. Prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in schoolchildren: data from the french six cities study

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Caillaud, Denis; Charpin, Denis; De Blay, Frédéric; Kopferschmitt, Christine; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baldi,Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has recently risen among children. This increase in prevalence might be related to various factors, particularly diet. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in the French Six Cities Study. Methods: Cross-sectional studies were performed among 7432 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years in Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Creteil, Marseille, Reims, a...

  2. [The early detection of allergic dermatoses and mycoses of the feet in workers in contact with phenol-formaldehyde resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, E A; Anton'ev, A A; Makarova, L E; Beker, V P; Kiseleva, L L

    1990-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to phenolformaldehyde resins was detected in 16.2% of workers exposed to them, allergic dermatitis and eczemas in 21.5%, mycoses of the soles in 13.5%, premorbid shifts in half of the examinees. Mycoses of the soles prevailed in subjects with a history of dermatitis and in patients suffering from allergic dermatoses.

  3. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001. Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a intercultural communication barriers, b gender roles, and c the cultural expressions statement. Strategies to improve the method validity are proposed.

  4. The "Jewelry Addict": Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Repetitive Multiple Children's Jewelry Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis developed persistent plaques on the lips, hands, and fingers that were unresponsive to topical steroids. Her mother reported that she was "addicted" to costume jewelry and developed rashes in reaction to a number of adornments, ranging from rubber bracelets to costume metal jewelry and belt buckles. A careful history of jewelry exposures was taken and patch testing was performed to identify allergenic sources. Patch testing revealed allergy to nickel, gold, and thiuram mix. The case illustrates the importance of investigating a range of different types of allergens when evaluating for jewelry sensitivity in children with frequent use of accessories, including rubber jewelry, plastics, dyed yarns, beads, metals, and ceramics. This article provides an overview of jewelry allergies and the potential allergens requiring screening.

  5. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-05-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (type IV hypersensitivity and type I hypersensitivity following aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils (Dhanwantharam thailam, Eladi coconut oil presenting as generalized erythema and pruritus with flexural eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  7. WHO core prescribing indicators in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in a coastal town of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyashanthi C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prescribing pattern analysis utilizing WHO core drug prescribing indicators can be helpful for the assessing the beneficial and adverse impacts of the prescribed drugs. Even though many drugs are commonly used in treatment of Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD they are least studied in terms of prescribing patterns. Hence the present study was planned to analyze the prescribing pattern and study the WHO core prescribing indicators in patients with ACD in our institute. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out with prescriptions of 81 outpatients who attended the dermatology OPD with the diagnosis of ACD over a period of six months. Details such as basic demographics, specific drugs prescribed with their dose and dosage forms were recorded and WHO core prescription indicators analysed. Results: Overall, corticosteroids both topical and systemic were the most commonly prescribed drugs (45.54% followed by antihistamines (30.69% and antimicrobials (13.86%. The most commonly prescribed topical corticosteroid was desonide (58.82%, systemic corticosteroid was prednisolone (47.61%, antihistamine was cetirizine (54, 83% and antimicrobials were cephalosporins (42.86%. Average drugs per prescription for patients of ACD were 6.8. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 22.77%. Percentage of encounters with antibiotic prescribed was 13.86% whereas injection prescribed was 9.90%. Percentage of drugs prescribed from National list of essential medicines (NLEM was 53.57%. Conclusions: Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment in ACD. The percentage of encounters with an injection and the use of systemic steroids were low and were according to the guidelines. But drugs prescribed by generic name and those prescribed from NELM were found to be satisfactory but can further be improved.

  8. PILOT STUDY OF CONTACT SENSITIZATION OF FORMALDEHYDE-RELEASERS, FORMALDEHYDE AND GLUTARALDEHYDE IN DENTAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapina Maya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational allergic contact sensitization is common in dental personnel. Some of the most common occupational allergens in dental practice are some formaldehyde-releasers, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rate of contact sensitization to formaldehyde, quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, and to glutaraldehyde in students of dental medicine and dental patients. Material and methods: A total of 50 participants were included in the study: 40 students of dental medicine exposed to formaldehyde-releasers, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde during the course of their education; 10 dental patients without occupational exposure to the latter substances served as a control group. All of them were patch-tested with the studied allergens. Results: The sensitization rate to formaldehyde was significantly higher in the group of dental patients if compared to the one of dental students (χ2=5.37; p=0.021. Positive skin patch test reactions to quaternium-15 and to imidazolidinyl urea were observed only in the group of dental students. A significantly higher rate of sensitization to diazolidinyl urea, if compared to the one to imidazolidinyl urea (χ2=5.4; p=0.02 and to quaternium-15 (χ2=6.76; p=0.009, as well as to glutaraldehyde, if compared to the one to quaternium-15 (χ2=3.96; p=0.04 for the whole studied population was established. For the whole studied population, significantly increased rate of concomitant sensitization to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde (χ2=6.18 p=0.013, as well as to diazolidinyl urea and to glutaraldehyde was established (χ2=9.12 p=0.003. Conclusions: We consider the importance of exposure to diazolidinyl urea, quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea and glutaraldehyde during the course of practical education in dentistry for the onset of sensitization. The exposure to formaldehyde is ubiquitous and is difficult to distinguish the roles of

  9. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W. Zuercher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA plus cholera toxin (CT by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase or after sensitization (management phase. Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and CCL17 (TARC in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.

  10. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Adrian W.; Weiss, Marietta; Holvoet, Sébastien; Moser, Mireille; Moussu, Hélène; van Overtvelt, Laurence; Horiot, Stéphane; Moingeon, Philippe; Nutten, Sophie; Prioult, Guénolée; Singh, Anurag; Mercenier, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase) or after sensitization (management phase). Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and CCL17 (TARC) in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms. PMID:21961022

  11. Science Letters: A synthetic Toll-like receptor 2 ligand decreases allergic immune responses in a mouse rhinitis model sensitized to mite allergen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng ZHOU; Xiao-dong KANG; Zhi CHEN

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays crucial roles in the polarization of adaptive immune responses. A synthetic Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand, Pam3CSK4, has been reported to modulate the balance of Thl/Tn2 responses. We evaluated the modulation effect of Pam3CSK4 on allergic immune response in a mouse rhinitis model sensitized to house dust mite allergen (HDM). Mice were sensitized and challenged with Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f), and then the allergic mice were treated by Pam3CSK4. Nasal allergic symptoms and eosinophils were scored. Der f-specific cytokine responses were examined in the splenocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Serum level of total IgE was also detected. After establishing a mouse allergic rhinitis model with HDM, we have showed that Pam3CSK4 treatment not only ameliorated the nasal allergic symptoms remarkably but also decreased the eosinophils and total inflammation cells in BALF significantly. Analysis of cytokine profile found that' IFN-γ released from either BALF or stimulated splenocytes increased markedly in Pam3CSK4-treated mice, while IL-13 decreased significantly. Moreover, serum level of total IgE was significantly lower in Pam3CSK4-treated mice than in the untreated. Thus, in an allergic rhinitis mouse model developed with HDM, Pam3CSK4 was shown to exhibit an antiallergic effect, indicating its potential application in allergic diseases.

  12. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor α expression and IL-2 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutet, Michèle, E-mail: michele.goutet@inrs.fr; Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4Rα can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4Rα and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4Rα levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4Rα and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ► Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ► There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ► We analyze immune responses induced

  13. Early indoor aeroallergen exposure is not associated with development of sensitization or allergic rhinitis in high-risk children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, A-M M; Chawes, B L; Jelding-Dannemand, E

    2016-01-01

    aeroallergen exposure and sensitization and rhinitis to such allergens later in childhood. METHODS: Allergic sensitization to cat, dog, and house dust mites was diagnosed longitudinally using skin prick tests and specific IgE measurements at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years in 399 children from the Copenhagen...... Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort. Rhinitis was diagnosed at 7 and 13 years. Allergen exposure was defined as dog or cat in the home during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy or the first year of life and as allergen levels of dog, cat, and house dust mite in bed dust samples at 1 year....... Associations between exposure and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression and stratified for eczema status and test method (skin prick test and specific IgE). RESULTS: We found no association between dog or cat exposure in perinatal life and sensitization or rhinitis during childhood. Similarly...

  14. Does traffic exhaust contribute to the development of asthma and allergic sensitization in children: findings from recent cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsberg Bertil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this review was to assess the evidence from recent prospective studies that long-term traffic pollution could contribute to the development of asthma-like symptoms and allergic sensitization in children. We have reviewed cohort studies published since 2002 and found in PubMed in Oct 2008. In all, 13 papers based on data from 9 cohorts have evaluated the relationship between traffic exposure and respiratory health. All surveys reported associations with at least some of the studied respiratory symptoms. The outcome varied, however, according to the age of the child. Nevertheless, the consistency in the results indicates that traffic exhaust contributes to the development of respiratory symptoms in healthy children. Potential effects of traffic exhaust on the development of allergic sensitization were only assessed in the four European birth cohorts. Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants had no association with sensitization in ten-year-old schoolchildren in Norway. In contrast, German, Dutch and Swedish preschool children had an increased risk of sensitization related to traffic exhaust despite fairly similar levels of outdoor air pollution as in Norway. Traffic-related effects on sensitization could be restricted to individuals with a specific genetic polymorphism. Assessment of gene-environment interactions on sensitization has so far only been carried out in a subgroup of the Swedish birth cohort. Further genetic association studies are required and may identify individuals vulnerable to adverse effects from traffic-related pollutants. Future studies should also evaluate effects of traffic exhaust on the development and long term outcome of different phenotypes of asthma and wheezing symptoms.

  15. Association study on ADAM33 polymorphisms in mite-sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Xi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ADAM33 gene has been identified as a potentially important asthma candidate gene and polymorphisms in this gene have been shown to be associated with asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the ADAM33 polymorphisms are associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER due to house dust mites in a Chinese population. METHODS: In a hospital-based case-control study of 515 patients with mite-sensitized PER and 495 healthy controls, we genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADAM33. Serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein, total IgE and allergen-specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were measured by the ImmunoCAP assays. RESULTS: In the single-locus analysis, three polymorphisms, rs3918392 (F1, rs528557 (S2 and rs2787093, were significantly associated with mite-sensitized PER. SNP S2 was associated with significantly increased risk both of asthmatic and nonasthmatic mite-sensitized PER. In the combined genotypes analysis, individuals with 2-4 risk alleles had a significantly higher risk of mite-sensitized PER (adjusted OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.50-2.62 than those with 0-1 risk alleles. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that the ACAGCCT haplotype might have potential to protect against mite-sensitized PER (adjusted OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.49-0.90. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in the ADAM33 gene may contribute to susceptibility of mite-sensitized PER in this Chinese population.

  16. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Vinod; Asati Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and i...

  17. Psoriasis and Contact Sensitivitiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Arlı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of contact sensitivity in patients with psoriasis, whether there was an association between clinical types and contact sensitivity, whether patch test is a factor that causes Koebner reaction and frequency of contact sensitivity against commonly used topical corticosteroids. Methods: Fifty patients with psoriasis and 50 healthy volunteers were included in this study and ‘European standard series' and test units of active ingredients of some corticosteroids were performed on their upper back. The patches were read on hours 24, 48 and on day 7 in order to detect delayed allergic reactions and also Koebner reaction. The results of both groups were compared by using chi-square test. Results: At the end of the patch test allergic reaction was observed in 7 of 50 (14% patients with psoriasis and 12 of 50 (24% healthy volunteers. There was no statistically significant difference between allergic reaction of study group and healthy volunteers. There was no statistically significant difference between the clinical types of psoriasis and allergic contact sensitivity. The frequency of reaction increased in individuals having a positive sensitivity history to any substance in both patient and control groups. Reaction to topical steroids was not seen in any patients. Koebner phenomenon due to patch test was also not seen in any patients. Conclusion: We did not show any association between psoriasis and contact sensitivity in this study. We believe that contact allergens should be determined by using patch test in psoriatic patients with a positive history to any substance.

  18. [Allergic seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis without indigenous pollen sensitization: the example of the Arizona cypress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramarcaz, Philip; Hauser, Conrad

    2002-01-01

    A 37-year old man from Lithuania presented with the typical symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis that appeared in spring this and the year preceding presentation. Skin prick tests for aeroallergens indigenous in Switzerland were all negative. A detailed history revealed that the patient was working in a building of a United Nation's agency surrounded by a park with numerous cypresses of Arizona trees. A skin prick test for pollens from Cupressus arizona was strongly positive, supporting the diagnosis of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to pollens from this tree. Allergy to pollens from C. arizona is a widely prevalent as winter pollinosis in subtropical and Mediterranean areas but is exceptional in the continental and alpine climates of Switzerland. Five cases of C. arizona pollinosis have been diagnosed in the last 3 years in Geneva. It is notoriously difficult to diagnose cypressus pollen allergy, mainly because of the poor quality of in vivo and in vitro available tests. Horticulture with non-indigenous plants is responsible for pollinosis from C. arizona in Switzerland. The specialists in countries in which pollinosis from C. arizona is not endemic, need to be aware of arboriculture with non-indigenous plants, as well as the possibility of allergy to C. arizona.

  19. Sensitization to Airborne Ascospores, Basidiospores, and Fungal Fragments in Allergic Rhinitis and Asthmatic Subjects in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Background Fungal spores are the predominant biological particulate in the atmosphere of Puerto Rico, yet their potential as allergens has not been studied in subjects with respiratory allergies. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sensitization of subjects with respiratory allergies to these particles. Methods Serum samples were drawn from 33 subjects with asthma, allergic rhinitis, or nonallergic rhinitis and 2 controls with different skin prick test reactivity. An MK-3 sampler was used to collect air samples and the reactivity of the sera to fungal particles was detected with a halogen immunoassay. Results All subjects reacted to at least 1 fungal particle. Thirty-one subjects reacted to ascospores, 29 to basidiospores, 19 to hyphae/fungal fragments, and 12 to mitospores. The median percentage of haloes in allergic rhinitis subjects was 4.82% while asthma or nonallergic rhinitis subjects had values of 1.09 and 0.39%, respectively. Subjects with skin prick tests positive to 3, 2, 1, or no extract had 5.24, 1.09, 1.61, and, 0.57% of haloed particles, respectively. If skin prick tests were positive to basidiomycetes, pollen, animals, or deuteromycetes, the percentages of haloes were 4.72, 4.15, 3.63, and 3.31%, respectively. Of all haloed particles, 46% were unidentified, 25% ascospores, 20% basidiospores, 7% hyphae/fungal fragments, and 2% mitospores. IgE levels and the number of positive skin prick test extracts correlated with the percentage of haloes. Conclusion In tropical environments, sensitization to airborne basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, and fungal fragments seems to be more prevalent than sensitization to mitospores in subjects with active allergies, suggesting a possible role in exacerbations of respiratory allergies. PMID:21346362

  20. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis diagnosed by a systematic stepwise exposure assessment of allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann;

    2013-01-01

    Information on the presence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Ingredient lists and Material Safety DataSheets (MSDSs) may be incomplete....

  1. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with basophil activation tests (BAT). Methods: We have randomized 24 patients to a treatment (18) and an open control group (6). Repeated BAT were performed at baseline and througout treatment. Heparinized blood was centrifuged, plasma was removed, the cells washed twice......, then reconstituted with plasma from the present and baseline visit, and medium. The cells were 406 ESCCA AND ICyS ABSTRACTS Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry incubated with log dilutions of grass pollen extract and washed again. Basophil activation was measured as the percentage of CD63 expression on CD193 þ...... basophils. The LC50 was calculated as the log of the allergen concentration leading to half maximum basophil activation. Specific IgE and IgG4 was measured using ISAC panel. Results: We found a 15-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity in the treated group during updosing, compared to their baseline...

  2. Contact dermatitis to a limb prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Apra; Taylor, James S; Billock, John N

    2003-09-01

    PROSTHESIS USERS commonly develop various skin problems on the residual limb, directly under the prosthetic device when the device is in direct contact with the skin. Prolonged occlusion and humidity increase the likelihood of developing contact sensitivity to moisturizing creams, medicaments, and materials in the prosthesis itself.1 Allergic contact dermatitis to various prosthetic design materials is uncommon, and the relevance of positive patch-test results to chemicals present in prostheses may be difficult to establish. Most reports of allergic contact dermatitis to prostheses have been concerned with surgical amputees and not congenital amputees. We report a 5-year-old boy with a transverse partial hemimelia who developed allergic contact dermatitis to an adhesive used in his myoelectric prosthesis. Unlike most prostheses, myoelectric prostheses are worn directly against the skin, for surface electromyography electrode contact.

  3. Cyclophosphamide-induced blood and tissue eosinophilia in contact sensitivity: mechanism of hapten-induced eosinophil recruitment into the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Chen, Q J; Sasaki, G; Yokozeki, H; Katayama, I; Nishioka, K

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism leading to selective production and accumulation of eosinophils in certain allergic skin diseases is unknown. Cyclophosphamide treatment (150 mg/kg) of BALB/c mice 48 h before sensitization with picryl chloride (PCl) resulted in striking blood and tissue eosinophilia, maximal at 13 days. Blood eosinophilia was not induced by the sensitization with oxazolone and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Challenge with 1 % PCl, but not croton oil caused preferential eosinophil accumulation into the dermis, which was associated with the enhanced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. Intravenous administration of anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated eosinophil infiltration. In this murine model, we examined the role of several cytokines, including chemokines in inducing selective tissue eosinophilia in vivo. Local administration of antibodies against interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and RANTES, but not against IL-5 before challenge inhibited hapten-induced eosinophil recruitment. Intradermal injection of recombinant (r)IL-1beta, rIL-4, rTNF-alpha, rRANTES, and rMIP-1alpha induced marked eosinophil accumulation. Nonetheless, intradermal rIL-5 was not a chemoattractant for eosinophils in vivo. Our findings suggest that IL-1beta, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and RANTES contribute to the selective accumulation of eosinophils in contact sensitivity reaction. Although circulating IL-5 can activate eosinophils and prolong their survival, locally secreted IL-5 is not crucial for inducing eosinophil recruitment into the skin.

  4. The seamy side of natural medicines: contact sensitization to arnica (Arnica montana L.) and marigold (Calendula officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, N; Komericki, P; Hausen, B M; Fritsch, P; Aberer, W

    2001-11-01

    Medical remedies of plant origin have gained increasing popularity in recent years. Both anaphylactic and eczematous allergic reactions are on the rise, accordingly. Arnica and marigold, both of the Compositae family, are in widespread use, but only limited data are available on their allergenic potential. We tested 443 consecutive patients, in addition to the European standard and other series, with Compositae mix, sesquiterpene lactone mix, arnica, marigold, and propolis. 5 subjects ( approximately 1.13%) reacted to arnica, 9 ( approximately 2.03%) to marigold. The Compositae mix was positive in 18 cases ( approximately 4.06%). Among them were 3 out of 5 individuals with a sensitization to arnica, and 4 out of 9 who reacted to marigold. Sensitization to arnica and marigold was often accompanied by reactions to nickel, Myroxylon Pereirae resin, fragrance mix, propolis, and colophonium. We conclude that Compositae allergy contributes significantly to the epidemiology of contact dermatitis and that sensitization to arnica and marigold cannot be assessed by testing with the Compositae or sesquiterpene mix alone. As extracts of these plants are frequently used in occupational and cosmetic products, patch testing with additional plant extracts or adjustment of the commercial Compositae mix to regional conditions is recommended.

  5. Xerosis is Associated with Atopic Dermatitis, Hand Eczema and Contact Sensitization Independent of Filaggrin Gene Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, hand eczema and contact sensitization are prevalent disorders, and may, in many cases, be secondary to skin barrier abnormality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported generalized xerosis, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema and contact....... Atopic dermatitis and hand eczema were significantly associated with generalized xerosis, whereas contact sensitization (not nickel) showed only a borderline significant association. These results suggest that generalized xerosis may increase the risk of common skin disorders....

  6. Phase Transition Sensitive Schottky Barriers In Ga-Si(P Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Modi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and understanding of Schottky diodes continue to be interesting both for basic as well as technological points of view. Even now the evolutionary aspects of such contacts are not very clearly understood. In this paper it is shown that in respect of interfacial strain contribution to the barrier heights of such contacts semiconductor – liquid metal contacts are relatively better placed than solid semiconductor-solid metal contacts. Results on Ga-Si(p contact are discussed in this paper to show phase sensitive contribution to the barrier height of such Schottky contacts.

  7. INFLUENCE OF MODIFIED BIOFLAVONOIDS UPON EFFECTOR LYMPHOCYTES IN MURINE MODEL OF CONTACT SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Z. Albegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact sensitivity reaction (CSR to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB in mice is a model of in vivo immune response, being an experimental analogue to contact dermatitis in humans. CSR sensitization phase begins after primary contact with antigen, lasting for 10-15 days in humans, and 5-7 days, in mice. Repeated skin exposure to the sensitizing substance leads to its recognition and triggering immune inflammatory mechanisms involving DNFB-specific effector T lymphocytes. The CSR reaches its maximum 18-48 hours after re-exposure to a hapten. There is only scarce information in the literature about effects of flavonoids on CSR, including both stimulatory and inhibitory effects. Flavonoids possessed, predominantly, suppressive effects against the CSR development. In our laboratory, a model of contact sensitivity was reproduced in CBA mice by means of cutaneous sensitization by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. The aim of the study was to identify the mechanisms of immunomodulatory action of quercetin dihydrate and modified bioflavonoids, using the method of adoptive transfer contact sensitivity by splenocytes and T-lymphocytes. As shown in our studies, a 30-min pre-treatment of splenocytes and T-lymphocytes from sensitized mice with modified bioflavonoids before the cell transfer caused complete prevention of contact sensitivity reaction in syngeneic recipient mice. Meanwhile, this effect was not associated with cell death induction due to apoptosis or cytotoxicity. Quercetin dihydrate caused only partially suppression the activity of adaptively formed T-lymphocytes, the contact sensitivity effectors. It was shown that the modified bioflavonoid more stronger suppress adoptive transfer of contact sensitivity in comparison with quercetin dehydrate, without inducing apoptosis of effector cells. Thus, the modified bioflavonoid is a promising compound for further studies in a model of contact sensitivity, due to its higher ability to suppress transfer of CSR with

  8. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  9. Meshless shape design sensitivity analysis and optimization for contact problem with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N. H.; Choi, K. K.; Chen, J. S.; Park, Y. H.

    In this paper, a continuum-based shape design sensitivity formulation for a frictional contact problem with a rigid body is proposed using a meshless method. The contact condition is imposed using the penalty method that regularizes the solution of variational inequality. The shape dependency of the contact variational form with respect to the design velocity field is obtained. The dependency of the response with respect to the shape of the rigid body is also considered. It is shown that the sensitivity equation needs to be solved at the final converged load step for the frictionless contact problem, whereas for the frictional contact case the sensitivity solution is needed at the converged configuration of each load step because the sensitivity of the current load step depends on that of the previous load step. The continuum-based contact formulation and consistent linearization is critical for accurate shape design sensitivity results. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared with the finite difference result and excellent agreement is obtained for a door seal contact example. A design optimization problem is formulated and solved to reduce the contact gap opening successfully in a demonstration of the proposed method.

  10. Contact and respiratory sensitizers can be identified by cytokine profiles following inhalation exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W.H. de; Arts, J.H.E.; Klerk, A. de; Schijf, M.A.; Ezendam, J.; Kuper, C.F.; Loveren, H. van

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no validated animal models that can identify low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory sensitizers. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is a validated animal model developed to detect contact sensitizers using skin exposure, but all LMW respiratory sensitizers tested so far were also

  11. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Carlos A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3 during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to

  12. Sensitization and cross-reaction patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    by tansy, wild chamomile, yarrow and arnica, whereas dehydrocostus lactone of SL was the most frequent elicitor of positive reactions, followed by alantolactone and costunolide. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema) and marguerite (Argyranthemum frutescens) were the most important suspected sensitizers in both...

  13. Contact sensitivity in mice evaluated by means of ear swelling and a radiometric test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, O.; Larsen, A.

    1982-04-01

    Contact sensitivity to picryl chloride was investigated by means of the ear swelling test and a radiometric test in order to establish optimal experimental conditions for these assays. Contact sensitivity was demonstrated as soon as 2 days after sensitization, with a maximum reaction 3-4 days after sensitization, when a 48 hr test reaction was registered. The test reaction was followed for 72 hr and maximum was arrived at after 24 hr and 48 hr for the ear swelling test and the radiometric test, respectively. Optimal sensitization was reached with a 7% solution of picryl chloride and a maximum test reaction was found with 0.75-1.0% picryl chloride. It is concluded that both assays measure contact sensitivity in quantitative terms and a future replacement of the guinea pig maximization test is discussed.

  14. Detection of causative allergens of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis%化妆品变应性接触性皮炎变应原检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永莲; 刘润秋; 施辛; 张静; 黎平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To make a survey on common cosmetic allergens, and to provide epidemiological data and clinical evidence for cosmetic allergy. Methods Patch test was performed by using 49cosmetic allergens from a European cosmetic series and 5 Chinese standard screening allergens on 89patients with suspected cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis. Test results were determined according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) recommendation. Results Of the 89 patients, 61(68.5%) showed positive reactions to one or more cosmetic allergens. The most common allergens were fragrances (33.7%), followed by preservatives (30.3%), para-phenylenediamine (25.8%) and amerchol L 101(10.1%). Conclusion Fragrances, preservatives, para-phenylenediamine and amerchol L 101 are dominant causative allergens in patients with cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis.%目的 调查化妆品变应原种类,为化妆品过敏提供流行病学资料和临床依据.方法 对89例门诊疑诊化妆品变应性接触性皮炎患者采用49种欧洲化妆品系列变应原及5种中国筛查系列化妆品变应原进行斑贴试验,按国际接触性皮炎研究组推荐标准判读结果.结果 89例患者中,61例对1种或1种以上化妆品变应原过敏,阳性反应率68.5%.其中阳性率较高的有香料33.7%,防腐剂30.3%,对苯二胺25.8%,阿莫醇10.1%.结论 香料、防腐剂、对苯二胺、阿莫醇等是化妆品变应性接触性皮炎患者的主要致敏原.

  15. Analysis of allergens in 167 pateints with allergic contact dermatitis%变应性接触性皮炎167例变应原分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广仁; 韩永智; 黄庚史; 王文慧; 李邻峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the environmental contact allergens in patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).Methods Totally,167 patients with ACD were included in this study.All the patients underwent patch test.Results Of these patients,92 (55.1%) were diagnosed as facial ACD,and 148 showed positive patch test results (88.6%).The six most common allergens in a decreasing order were nickel sulfate,fragrance mix,paraphenylenediamine,thimerosal,octanoates and amerchol L 101.Conclusion Patch test may be an efficient way to confirm the cause of ACD.%目的 分析变应性接触性皮炎患者的变应原.方法 对167例变应性接触性皮炎患者做斑贴试验.结果 面部变应性接触性皮炎92例,占55.1%.斑贴试验阳性者148例,占88.6%.前6位变应原依次为:硫酸镍、芳香混合物、对苯二胺、硫柳汞、辛酸盐和阿必醇.结论 斑贴试验是确证变应性接触性皮炎病因的有效手段.

  16. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT blocks the allergic esophago-gastro-enteropathy induced by sustained oral exposure to peanuts in sensitized mice.

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    Lucie Mondoulet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food allergy may affect the gastrointestinal tract and eosinophilia is often associated with allergic gastrointestinal disorders. Allergy to peanuts is a life-threatening condition and effective and safe treatments still need to be developed. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sustained oral exposure to peanuts on the esophageal and jejunal mucosa in sensitized mice. We also evaluated the effects of desensitization with epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT on these processes. METHODS: Mice were sensitized by gavages with whole peanut protein extract (PPE given with cholera toxin. Sensitized mice were subsequently exposed to peanuts via a specific regimen and were then analysed for eosinophilia in the esophagus and gut. We also assessed mRNA expression in the esophagus, antibody levels, and peripheral T-cell response. The effects of EPIT were tested when intercalated with sensitization and sustained oral peanut exposure. RESULTS: Sustained oral exposure to peanuts in sensitized mice led to severe esophageal eosinophilia and intestinal villus sub-atrophia, i.e. significantly increased influx of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa (136 eosinophils/mm(2 and reduced villus/crypt ratios (1.6±0.15. In the sera, specific IgE levels significantly increased as did secretion of Th2 cytokines by peanut-reactivated splenocytes. EPIT of sensitized mice significantly reduced Th2 immunological response (IgE response and splenocyte secretion of Th2 cytokines as well as esophageal eosinophilia (50 eosinophils/mm(2, p<0.05, mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines in tissue--eotaxin (p<0.05, IL-5 (p<0.05, and IL-13 (p<0.05--GATA-3 (p<0.05, and intestinal villus sub-atrophia (2.3±0.15. EPIT also increased specific IgG2a (p<0.05 and mRNA expression of Foxp3 (p<0.05 in the esophageal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: Gastro-intestinal lesions induced by sustained oral exposure in sensitized mice are efficaciously treated by allergen specific EPIT.

  17. Skin irritants and contact sensitizers induce Langerhans cell migration and maturation at irritant concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.J.L.; Lehé, C.L.; Hasegawa, H.; Elliott, G.R.; Das, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Skin irritants and contact allergens reduce the number of Langerhans cells (LCs). It has been assumed that this reduction is due their migration to the draining lymph node (LN) for initiating immune sensitization in a host. Skin irritation, however, as opposed to contact allergy is not considered to

  18. Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Temporary "Black Henna" Coloring of the Hair During Religious Cultural Celebrations: Three Different Cases, Same History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Rimon, Ayelet; Danino, Dana; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis after the application of temporary, paint-on, henna tattoos represents a well-known, potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 3 cases involving 3 children of the same age who developed a severe contact dermatitis with massive face and neck swelling after application of black henna to their hair during "Purim" celebrations. All 3 cases had a history of having applied henna tattoos in the previous year with mild local reactions. Their reactions are presumed to be due to sensitization to para-phenylenediamine. Although reactions to henna are being increasingly reported, reactions of this severity seem to be rare and could lead to permanent skin changes.

  19. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-03

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  20. High prevalence of lipid transfer protein sensitization in apple allergic patients with systemic symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gomez

    Full Text Available Apple allergy manifests as two main groups of clinical entities reflecting different patterns of allergen sensitization: oral allergy syndrome (OAS and generalized symptoms (GS.We analysed the sensitization profile to a wide panel of different components of food allergens (rMal d 1, Mal d 2, rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3, rBet v 1 and Pho d 2 for a population of Mediterranean patients with OAS and GS to apple.Patients (N = 81 with a history of apple allergy that could be confirmed by positive prick-prick test and/or double-blind-placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC, were included. Skin prick test (SPT and ELISA were performed using a panel of inhalant, fruit and nut allergens. ELISA and ELISA inhibition studies were performed in order to analyse the sensitization patterns.Thirty-five cases (43.2% had OAS and 46 (56.8% GS. SPT showed a significantly higher number of positive results with peach, cherry and hazelnut in those with GS. ELISA showed a significantly high percentage of positive cases to rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3 and Pho d 2 in patients with OAS and GS compared to controls, and to rBet v 1 in patients with OAS vs controls and between OAS and GS patients. Three different patterns of recognition were detected: positive to LTP (rMal d 3 or rPru p 3, positive to profilin (rMal d 4 and Pho d 2, or positive to both. There were also patients with rMal d 1 recognition who showed cross-reactivity to rBet v 1.In an apple allergy population with a high incidence of pollinosis different patterns of sensitization may occur. LTP is most often involved in those with GS. Profilin, though more prevalent in patients with OAS, has been shown to sensitise patients with both types of symptoms.

  1. Evaluation of human skin tests for potential dermal irritant and contact sensitizing products: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Jong WH de; Garssen J; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Prediction of human cutaneous irritation and sensitization in view of hazard identification has primarily relied on the use of laboratory animals. Such studies in laboratory animals have been very instrumental in the detection of potential contact sensitizing agents. There are however many uncertain

  2. Keratinocyte gene expression profiles discriminate sensitizing and irritating compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel, R.J. van de; Pennings, J.L.A.; Baken, K.A.; Pronk, T.E.; Boorsma, A.; Gottschalk, R.; Loveren, H. van

    2010-01-01

    Many chemicals can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Because evaluation of skin sensitizing potential by animal testing is prohibited for cosmetics, and screening of many chemicals is required within Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, urgent need exists for predi

  3. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen.

  4. 小鼠背部变应性接触性皮炎模型的建立%Establishing a model of allergic contact dermatitis at mice' back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国江; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    目的建立小鼠背部变应性接触性皮炎(allergic contact dermatitis,ACD)模型.方法用二硝基氟苯(dinitrofluorobenzene,DNFB)分别建立小鼠背部及耳廓ACD模型,比较两种模型在不同时间点皮肤肿胀度及HE染色炎细胞数量变化情况.结果①背部ACD肿胀度大于耳廓ACD肿胀度,配对t检验,t=6.39,P<0.01,并且两种模型的肿胀度变化呈正相关. ②背部ACD较耳廓ACD单一核细胞数量少,多形核细胞数量多,前者t=8.59,P<0 .01,后者t=6.05,P<0.01;两模型的细胞数量变化呈正相关.结论背部ACD模型可以代替耳廓ACD模型用于评价抗炎药物.背部模型肿胀度高,适合肉眼判断皮炎程度.

  5. Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Jeonghyeon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis (CD mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.

  6. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  7. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  8. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  9. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders.

  10. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded.

  11. Advances in immunological mechanisms in allergic contact dermatitis%变应性接触性皮炎免疫学发病机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏向阳; 季双双; 赖维

    2011-01-01

    变应性接触性皮炎发病机制非常复杂,近来研究有新的发现,其中表皮角质形成细胞除促进T细胞的浸润外,还有限制该病发展的作用;皮肤树突细胞除执行抗原提呈作用外,可能还有免疫调节作用.还发现有新的免疫细胞和分子参与作用,如CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T细胞在其中发挥免疫抑制功能;Th17细胞介导、促进炎症反应;B10细胞通过IL-10依赖机制有负调节作用.一些黏附分子及其配基(PSGL-1等)和趋化因子(CCL21等)在发病中也起着一定作用.%The pathogenesis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is very complicated. However, new discoveries have been made on the topic in recent studies. Epidermal keratinocytes not only promote T cell infiltration, but also limit the development of ACD. In addition, cutaneous dendritic cells possess both antigen presenting function and immunomodulatory activity. Furthermore, some immune cells and molecules have been newly demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis. For example, CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells play a powerful immunosuppression role; T helper 17 (Th17) cells mediate and enhance inflammation reaction; B10 cells play a negative regulatory effect via an interleukin (IL)-10-dependent mechanism. Some adhesion molecules and their ligand (such as PSGL-1), as well as chemokines (such as CCL21) also exert a certain role in the pathogenesis of ACD.

  12. Adelmidrol increases the endogenous concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide in canine keratinocytes and down-regulates an inflammatory reaction in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, S; Puigdemont, A; Della Valle, M F; Fusco, M; Verde, R; Allarà, M; Aveta, T; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential new target(s)/mechanism(s) for the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, adelmidrol, and its role in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis. Freshly isolated canine keratinocytes, human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, wild-type or transfected with cDNA encoding for N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA), were treated with adelmidrol or azelaic acid, and the concentrations of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and related mediators (PEA and oleoylethanolamide) were measured. The mRNA expression of PEA catabolic enzymes (NAAA and fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH), and biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1, was also measured. Brain or HEK-293 cell membrane fractions were used to assess the ability of adelmidrol to inhibit FAAH and NAAA activity, respectively. HaCaT cells were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2), was measured in the presence of adelmidrol. Adelmidrol increased PEA concentrations in canine keratinocytes and in the other cellular systems studied. It did not inhibit the activity of PEA catabolic enzymes, although it reduced their mRNA expression in some cell types. Adelmidrol modulated the expression of PEA biosynthetic enzyme, NAPE-PLD, in HaCaT cells, and inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-2 from stimulated HaCaT cells. This study demonstrates for the first time an 'entourage effect' of adelmidrol on PEA concentrations in keratinocytes and suggests that this effect might mediate, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound in veterinary practice.

  13. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    2016-01-01

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept c

  14. Isobornyl acrylate contact allergy: Rare or underdiagnosed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, W.A.; Coenraads, P.J.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergic contact dermatitis to isobornyl acrylate has been reported in only two cases in literature. Therefore, isobornyl acrylate is not part of a (meth) acrylates patch test series. At our department an industrial worker presented with therapy-resistant hand eczema and sensitizations f

  15. Investigation of the sensitivity to EAC of steel T91 in contact with liquid LBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gabriele, F.; Doubková, A.; Hojná, A.

    2008-06-01

    The ferritic-martensitic steel T91 is one of the most promising material for application in the generation IV type reactors. However, there are critical issues, such as the susceptibility to damage of the steel in contact with the heavy liquid metals and their effect on the mechanical properties of structural materials. In this context, it was initiated a study of the boundary conditions, necessary to ascertain the sensitivity of the T91 to environmentally assisted cracking when loaded in contact with the liquid lead-bismuth eutectic. A series of tensile tests were carried out in a cell where the specimens were immersed in static LBE. Results showed that at high temperature the steel in contact with the liquid metal had a slight decrease of yield and UTS value and a marked increase in the elongation to rupture. However, at low temperature the elongation to rupture and the reduction of area decreased, indicating the sensitivity to EAC.

  16. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846

  17. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel Prabha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12 consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient’s own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78% patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%, 18 (27%, and 1 (1% patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3% patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52% patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31% patients and thiomersal in 7 (24% patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy.

  18. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese;

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic...... ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using...... a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...

  19. Contact sensitizers specifically increase MHC class II expression on murine immature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herouet, C; Cottin, M; LeClaire, J; Enk, A; Rousset, F

    2000-01-01

    Contact sensitivity is a T-cell-mediated immune disease that can occur when low-molecular-weight chemicals penetrate the skin. In vivo topical application of chemical sensitizers results in morphological modification of Langerhans cells (LC). Moreover, within 18 h, LC increase their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expression and migrate to lymph nodes where they present the sensitizer to T lymphocytes. We wanted to determine if such an effect could also be observed in vitro. However, because of the high genetic diversity encountered in humans, assays were performed with dendritic cells (DC) obtained from a Balb/c mouse strain. The capacity of a strong sensitizer, DNBS (2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid), to modulate the phenotype of bone marrow-derived DC in vitro, was investigated. A specific and marked increase of MHC class II molecules expression was observed within 18 h. To eliminate the use of animals in sensitization studies, the XS52 DC line was tested at an immature stage. A 30-min contact with the strong sensitizers DNBS and oxazolone, or the moderate mercaptobenzothiazole, resulted in upregulation of MHC class II molecules expression, analyzed after 18-h incubation. This effect was not observed with irritants (dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium lauryl sulfate) nor with a neutral molecule (sodium chloride). These data suggested the possibility of developing an in vitro model for the identification of the sensitizing potential of chemicals, using a constant and non animal-consuming material.

  20. Low resistivity molybdenum thin film towards the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vuong Son; Tran Thi Ha; Luong T Thu Thuy; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Nguyen Duc Chien; Mai Anh Tuan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the molybdenum thin film electrode as the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The molybdenum thin film was grown on the glass substrate by direct current sputtering techniques of which the sputtering power was 150Wat 18 sccm flow rate of Ar. At such sputtering parameters, the Mo film can reach the lowest resistivity of 1.28E−6 cm at 400 nm thick. And the reflection of Mo membrane was 82%. This value is considered as a very good result for preparation of the back contact of DSSC.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to latanoprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerstad, Kelly Michele; Warshaw, Erin

    2002-03-01

    An 85-year-old male with glaucoma presented with a 1-1/2 year history of tearing; red eyes; and pruritic, edematous, eczematous eyelids. Treatment for presumed ocular rosacea and seborrhea was unhelpful. Patch testing to our standard 64 antigens yielded a positive reaction to Balsam of Peru. Notably, benzalkonium chloride, thimerosal, and other preservatives elicited negative reactions. Repeat open application testing elicited positive results to Xalatan (latanoprost) 0.005% ophthalmic solution (Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI). A second session of patch tests to 10 personal products, in addition to Xalatan 0.005% solution and the Xalatan vehicle (provided by the manufacturer), elicited a strong positive reaction only to the full preparation of Xalatan 0.005% solution. This report describes the first known case of ACD to latanoprost, a new prostaglandin analog that is widely prescribed for treatment of glaucoma.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to superglue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornakumar, L; Shanmugasekar, C; Rai, Reena; Priya, S

    2013-01-01

    Wigs are commonly used to cover baldness. A 28 year old male presented with itchy oozy eythematous lesions on the forehead where the wig was afixed to the scalp. Patch testing with indian standard seies and dental series revealed positivity to 2-hydroxy ethyl meta acrylate present in superglue. We report this case for its clinical rarity.

  3. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  4. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement–a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullin, C.; Markus, M. A.; Larsson, E.; Tromba, G.; Hülsmann, S.; Alves, F.

    2016-11-01

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy.

  5. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  6. The Possible Role of Contact Sensitization to Fragrances and Preservatives in Poikiloderma of Civatte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Khunkhet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous mechanisms have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of poikiloderma of Civatte (PC, including chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, menopause-related hormonal changes, contact hypersensitivity and genetic predisposition. Herein, we report a case of contact sensitization to fragrances and commonly used preservatives, methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, also widely known as Kathon CG, in a post-menopausal woman with PC, who denied excessive sun exposure and a family history. After abstaining from the use of her personal care products containing the documented allergens, not only the itching and burning symptoms, but also the cutaneous changes appeared to improve partially. This report underlines the possible influence of contact hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis of PC.

  7. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE crossreactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-qing; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; Michael Dho Spangfort; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients.Methods The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches.Results Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females.Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients,88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der P sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach.Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  8. Hall effect enhanced low-field sensitivity in a three-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2012-06-06

    An extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device with a 3-contact geometry has been fabricated and characterized. A large enhancement of the output sensitivity at low magnetic fields compared to the conventional EMR device has been found, which can be attributed to an additional influence coming from the Hall effect. Output sensitivities of 0.19 mV/T at zero-field and 0.2 mV/T at 0.01 T have been measured in the device, which is equivalent to the ones of the conventional EMR sensors with a bias of ∼0.04 T. The exceptional performance of EMR sensors in the high field region is maintained in the 3-contact device.

  9. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema att...

  10. Contact sensitivity to newsprint: a rare manifestation of coal tar allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illchyshyn, A.; Cartwright, P.H.; Smith, A.G.

    1987-07-01

    Contact dermatitis due to coal tar is infrequently reported in spite of the fact that it consists of a mixture of 10,000 constituents, and is still often used to treat both eczema and psoriasis. Discusses patient with coal tar sensitivity in whom the source of exacerbation of her dermatitis is shown to be newsprint, a common product containing coal tar-derived material. 6 refs.

  11. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed...... for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some...

  12. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... symptom in both allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of the allergic diseases. In paper I, we studied nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency assessed by acoustic rhinometry in children with allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis and healthy controls...... or asthma should be considered inflamed in the entire respiratory tract. In paper III, we aimed to describe asthma and intermediary asthma end-points associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in preschool-aged children. At age 7 years, we evaluated prevalence of asthma, eczema, food sensitization...

  13. Highly sensitive contact pressure measurements using FBG patch in endotracheal tube cuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, R.; Blackman, O. R.; Hernandez, F. U.; Korposh, S.; Morgan, S. P.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; James, S. W.; Evans, D.; Norris, A.

    2016-05-01

    A method for measuring the contact pressure between an endotracheal tube cuff and the trachea was designed and developed by using a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) based optical fibre sensor. The FBG sensor is encased in an epoxy based UV-cured cuboid patch and transduces the transversely loaded pressure into an axial strain that induces wavelength shift of the Bragg reflection. The polymer patch was created by using a PTFE based mould and increases tensile strength and sensitivity of the bare fibre FBG to pressure to 2.10×10-2 nm/kPa. The characteristics of the FBG patch allow for continuous measurement of contact pressure. The measurement of contact pressure was demonstrated by the use of a 3D printed model of a human trachea. The influence of temperature on the measurements is reduced significantly by the use of a second FBG sensor patch that is not in contact with the trachea. Intracuff pressure measurements performed using a commercial manometer agreed well with the FBG contact pressure measurements.

  14. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research.

  15. Clinical analysis of 96 cases with allergic contact stomatitis caused by fruit%水果致接触变应性口炎96例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易鸿

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of allergic contact stomatitis coused by fruit. Methods From April 2007 to October 2014,ninety six patients with allergic contact stomatitis coused by fruit were selected. The history of eating fruit,clinical manifestation and treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Results Pathogenic fruit followed by mango in 46 cases(47. 9% ),28 cases(29. 2% )of pineapple,12 cases of kiwi fruit(12. 5% )and 10 patients of apple (10. 4% ). Multiple children(82. 3% )and female(87. 5% ). The main clinical manifestations were the forehead,around the mouth,cheeks appeared edematous erythema,papules,blisters,with varying degrees of itching and burning sensation. Conclusion The susceptible age of allergic contact stomatitis of caused by fruit are children,the prevention measures of allergic contact stomatitis caused by fruit are mainly avoiding eating fruit. Therefore,to determine the pathogenic fruit is the key.%目的:探讨水果致接触变应性口炎的临床特点。方法选择2007年4月至2014年10月水果致接触变应性口炎患者96例,对其进食水果史、临床表现、治疗效果等进行回顾性分析。结果致病水果依次为芒果46例(47.9%)、菠萝28例(29.2%)、猕猴桃12例(12.5%)和苹果10例(10.4%)。多发于儿童(82.3%)及女性(87.5%)。主要表现为前额、口周、面颊出现水肿性红斑、丘疹、小水疱,伴有不同程度的瘙痒和烧灼感。结论儿童是水果致接触变应性口炎的易感人群,预防水果致接触变应性口炎的措施主要是避免进食相关水果。因此,确定致病水果是关键。

  16. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  17. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR.

  18. Osteopontin and allergic disease: pathophysiology and implications for diagnostics and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Denis F; Weiss, Johannes M

    2011-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoglycoprotein that is expressed by various immune cells in a secreted and intracellular form. It has cytokine, chemotactic and cell signaling functions enhancing Th1 and Th17 immunity and protects against apoptosis. Recent studies found OPN to be modulatory in cell-mediated and immediate-type allergic diseases. In allergic asthma, OPN enhances sensitization but downmodulates Th2-driven IL-4-dominated inflammation. The finding that OPN expression is augmented during specific immunotherapy supports a Th2 suppressive effect of OPN. In Th1-driven delayed-type allergy, such as allergic contact dermatitis, OPN supports dendritic cell migration and IL-12 expression and is secreted by T effector cells and keratinocytes, augmenting Th1-mediated allergy and supporting disease chronification. There are numerous missing links as to how OPN variants modulate allergic inflammation through different OPN receptors. OPN research in allergy is an interesting, rapidly expanding field that has high potential for translational research.

  19. Anti-allergic properties of a matured fruit extract of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in mite-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Otani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    The effects of oral ingestion of a hot water extract of matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on allergic responses were investigated in mite-sensitized mice. Sneezing and nose rubbing events in mice given a date extract-added diet were significantly lower than in those given an extract-free (control) diet. The serum total and mite antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and the number of spleen interleukin-4(+)CD4(+), IgE(+)B220(+) and FcεRIα(+)CD117(+) cells was significantly lower in mice given the date extract-added diet than in those given the control diet. Chlorogenic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid significantly reduced the number of IgE(+)B220(+) cells, while chlorogenic acid and pelargonin significantly decreased the number of FcεRIα(+)CD117(+) cells in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that some polyphenols in the date may reduce mite-induced allergic symptoms in mice via a decrease in the number of IgE-producing plasma cells and high-affinity IgE receptor-expressing mast cells.

  20. Systemic hydrocortisone/cortisol induces allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerma, A I; Reitamo, S; Maibach, H I

    1991-02-01

    To determine whether systemic hydrocortisone can elicit allergic skin reactions in patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone, we studied four patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate and two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone. Open oral provocation with 100 or 250 mg hydrocortisone in patients with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity elicited cutaneous reactions at sites of previous allergic dermatitis caused by hydrocortisone in two patients and at sites of earlier allergic patch test reactions caused by hydrocortisone in the other two patients. Provocations in two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone remained negative. To determine whether the adrenal cortical hormone cortisol, which is identical to hydrocortisone, could induce similar skin reactions, one patient with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests; as a control, one hydrocortisone-sensitive patient underwent analogous provocations with placebo. After an 8-hour infusion with the adrenocorticotropic hormone analog tetracosactide, a similar skin reaction to that seen with oral hydrocortisone was observed, whereas provocations with placebo remained negative. We conclude that both oral hydrocortisone and intrinsic cortisol are able to induce allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

  1. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  2. Rhinitis symptoms and IgE sensitization as risk factors for development of later allergic rhinitis in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Linneberg, A

    2006-01-01

    Rhinitis symptoms and IgE-sensitization often mismatch. Asymptomatic sensitization is an established risk factor for later rhinitis, whereas it is not clear whether rhinitis is a risk factor for later development of IgE-sensitization.......Rhinitis symptoms and IgE-sensitization often mismatch. Asymptomatic sensitization is an established risk factor for later rhinitis, whereas it is not clear whether rhinitis is a risk factor for later development of IgE-sensitization....

  3. Classical nucleation theory of immersion freezing: sensitivity of contact angle schemes to thermodynamic and kinetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Luisa; Welti, André; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    Heterogeneous ice formation by immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds can be parameterized in general circulation models (GCMs) by classical nucleation theory (CNT). CNT parameterization schemes describe immersion freezing as a stochastic process, including the properties of insoluble aerosol particles in the droplets. There are different ways to parameterize the properties of aerosol particles (i.e., contact angle schemes), which are compiled and tested in this paper. The goal of this study is to find a parameterization scheme for GCMs to describe immersion freezing with the ability to shift and adjust the slope of the freezing curve compared to homogeneous freezing to match experimental data. We showed in a previous publication that the resulting freezing curves from CNT are very sensitive to unconstrained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters in the case of homogeneous freezing. Here we investigate how sensitive the outcome of a parameter estimation for contact angle schemes from experimental data is to unconstrained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. We demonstrate that the parameters describing the contact angle schemes can mask the uncertainty in thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. Different CNT formulations are fitted to an extensive immersion freezing dataset consisting of size-selected measurements as a function of temperature and time for different mineral dust types, namely kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, microcline (K-feldspar), and Arizona test dust. We investigated how accurate different CNT formulations (with estimated fit parameters for different contact angle schemes) reproduce the measured freezing data, especially the time and particle size dependence of the freezing process. The results are compared to a simplified deterministic freezing scheme. In this context, we evaluated which CNT-based parameterization scheme able to represent particle properties is the best choice to describe immersion freezing in a GCM.

  4. Contact Dermatitis Due to Nickel Allergy in Patients Suffering from Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alcamo, Alberto; Mansueto, Pasquale; Soresi, Maurizio; Iacobucci, Rosario; La Blasca, Francesco; Geraci, Girolamo; Cavataio, Francesca; Fayer, Francesca; Arini, Andrea; Di Stefano, Laura; Iacono, Giuseppe; Bosco, Liana; Carroccio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is a new clinical entity in the world of gluten-related diseases. Nickel, the most frequent cause of contact allergy, can be found in wheat and results in systemic nickel allergy syndrome and mimics irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Objective: To evaluate the frequency of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy in NCWS patients diagnosed by a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenge, and to identify the characteristics of NCWS patients with nickel allergy. Methods: We performed a prospective study of 60 patients (54 females, 6 males; mean age 34.1 ± 8.1 years) diagnosed with NCWS from December 2014 to November 2016; 80 age- and sex-matched subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms served as controls. Patients reporting contact dermatitis related to nickel-containing objects underwent nickel patch test (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02750735). Results: Six out of sixty patients (10%) with NCWS suffered from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy and this frequency was statistically higher (p = 0.04) than observed in the control group (5%). The main clinical characteristic of NCWS patients with nickel allergy was a higher frequency of cutaneous symptoms after wheat ingestion compared to NCWS patients who did not suffer from nickel allergy (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Contact dermatitis and nickel allergy are more frequent in NCWS patients than in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders; furthermore, these patients had a very high frequency of cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. Nickel allergy should be evaluated in NCWS patients who have cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. PMID:28157173

  5. Nickel contact sensitivity in the guinea pig. An efficient open application test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Rohold, A E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1992-01-01

    Nickel contact sensitivity was successfully induced in guinea pigs using an open epicutaneous application method. Immediately after pretreatment with 1% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate, upper back skin was treated daily for 4 weeks with 0.3%-3% nickel sulfate in either a 1% lanolin cream (Vaseline, p......H 5 SAD crème) or hydroxypropyl cellulose. Weekly intradermal injections with aluminium potassium sulfate were used as adjuvant. The animals were challenged twice with a one week interval, with nickel sulfate 2% in water and 1% in petrolatum, respectively. The response rates in the test groups treated...

  6. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22......%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy...

  7. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products.

  8. High proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells in neonates are positively associated with allergic sensitization later in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbeck, A; Rabe, H; Lundell, A-C; Andersson, K; Johansen, S; Adlerberth, I; Wold, A E; Hesselmar, B; Rudin, A

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the prevention against sensitization and allergy development is controversial. Objective We followed 65 newborn Swedish children from farming and non-farming families from birth to 3 years of age and investigated the relation between CD4+ T cell subsets in blood samples and development of sensitization and allergic disease. Methods The proportions of FOXP3+CD25high, CTLA-4+CD25+, CD45RO+, HLA-DR+, CCR4+ or α4β7+ within the CD4+ T cell population were examined by flow cytometry of blood samples at several time-points. Mononuclear cells were isolated from blood and stimulated with birch allergen, ovalbumin or the mitogen PHA, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-13 were measured. A clinical evaluation regarding the presence of allergen-specific IgE and allergy was performed at 18 and 36 months of age. Results Multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that children who were sensitized at 18 or 36 months of age had higher proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells at birth and at 3 days of life than children who remained non-sensitized, whereas allergy was unrelated to the neonatal proportions of these cells. The proportions of CTLA-4+CD25+ T cells were unrelated to both sensitization and allergy. The association between higher proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells and sensitization persisted after exclusion of farmer's children. Finally, a farming environment was associated with lower proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells in early infancy and to a more prominent T cell memory conversion and cytokine production. Conclusion & Clinical Relevance Our results indicate that high proportions of FOXP3+CD25high T cells in neonates are not protective against later sensitization or development of allergy. PMID:24528482

  9. 疑似面部化妆品变应性接触性皮炎58例斑贴试验%The Patch Test Results of 58 Cases of Suspected Facial Cosmetic Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑结成; 徐宁; 张杰; 周静; 窦侠; 于波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate cosmetic products related allergens and provide clinical guidance for suspected facial cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis patients.Methods Patch test of cosmetic series allergens was performed on 58 patients with suspected cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis.Thirty-seven patients were also tested by European standard series allergens at the same time.The positive reactions were determined according to the international contact dermatitis research group recommendation.Results Of the 58 patients patch test with cosmetic series, 34 (58.62%) patients showed at least one positive reaction.The most common allergen was Kathon CG (31.03%), which belonged to preservative allergens.Of the 37 patients patch test by European standard series allergens, 24 (64.86%) showed positive reactions.Conclusion Preservatives including Kathon CG, Methylisothiazolinone are the most common allergens inducing the cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis.%目的 调查化妆品相关变应原,为疑诊化妆品变应性接触性皮炎的患者进行临床治疗指导及预防.方法 对来自本科门诊的58例疑诊化妆品接触性皮炎患者进行化妆品系列变应原斑贴试验,部分患者同时进行欧洲标准系列变应原斑贴试验,按国际接触性皮炎研究组推荐标准判读结果.结果 58例患者中,化妆品系列斑贴试验阳性率58.62%,最常见的化妆品变应原为卡松CG(31.03%)及甲基异噻唑啉酮(29.31%),在所有的阳性反应中,防腐剂类变应原所占比例最高,为77.59%;欧洲标准系列的化妆品相关变应原中阳性率最高的为卡松CG(21.62%),标准系列中化妆品相关变应原与化妆品系列变应原阳性结果呈中等一致性.结论 防腐剂类是化妆品变应性接触性皮炎患者最主要的过敏原.

  10. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed...... for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some...

  11. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  12. 面部不明原因皮炎接触过敏原分析%Analysis of Contact Allergic Substances in 106 Facial Dermatitis Patients with Unconfirmed Reason

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蔚; 胡白; 张兰芳; 姚秀华

    2013-01-01

    目的 对面部不明原因皮炎患者的接触过敏物质进行分析.方法 对106例面部不明原因皮炎患者进行中国筛查系列斑贴试验,对其中20例可疑的化妆品致敏患者进行化妆品系列斑贴试验,按照国际接触性皮炎研究组推荐的标准为依据.结果 中国筛查系列斑贴试验总阳性率54.72%,阳性率较高的前5位变应原是硫酸镍(18.87%)、甲醛(13.21%)、5-氯-2-甲基-4-异噻唑啉-3-酮(CL+Me-异噻唑)(12.26%)、氯化钴(9.43%)和芳香混合物(8.49%).化妆品系列斑贴试验总阳性率100%,阳性率较高的前3位变应原是山梨糖醇酐倍半油酸酯(司盘-83)(40.00%)、月桂醇葡萄苷(30%)和十二烷酸盐(25%).结论 面部不明原因皮炎患者多数存在接触过敏原,中国筛查系列的斑贴试验结果反映该类群体普遍存在体质敏感的现象;化妆品相关变应原的斑贴试验结果显示此类患者主要对乳化剂、表面活性剂、抗氧化剂原料过敏.%Objective To analyze the contact allergic substances in unconfirmed facial dermatitis patients.Methods Patch tests with Chinese standardized patch test technique was used to investigate 106 patients with unknown cause of facial dermatitis.Among them,20 patients with suspicious cosmetic contact dermatitis were further tested with cosmetic related allergens,following the recommended standard of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group.Results The positive rate of Chinese standardized patch test technique was 54.72%.The top five allergens were nickel sulphate (18.87%),formaldehyde (13.21%),CL+Me-isothiazole (12.26%),cobalt chloride (9.43%) and aromatic compounds (8.49%).The positive rate of standardized patch test technique cosmetic patch tests was 100%.The top three allergens were Span-83 (40.00%),lauryl monophosphate grapes(30%) and lauric acid salt(25%).Conclusion The results of patch tests in unconfirmed facial dermatitis patients are

  13. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Susan, E-mail: S.Gibbs@VUMC.nl [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, Dept of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Corsini, Emanuela [Laboratory of Toxicology, DiSFeB, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Spiekstra, Sander W. [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, Dept of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Galbiati, Valentina [Laboratory of Toxicology, DiSFeB, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Fuchs, Horst W. [CellSystems GmbH, Troisdorf (Germany); DeGeorge, George; Troese, Matthew [MB Research Labs, Spinnerstown, PA (United States); Hayden, Patrick; Deng, Wei [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Roggen, Erwin [3Rs Management and Consultancy (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low water solubility or stability. A protocol was developed using different 3D-epidermal models including in house VUMC model, epiCS® (previously EST1000™), MatTek EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic™ RHE and also the impact of different vehicles (acetone:olive oil 4:1, 1% DMSO, ethanol, water) was investigated. Following topical exposure for 24 h to 17 contact allergens and 13 non-sensitizers a robust increase in IL-18 release was observed only after exposure to contact allergens. A putative prediction model is proposed from data obtained from two laboratories yielding 95% accuracy. Correlating the in vitro EE sensitizer potency data, which assesses the chemical concentration which results in 50% cytotoxicity (EE-EC{sub 50}) with human and animal data showed a superior correlation with human DSA{sub 05} (μg/cm{sup 2}) data (Spearman r = 0.8500; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0061) compared to LLNA data (Spearman r = 0.5968; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0542). DSA{sub 05} = induction dose per skin area that produces a positive response in 5% of the tested population Also a good correlation was observed for release of IL-18 (SI-2) into culture supernatants with human DSA{sub 05} data (Spearman r = 0.8333; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0154). This easily transferable human in vitro assay appears to be very promising, but additional testing of a larger chemical set with the different EE models is required to fully evaluate the utility of this assay and to establish a definitive prediction model. - Highlights: • A potential epidermal equivalent assay to label and classify sensitizers • Il-18 release distinguishes sensitizers from non sensitizers • IL-18 release can rank sensitizer potency

  14. Evaluation of touch-sensitive screen tablet terminal button size and spacing accounting for effect of fingertip contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, T; Doi, K; Fujimoto, H

    2015-08-01

    Touch-sensitive screen terminals enabling intuitive operation are used as input interfaces in a wide range of fields. Tablet terminals are one of the most common devices with a touch-sensitive screen. They have a feature of good portability, enabling use under various conditions. On the other hand, they require a GUI designed to prevent decrease of usability under various conditions. For example, the angle of fingertip contact with the display changes according to finger posture during operation and how the case is held. When a human fingertip makes contact with an object, the contact area between the fingertip and contact object increases or decreases as the contact angle changes. A touch-sensitive screen detects positions using the change in capacitance of the area touched by the fingertip; hence, differences in contact area between the touch-sensitive screen and fingertip resulting from different forefinger angles during operation could possibly affect operability. However, this effect has never been studied. We therefore conducted an experiment to investigate the relationship between size/spacing and operability, while taking the effect of fingertip contact angle into account. As a result, we have been able to specify the button size and spacing conditions that enable accurate and fast operation regardless of the forefinger contact angle.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects : Current knowledge assembled at an international workshop at BfR, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiser, M; Tralau, T; Heidler, J

    2012-01-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German 'Federal Institute for Risk Assessment' hosted an 'International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis'. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments...... from contact allergy. Workplace exposure, age, sex, use of consumer products and genetic predispositions were identified as the most important risk factors. Research highlights included: advances in understanding of immune responses to contact sensitisers, the importance of autoxidation or enzyme...

  16. A Wirelessly Powered Smart Contact Lens with Reconfigurable Wide Range and Tunable Sensitivity Sensor Readout Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Liou, Wei-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai

    2017-01-07

    This study presented a wireless smart contact lens system that was composed of a reconfigurable capacitive sensor interface circuitry and wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID) addressable system for sensor control and data communication. In order to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort, a capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available bio-compatible lens material and a standard manufacturing process. The results indicated that the reconfigurable sensor interface achieved sensitivity and baseline tuning up to 120 pF while consuming only 110 μW power. The range and sensitivity tuning of the readout circuitry ensured a reliable operation with respect to sensor fabrication variations and independent calibration of the sensor baseline for individuals. The on-chip voltage scaling allowed the further extension of the detection range and prevented the implementation of large on-chip elements. The on-lens system enabled the detection of capacitive variation caused by pressure changes in the range of 2.25 to 30 mmHg and hydration level variation from a distance of 1 cm using incident power from an RFID reader at 26.5 dBm.

  17. Dermatite alérgica de contato a medicamentos de uso tópico: uma análise descritiva Allergic contact dermatitis to topical drugs: a descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Lazzarini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatite de contato é uma dermatose comum e suas múltiplas causas dificultam seutratamento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a frequência da sensibilização aos medicamentos de uso tópico, em serviço universitário; estudar as características da população afetada e identificar os principais sensibilizantes relacionados aos medicamentos tópicos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com hipótese diagnóstica de dermatite alérgica de contato e que foram submetidos a testes epicutâneos. Avaliaram-se os que tiveram diagnóstico final de dermatite alérgica de contato a medicamentos tópicos. RESULTADOS: Em um grupo de 329 pacientes submetidos a testes de contato, 42 (13% tiveram testes de contato positivos e relevantes para medicamentos tópicos, pelo princípio ativo e/ou por outros componentes. Entre os testes positivos, 36 (85,7% corresponderam aos princípios ativos e 28 (66,7%, a outros componentes das fórmulas, com alguns pacientes apresentando mais de um teste positivo. Entre os princípios ativos, a neomicina foi o mais frequente. CONCLUSÕES: Entre os pacientes estudados, a sensibilização aos medicamentos tópicos ocorreu em 13% dos casos, com discreta preferência pelo sexo feminino e maior número de casos entre pacientes brancos. Houve elevada frequência de dermatite alérgica de contato pela neomicina, agente de uso comum como automedicação e também como prescrição médica.BACKGROUND: Allergic Contact Dermatitis is a common type of dermatitis, but its multiple etiologies hinder its management. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to topical drugs in a university center, to study the main characteristics of the affected population, and to identify the allergens related with the dermatitis. METHODS: a retrospective and descriptive study with patients submitted to patch tests. The study was conducted with subjects whose

  18. Is ascaridol het contact-allergeen in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Christoffers, W.A.; Blömeke, B.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil may result in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to ascaridole,

  19. Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, R; Kansky, A

    1985-01-01

    Out of 401 workers employed in a factory producing shoes from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) granulate, 388 were investigated. By patch testing with the standard tests and 4 phthalate compounds, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed in 11 of these. Six of them were sensitized to phthalates and 5 to coal tar.

  20. Pattern of contact sensitization in patients with and without atopic dermatitis in a hospital-based clinical database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization are common conditions; however, a definite understanding of the relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has not been reached. OBJECTIVES: In this descriptive study, we investigated the differences between positive...... tested at Bispebjerg and Roskilde Hospitals from January 2009 to January 2013. Severe atopic dermatitis was defined as systemic therapy or hospitalization resulting from atopic dermatitis. All other patients with atopic dermatitis were defined as having mild/moderate disease. RESULTS: The study included...

  1. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema attending the contact dermatitis clinic of the institute were recruited over a two year period from 2004-05. Objective assessment was done using hand eczema severity index (HECSI and all the patients were patch tested using Indian standard series. Results: Unspecified type of hand eczema with no definite morphologic picture was seen in 62% followed by pompholyx in 14%. Hand eczema severity was not found to be statistically associated with age, sex, and atopic status of the patient. Positive patch test to one or more allergen was present in 65% of patients. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (25%, fragrance mix (16%, nickel sulphate (14%, and PPD (13%. There was no significant correlation between patch test positivity and hand eczema severity or atopic status of the patient. Among the morphological patterns pompholyx was strongly associated with an atopic status (P=0.004. Conclusions: Hand eczema was seen twice more commonly in men. Atopic and non-atopic patients of hand eczema had no difference in the severity of disease. Contact sensitivity to different allergens did not correlate with increased eczema severity.

  2. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  3. 调节性T细胞在变应性接触性皮炎中的作用%The role of regulatory T cells in allergic contact dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 李邻峰

    2015-01-01

    调节性T细胞是一类具有免疫调节作用的T细胞亚群。近年来研究发现调节性T细胞除了CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T细胞外,还有多种亚型,通过多种免疫调节机制作用于效应细胞和抗原提呈细胞发挥免疫抑制作用,参与机体多种炎症和自身免疫相关疾病。变应性接触性皮炎是一种常见的炎症性皮肤病,是抗原特异性T细胞介导的皮肤超敏反应。调节性T细胞通过多种免疫调节通路,在其致敏阶段和诱发阶段均发挥重要作用,从而阻止弱抗原引发的接触性皮炎,减弱强抗原引发的皮肤炎症反应。%Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of T cells with immunoregulation activities. Recent studies have found that Tregs, apart from CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Tregs, play strong immunosuppression effects in the maintenance of self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, mainly by acting on effector cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) through multiple immunoregulatory pathways. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common inflammatory skin disease, and also referred to as cutaneous hypersensitivity, is mediated by antigen-speciifc T cells. Tregs take an important part in allergic contact dermatitis, including preventing a weak hapten-induced contact dermatitis and reducing a strong hapten-induced cutaneous inlfammation reaction.

  4. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species.

  5. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal...... and based on statements from patients rather than scientific data. However, a few clinical reports on accidental sensitization and exposure and oral challenge prove the existence of this kind of reaction, most convincingly for strong contact allergens such as costunolide in bay leaves, and less so for weak...... allergens such as those of lettuce. Other Compositae species suspected of causing systemic reactions are artichoke, mugwort, yarrow, dandelion, feverfew, and elecampane. Some Compositae vegetables and teas, such as lettuce and chamomile tea, may induce systemic reactions through both humoral and cell...

  6. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  7. [Epoxy resin systems and contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietranek, Jolanta Eliza

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is the major chronic skin disease that represents a global health problem. Its prevalence has been significant increasing in the latest decades. Contact dermatitis substantially alters the social life of patients and affects their work productivity. Epoxy resin systems are a frequent cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Epoxy resins have an extremely wide range of commercial applications. Epoxy resin systems include combinations of epoxy monomers, hardeners, reactive diluents, and/or a vast array of other additives. In occupational settings, sensitization occurs not only to resins, but also to hardeners and reactive diluents. In this article adverse effects of epoxy resin systems are discussed.

  8. Nasal sodium cromoglycate (Lomusol) modulates the early phase reaction of mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mite: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Margaux; Lefebvre, Philipe P; Delvenne, Philippe; El-Shazly, Amr E

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical improvement of patients with mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) due to mono-sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen, by sodium cromoglycate nasal spray (Lomusol 4%). Lomusol was used as a single agent treatment, and its anti-inflammatory effects, in the early phase reaction were evaluated. Herein we showed that Lomusol significantly improved the subjective nasal symptom scores especially nasal obstruction. This was associated with significant and specific reduction in neutrophils influx in nasal cytology but had no effect on other cell types. This selective anti-inflammatory effect on nasal cytology was associated with significant reduction in the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and histamine in nasal secretions but had no effect on PGD2, LTC4 or CysLt levels. Lomusol was also able to induce significant reduction in eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in nasal secretions without altering the percentage of eosinophil influx in nasal cytology. Taken collectively, we showed the first evidence that nasal sodium cromoglycate possesses a selective inhibition on neutrophil recruitment into nasal cytology in the early phase reaction of AR patients mono-sensitized to HDM. This may be attributed to the ability of Lomusol to significantly reduce the amount of PAF recovered in nasal secretion. These results were associated with significant improvement in subjective symptom scores especially nasal obstruction that may in addition, be due to the ability of Lomusol to down-regulate eosinophil degranulation activity as well.

  9. Added sensitivity of component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated serum tryptase and/or mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, J B; Brockow, K; Darsow, U;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis caused by hymenoptera venom allergy is associated with elevation of baseline serum tryptase (sBT) and/or mastocytosis in about 5% of patients. Up to now, no information has become available on single venom allergen sIgE reactivity and the usefulness of component-resolved a......BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis caused by hymenoptera venom allergy is associated with elevation of baseline serum tryptase (sBT) and/or mastocytosis in about 5% of patients. Up to now, no information has become available on single venom allergen sIgE reactivity and the usefulness of component......-resolved approaches to diagnose this high-risk patient group. To address the component-resolved sIgE sensitization pattern and diagnostic sensitivity in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated sBT levels and/or mastocytosis, a panel of yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens was applied on a widely used...... IgE immunoassay platform. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with mastocytosis and/or elevated sBT tryptase level and systemic reactions to hymenoptera venoms were analyzed for their IgE reactivity to recombinant yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens by Immulite3 g. RESULTS: sIgE reactivity to Ves v...

  10. 外用茶油对变应性接触性皮炎发生的影响%Effects of topical application of camellia oil on the development of allergic contact dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林朝悦; 程波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of camellia oil on the development of allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Methods Mice models of allergic contact dermatitis were established with dinitrofluo-robene (DNFB). Then, certain concentrations of camellia oil and halcinonide were used topically on the ears of mouse models twice daily for 6 days. Skin specimens were obtained from the treated ears and subjected to histology examination and pathological analysis. RT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expressions of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in the skin tissues. Results Allergic contact dermatitis was successfully induced by DNFB in mice with a marked increase in the mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-7. There was a slight decrease in the ear swelling degree, inflammatory reaction intensity, number of infiltrating inflammatory cells, and pathological severity in camellia oil-treated mice and halcinonide-treated mice compared with glycerinetreated mice. Camellia oil and halcinonide also induced different degrees of reduction in the mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in inflammatory tissues. Conclusion Camellia oil can alleviate the pathological damage and down-regulate the expression of IL-2 and IFN-7 in mice with DNFB-induced allergic contact dermatitis.%目的 观察茶油对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎发生的影响.方法 建立二硝基氟苯致小鼠变应性接触性皮炎模型,外用药物进行治疗,观察发生皮炎的小鼠耳片的组织学变化(HE染色),RT-PCR检测组织中炎症细胞因子IL-2、IFN-γmRNA的表达水平.结果 成功建立二硝基氟苯致小鼠变应性接触性皮炎的动物模型,且皮肤中IL-2、IFN-γmRNA的表达显著增高.哈西奈德溶液组和茶油组的耳片组织肿胀明显减轻,炎症反应轻微,炎性细胞浸润数目少,组织病理变化轻.在茶油和哈西奈德溶液的干预下,炎性组织IL-2、IFN-γ的mRNA表达均不同程度下降.结论 茶油减轻二硝基氟苯致小鼠

  11. "肤敏"膏抑制小鼠变应性接触性皮炎机制的研究%Experimental Study on "Fu Min" Gao Inhibiting Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Murine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静平; 李庆生; 李杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究"肤敏"膏滋剂对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎(ACD)的抑制作用,探讨其作用机理.方法:以DNFB和FITC分别建立小鼠ACD模型.采用ELISA法检测ACD小鼠产生干扰素-γ (IFN-γ)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、白介素4和6(IL-4、IL-6)的水平及"肤敏"膏对4种细胞因子的作用.结果:口服不同剂量"肤敏"膏对4种细胞因子均有显著或不同程度的抑制作用(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:"肤敏"膏对小鼠ACD疗效可能通过抑制Th1/Th2细胞因子而发挥作用.%Objective: To investigate the mechanism of "Fu Min" Gao inhibiting allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in murine model. Methods:The murine model of allergic contact dermatitis by topical DNCB and FITC were used. After oral administration of "Fu Min" Gao in different doses, The levels of IFN - γ,TNF - α, IL - 4 and IL - 6 in the serum of these mice were detected by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Different doses of "Fu Min" Gao inhibited the expression of these four cytokines to different degrees. ( P <0.05 or P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of "Fu Min" Gao on murine ACD may be played by inhibiting the expression of some cytokines of helper T lymphocyte.

  12. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öner Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist.

  13. A Case of Allergic Dermatitis after Self-Treatment with Propolis: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fida

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Here we show that allergic contact dermatitis from propolis should be taken in consideration if an allergic reaction is evident. Dermatologists and general physicians should be aware of propolis as an important allergen that can cause Allergic Contact Dermatitis. The therapeutic use of propolis should be performed under medical advisory.

  14. Establishment of A Guinea Pig Model of Nickel Allergic Contact Dermatitis%镍变应性接触性皮炎豚鼠动物模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵显莉; 刁颖; 贺银丽; 徐艳峰; 郭珣; 李挚; 孙劲旅; 高虹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a guinea-pig model of nickel allergic contact dermatitis (ACD ) and investigate the influence of different experimental conditions (such as the concentration of nickel,duration of exposure,cutaneous microenvironment,and the schedule of elicitation)on the establishment the nickel ACD model.Methods Eighty-six guinea-pigs (240-270 g)were divided randomly into fourteen groups based on different factors (the concentration of nickel,duration of exposure,cutaneous microenvironment, and the schedule of elicitation).The 20%Ni-28d-6h,1 0%Ni-28d-6h,20%Ni-28d-SP-6h,1 0%Ni-28d-SP-6h,20% Ni-28d-24h,1 0% Ni-28d-24h,20% Ni-28d-SP-24h,and 1 0% Ni-28d-SP-24h group was sensitized in day 0,7,1 4 and challenged in day 28 with nickel sulfate,whereas,the 20%Ni-9d-6h,20%Ni-9d-24h,20%Ni-9d-SP-6h,20% Ni-9d-SP-24h,positive control (PC),and negative control (NC) group was sensitized in day 0,1 ,2 and challenged in day 9.Dynamic grading of the skin alterations was performed at 6,1 2,24,48,and 72 h after challenge.The levels of IL-2 and IFN-γin the guinea pig’s skin of group 20%Ni-9d-6h,20%Ni-9d-24h,20%Ni-9d-SP-6h,20%Ni-9d-SP-24h,PC,and NC was detected by ELISA methods.H.E staining was used for the pathological biopsy.Results The most severe erythemaic reaction was observed at 48 h in the groups of day 28,whereas at 24 h in the groups of day 9. Swelling was not obvious in all the guinea pigs.The levels of IL-2 and IFN-γin the skin lesions increased to the peak level (IL-2 533.53 ±41 .51 pg/ml),(IFN-γ1 235.63 ±76.85 pg/ml)at 48 h in the groups of day 9 untill 72 h.Inflammatory cells infiltrating,escharosis,hyperkeratosis,angiotelectasis was shown in the epidermis and dermis in all the animals,which is similar to human ACD.Conclusions The guinea-pig models of nickel ACD had been successfully established for different experimental conditions.The higher nickel level and resulted in more severe duration of exposure longer skin reaction.Similar results can be achieved

  15. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...... and adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  16. Coral contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  17. Coral contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-04-16

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  18. Can family history and cord blood IgE predict sensitization and allergic diseases up to adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrits Pagh Nissen, Susanne; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Høst, Arne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term studies of the predictive value of family history and cord blood IgE level until adulthood are few, and their conclusions have been contradictory. METHODS: Screening of total IgE in 1617 cord blood samples was performed in a Danish birth cohort. All infants with cord blood Ig...... symptoms at 1½ yr the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), the sensitivity and specificity of CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l, was 29%, 81%, 54%, and 61%, respectively. The corresponding figures at 26 yr were 46%, 62%, 43%, and 65%. Overall, family history as well as CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l was associated...

  19. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant.

  20. Experimental research of tacrolimus ointment in the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis in mice%他克莫司软膏对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯峥; 刘丹; 焦泽龙; 赵梓纲; 李恒进

    2013-01-01

      Objective: To study the efficacy of tacrolimus ointment in the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Methods:The DNCB was applied on the dorsum of mice to produce the allergic contact dermatitis models. A total of sixty mice were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, halometasone cream group, momestasone furoate group, hydrocortisone butyrate cream group and tacrolimus ointment group, with 10 mice in each group. The distinctions of inflammation degree of skin lesion, quantity of inflammatory cell in histopathological section, and levels of IL-4 and IFN-γin lesion were detected. Results: Application of the tacrolimus ointment can effectively alleviate the inflammation degree of lesion on dorsum of mice, reduce quantity of inflammatory cell in histopathology, and adjust the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ. The treatment effect of the tacrolimus ointment was equivalent to that of the halometasone cream, and was superior to that of the momestasone furoate and hydrocortisone butyrate cream. Conclusion:Topical tacrolimus ointment had the obvious treatment effect on allergic contact dermatitis.%  目的:评价他克莫司软膏治疗小鼠变应性接触性皮炎的疗效。方法:使用2,4-二硝基氯苯(DNCB)诱导小鼠背部变应性接触性皮炎,制造模型成功后,将60只小鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组、卤米松组、糠酸莫米松组、丁酸氢化可的松、他克莫司组,每组10只,分别接受相应药物的治疗。观察各组小鼠皮损炎症程度、组织病理切片炎症细胞数量改变及皮损中IL-4和IFN-γ水平的变化。结果:他克莫司软膏能有效减轻小鼠背部皮损炎症程度,减少组织病理切片炎症细胞数量,调节皮损中IL-4和IFN-γ的水平;其疗效与卤米松相当,优于糠酸莫米松及丁酸氢化可的松。结论:他克莫司软膏对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎具有明显的治疗作用。

  1. Exploring pH-Sensitive Hydrogels Using an Ionic Soft Contact Lens: An Activity Using Common Household Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; He, Yu-Chi; Yaung, Jing-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels of the so-called smart polymers or environment-sensitive polymers are important modern biomaterials. Herein, we describe a hands-on activity to explore the pH-responsive characteristics of hydrogels using a commercially available ionic soft contact lens that is a hydrogel of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-"co"-methacrylic…

  2. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  3. Pediatric contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K; Asati, Dinesh P

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  4. Effect of Treatment with Intranasal Corticosteroid and Oral Antihistamine on Cytokine Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Sensitive to Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR show increased production of the Th2-related cytokines. Almost always, intranasal corticosteroid (INC and antihistamine are used as routine therapy of AR. This study was performed to determine the in vitro secretion of cytokines profiles of PBMCs in patients with AR sensitive to Chenopodium album (Ch.a pollens before and after treatment with INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine. PBMCs of 20 patients with AR, were tested in vitro for cytokine production. These cells were stimulated with natural or recombinant Ch.a. The levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-, were measured in supernatants of cultured cell 96h after stimulation using ELISA. The PBMCs of 20 normal individuals were also similarly treared for comparison of results. The production of IL-4 by the patients' cells stimulated with either Ch.a or rCh.a was significantly higher than normal levels before therapy (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively. After therapy, a significant decrease in production of IL-4 and a significant increase in production of IL-10 were found in PBMCs stimulated with natural Ch.a, in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.03 for IL-4; p=0.04 for IL-10. Similarly, these results were seen in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 stimulated with rCh.a allergen after therapy in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.01 for IL-4; p=0.03 for IL-10. This study suggests INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine have the capacity to inhibit the production of IL-4 and shift Th2/Th1 responses, probably due to increase the level of immunoregulatory IL-10. Therefore, it could be concluded that therapy with INC and antihistamine has pharmacologic and immunologic therapeutic effects on AR patients.

  5. Effects of spicy foods on allergic contact dermatitis caused by cinnamic aldehyde%辛辣食物对肉桂醛引起的变应性接触性皮炎的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李周娜; 金哲虎

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨辛辣食物对肉桂醛引起的变应性接触性皮炎的影响.方法 小鼠连续灌胃辛辣食物后引出辛辣刺激体征;以肉桂醛为致敏物在小鼠皮肤上诱导、激发出变态反应,分别比较灌注辛辣食物的小鼠与灌注生理氯化钠溶液的小鼠皮肤上肉桂醛引起的变态反应强度的差异.结果 辛辣食物连续7d灌胃后,灌注辛辣食物的小鼠症状体征评分明显高于灌注生理氯化钠溶液的小鼠,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).肉桂醛引起的皮肤变态反应强度比较重,灌注辛辣食物的小鼠皮肤变态反应强度在24h、48 h评分显著高于灌注生理氯化钠溶液的小鼠皮肤变态反应,而在72 h评分两组比较,差异无统计学意义;在72 h组织病理评分中两组组织病理评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 按照实验所使用的剂量,辣椒、乙醇混合物能够在小鼠诱导出辛辣刺激的体征,辛辣食物会明显加重肉桂醛的皮肤变态反应强度.%Objective To evaluate the effect of spicy foods on allergic contact dermatitis caused by cinnamic aldehyde.Methods Sixty mice were equally divided into 3 groups,i.e.,blank control group,cinnamic aldehyde group and spicy food+cinnamic aldehyde group.Spicy foods (including alcohol and bush redpepper fruit) were intragastrically given for 7 days to induce irritation in the mice of spicy food+cinnamic aldehyde group.Then,the mice of innamic aldehyde group and spicy food +cinnamic aldehyde group were challenged by cinnamic aldehyde on the skin.The difference in allergic reaction intensity was compared between the cinnamic aldehyde group and spicy food +cinnamic aldehyde group.Results After 7-day intragastric administration of spicy foods,increased scores of symptom and sign were observed in the spicy food+cinnamic aldehyde group compared with the blank control group receiving intragastric sodium chloride physiological solution (P < 0.01 ).Intense allergic

  6. Study of the Effect and Mechanism of Dermatitis Lotion in the Treatment of Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Mice%皮炎洗剂对小鼠慢性变应性接触性皮炎的影响及其作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 王琼; 陈慧; 姜誉弘; 王丽灵; 王思农

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the efficacy of dermatitis lotion in the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis in mice. METHODS The 2,4-dinitro chlorobenzene(DNCB)was applied on the dorsum of mice to induce the allergic contact dermatitis models.60 mice were randomly divided into control,model(ACD),momestasone furoate,dermatitis lotion(0.4,0.2,0.1 g∕mL) groups,with 10 mice in each group.Mice were sensitized by DNCB and then treated topically with different drugs on le-sions.The inflammation degree of skin lesion were observed,histopathological analysis was measured by HE strain and the levels of serum IFN-γand IL-4 were detected by ELISA.RESULTS The dermatitis lotion of 0.4 g∕mL restrained the increase of thymus index,alleviated the inflammation degree of lesion on dorsum of mice and reduced the pathological score significant-ly,compared with the model group.In addition,the dermatitis lotion of 0.4 g∕mL adjusted the expression of serum IFN-γand IL-4 to return to normal levels.CONCLUSION These results suggest that dermatitis lotion can be used for the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) mainly through the regulation Th1∕Th2 cytokines.%目的:评价皮炎洗剂治疗小鼠慢性变应性接触性皮炎(ACD)的疗效。方法采用2,4-二硝基氯苯(DNCB)诱导小鼠背部 ACD。60只小鼠随机分为空白对照组、ACD 组、阳性组、皮炎洗剂大剂量组(0.4 g/mL)、中剂量组(0.2 g/mL)、小剂量组(0.1 g/mL),每组10只,于致敏后给药,观察各组小鼠第4次激发24 h 后皮损炎症程度、组织病理切片、炎症细胞数量改变及血清中 IFN-γ和 IL-4水平的变化。结果皮炎洗剂中、大剂量能有效减轻 ACD 小鼠引起的免疫器官肿大、皮损炎症程度,减少皮损组织炎症细胞数量,调节 ACD 组小鼠血清中γ-干扰素(IFN-γ)和白细胞介素-4(IL-4)水平。结论皮炎洗剂对小鼠ACD 具有明显的治疗作用,其作用机制可能与皮炎洗剂调节 Th1、Th2型细胞因子有关。

  7. Contact dermatitis: from pathomechanisms to immunotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F

    2012-05-01

    Contact allergens are small reactive chemicals. They cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) by activating the innate and adaptive immune system. Contact allergens are very peculiar because of their built-in autoadjuvanticity that allows them to trigger sterile inflammation following skin penetration. The innate inflammatory response involves the triggering of pattern recognition receptors either by direct chemical interaction with such receptors or by induction of endogenous activators. I discuss here the recent findings regarding prevalence and predisposition, the identification of innate immune and stress response mechanisms relevant for sensitization and the orchestration of the innate and adaptive immune response to contact allergens. Despite still significant gaps of knowledge, recent advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of ACD can now be used for the development of causative treatment strategies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens in immunotoxicology.

  8. [Most frequent causes of allergic contact dermatitis in farmers: based on material collected in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2003-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to many skin damaging factors. Following dermatological and allergological examinations, in a group of 132 farmers with suspected occupational disease, contact allergy induced by metals (chromates, nickel, cobalt, mercury), disinfectants and their components (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium compounds, lysol, chloramine), rubber and pesticides, especially pesticides of thiophtalimide and thiocarbamate groups were recorded. Farmers also reacted to other chemical compounds (colophony, lanolin, propolis) rarely responsible for hypersensitivity in other occupational groups. In addition, extensive areas of dermatitis (13%) induced by irritating chemical (fertilizers, pesticides, fodder for breeding animals) and physical (changing temperature, humidity, effect of solar radiation) factors were observed in the study group.

  9. Pediatric allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Qiao; Yizhen Hu; Zhinan Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between allergic conjunctivitis(AC) and allergic rhinitis(AR) in pediatric ophthalmology and E.N.T outpatient clinic. Methods:Eight hundred and ninety two patients were enrolled in survey during Mar. 2005~Jan. 2007, 407 allergic conjunctivitis cases were placed in the ophthalmology clinic group and 485 allergic rhinitis cases were from the E.N.T clinic.The comorbid disorders, histories, symptoms, signs of patients were recorded. Type 1 allergy was tested in 479 cases by a specific IgE antibody blood test. Eosinophils were detected in superficial conjunctival scrapings of the superior tarsal conjunctiva and mucosa surface scrapings of middle nasal meatus in 88 cases with both diseases. Results:302(74%), 374(92%), 116(29%) in 407 cases with allergic conjunctivitis had concomitant eczema, rhinitis and asthma, respectively; 334(69%), 430(89%), 145(30%) in 485 cases with allergic rhinitis had concomitant eczema, allergic conjunctivitis and asthma, respectively. The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis concomitant allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis concomitant allergic conjunctivitis had no significant difference(x2=2.6, P>0.05). The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis concomitant eczema and asthma also had no significant difference (x2=3.08; x2=0.21, P>0.05). The degree of severity of two kinds of disease symptoms is not parallel, in the patients with seasonal allergic conjuctivitis(SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis(PAC), the clinical signs of AR were always severer(x2=258.2, P<0.05)than those of AC. However, the results coincided with the cases with vernal keratoconjuctivitis(VKC)(x2=66.5, P<0.05); Eosinophils were revealed in 50(57%) conjunctival scrapings and nasal mucosa scrapings(x2=1.5, P>0.05), 47(53%) cases had positive results in both scrapings. The main aeroallergens were house dust mites, house dust and fungi, and the main food-allergens were fish, crab and shrimp

  10. Estudio epidemiológico de la dermatitis de contacto en personas mayores de 65 años Epidemiological study of the allergic contact dermatitis in people over 65 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Azúa Blanco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La dermatitis de contacto (DAC es una de las patologías ocupacionales o no más frecuentes, pudiendo constituir del 3% al 5% de las consultas de dermatología. El diagnóstico se realiza en base a la clínica presentada y a la realización de pruebas epicutáneas, pudiéndose demostrar con éstas la sustancia causante de esta enfermedad y valorar la prevalencia y la relevancia de las positividades de los alérgenos estudiados para hacer una buena prevención. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados mediante la serie estándar GEIDC (Grupo Español de Investigación de Dermatitis de Contacto (29 alérgenos y con alérgenos homologados elaborados por Martitor España. La técnica de aplicación y lectura de los parches se realizó siguiendo las recomendaciones del GEIDC. Se estudiaron pacientes de 65 años y más, registrados durante 9 años en la sección de alergia HCU Lozano Blesa Área Sanitaria 3, con las siguientes variables: número de pacientes con pruebas (+, edad, sexo, patología presentada, localización de las lesiones, profesiones, positividades a cada alergia. Se estudiaron 1.559 pacientes y, de ellos, a 1.309 (el 83,96% se les diagnosticó DAC, 551 varones (42,1% y 758 mujeres (57,9%; de este grupo tan sólo 50 personas (el 3,8% tenían más de 64 años, 17 varones y 33 mujeres. Revisando los datos de este estudio vemos que la alergia más prevalente es a medicamentos tópicos en 39 pacientes (37,14%, 26 mujeres y 13 varones, usados para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones dermatológicas. Pensamos que estos datos son interesantes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta al prescribir un tratamiento al paciente geriátrico, ya que podemos evitar el uso de determinadas sustancias con capacidad sensibilizante intensa (caínas, neomicina, etc. sustituyéndolas por otros fármacos.Allergic Contact Dermatitis (CAD is one of the most common pathologies of an occupational or non-occupational nature, making up from 3% to 5% of all dermatology

  11. 曲尼司特对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎的体外研究%In vitro study of tranilast on allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晴; 郭在培

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究曲尼司特对变应性接触性皮炎的抑制作用,并探讨其作用机制.方法:建立小鼠变应性接触性皮炎(allergic contact dermatitis,ACD)模型,体外法测定曲尼司特各剂量对小鼠脾细胞培养上清液中白介素-2(IL2)、干扰素-γ(IFN-γ)水平的影响.结果:曲尼司特给药浓度大于等于30 μg/ml各组可剂量依赖性抑制上清液中IL2、IFN-γ水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:曲尼司特可能通过抑制IL2、IEN-γ水平在变应性接触性皮炎治疗中发挥作用.

  12. Polyamine sensitization in offshore workers handling drilling muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, A D; Wakeel, R A; Mann, T A; Main, R A; Aldridge, R D

    1989-11-01

    Oil-based mud, a complex mixture containing amines in emulsifiers, is used in offshore drilling operations. It is a skin irritant that occasionally gives rise to allergic contact sensitivity. In patch testing patients with allergy to drilling mud, we have identified polyamine (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine) sensitivity in 5 patients. All 5 patients were also allergic to emulsifiers. These emulsifiers are cross-linked fatty acid amido-amines, in which unreacted amine groups are thought to cross-sensitize with these constituent polyamines. Cross-reactivity between ethylenediamine, diethylenetetramine and triethylenetetramine was found in 9 subjects.

  13. A microstructure sensitive study of rolling contact fatigue in bearing steels: A numerical and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandkar, Anup Surendra

    Bearings are an integral part of machine components that transmit rotary power such as cars, motors, engines etc. Safe bearing operation is essential to avoid serious failures and accidents, which necessitates their timely replacement. This calls for an accurate bearing life prediction methods. Based on the Lundberg-Palmgen (LP) model, current life models consistently under predict bearings lives. Improvement in life prediction requires understanding of the bearing failure mechanism i.e. Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF). The goal of this research is to develop a mechanistic framework required for an improved bearing life prediction model. Such model should account for metal plasticity, influence of microstructural features and cyclically evolving stressstrain fields induced during RCF. To achieve this, elastic-plastic finite element (FE) study is undertaken to investigate the response of M50-NiL bearing steel during RCF. Specifically, a microstructure sensitive study of the influence of non-metallic inclusions on RCF response of bearings is presented. M50-NiL microstructure consists of carbides which are orders of magnitude smaller than bearing dimensions. To account for this size difference, a multi-scale FE modeling approach is employed. The FE results reveal that hard carbide particles act as local stress risers, alter surrounding stressstrain fields and cause micro-scale yielding of steel matrix. Moreover, they introduce a shear stress cycle with non-zero mean stress, which promotes micro-plastic strain accumulation via ratcheting mechanism. Localized ratcheting is primarily responsible for cyclic hardening within the RCF affected region. Such evolution of subsurface hardness can be used to quantify RCF induced damage. To investigate this further, cyclic hardening response of the RCF affected region is simulated. The results show good agreement with the experimental observations. The cyclic stress-strain fields obtained from these simulations and the knowledge of

  14. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  15. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  16. Critical dimension uniformity and contact edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography: effect of photoacid generator, sensitizer and quencher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppuswamy, Vijaya-Kumar Murugesan; Constantoudis, Vassilios; Gogolides, Evangelos; Pret, Alessandro Vaglio; Gronheid, Roel

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges for developing extreme ultraviolet resists is to satisfy critical dimension uniformity (CDU) and sidewall roughness of contacts to the allowable limit. To this end, further understanding of the effects of resist ingredients on CDU and contact edge roughness (CER) is required. We investigate the effects of a photoacid generator (PAG), sensitizer and quencher concentrations on the CDU and CER. We find that the dependencies of CDU on sensitizer and quencher are dominated by photon shot noise (PSN) effects whereas a more complicated interplay between PSN and PAG distribution statistics should be considered in the dependence of CDU on PAG concentration. The estimated CER parameters [root mean square (RMS) value and correlation length ξ] exhibit a merging trend when plotted against the final critical dimension (CD). In addition, RMS value increases with exposure dose and PAG loading contrary to shot noise expectations. Power spectrum analysis reveals the dominant contribution of low-frequency undulations to CER, which is attributed to the enhanced interaction along specific directions between the aerial image and/or acid kinetics of nearby contacts. This inter-contact effect is further intensified with CD for fixed pitch and may explain the observed CER behavior.

  17. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.].

  18. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  19. Cellular dynamics in the draining lymph nodes during sensitization and elicitation phases of contact hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Geisler, Carsten; Nielsen, Martin Weiss;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The different role of various immunological effector cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is receiving increased attention. During the past decade, the involvement of different cell types in CHS has been investigated by the use of antibody-induced depletion of specific subtypes of ...... to evaluate the effect of different contact allergens on various cell populations of the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: Our study support recent findings that several cell types seem to be involved in CHS.......BACKGROUND: The different role of various immunological effector cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is receiving increased attention. During the past decade, the involvement of different cell types in CHS has been investigated by the use of antibody-induced depletion of specific subtypes...

  20. Is ascaridole a sensitizing degradation product in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tea tree oil is a natural oil, which contains a-terpinene. Degradation of a-terpinene results in the endoperoxide ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Objectives: To study the prevalence of sensitizations to ascaridole, the optimal patch test concentration, concomitan

  1. The role of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) and Claudin-1 (CLDN1) gene polymorphisms in contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Linneberg, Allan René; Johansen, JD;

    2013-01-01

    and T1 deletion, GSTP1 SNP rs1695, four CLDN1 SNPs (rs893051, rs9290927, rs9290929 and rs17501010), and FLG null (R501X and 2282del4) Results:  In individuals without ear piercings, a higher prevalence of nickel sensitization was found in those with the minor allele of CLDN1 SNP rs9290927 (p(trend) =0.......013). For CLDN1 rs17501010, contact sensitization to organic compounds was associated with the major allele (p(trend) =0.031). The risk pattern was also identified for self-reported nickel dermatitis (p(trend) =0.011). The fragrance sensitization prevalence differed in a pair-wise comparison of the CLDN1 rs......893051 SNP genotypes (p=0.022) with the minor allele being associated with a higher prevalence. The associations were confirmed in logistic regression analyses. Conclusions:  The CLDN1 polymorphisms rs9290927, rs893051, and rs17501010 were associated with nickel contact sensitization in individuals...

  2. Fabrication and characterization of a multidirectional-sensitive contact-enhanced inertial microswitch with a electrophoretic flexible composite fixed electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuoqing; Zhu, Bin; Chen, Wenguo; Ding, Guifu; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2012-04-01

    A multidirectional-sensitive inertial microswitch with a polymer-metal composite fixed electrode has been designed and fabricated based on surface micromachining in this work. The microswitch mainly consists of a suspended proof mass as a movable electrode and a T-shaped structure on the substrate with maple leaf-like top and cantilevers around the central cylinder as vertical and lateral fixed electrodes. It can sense the applied shock accelerations from any radial direction in the xoy plane and z-axis. The new vertical composite fixed electrode of the switch is completed by electroplating and electrophoretic deposition, which can realize a flexible contact between the electrodes and reduce the bounces and prolong the contact time. As a result, the stability and reliability of the inertial switch could be greatly improved. The fabricated microswitches have been tested and characterized by a standard dropping hammer system. It is shown that the threshold acceleration of the prototype is generally uniform in different sensitive directions in the xoy plane and z-axis, which is about 70 g. The contact time of the microswitch with the composite fixed electrode is ˜110 µs in the vertical direction, which is longer than that (˜65 µs) without a polymer. The test data are in agreement with dynamic finite-element simulation results.

  3. Contact sensitization in venous eczema: Preliminary results of patch testing with Indian standard series and topical medicaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Elimination of allergens/topical medications causing contact dermatitis in venous eczema, which poses a significant problem in its chronicity and treatment, provides the basis for better therapeutic outcome. Our objective was to determine the pattern of contact sensitization in venous eczema patients in Himachal Pradesh (India. Methods: Thirty-four patients (M:F, 31:3 and 10 controls (M:F, 6:4 were patch tested with Indian standard series and 10 commonly used topical medicaments. Results: Positive patch test results were seen in 50% (M:F, 16:1 of the patients. Common allergens were Fragrance mix (15%, p-phenylendiamine (15%, nickel (9%, wool alcohol (9%, chinoform (9%, balsum of Peru (5%, cobalt chloride (5%, potassium dichromate (3%, epoxy resin (3%, thiuram mix (3% and formaldehyde (3%. Only sisomycin and miconazole among the topical medications elicited a positive patch test reaction in 3 and 5% patients, respectively. Neomycin contact sensitivity was not seen in any of the patients. One patient who had exacerbation of venous eczema following accidental application of topical diclofenac showed a positive patch test reaction to it. Conclusions: Patch test should be used to identify the topical agents that may be responsible for perpetuation or aggravation of eczema, especially in patients who do not improve despite adequate treatment of other underlying cause(s.

  4. Contact to cat or dog, allergies and parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian Joachim; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Whether or not associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy are homogeneous across social strata has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between animal contact (cat, dog) and allergy/atopy in 6-yr-old school beginners, stratified by parental educational level. A total of 30794, 6-yr old children participated in cross-sectional studies between 1991 and 2000 in Germany. Allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and symptoms and diagnoses of atopic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever) were the dependent variables. Contact with dog/cat were the independent variables. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. Analyses were stratified for parental education. Prevalences of hay fever, eczema, specific sensitization to pollen and house dust mite increased, while the prevalence of contact to cat and dog decreased with parental educational level. Globally significant positive associations between cat contact and sensitization to cat (interaction significant) and between dog contact and wheezing remained significant in the highest and medium/highest educational strata respectively. A globally significant inverse association between cat contact and hay fever remained significant in the highest educational stratum only. The inverse association of contact to dog with eczema was globally significant, but not in the strata. When estimating the associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy in children, effect modification by social status should be considered. Cat contact seems to increase the odds of sensitization to cat only in children whose parents have a high level of education.

  5. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  6. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  7. A study of the enhanced sensitizing capacity of a contact allergen in lipid vesicle formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Carl; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Graneli, Annette;

    2011-01-01

    The growing focus on nanotechnology and the increased use of nano-sized structures, e.g. vesicles, in topical formulations has led to safety concerns. We have investigated the sensitizing capacity and penetration properties of a fluorescent model compound, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), when...

  8. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese;

    2010-01-01

    a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...

  9. Chronic lymphoedema caused by recurrent infections in a patient with allergic hand eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Dyring-Andersen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is very common and may be complicated by secondary infections. Chronic lymphoedema is a potentially debilitating condition, which may occur due to secondary infections or the dermatitis itself. The problem of chronic lymphoedema following allergic contact dermatitis has been infrequently reported. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with severe allergic contact dermatitis complicated by chronic, intractable lymphoedema of the hands and forearms. This case report reminds us that allergic hand dermatitis may be complicated by a chronic and debilitating state of lymphoedema. Also, it underlines the importance of fast and adequate treatment of both the dermatitis and the secondary infections.

  10. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  11. Sensitive detection of major food allergens in breast milk: first gateway for allergenic contact during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Vargas, C; Maroto, A S; Díaz-Perales, A; Villaba, M; Casillas Diaz, N; Vivanco, F; Cuesta-Herranz, J

    2015-08-01

    Food allergy is recognized as a major public health issue, especially in early childhood. It has been hypothesized that early sensitization to food allergens maybe due to their ingestion as components dissolved in the milk during the breastfeeding, explaining reaction to a food, which has never been taken before. Thus, the aim of this work has been to detect the presence of the food allergens in breast milk by microarray technology. We produced a homemade microarray with antibodies produced against major food allergens. The antibody microarray was incubated with breast milk from 14 women collected from Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital. In this way, we demonstrated the presence of major foods allergens in breast milk. The analysis of allergens presented in breast milk could be a useful tool in allergy prevention and could provide us a key data on the role of this feeding in tolerance induction or sensitization in children.

  12. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M;

    1991-01-01

    be an effective way to prevent undesired T cell-mediated immune functions, such as playing a role in allograft reaction, autoimmune and allergic diseases. In the present study allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH) to nickel, currently presenting the most frequent contact allergy in man, was chosen to establish...... the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were interviewed...... by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced frequency...

  13. CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells in disseminated and localized forms of allergic contact dermatitis: relation to specific cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Laudańska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs in the course of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD and to elucidate the role of IL-10 and TGF-b in Tregs activity. Peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25high cells were determined by flow cytometry in patients with acute disseminated ACD (‘ad’, n = 36, acute localized ACD (‘al’, n = 26, and disseminated ACD during remission (‘rd’, n = 27 as well as in controls (n = 22. Serum levels of cytokines were measured using ELISA. The mean percentage of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25high cells in patients with ad ACD was significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.01 and the remaining patients (p < 0.05. Both cell populations were significantly elevated in persons with widespread skin lesions (p < 0.05. In ad patients the CD4+CD25+ increased during three weeks of disease, although the significant increase of CD4+CD25high was noted only in the third week. Patients with ad ACD showed a significantly decreased serum level of TGF-b1 as compared with controls and the remaining ACD patients. IL-10 level did not differ between all groups. The elevated population of CD4+CD25high cells in ad ACD patients, and its dependence on the extension of skin lesions, suggest a role of Tregs in regulating the course of ACD. The growing Tregs percentages may indicate their peripheral generation during ACD. The development of lesions despite an increased population of Tregs suggests their functional defect. The role of TGF-b1 in the suppressive activity of Tregs cannot be excluded. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 255–262

  14. Changes of Activity of Th17 Cells in a Mouse Model of Allergic Contact Dermatitis%变应性接触性皮炎模型鼠体内Th17细胞活性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏向阳; 吴洁; 梁韵婷; 李美荣; 陈智睿

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究变应性接触性皮炎(allergic contact dermatitis,ACD)模型鼠外周血及皮损处Th17细胞活性变化情况及其意义.方法:利用2,4-二硝氟苯(DNFB)诱导构建ACD小鼠模型,分别于激发前及激发后的第3、6、9、12、24 h取小鼠耳组织及外周血,评估小鼠耳组织炎症情况,采用实时荧光定量 PCR 法检测小鼠皮损处IL-17及RORγt mRNA的表达水平,利用酶联免疫吸附试验检测血清中IL-17水平.结果:激发后24 h内小鼠耳组织肿胀程度逐渐加重,皮损中IL-17和RORγt mRNA表达量也逐渐升高,激发后各组与激发前组比较差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05);耳组织IL-17和RORγt mRNA表达量与其肿胀程度呈正相关;激发后小鼠血清中IL-17水平升高,在6小时达到最高,随后逐渐下降.结论:在ACD小鼠的急性炎症期,皮损及外周血中Th17细胞活性增强,并且局部皮损处的Th17细胞活性与炎症程度密切正相关.

  15. A rare case of recurrent pacemaker allergic reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shittu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic reactions to pacemaker device components are uncommon. However, when they occur, they usually mimic pacemaker infection, which results in multiple device replacements and increased morbidity burden. Here we present a 40-year-old female with pacemaker insertion due to complete heart block and who had multiple device replacements because of allergic sensitivity to various pacemaker component-encasing materials, confirmed by allergic testing to these materials. She had complete resolution of her symptoms after replacement with gold-plated device, to which she was not allergic.

  16. Chronic lymphoedema caused by recurrent infections in a patient with allergic hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Jensen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is very common and may be complicated by secondary infections. Chronic lymphoedema is a potentially debilitating condition, which may occur due to secondary infections or the dermatitis itself. The problem of chronic lymphoedema following allergic contact dermatitis ha...

  17. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value.

  18. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  19. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: Mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer for a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Similar to other processes, the modelling of heat and mass transfer during food processing involves uncertainty in the values of input parameters (heat and mass transfer coefficients, evaporation rate parameters, thermo-physical properties, initial and boundary conditions) which leads to uncertai......Similar to other processes, the modelling of heat and mass transfer during food processing involves uncertainty in the values of input parameters (heat and mass transfer coefficients, evaporation rate parameters, thermo-physical properties, initial and boundary conditions) which leads...... transfer model of a contact baking process. The Monte Carlo procedure was applied for propagating uncertainty in the input parameters to uncertainty in the model predictions. Monte Carlo simulations and the least squares method were used in the sensitivity analysis: for each model output, a linear...

  20. 热敏灸疗法对发作期变应性鼻炎患者症状的影响%The treatment of heat sensitive moxibution impact on the symptom of allergic rhinitis in the stage of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐璐; 夏纪严; 王露; 朱栋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of heat sensitive moxibution on cases of Allergic rhinitis in the stage of attack .Methods Scored the symptom grades before and after the treatments by symptoms signs scale and visual analogue scale ,and then analyzed statistically .Results ① scoring according symptoms and signs :The symptoms grades after the treatments were lower than before (P< 0 .05) .② visual analogue scale :The symptoms grades before and after the treatments were have significant difference .Conclusion The treatment of heat sensitive moxibution can instantly relieves the symptom of Allergic rhinitis in the stage of attack .%目的:评价热敏灸疗法对发作期变应性鼻炎患者症状的影响。方法对30例发作期变应性鼻炎患者采用热敏灸治疗,治疗前后用症状体征评分量表和视觉模拟评分量表(VAS)进行评分,比较患者治疗前后的症状情况。结果①症状体征评分,治疗前后各项症状比较,均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);②VAS 症状评分,治疗前后各项症状比较,均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论热敏灸可以迅速缓解发作期变应性鼻炎患者的症状。

  1. Proteomic allergen-peptide/protein interaction assay for the identification of human skin sensitizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, L.; Kinzebach, S.; Ohnesorge, S.; Franke, B.; Goette, I.; Koenig-Gressel, D.; Thierse, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Modification of proteins by skin sensitizers is a pivotal step in T cell mediated allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In this process small reactive chemicals interact covalently or non-covalently with cellular or extracellular skin self-proteins or self-peptides to become recognized by the human imm

  2. Benzaldehyde suppresses murine allergic asthma and rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae Young; Park, Chang-Shin; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Heo, Min-Jeong; Kim, Young Hyo

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the antiallergic effects of oral benzaldehyde in a murine model of allergic asthma and rhinitis, we divided 20 female BALB/c mice aged 8-10 weeks into nonallergic (intraperitoneally sensitized and intranasally challenged to normal saline), allergic (intraperitoneally sensitized and intranasally challenged to ovalbumin), and 200- and 400-mg/kg benzaldehyde (allergic but treated) groups. The number of nose-scratching events in 10 min, levels of total and ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum, differential counts of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, titers of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in BAL fluid, histopathologic findings of lung and nasal tissues, and expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3), inflammation (COX-2), antioxidation (extracellular SOD, HO-1), and hypoxia (HIF-1α, VEGF) in lung tissue were evaluated. The treated mice had significantly fewer nose-scratching events, less inflammatory cell infiltration in lung and nasal tissues, and lower HIF-1α and VEGF expressions in lung tissue than the allergic group. The number of eosinophils and neutrophils and Th2 cytokine titers in BAL fluid significantly decreased after the treatment (Pbenzaldehyde exerts antiallergic effects in murine allergic asthma and rhinitis, possibly through inhibition of HIF-1α and VEGF.

  3. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagata

    Full Text Available Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO, MIF transgenic (Tg and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW pollen or Japanese cedar (JC pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  4. [Allergic reactions to transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergon, E; Paitre, M L; Coeffic, B; Piard, N; Bidet, J M

    1987-04-01

    Frequent allergic reactions following transfusion are observed. Usually, they are benign but sometimes we observe severe allergic reactions. Adverse reactions may be brought about by least two mechanisms. First, immediate-type hypersensibility reactions due to IgE. Secondly, anaphylactic-type reactions due to interaction between transfused IgA and class specific anti IgA in the recipient's plasma. They are characterized by their severest form (anaphylactic shock). The frequency of severe reactions following the transfusion blood plasma is very low. These transfusion reactions are complement-mediated and kinins-mediated. Prevention of allergic reactions is necessary among blood donors and recipients.

  5. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  6. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kimihiro Okubo; Yuichi Kurono; Shigeharu Fujieda; Satoshi Ogino; Eiichi Uchio; Hiroshi Odajima; Hiroshi Takenaka; Kohtaro Baba

    2011-01-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 6th editi...

  7. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  8. [Contact allergies in medical occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, T; Pilz, B; Frosch, P J

    1994-12-01

    Based on reports in the literature, data from the information network of German dermatology centres (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) and the authors own findings, a review is presented on prevalence, clinical picture and causative agents of contact allergic dermatoses in health care professions. In 1991 the proportion of suspected occupational diseases in the health care professions (including hairdressers) represented by cases of dermatitis, as reported to the responsible insurance institution, reached 72% of the total for the year (7287 out of 10127). Every 20th to 40th case was recognized as an occupational dermatosis according to German law. Accurate figures on incidence are scarce; for dentists an incidence of 0.11% has been calculated. The risk of developing occupational hand eczema has been shown to be at least three times higher for nurses than for other so-called dry professions. For persons engaged in the personal care of the ill and the elderly, relevant occupational allergens were found to be benzalkonium chloride and aldehydes in disinfectants, as well as rubber accelerators such as thiuram mix. Latex contact urticaria has increasing significance for medical personnel, with prevalence rates of sensitization between 4.5% and 10.7%. Among physicians, contact allergies to thiuram mix were found to be dominant (12.9%). For surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons, methyl methacrylate as a constituent of bone cement is of great importance. Various esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid are important sensitizers in the dental professions, particularly in heavily exposed dental laboratory technicians. Only a few gloves protect against these types of sensitizers. Sensitizations by medicaments can be avoided in most cases by reducing direct skin contact, as practiced with penicillin or ispaghula powder. Strategies of prevention include information of atopics regarding the increase in occupational dermatitis, the regular use of barrier creams

  9. Allergic urticaria: A case report of rare skin allergy with a common mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viresh Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Compared to its ubiquitous use, allergic contact dermatitis from chlorhexidine has rarely been reported and so its sensitization rate seems to be low. Chlorhexidine has been used for more than 50 years but it was only in the last two decades, that reports of immediate- type reactions to chlorhexidine were seen. Reactions ranging from localized urticaria to anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reactions, including delayed hypersensitivity reactions such as contact dermatitis, fixed drug eruptions, and photosensitivity reactions, began to appear more frequently. However the prevalence of contact urticaria and anaphylaxis due to chlorhexidine remains to be unknown. In this case report we have reported a case of urticaria due to oral use of chlorhexidine. The adverse reaction was confirmed by a skin prick test.

  10. Contribution of Contact Sampling in Increasing Sensitivity of Poliovirus Detection During A Polio Outbreak-Somalia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, Edna; Mahmud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Farag, Noha; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gary, Howard; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Background.  In May 2013, a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak reported in Somalia provided an opportunity to examine the contribution of testing contacts to WPV detection. Methods.  We reviewed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case-patients and linked contacts reported in the Somalia Surveillance Database from May 9 to December 31, 2013. We restricted our analysis to AFP case-patients that had ≥3 contacts and calculated the contribution of each contact to case detection. Results.  Among 546 AFP cases identified, 328 AFP cases had ≥3 contacts. Among the 328 AFP cases with ≥3 contacts, 93 WPV1 cases were detected: 58 cases (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-72%) were detected through testing stool specimens from AFP case-patients; and 35 cases (38%; 95% CI, 28%-48%) were detected through testing stool specimens from contacts, including 19 cases (20%; 95% CI, 14%-30%) from the first contact, 11 cases (12%; 95% CI, 7%-20%) from the second contact, and 5 cases (5%; 95% CI, 2%-12%) from the third contact. Among the 103 AFP cases with ≥4 contacts, 3 (6%; 95% CI, 2%-16%) of 52 WPV1 cases were detected by testing the fourth contact. No additional WPV1 cases were detected by testing >4 contacts. Conclusions.  Stool specimens from 3 to 4 contacts of persons with AFP during polio outbreaks are needed to maximize detection of WPV cases.

  11. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-09-01

    In this article, contact allergy to, and the chemical composition of, tea tree oil (TTO) are reviewed. This essential oil is a popular remedy for many skin diseases, and may be used as neat oil or be present in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and household products. Of all essential oils, TTO has caused most (published) allergic reactions since the first cases were reported in 1991. In routine testing, prevalences of positive patch test reactions have ranged from 0.1% to 3.5%. Nearly 100 allergic patients have been described in case reports and case series. The major constituents of commercial TTO are terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, p-cymene, and α-pinene. Fresh TTO is a weak to moderate sensitizer, but oxidation increases its allergenic potency. The major sensitizers appear to be ascaridole, terpinolene, α-terpinene, 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, α-phellandrene, and limonene. The clinical picture of allergic contact dermatitis caused by TTO depends on the products used. Most reactions are caused by the application of pure oil; cosmetics are the culprits in a minority of cases. Patch testing may be performed with 5% oxidized TTO. Co-reactivity to turpentine oil is frequent, and there is an overrepresentation of reactions to fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, and other essential oils.

  12. Contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, R J; Rosen, T

    1980-12-01

    A case of contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode cream is presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Our patient was found to be allergic to propylene glycol. Patch-testing remains an invaluable tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of being allergic to ECG paste, creams, and gels.

  13. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...

  14. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. (Virginial Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  15. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  16. Ultraviolet laser ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for dye-sensitized back-contact solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Fu, Dongchuan [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Jiang, Ming [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Duan, Jun, E-mail: duans@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Zhang, Fei; Zeng, Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Bach, Udo [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, laser ablation of a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film on a glass substrate was conducted using a 355 nm Nd:YVO{sub 4} ultraviolet (UV) laser to obtain a 4 × 4 mm microstructure. The microstructure contains a symmetric set of interdigitated FTO finger electrodes of a monolithic back-contact dye-sensitized solar cell (BC-DSC) on a common substrate. The effects of UV laser ablation parameters (such as laser fluence, repetition frequency, and scanning speed) on the size precision and quality of the microstructure were investigated using a 4 × 4 orthogonal design and an assistant experimental design. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and the current–voltage characteristics of the BC-DSC base of the interdigitated FTO finger electrodes were also determined. The experimental results show that an FTO film microstructure with high precision and good quality can be produced on a glass substrate via laser ablation with high scanning speed, high repetition frequency, and appropriate laser fluence. - Highlights: ► The ablation width and depth generally depend on the laser fluence. ► The scanning speed and the repetition frequency must match each other. ► Slight ablation of the glass substrate can completely remove F-doped tin oxide.

  17. A STUDY ON CONTACT DERMATITIS TO HAIR DYE AND HENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available P- Phenylenediamine is an oxidative chemical that is frequently used as a permanent hair-coloring agent. It is added to henna to increase the intensity and longevity of the tattoo and expedites its drying time. Henna itself is a greenish brown vegetable coloring made from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis and rarely causes allergic contact dermatitis. The addition of PPD causes the contact sensitization to black henna. Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of hair dyes in this age group. With increased popularity of body art such as body piercing and tattooing, an increase in temporary henna tattoos has also occurred. Although the appeal of non-permanence exists for henna tattoos, dermatologists have begun to see numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis linked with a certain type of henna. We selected 50 patients using hair dye and henna for our study. Patch testing was done in all the patients using Indian standard series of antigens. Regarding to the side effects to hair dye and henna and itching was the commonest symptom seen in 16% patients, erythematous scaly plaques were seen in 10% patients, vesicular reactions were seen in 6% patients, angioneurotic oedema and contact urticaria was seen in 4% patients each and anaphylaxis and keloidal reaction was seen in 2% patients each.

  18. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer.

  19. FcgammaRIIb inhibits allergic lung inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Dharajiya

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is characterized by airway eosinophilia, increased mucin production and allergen-specific IgE. Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb, an inhibitory IgG receptor, has recently emerged as a negative regulator of allergic diseases like anaphylaxis and allergic rhinitis. However, no studies to date have evaluated its role in allergic asthma. Our main objective was to study the role of FcgammaRIIb in allergic lung inflammation. We used a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Inflammation was quantified by BAL inflammatory cells and airway mucin production. FcgammaRIIb expression was measured by qPCR and flow cytometry and the cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Compared to wild type animals, FcgammaRIIb deficient mice mount a vigorous allergic lung inflammation characterized by increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellularity, eosinophilia and mucin content upon ragweed extract (RWE challenge. RWE challenge in sensitized mice upregulated FcgammaRIIb in the lungs. Disruption of IFN-gamma gene abrogated this upregulation. Treatment of naïve mice with the Th1-inducing agent CpG DNA increased FcgammaRIIb expression in the lungs. Furthermore, treatment of sensitized mice with CpG DNA prior to RWE challenge induced greater upregulation of FcgammaRIIb than RWE challenge alone. These observations indicated that RWE challenge upregulated FcgammaRIIb in the lungs by IFN-gamma- and Th1-dependent mechanisms. RWE challenge upregulated FcgammaRIIb on pulmonary CD14+/MHC II+ mononuclear cells and CD11c+ cells. FcgammaRIIb deficient mice also exhibited an exaggerated RWE-specific IgE response upon sensitization when compared to wild type mice. We propose that FcgammaRIIb physiologically regulates allergic airway inflammation by two mechanisms: 1 allergen challenge mediates upregulation of FcgammaRIIb on pulmonary CD14+/MHC II+ mononuclear cells and CD11c+ cells by an IFN-gamma dependent mechanism; and 2 by attenuating the allergen specific Ig

  20. The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, M Gabriela; Rancel, Fernando; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves M; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-11-01

    Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its activity and IC(50) were evaluated. Chlorhexidine was found to be active against these strains and the obtained IC(50) values were compared to the concentrations of this drug present in contact lens maintenance solutions. It was observed that the measured IC(50) was higher than the concentration found in these maintenance solutions. Therefore, the ineffectiveness of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is demonstrated in this study.

  1. The role of potassium channels in the nitric oxide-induced relaxation of human airway smooth muscle of passively sensitization by serum from allergic asthmatic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Yongjian Xu; Zhenxiang Zhang; Xiansheng Liu; Zhao Yang; Baoan Gao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of large Ca2+-activated, delayed-rectifier and ATP-sensitive potassium channel in regulating the relaxation induced by nitric oxide (NO) in normal and passively sensitized human airway smooth muscle (HASM) with serum from asthmatic patients. Methods: The effects of NO or/and potassium channel blockers on the tensions of normal and passively sensitized HASM were measured by using nitric oxide donor and potassium blockers, with the isometric tension recording technique. Results: Showed that (1)In the control group and passively sensitized group, Kv blocker (4-AP) cause concentration-dependent augmentation in the contraction induced by histamine (1 ×10-4 mol/L), (P < 0.05), but Glib (1 × 10-2 mol/L)and TEA (1×10-3 mol/L) have no significant effects on the contraction induced by histamine (1×10-4 mol/L). The maximum tension induced by histamine in passively sensitized group is higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). (2) NO-donor Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) bring about significant relaxation in normal and passively sensitized HASM rings (P < 0.05). Relaxations of passively sensitized airway rings [ (29.4 ± 3.3)% ] were significant less than those of normal HASM rings [ (44.1 ± 10.2)% ], (P <0.05).(3) Glib(1×10-2 mol/L)have no significant effect on the relaxations induced by SNP(1×10-4 mol/L). 4-AP(1×10-2 mol/L) inhibited relaxation induced by SNP (1×10-4 mol/L), (P < 0.01). TEA (1×10-3 mol/L) inhibited relaxation induced by SNP (1×10-4mol/L) (P < 0.05), and the inhibiting effect in passively sensitized HASM rings were significant less than in normal HASM, (P <0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that SNP(NO-donor) relaxed the contraction of HASM partly via BKca channel opening. In passively sensitized HASM in vitro, the relaxation of SNP decreased compared with control group, which might be associated with the down-regulating activity of BKca in passively sensitized HASM.

  2. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  3. Network single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) with increased Schottky contact area for highly sensitive biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Hye Ryung; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2006-02-22

    Highly sensitive single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistor (SWNT-FET) devices, which detect protein adsorptions and specific protein-protein interactions at 1 pM concentrations, have been achieved. The detection limit has been improved 104-fold compared to the devices fabricated by photolithography. The substantially increased sensitivity is mainly due to the increased Schottky contact area which accommodates relatively more numbers of proteins even at very low concentration. The augmented number of proteins adsorbed on a device induces instant modulation of the work function of metal contact electrodes, which eventually changes the conductance of the device. Such devices have been attained by addressing metal electrodes on network-type SWNTs using a shadow mask on a tilted angle sample stage. The shadow mask allows metals to penetrate underneath the mask efficiently, therefore forming a thin and wide Schottky contact area on SWNT channels.

  4. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetic

  5. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  6. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate......). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance....... Conclusions. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed....

  7. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective survey of possible allergic reactions during anaesthesia was to investigate whether the cause suspected by anaesthetists involved corresponded with the cause found on subsequent investigation in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC). METHODS: Case...... notes and anaesthetic charts from 111 reactions in 107 patients investigated in the DAAC were scrutinized for either suspicions of or warnings against specific substances stated to be the cause of the supposed allergic reaction. RESULTS: In 67 cases, one or more substances were suspected. In 49...... match, the right substance being suspected, but investigations showed an additional allergen or several substances, including the right substance being suspected. CONCLUSIONS: An informed guess is not a reliable way of determining the cause of a supposed allergic reaction during anaesthesia and may put...

  8. Multichannel fluorescence spinning disk microscopy reveals early endogenous CD4 T cell recruitment in contact sensitivity via complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M Ursula; Hulliger, Sara; Colarusso, Pina; Kubes, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Contact sensitivity (CS) is one of the primary in vivo models of T cell-mediated inflammation. The presence of CS-initiating CD4 T lymphocytes at the time of challenge is essential for transfer and full development of the late phase CS inflammatory response. From this observation investigators have speculated that early recruitment of CD4 T cells to the site of challenge must occur. Moreover, there must be rapid synthesis/release and disappearance of an important mediator during the first hours after hapten challenge. Using spinning disk confocal microscopy, we observed the very early effector events of the immune response. Simultaneous, real-time visualization of predominant neutrophil and extremely rare CD4 T cell trafficking in the challenged skin vasculature was noted (one rolling CD4 T cell for every 10-18 rolling and adherent neutrophils). We demonstrate that neutrophil adhesion during the early CS response was reduced in C5a receptor-deficient (C5aR-/-) mice or leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist-treated mice, whereas CD4 T cell recruitment was only inhibited in C5aR-/- mice. In line with these observations, leukocyte infiltration and the associated tissue damage were significantly reduced in C5aR-/- mice but not in leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist-treated wild-type mice 24 h after challenge. C5a receptor expression on T cells and not on tissue resident cells was important for the development of a CS response. Thus, by using spinning disk confocal microscopy we visualized the early events of an adaptive immune response and identified the rare but essential recruitment of CD4 T cells via the complement pathway.

  9. Non-allergic rhinitis in children: Epidemiological aspects, pathological features, diagnostic methodology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Gelardi, Matteo; Licari, Amelia; Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-12-26

    Chronic rhinitis is a very common disease, as the prevalence in the general population resulted to be 40%. Allergic rhinitis has been considered to be the most frequent form of chronic rhinitis, as non-allergic rhinitis has been estimated to account for 25%. However, several evidences suggested that non-allergic rhinitis have been underrated, especially in children. In pediatrics, the diagnostic definition of non-allergic rhinitis has been often limited to the exclusion of an allergic sensitization. Actually, local allergic rhinitis has been often misdiagnosed as well as mixed rhinitis has not been recognized in most cases. Nasal cytology is a diagnostic procedure being suitable for routine clinical practice with children and could be a very useful tool to characterize and diagnose non-allergic rhinitis, providing important clues for epidemiological analysis and clinical management.

  10. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...

  11. The range of minimum provoking doses in hazelnut-allergic patients as determined by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.; Penninks, A.H.; Hefle, S.L.; Akkerdaas, J.H.; Ree, R. van; Koppelman, S.J.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A.F.M.; Knulst, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Background: The risk for allergic reactions depends on the sensitivity of individuals and the quantities of offending food ingested. The sensitivity varies among allergic individuals, as does the threshold dose of a food allergen capable of inducing an allergic reaction. Objective: This study aimed

  12. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST, have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.

  13. Metal allergy and systemic contact dermatitis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD). Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST), have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.

  14. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menné, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-08-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allergy are reviewed: applications, exposure scenarios, legislation, patch testing problems, frequency of sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers. The frequency of contact allergy to formaldehyde is consistently higher in the USA (8-9%) than in Europe (2-3%). Patch testing with formaldehyde is problematic; the currently used 1% solution may result in both false-positive and false-negative (up to 40%) reactions. Determining the relevance of patch test reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin.

  15. Wrist dermatitis: contact allergy to neoprene in a keyboard wrist rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Elston, D M

    1997-09-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis to a keyboard wrist rest containing neoprene is reported. The patient, who had a history of sensitivity to rubber products, developed an acute vesicular reaction of the palmar aspects of her distal wrists, followed by eczematous patches of her extremities and face. Treatment with prednisone, a 3-week tapering dose (60, 40, 20 mg), cleared the dermatitis. The widespread uses of neoprene are discussed and suggest that neoprene will become a common source of contact dermatitis as the potential sources of exposure increase.

  16. Patch Testing To a Textile Dye Mix by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. METHODS: Two thousand four hundred ninety.......2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. CONCLUSIONS: Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix...

  17. Comparison of the sensitivities of the Buehler test and the guinea pig maximization test for predictive testing of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Vølund, A; Wahlberg, J E;

    2001-01-01

    dose-response model. To compare the sensitivity of the 2 test procedures the test conditions were kept identical and the following chemicals with a range of sensitization potentials were tested: chloraniline, chlorhexidine, eugenol, formaldehyde, mercaptobenzothiazole and neomycin sulphate....... Formaldehyde and neomycin sulphate were strong sensitizers in both tests. Mercaptobenzothiazole, eugenol and chloraniline were all strong sensitizers in the GPMT, eugenol and mercaptobenzothiazole were negative in the Buehler test and equivocal results were obtained with chloraniline. Chlorhexidine...

  18. Diagnosis and management of contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usatine, Richard P; Riojas, Marcela

    2010-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythematous and pruritic skin lesions that occur after contact with a foreign substance. There are two forms of contact dermatitis: irritant and allergic. Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by the non-immune-modulated irritation of the skin by a substance, leading to skin changes. Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction in which a foreign substance comes into contact with the skin; skin changes occur after reexposure to the substance. The most common substances that cause contact dermatitis include poison ivy, nickel, and fragrances. Contact dermatitis usually leads to erythema and scaling with visible borders. Itching and discomfort may also occur. Acute cases may involve a dramatic flare with erythema, vesicles, and bullae; chronic cases may involve lichen with cracks and fissures. When a possible causative substance is known, the first step in confirming the diagnosis is determining whether the problem resolves with avoidance of the substance. Localized acute allergic contact dermatitis lesions are successfully treated with mid- or high-potency topical steroids, such as triamcinolone 0.1% or clobetasol 0.05%. If allergic contact dermatitis involves an extensive area of skin (greater than 20 percent), systemic steroid therapy is often required and offers relief within 12 to 24 hours. In patients with severe rhus dermatitis, oral prednisone should be tapered over two to three weeks because rapid discontinuation of steroids can cause rebound dermatitis. If treatment fails and the diagnosis or specific allergen remains unknown, patch testing should be performed.

  19. Prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor in allergic patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; Niemeijer, NR; Hovenga, H; de Monchy, JGR; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus sire (AS), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP), and Lepidoglyphus destructor (LD) was studied in 250 sera of patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) by measuring IgE binding to e

  20. Preparation and investigation of burried metal/molecule contact interfaces with surface sensitive methods; Praeparation und Untersuchung verborgener Metall/Molekuel-Kontaktgrenzflaechen mit oberflaechensensitiven Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, Pavo

    2011-05-13

    The present thesis establishes an optimised concept of a delamination technique suitable for ultra high vacuum (UHV) with which model systems of buried interfaces were made accessible for surface sensitive methods which were applied to investigate their electronic and topographical properties. A primary focus of this work is on the question how buried interfaces could be accessed successfully for surface sensitive methods using buried metal/NTCDA and metal/PTCDA interfaces as model systems. Contacts of approximately 10 x 15 mm{sup 2} in size were accessed. The second focus of the thesis is on the investigation of the electronical and topographical properties of the buried interfaces, for which some similarities between delaminated metal (Au,Ag)/ PTCDA- and Ag/NTCDA interfaces were found: After the delamination of top-contacts there were inhomogeneous layers of molecules on the metal contacts. Whereas PTCDA covered metal contacts had thicker molecular layers (4-5 ML PTCDA on Ag), NTCDA covered contacts showed only one monolayer coverage over large areas of at least 2 mm in diameter. Regions with multilayer coverage showed smooth surfaces whereas metal surfaces showed a fissured, meander-like and rough surface. Both contact systems also had in common that the adhesive made PES investigations of valence states very difficult. Furthermore, it was possible to thin out the molecular layers thermally but afterwards no valence states could be measured. Investigating in-situ delaminated buried interfaces, the focus was on metal (Au,Ag)/PTCDA interfaces first. The molecular layers could be successfully desorbed thermally at 260 C to 1-3 monolayers so that valence states were investigated. The spectra of the in-situ delaminated and thermally desorbed Ag/PTCDA contact were noticeably broadened so that the positions of HOMO and FLUMO could only be estimated at 1.9 eV and 0.7 eV, respectively. Additionally, interfaces of Ag/NTCDA contacts were investigated. With UPS it was found

  1. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer.

  2. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  3. Dendritic cells and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Aiba, Setsuya

    2007-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a biological response to simple chemicals in the skin. Although it is well known that allergic contact dermatitis is mediated by the immune system, it is still uncertain whether it is a kind of protective response or it is simply an unnecessary response. We have demonstrated the following: (1) haptens activate Langerhans cells in the initiation phase of murine allergic contact dermatitis in vivo, (2) haptens activate human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro, (3) the activation of dendritic cells by haptens is primarily mediated by the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and (4) the activation of p38 MAPK is mediated by stimulation related to an imbalance of intracellular redox. Based on these observations, we will discuss the biological significance of contact dermatitis. In addition, we will review some up-to-date findings on Langerhans cell biology.

  4. Contact sensitization to fragrances in the general population: a Koch's approach may reveal the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Linneberg, A;

    2009-01-01

    in biological systems. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching Pubmed-Medline, Biosis and contact dermatitis textbooks. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were identified, of which 13 were performed among adults. Sample sizes varied between 82 and 2545 tested subjects, and 11 648...

  5. Repeated monthly epicutaneous challenges with diphenylcyclopropenone result in a clinically reproducible level of contact allergy in de novo sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, K F; Andersen, F; Skov, L;

    2016-01-01

    Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) has been used as an experimental contact allergen in humans and for topical immunotherapy of patients with alopecia areata. However, the efficacy is mostly based on case series. Randomized controlled clinical trials are lacking(1) , as is detailed descriptions of how...

  6. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  7. Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Basketter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.

  8. Contact sensitivity to metals (chromium, cobalt and nickel in childhood Alergia de contato aos metais (cromo, cobalto e níquel na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Helena Toledo Brandão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals, especially nickel, are the most common contact allergens in children. Recent data has shown increased incidence of allergy in industrialized countries. Sensitization can occur at any age, even in neonates. Costume jewelry, particularly earrings, is linked to increased sensitization to nickel. Sensitization to cobalt often occurs by the use of costume jewelry. The most common source of sensitization to chromium is leather. Due to the absence of a specific therapy, the main treatment is to identify and avoid the responsible allergens. This article presents an updated view on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of contact allergy to metals, focusing on prevention strategies and risk factors, and warns about possible and new sources of contact.Os metais, especialmente o níquel, são os sensibilizantes de contato mais comuns em crianças. Dados recentes revelam aumento na incidência da alergia deste em países industrializados. A sensibilização pode ocorrer em qualquer idade, mesmo em recém-nascidos. Bijuterias, especialmente brincos nas orelhas, são ligadas ao aumento da sensibilização ao níquel. A sensibilização ao cobalto geralmente ocorre pelo uso de bijuterias. A fonte mais comum de sensibilização ao cromo é o couro. Devido à ausência de terapia específica, o principal tratamento consiste em identificar e evitar os alérgenos responsáveis. Este artigo pretende apresentar uma visão atualizada sobre os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos da alergia de contato aos metais, focando estratégias de prevenção e fatores de risco, além de alertar sobre as possíveis e novas fontes de contato.

  9. Down-regulation of poison ivy/oak-induced contact sensitivity by treatment with a class II MHC binding peptide:hapten conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, C; Gemmell, L; McAteer, D; Homola, M; Swain, P; Liu, A; Wilson, K J; Gefter, M

    1997-03-01

    Immune regulation of contact sensitivity to the poison ivy/oak catechol was studied at the level of class II MHC-restricted T cell recognition of hapten:peptide conjugates. In this study we have shown that 1) T cells from C3H/HeN (H-2k) mice, immunized with a synthetic I-Ak binding peptide coupled to 3-pentadecyl-catechol (PDC; a representative catechol in urushiol), recognized peptides derived from syngeneic cells linked to the same catechol; 2) T cells from draining lymph nodes of C3H/HeN mice skin-painted with PDC proliferated in response to a peptide carrier:PDC conjugate only when it was linked at the 7th, but not the 4th or the 10th, position on the peptide carrier; and 3) tolerization studies confirmed down-regulation of PDC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity following treatment with a single I-Ak binding peptide carrying PDC covalently bound to a lysine residue at the middle (7th) TCR contact position. Tolerization with peptide:PDC conjugate resulted in abrogation of hapten-specific T cell proliferative responses that correlated with diminished IL-2 secretion. On the basis of these data we propose that it may be sufficient to couple the hapten at a single, well-chosen position on a carrier peptide to target a relevant population of T cells involved in contact sensitivity.

  10. Effects of wear on structure-sensitive magnetic properties of ceramic ferrite in contact with magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    Wear experiments and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted to examine the wear and deformed layers in single-crystal Mn-Zn (ceramic) ferrite magnetic head material in contact with magnetic tape and the effects of that contact on magnetic properties. The crystalline state of the single-crystal magnetic head was changed drastically during the sliding process. A nearly amorphous structure was produced on its wear surface. Deformation in the surficial layer of the magnetic head was a critical factor in readback signal loss above 2.5 dB. The signal output level was reduced as applied normal load was increased. Considerable plastic flow occurred on the magnetic tape surface with sliding, and the signal loss due to the tape wear was approximately 1 dB.

  11. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics.

  12. Is There a Need for Repetition of Skin Test in Childhood Allergic Diseases? Repetition of Skin Test and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Dogru

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: It is found that there was an alteration of sensitization in 4/10 children at the end of the average 4-year period. The presence of family atopy, the presence of allergic rhinitis and serum total IgE elevation were risk factors for the development of new sensitization. On the other hand sensitization to multiple allergens was risk factors for the loss of sensitization.

  13. Aeroallergen patch testing in patients of suspected contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelee Bisen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8% showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary.

  14. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nikki B; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M; Kashon, Michael L; Sharpnack, Douglas D; Nayak, Ajay P; Anderson, Katie L; Jean Meade, B; Anderson, Stacey E

    2015-09-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%-3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%-0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86(+)GL-7(+) B cells, CD80(+)CD86(+) dendritic cells, GATA-3(+)OX-40(+)IL-4(+)IL-13(+) Th2 cells and IL-17 A(+) CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses.

  15. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  16. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  17. Perfil de sensibilización alérgica en inmigrantes residentes en la zona centro de España Allergic sensitization profile in the immigrant population living in the central region of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Domínguez-Ortega

    2011-04-01

    allergy is determined by genetic heredity, influenced by environmental factors. Migration is a good epidemiological model for assessing the influence of the environment. We present the clinical characteristics of respiratory allergy in immigrants in the central region of Spain. Methods. We prospectively collected data on all immigrants referred to the allergy units of 7 different hospitals in Madrid, Cuenca and Ciudad Real in March 2010. Respiratory Allergy was diagnosed using a standard study for allergic diseases. Results in immigrants were compared with data from a similar Spanish population. Results. Sixty-two immigrants and 32 Spanish patients were evaluated (63% female, mean age 28.4 years. Their countries of origin were uniformly distributed among 3 macroareas (North of Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. More than 96% presented rhinitis, although persistent rhinitis was more prevalent amongst Latin Americans (76.9% than in the Spanish population (48%. No differences were observed in asthma prevalence, although immigrants had higher rates of non-controlled and partially controlled asthma. The mean time of onset of symptoms after immigration was 43 months. Grass pollen was the most relevant allergen with the exception of Arab patients. Sensitization to polcalcin was rare. Otherwise, 44.1% of the Spanish population was sensitized to profilin (only 4.88% among immigrants although this sensitization did not associate allergy to fruits or other vegetables. Conclusions. In summary, a multicentric study is presented where significant differences have been observed in the sensitization pattern and clinical evolution of respiratory allergy in immigrants and the Spanish population.

  18. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products (shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known.

  19. Elicitation of the immune response to p-phenylenediamine in allergic patients : the role of dose and exposure time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goebel, C.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Rothe, H.; Kunze, G.; Kock, M.; Schlatter, H.; Gerberick, G. F.; Bloemeke, B.; Blomeke, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Usage of hair dye products containing p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a concern for PPD-allergic individuals. Objectives The present study investigates the role of dose and exposure time on elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis under conditions of permanent hair dyeing. Methods Elicitati

  20. Propolis: a review of properties, applications, chemical composition, contact allergy, and other adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is the resinous substance that bees collect from living plants for the construction and adaptation of their nests. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and may have a wide range of other beneficial biological activities. Propolis is available as a dietary supplement, in products for the protection of health and prevention of diseases, in biopharmaceuticals, and as a constituent of (bio)cosmetics. In this article, the following aspects of propolis are reviewed: the nature and chemical composition, its biological properties and applications, contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (sensitizing potential, products causing contact allergy, clinical picture, frequency of sensitization, coreactivity and cross-reactivity, the allergens in propolis), and other adverse effects.