WorldWideScience

Sample records for allelic gene structure

  1. Mediterranean river buffalo oxytocin-neurophysin I (OXT gene: structure, promoter analysis and allele detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramunno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OXT is a very abundant nonapeptide neurohypophysial hormone implicated in several aspects of reproduction, including social, sexual and maternal behaviour, induction of labour and milk ejection. The nucleotide sequence of the whole OXTneurophysin I encoding gene (OXT in Mediterranean river buffalo was determined, plus 993 nucleotides at the 5’ flanking region. Buffalo oxytocin gene sequence analysis showed two transitions in the promoter region (C→T in position – 966 and G→A in position – 790 and one transversion G→T at the 170th nucleotide of the second exon, responsible for the Arg97→Leu aa substitution which identifies an allele named OXT B. A PCR-RFLP based method for a rapid identification of carriers of these alleles has been developed.

  2. A common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) impacts prosocial temperament and human hypothalamic-limbic structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tost, Heike; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Hakimi, Shabnam; Lemaitre, Herve; Verchinski, Beth A; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The evolutionarily highly conserved neuropeptide oxytocin is a key mediator of social and emotional behavior in mammals, including humans. A common variant (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been implicated in social-behavioral phenotypes, such as maternal sensitivity and empathy, and with neuropsychiatric disorders associated with social impairment, but the intermediate neural mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used multimodal neuroimaging in a large sample of healthy human subjects to identify structural and functional alterations in OXTR risk allele carriers and their link to temperament. Activation and interregional coupling of the amygdala during the processing of emotionally salient social cues was significantly affected by genotype. In addition, evidence for structural alterations in key oxytocinergic regions emerged, particularly in the hypothalamus. These neural characteristics predicted lower levels of reward dependence, specifically in male risk allele carriers. Our findings identify sex-dependent mechanisms impacting the structure and function of hypothalamic-limbic circuits that are of potential clinical and translational significance. PMID:20647384

  3. Mediterranean river buffalo oxytocin-neurophysin I (OXT) gene: structure, promoter analysis and allele detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ramunno, L.; D. Di Berardino; L. Zicarelli; R. Di Palo; NICODEMO, D.; MANCUSI, A.; A. Pauciullo; G. Cosenza

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a very abundant nonapeptide neurohypophysial hormone implicated in several aspects of reproduction, including social, sexual and maternal behaviour, induction of labour and milk ejection. The nucleotide sequence of the whole OXTneurophysin I encoding gene (OXT) in Mediterranean river buffalo was determined, plus 993 nucleotides at the 5’ flanking region. Buffalo oxytocin gene sequence analysis showed two transitions in the promoter region (C→T in position – ...

  4. A common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) impacts prosocial temperament and human hypothalamic-limbic structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Tost, Heike; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Hakimi, Shabnam; Lemaitre, Herve; Verchinski, Beth A.; Mattay, Venkata S.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Meyer–Lindenberg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionarily highly conserved neuropeptide oxytocin is a key mediator of social and emotional behavior in mammals, including humans. A common variant (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been implicated in social-behavioral phenotypes, such as maternal sensitivity and empathy, and with neuropsychiatric disorders associated with social impairment, but the intermediate neural mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used multimodal neuroimaging in a large sample of healthy human sub...

  5. Schizophrenia susceptibility alleles are enriched for alleles that affect gene expression in adult human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Alexander L.; Jones, Lesley; Moskvina, Valentina; Kirov, George; Gejman, Pablo V.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Sanders, Alan R; Purcell, Shaun; Visscher, Peter M.; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter; O’Donovan, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    It is widely thought that alleles that influence susceptibility to common diseases, including schizophrenia, will frequently do so through effects on gene expression. Since only a small proportion of the genetic variance for schizophrenia has been attributed to specific loci, this remains an unproven hypothesis. The International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC) recently reported a substantial polygenic contribution to that disorder, and that schizophrenia risk alleles are enriched among SNPs s...

  6. ALLELIC POLYMORPHISM OF IFNγ GENE IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    E. L. Nikulina; I. O. Naslednikova; Urazova, O. I.; O. V. Voronkova; V. V. Novitsky; E. V. Nekrasov; O. V. Filiniuk; E. G. Churina; K. O. Mikheyeva; R. R. Hasanova; V. A. Serebryakova; N. A. Sukhalentseva

    2014-01-01

    In present work, some immunogenetic aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis were studied, using modern techniques from molecular genetics and immunology. It is shown that carriage of Т allele and homozygous TT genotype in +874А/Т IFNγ gene polymorphism comprise a immunogenetic factor which correlated with a protective effect, regarding a susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis. Predisposition for tuberculosis infection is associated with A allele of this gene, as well as with АА and АТ genotypes o...

  7. Allelic imbalance metre (Allim), a new tool for measuring allele-specific gene expression with RNA-seq data

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Franssen, Susanne U.; Futschik, Andreas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Estimating differences in gene expression among alleles is of high interest for many areas in biology and medicine. Here, we present a user-friendly software tool, Allim, to estimate allele-specific gene expression. Because mapping bias is a major problem for reliable estimates of allele-specific gene expression using RNA-seq, Allim combines two different strategies to account for the mapping biases. In order to reduce the mapping bias, Allim first generates a polymorphism-aware reference gen...

  8. Allele-selective inhibition of trinucleotide repeat genes

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Masayuki; Corey, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Expanded trinucleotide repeats cause Huntington’s disease (HD) and many other neurodegenerative disorders. There are no cures for these devastating illnesses and treatments are urgently needed. Each trinucleotide repeat disorder is the result of the mutation of just one gene, and agents that block expression of the mutant gene offer a promising option for treatment. Therapies that block expression of both mutant and wild-type alleles can have adverse effects, challenging researchers to develo...

  9. Enhancement of allele discrimination by introduction of nucleotide mismatches into siRNA in allele-specific gene silencing by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Ohnishi

    -strand siRNA elements, which possibly increase the assembly of antisense-strand (guide siRNAs into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs, may enhance ASP-RNAi in the case of inert siRNA duplexes. Therefore, the data presented here suggest that structural modification of functional portions of an siRNA duplex by base substitution could greatly influence allele discrimination and gene silencing, thereby contributing to enhancement of ASP-RNAi.

  10. Allelic differences between Europeans and Chinese for CREB1 SNPs and their implications in gene expression regulation, hippocampal structure and function, and bipolar disorder susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Li, M; Luo, X-J; Rietschel, M; Lewis, CM; Mattheisen, M; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Jamain, S; Leboyer, M.; Landén, M.; Thompson, PM; Cichon, S; Nöthen, MM; Schulze, TG; Sullivan, PF; Bergen, SE

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a polygenic disorder that shares substantial genetic risk factors with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic analyses have reported numerous BD susceptibility genes, while some variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C have been successfully replicated, many others have not and subsequently their effects on the intermediate phenotypes cannot be verified. Here, we studied the MDD-related gene CREB1 in a set of independent BD sample groups o...

  11. Allele-mining and natural diversity in wheat powdery mildew resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using map-based cloning, we have isolated the Pm3b powdery mildew resistance gene from hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on haplotype studies, we have developed molecular tools to isolate all the 10 known Pm3 genes conferring resistance. We found that the Pm3 genes form a true allelic series and that they are highly conserved at the molecular level. The molecular work on Pm3 resistance genes has lead to very diagnostic tools for these genes which support the cloning of new functional alleles from this locus by allele-mining. We have used these tools to screen for new Pm3 alleles in the gene pools of (i) wild and domesticated tetraploid accessions and (ii) hexaploid wheat landraces. The Pm3 locus is conserved in tetraploid wheat, allowing a comparative evolutionary study of the same resistance locus in a domesticated species and one of its wild ancestors. We have identified 61 Pm3 allelic sequences from wild and domesticated tetraploid wheat subspecies. These alleles showed low sequence diversity, differing by few polymorphic sequence blocks that were further reshuffled between alleles by gene conversion and recombination. A new functional gene was identified in a wild wheat accession from Syria. This gene, Pm3k, conferred intermediate resistance to powdery mildew and consists of a mosaic of gene segments derived from non-functional alleles. From the hexaploid wheat gene pool, a set of 1320 landraces, mostly from Asia, was screened for powdery mildew resistance and the presence of a Pm3 haplotype. Most of these lines were found to contain a susceptible Pm3 allele which is closely related to the functional Pm3 resistance genes. We have also identified resistant lines with new types of Pm3 allelic sequences, resulting from point mutations, gene conversion and illegitimate recombination events. These new alleles are currently tested for resistance activity in a transient expression assay. (author)

  12. A strategy to discover genes that carry multi-allelic or mono-allelic risk for common diseases: A cohort allelic sums test (CAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to discover if a gene carries one or more allelic mutations that confer risk for any specified common disease. The method does not depend upon genetic linkage of risk-conferring mutations to high frequency genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. Instead, the sums of allelic mutation frequencies in case and control cohorts are determined and a statistical test is applied to discover if the difference in these sums is greater than would be expected by chance. A statistical model is presented that defines the ability of such tests to detect significant gene-disease relationships as a function of case and control cohort sizes and key confounding variables: zygosity and genicity, environmental risk factors, errors in diagnosis, limits to mutant detection, linkage of neutral and risk-conferring mutations, ethnic diversity in the general population and the expectation that among all exonic mutants in the human genome greater than 90% will be neutral with regard to any effect on disease risk. Means to test the null hypothesis for, and determine the statistical power of, each test are provided. For this 'cohort allelic sums test' or 'CAST', the statistical model and test are provided as an Excel (TM) program, CASTAT (C) at http://epidemiology.mit.edu. Based on genetics, technology and statistics, a strategy of enumerating the mutant alleles carried in the exons and splice sites of the estimated ∼25,000 human genes in case cohort samples of 10,000 persons for each of 100 common diseases is proposed and evaluated: A wide range of possible conditions of multi-allelic or mono-allelic and monogenic, multigenic or polygenic (including epistatic) risk are found to be detectable using the statistical criteria of 1 or 10 ''false positive'' gene associations per 25,000 gene-disease pair-wise trials and a statistical power of >0.8. Using estimates of the distribution of both neutral and gene-inactivating nondeleterious mutations in humans and

  13. Gene identification and allele-specific marker development for two allelic low phytic acid mutations in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is an important anti-nutritional component in cereal and legume grains. PA forms of phosphorus (P) and its salts with micronutrient cations, such as iron and zinc, are indigestible in humans and non-ruminant animals, and hence could affect food/feed nutritional value and cause P pollution of ground water from animal waste. We previously developed a set of low phytic acid (LPA) rice mutants with the aim to increase their nutritional quality. Among them, one line, i.e., Os-lpa -XQZ-1 (hereafter lpa 1-2), was identified to have a mutation allelic to the KBNT lpa 1-1 mutation (hereafter lpa 1-1), which was already delimited to a 47-kb region on chromosome 2. In this study, we searched the candidate gene for these two allelic LPA mutations using T-DNA insertion mutants, mutation detection by CEL I facilitated mismatch cleavage, and gene sequencing. The TIGR locus LOCOs02g57400 was revealed as the candidate gene hosting these two mutations. Sequence analysis showed that the lpa 1-1 is a single base pair substitution mutation, while lpa 1-2 involves a 1,475-bp fragment deletion. A CAPS marker (LPA1CAPS) was developed for distinguishing the lpa 1-1 allele from lpa 1-2 and WT alleles, and InDel marker (LPA1InDel) was developed for differentiating the lpa 1-2 allele from lpa 1-1 and WT ones. Analysis of two populations derived from the two mutants with wild-type varieties confirmed the complete co-segregation of these two markers and LPA phenotype. The LOCOs02g57400 is predicted to encode, through alternative splicing, four possible proteins that are homologous to the 2-phosphoglycerate kinase reported in hyperthermophilic and thermophilic bacteria. The identification of the LPA gene and development of allele-specific markers are of importance not only for breeding LPA varieties, but also for advancing genetics and genomics of phytic acid biosynthesis in rice and other plant species. (author)

  14. An Updated Collection of Sequence Barcoded Temperature-Sensitive Alleles of Yeast Essential Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Megan; Milbury, Karissa L; Chiang, Jennifer H; Sinha, Sunita; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    Systematic analyses of essential gene function using mutant collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been conducted using collections of heterozygous diploids, promoter shut-off alleles, through alleles with destabilized mRNA, destabilized protein, or bearing mutations that lead to a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype. We previously described a method for construction of barcoded ts alleles in a systematic fashion. Here we report the completion of this collection of alleles covering 600 essential yeast genes. This resource covers a larger gene repertoire than previous collections and provides a complementary set of strains suitable for single gene and genomic analyses. We use deep sequencing to characterize the amino acid changes leading to the ts phenotype in half of the alleles. We also use high-throughput approaches to describe the relative ts behavior of the alleles. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental usefulness of the collection in a high-content, functional genomic screen for ts alleles that increase spontaneous P-body formation. By increasing the number of alleles and improving the annotation, this ts collection will serve as a community resource for probing new aspects of biology for essential yeast genes. PMID:26175450

  15. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stringer Saundra L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of heterozygosity (LOH contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this event were to confer an obvious cellular phenotype. Mice that carry two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles of a locus would seem to be a useful tool for addressing this issue because LOH would change a cell's phenotype from dichromatic to monochromatic. In addition, LOH caused by mitotic crossing over might be discernable in tissues because this event produces a pair of neighboring monochromatic cells that are different colors. Results As a step in assessing the utility of this approach, we derived primary embryonic fibroblast populations and embryonic stem cell lines from mice that carried two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles at the chromosome 6 locus, ROSA26. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS showed that the vast majority of cells in each line expressed the two marker proteins at similar levels, and that populations exhibited expression noise similar to that seen in bacteria and yeast. Cells with a monochromatic phenotype were present at frequencies on the order of 10-4 and appeared to be produced at a rate of approximately 10-5 variant cells per mitosis. 45 of 45 stably monochromatic ES cell clones exhibited loss of the expected allele at the ROSA26 locus. More than half of these clones retained heterozygosity at a locus between ROSA26 and the centromere. Other clones exhibited LOH near the centromere, but were disomic for chromosome 6. Conclusion Allelic fluorescent markers allowed LOH at the ROSA26 locus to be detected by FACS. LOH at this locus was usually not accompanied by LOH near the centromere, suggesting that mitotic recombination was the major cause of ROSA26 LOH. Dichromatic mouse embryonic cells provide a novel system for studying genetic/karyotypic stability and factors

  16. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer Saundra L; Fischer Jared M; Yin Moying; Larson Jon S; Stringer James R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this event were to confer an obvious cellular phenotype. Mice that carry two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles of a locus would seem to be a useful tool for addressing this issue because LOH would change a cell's phenotype from dichromatic to monochromatic. In a...

  17. Identification of novel alleles of the rice blast resistance gene Pi54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Kumar; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2015-10-01

    Rice blast is one of the most devastating rice diseases and continuous resistance breeding is required to control the disease. The rice blast resistance gene Pi54 initially identified in an Indian cultivar confers broad-spectrum resistance in India. We explored the allelic diversity of the Pi54 gene among 885 Indian rice genotypes that were found resistant in our screening against field mixture of naturally existing M. oryzae strains as well as against five unique strains. These genotypes are also annotated as rice blast resistant in the International Rice Genebank database. Sequence-based allele mining was used to amplify and clone the Pi54 allelic variants. Nine new alleles of Pi54 were identified based on the nucleotide sequence comparison to the Pi54 reference sequence as well as to already known Pi54 alleles. DNA sequence analysis of the newly identified Pi54 alleles revealed several single polymorphic sites, three double deletions and an eight base pair deletion. A SNP-rich region was found between a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and the nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain. Together, the newly identified Pi54 alleles expand the allelic series and are candidates for rice blast resistance breeding programs.

  18. Low frequency of the scrapile resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Sbaiz, L.; Verburg, F.J.; Riina, M.V.; Ru, G.; Moda, G.; Caramelli, M.; Bossers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Frequencies of polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene were studied in 1207 pure-bred and cross-bred Italian Biellese rams, a small ovine breed of about 65 000 head in Italy. Aside from the five most common alleles (VRQ, ARQ, ARR, AHQ and ARH), the rare ARK allele wa

  19. Allelic gene expression imbalance of bovine IGF2, LEP and CCL2 genes in liver, kidney and pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Olbromski, R.; Siadkowska, E.; Żelazowska, B.; Zwierzchowski, L.

    2012-01-01

    Allelic expression imbalance (AEI) is an important genetic factor being the cause of differences in phenotypic traits that can be heritable. Studying AEI can be useful in searching for factors that modulate gene expression and help to understand molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes. Although it was commonly recognized in many species and we know many genes show allelic expression imbalance, this phenomena was not studied on a larger scale in cattle. Using the pyrosequencing meth...

  20. Effects of sequence variation on differential allelic transcription factor occupancy and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Timothy E; Gertz, Jason; Pauli, Florencia; Kucera, Katerina S; Varley, Katherine E; Newberry, Kimberly M; Marinov, Georgi K; Mortazavi, Ali; Williams, Brian A; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Wold, Barbara; Willard, Huntington F; Myers, Richard M

    2012-05-01

    A complex interplay between transcription factors (TFs) and the genome regulates transcription. However, connecting variation in genome sequence with variation in TF binding and gene expression is challenging due to environmental differences between individuals and cell types. To address this problem, we measured genome-wide differential allelic occupancy of 24 TFs and EP300 in a human lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. Overall, 5% of human TF binding sites have an allelic imbalance in occupancy. At many sites, TFs clustered in TF-binding hubs on the same homolog in especially open chromatin. While genetic variation in core TF binding motifs generally resulted in large allelic differences in TF occupancy, most allelic differences in occupancy were subtle and associated with disruption of weak or noncanonical motifs. We also measured genome-wide differential allelic expression of genes with and without heterozygous exonic variants in the same cells. We found that genes with differential allelic expression were overall less expressed both in GM12878 cells and in unrelated human cell lines. Comparing TF occupancy with expression, we found strong association between allelic occupancy and expression within 100 bp of transcription start sites (TSSs), and weak association up to 100 kb from TSSs. Sites of differential allelic occupancy were significantly enriched for variants associated with disease, particularly autoimmune disease, suggesting that allelic differences in TF occupancy give functional insights into intergenic variants associated with disease. Our results have the potential to increase the power and interpretability of association studies by targeting functional intergenic variants in addition to protein coding sequences. PMID:22300769

  1. No evidence for allelic association between bipolar disorder and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; Roberts, E. [Univ. of Wales, College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    We have tested the hypothesis that DNA markers in the MAOA gene show allelic association with bipolar affective disorder. Eighty-four unrelated Caucasian patients with DSM III-R bipolar disorder and 84 Caucasian controls were typed for three markers in MAOA: a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2, a VNTR in intron 1, and an Fnu4HI RFLP in exon 8. No evidence for allelic association was observed between any of the markers and bipolar disorder. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Allelic variation in the squirrel monkey x-linked color vision gene: biogeographical and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Susan; Boinski, Sue; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-06-01

    Most Neotropical primate species possess a polymorphic X-linked and a monomorphic autosomal color vision gene. Consequently, populations are composed of both dichromatics and trichromatics. Most theories on the maintenance of this genetic system revolve around possible advantages for foraging ecology. To examine the issue from a different angle, we compared the numbers and relative frequencies of alleles at the X-linked locus among three species of Saimiri representing a wide range of geographical and behavioral variation in the genus. Exons 3, 4, and 5 of the X-linked opsin gene were sequenced for a large number of X chromosomes for all three species. Several synonymous mutations were detected in exons 4 and 5 for the originally reported alleles but only a single nonsynonymous change was detected. Two alleles were found that appeared to be the result of recombination events. The low occurrence of recombinant alleles and absence of mutations in the amino acids critical for spectral tuning indicates that stabilizing selection acts to maintain the combinations of critical sites specific to each allele. Allele frequencies were approximately the same for all Saimiri species, with a slight but significant difference between S. boliviensis and S. oerstedii. No apparent correlation exists between allele frequencies and behavioral or biogeographical differences between species, casting doubt on the speculation that the spectral sensitivities of the alleles have been maintained because they are specifically well-tuned to Saimiri visual ecology. Rather, the spectral tuning peaks might have been maintained because they are as widely spaced as possible within the limited range of middlewave to longwave spectra useful to all primates. This arrangement creates a balance between maximizing the distance between spectral tuning peaks (allowing the color opponency of the visual system to distinguish between peaks) and maximizing the number of alleles within a limited range (yielding

  3. Organ-specific gene expression in maize: The P-wr allele. Final report, August 15, 1993--August 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The ultimate aim of our work is to understand how a regulatory gene produces a specific pattern of gene expression during plant development. Our model is the P-wr gene of maize, which produces a distinctive pattern of pigmentation of maize floral organs. We are investigating this system using a combination of classical genetic and molecular approaches. Mechanisms of organ-specific gene expression are a subject of intense research interest, as it is the operation of these mechanisms during eukaryotic development which determine the characteristics of each organism Allele-specific expression has been characterized in only a few other plant genes. In maize, organ-specific pigmentation regulated by the R, B, and Pl genes is achieved by differential transcription of functionally conserved protein coding sequences. Our studies point to a strikingly different mechanism of organ-specific gene expression, involving post-transcriptional regulation of the regulatory P gene. The novel pigmentation pattern of the P-wr allele is associated with differences in the encoded protein. Furthermore, the P-wr gene itself is present as a unique tandemly amplified structure, which may affect its transcriptional regulation.

  4. Characterization of two dominant alleles of the major rhodopsin-encoding gene ninaE in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Amitavo; Chinchore, Yashodhan; Kinser, Ronald; Dolph, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In this study we investigated the biochemical and cell biologic characteristics of flies expressing two novel dominant alleles of the major rhodopsin encoding gene neither inactivation nor afterpotential E (ninaE) in a heterozygous background. Methods Presence of the deep pseudopupil in flies was assayed 5 days post eclosion. For structural analysis, 1-μm-retinal cross sections were obtained from fixed and resin-embedded Drosophila heads. Confocal microscopy was performed on dissected...

  5. Analysis of T-DNA alleles of flavonoid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowerman Peter A; Ramirez Melissa V; Price Michelle B; Helm Richard F; Winkel Brenda SJ

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The flavonoid pathway is a long-standing and important tool for plant genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. Numerous flavonoid mutants have been identified in Arabidopsis over the past several decades in a variety of ecotypes. Here we present an analysis of Arabidopsis lines of ecotype Columbia carrying T-DNA insertions in genes encoding enzymes of the central flavonoid pathway. We also provide a comprehensive summary of various mutant alleles for these structural...

  6. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs are passed from ancestral to descendant primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hummelshøj

    Full Text Available The ficolins recognize carbohydrates and acetylated compounds on microorganisms and dying host cells and are able to activate the lectin pathway of the complement system. In humans, three ficolin genes have been identified: FCN1, FCN2 and FCN3, which encode ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3, respectively. Rodents have only two ficolins designated ficolin-A and ficolin-B that are closely related to human ficolin-1, while the rodent FCN3 orthologue is a pseudogene. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 have so far only been observed in humans. Thus, we performed a systematic investigation of the FCN genes in non-human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non-human primates and the human FCN genes. Several variations in the FCN genes were found in more than one primate specie suggesting that they were carried from one species to another including humans. The amino acid diversity of the ficolins among human and non-human primate species was estimated by calculating the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in human serum. Taken together all the FCN genes show the same characteristics in lower and higher primates. The existence of trans-species polymorphisms suggests that different FCN allelic lineages may be passed from ancestral to descendant species.

  7. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  8. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, E P; Blum, K; Khalsa, M E; Ritchie, T; Montgomery, A; Wood, R C; Fitch, R J; Ozkaragoz, T; Sheridan, P J; Anglin, M D

    1993-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine allelic prevalence of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene in male cocaine-dependent (CD) Caucasian (non-Hispanic) subjects and to determine the relationship of DRD2 alleles to family history and selected behavioral measures. The prevalence of the A1 allele in CD subjects (n = 53) was 50.9%. It was significantly higher than either the 16.0% prevalence (P abusing controls (n = 100) or the 30.9% prevalence (P abusers were not excluded. Similarly, a significantly higher prevalence (P abusing controls (n = 53); 38.5% vs. 13.2%. Logistic regression analysis of CD subjects identified potent routes of cocaine use and the interaction of early deviant behaviors and parental alcoholism as significant risk factors associated with the A1 allele. The cumulative number of these three risk factors in CD subjects was positively and significantly (P < 10(-3)) related to A1 allelic prevalence. The data showing a strong association of the minor alleles (A1 and B1) of the DRD2 with cocaine dependence suggest that a gene, located on the q22-q23 region of chromosome 11, confers susceptibility to this drug disorder. PMID:8261891

  9. Allelic variation in human mitochondrial genes based on patterns of restriction site polymorphism.

    OpenAIRE

    Whittam, T S; Clark, A. G.; Stoneking, M; Cann, R. L.; Wilson, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Restriction maps of 145 human mtDNAs representing samples from five geographic regions were used to construct multilocus genotypes for 28 genetic loci of the mitochondrial genome. Alleles were defined as distinct combinations of the presence or absence of polymorphic restriction sites within each locus. The 28 loci included 13 genes encoding proteins, 10 genes specifying tRNAs, 2 genes specifying rRNAs, and 3 noncoding regions consisting of the D loop, the light strand origin of replication, ...

  10. Allelic associations of two polymorphic microsatellites in intron 40 of the human von Willebrand factor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, S.D.J.; De Souza, K.T. (Nucleo de Genetica Medica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)); De Andrade, M.; Chakraborty, R. (Univ. of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-18

    At intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) gene, two GATA-repeat polymorphic sites exist that are physically separated by 212 bp. At the first site (vWF1 locus), seven segregating repeat alleles were observed in a Brazilian Caucasian population, and at the second (vWF2 locus) there were eight alleles, detected through PCR amplifications of this DNA region. Haplotype analysis of individuals revealed 36 different haplotypes in a sample of 338 chromosomes examined. Allele frequencies between generations and gender at each locus were not significantly different, and the genotype frequencies were consistent with their Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium between loci is highly significant with positive allele size association; that is, large alleles at the loci tend to occur together, and so do the same alleles. Variability at each locus appeared to have arisen in a stepwise fashion, suggesting replication slippage as a possible mechanism of production of new alleles. However, the authors observed an increased number of haplotypes, in contrast with the predictions of a stepwise production of variation in the entire region, suggesting some form of cooperative changes between loci that could be due to either gene conversion, or a common control mechanism of production of new variation at these repeat polymorphism sites. The high degree of polymorphism (gene diversity values of 72% and 78% at vWF1 and vWF2, respectively, and of 93% at the haplotype level) makes these markers informative for paternity testing, genetic counseling, and individual-identification purposes.

  11. Short aggrecan gene repetitive alleles associated with lumbar degenerative disc disease in Turkish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, O; Eser, B; Cosar, M; Erdogan, M O; Aslan, A; Yıldız, H; Solak, M; Haktanır, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a possible association between aggrecan gene polymorphism and lumbar degenerative disc disease in Turkish patients. One hundred 20-30-year-old patients with or without low back pain were selected for the study. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients. The patient group had low back pain clinically and degenerative disc disease radiographically. The control group included patients with and without low back pain: all were negative radiographically for degenerative disc disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from all participants. A PCR assay were used to evaluate variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of aggrecan gene alleles to determine if there was any correlation with degenerative disc disease. Significant associations were found between short repeated alleles of the aggrecan gene and severe disc degeneration. A significant association was also found between short repeated alleles of the aggrecan gene and multilevel disc herniation as well as extrusion and sequestration types of disc herniation. In Turkish population, short repeated alleles of the aggrecan gene are associated with increased disc degeneration and disc herniation. PMID:21948754

  12. Phenotypic instability of Arabidopsis alleles affecting a disease Resistance gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Eric J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana strain Columbia – cpr1, snc1, and bal – map to the RPP5 locus, which contains a cluster of disease Resistance genes. The similar phenotypes, gene expression patterns, and genetic interactions observed in these mutants are related to constitutive activation of pathogen defense signaling. However, these mutant alleles respond differently to various conditions. Exposure to mutagens, such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and γ-irradiation, induce high frequency phenotypic instability of the bal allele. In addition, a fraction of the bal and cpr1 alleles segregated from bal × cpr1 F1 hybrids also show signs of phenotypic instability. To gain more insight into the mechanism of phenotypic instability of the bal and cpr1 mutations, we systematically compared the behavior of these unusual alleles with that of the missense gain-of-function snc1 allele in response to DNA damage or passage through F1 hybrids. Results We found that the cpr1 allele is similar to the bal allele in its unstable behavior after EMS mutagenesis. For both the bal and cpr1 mutants, destabilization of phenotypes was observed in more than 10% of EMS-treated plants in the M1 generation. In addition, exceptions to simple Mendelian inheritance were identified in the M2 generation. Like cpr1 × bal F1 hybrids, cpr1 × snc1 F1 hybrids and bal × snc1 F1 hybrids exhibited dwarf morphology. While only dwarf F2 plants were produced from bal × snc1 F1 hybrids, about 10% wild-type F2 progeny were produced from cpr1 × snc1 F1 hybrids, as well as from cpr1 × bal hybrids. Segregation analysis suggested that the cpr1 allele in cpr1 × snc1 crosses was destabilized during the late F1 generation to early F2 generation. Conclusion With exposure to EMS or different F1 hybrid contexts, phenotypic instability is induced for the bal and cpr1 alleles, but not for the snc1 allele. Our results suggest that the RPP5 locus can adopt different

  13. Differential allelic expression of a fibrillin gene (FBNI) in patients with Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, D.; Lynch, J.; Sykes, B. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Firth, H. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Child, A. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a connective-tissue disorder affecting cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. The major Marfan locus has been identified as the FBN1 gene on chromosome 15; this codes for the extracellular-matrix protein fibrillin, a 350-kD constituent of the 8-10-nm elastin-associated microfibrils. The authors identified five MFS patients who were heterozygous for an RsaI restriction-site dimorphism in the 3{prime} UTR of the FBN1 gene. This expressed variation was used to distinguish the mRNA output from each of the two FBN1 alleles in fibroblast cultures from these five patients. Three of the patients were shown to produce <5% of the normal level of FBN1 transcripts from one of their alleles. This null-allele phenotype was not observed in 10 nonmarfanoid fibroblast cell lines. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Allelism of Genes in the Ml-a locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Jensen, Hans Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1980-01-01

    Seven barley lines or varieties, each with a different gene at the Ml-a locus for resistance to Erysiphe graminis were intercrossed. Progeny testing of the F2s using two different fungal isolates per cross provided evidence that there are two or more loci in the Ml-a region. Apparent recombinants...... were also screened for recombination between the Hor1 and Hor2 loci which are situated either side of the Ml-a locus. The cross between Ricardo and Iso42R (Rupee) yielded one possible recombinant, with Ml-a3 and Ml-a(Rul) in the coupling phase; other recombinants had wild-type genes in the coupling...... phase. Iso20R, derived from Hordeum spontaneum 'H204', carrying Ml-a6, had an additional gene, in close coupling with Ml-a6, tentatively named Ml-aSp2 or Reglv, causing an intermediate infection type with isolate EmA30. It is suggested that Ml-a(Ar) in Emir and Ml-a(Rul), shown to differ from other Ml...

  15. Allelic Dropout in the ENG Gene, Affecting the Results of Genetic Testing in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Kjeldsen, A.D.; Ousager, L.B.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular disorder with three disease-causing genes identified to date: ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4. We report an HHT patient with allelic dropout that on routine sequence analysis for a known mutation in the family (c.817...

  16. Identification of novel alleles of the rice blast resistance gene Pi54

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Vasudevan; Wilhelm Gruissem; Bhullar, Navreet K

    2015-01-01

    Rice blast is one of the most devastating rice diseases and continuous resistance breeding is required to control the disease. The rice blast resistance gene Pi54 initially identified in an Indian cultivar confers broad-spectrum resistance in India. We explored the allelic diversity of the Pi54 gene among 885 Indian rice genotypes that were found resistant in our screening against field mixture of naturally existing M. oryzae strains as well as against five unique strains. These genotypes are...

  17. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitet, Evan R.; Turner, Ashley N.; Johnson, Larry W.; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R.; Hymel, Katherine M.; Gross, Alecia K.; Kesterson, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  18. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Anil K; Boitet, Evan R; Turner, Ashley N; Johnson, Larry W; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R; Hymel, Katherine M; Gross, Alecia K; Kesterson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  19. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections. PMID:26407876

  20. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish. PMID:26747053

  1. A novel simple method for determining CYP2D6 gene copy number and identifying allele(s with duplication/multiplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimour Langaee

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6 gene duplication and multiplication can result in ultrarapid drug metabolism and therapeutic failure or excessive response in patients. Long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and sequencing are usually used for genotyping CYP2D6 duplication/multiplications and identification, but are labor intensive, time consuming, and costly.We developed a simple allele quantification-based Pyrosequencing genotyping method that facilitates CYP2D6 copy number variation (CNV genotyping while also identifying allele-specific CYP2D6 CNV in heterozygous samples. Most routine assays do not identify the allele containing a CNV. A total of 237 clinical and Coriell DNA samples with different known CYP2D6 gene copy numbers were genotyped for CYP2D6 *2, *3, *4, *6, *10, *17, *41 polymorphisms and CNV determination.The CYP2D6 gene allele quantification/identification were determined simultaneously with CYP2D6*2, *3, *4, *6, *10, *17, *41 genotyping. We determined the exact CYP2D6 gene copy number, identified which allele had the duplication or multiplication, and assigned the correct phenotype and activity score for all samples.Our method can efficiently identify the duplicated CYP2D6 allele in heterozygous samples, determine its copy number in a fraction of time compared to conventional methods and prevent incorrect ultrarapid phenotype calls. It also greatly reduces the cost, effort and time associated with CYP2D6 CNV genotyping.

  2. Cognitive and neural correlates of the 5-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in a population lacking the 7-repeat allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-04-15

    The 5-repeat allele of a common length polymorphism in the gene that encodes the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is robustly associated with the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substantially exists in Asian populations, which have a lower ADHD prevalence. In this study, we investigated the effect of this allele on microstructural properties of the brain and on its functional activity during externally directed attention-demanding tasks and creative performance in the 765 Asian subjects. For this purpose, we employed diffusion tensor imaging, N-back functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms, and a test to measure creativity by divergent thinking. The 5-repeat allele was significantly associated with increased originality in the creative performance, increased mean diffusivity (the measure of how the tissue includes water molecules instead of neural and vessel components) in the widespread gray and white matter areas of extensive areas, particularly those where DRD4 is expressed, and reduced task-induced deactivation in the areas that are deactivated during the tasks in the course of both the attention-demanding working memory task and simple sensorimotor task. The observed neural characteristics of 5-repeat allele carriers may lead to an increased risk of ADHD and behavioral deficits. Furthermore, the increased originality of creative thinking observed in the 5-repeat allele carriers may support the notion of the side of adaptivity of the widespread risk allele of psychiatric diseases. PMID:25659462

  3. Allele-specific silencing of mutant Huntington’s disease gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Engelman, Joshua; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a poly-glutamine expansion in huntingtin, the protein encoded by the HD gene. PolyQ-expanded huntingtin is toxic to neurons, especially the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. At the same time, wild-type huntingtin has important -- indeed essential -- protective functions. Any effective molecular therapy must preserve the expression of wild-type huntingtin, while silencing the mutant allele. We hy...

  4. Paramutation:A Heritable Change in Gene Expression by Allelic Interactions In Trans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maike Stam

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetic gene regulation involves the stable propagation of gene activity states through mitotic,and sometimes even meiotic,cell divisions without changes in DNA sequence.Paramutation is an epigenetic phenomenon involving changes in gene expression that are stably transmitted through mitosis as well as meiosis.These heritable changes are mediated by in trans interactions between homologous DNA sequences on different chromosomes.During these in trans interactions,epigenetic information is transferred from one allele of a gene to another allele of the same gene,resulting in a change in gene expression.Although paramutation was initially discovered in plants,it has recently been observed in mammals as well,suggesting that the mechanisms underlying paramutation might be evolutionarily conserved.Recent findings point to a crucial role for small RNAs in the paramutation process.In mice,small RNAs appear sufficient to induce paramutation,whereas in maize,it seems not to be the only player in the process.In this review,potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to the various paramutation phenomena.

  5. Lack of feedback inhibition of V kappa gene rearrangement by productively rearranged alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K; Yamagishi, H

    1991-02-01

    Circular DNAs excised by immunoglobulin kappa chain gene rearrangements were cloned and characterized. 16 of 17 clones examined were double recombination products containing a V kappa-J kappa rearrangement (coding joint) as well as the reciprocal element (signal joint) of another V kappa-J kappa rearrangement. These products suggested multiple recombination, primary inversion, and secondary excision. In primary events, 5 of 16 translational reading frames were in-phase. Thus, V kappa gene rearrangement may not be inhibited by the presence of a productively rearranged allele. An unusually large trinucleotide (P) insertion forming a palindrome of 12 nucleotides was also observed in one of the coding joints. PMID:1988542

  6. Age-related cognitive decline : the role of allelic variations in two genes (COMT and APOE)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene codes for the COMT enzyme, which has a role in the degradation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. The dopaminergic system declines with age, and aging might increase the effects of COMT on cognition. It is in particular the COMT Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that has been investigated in association with cognition, but other COMT SNPs have also been studied. The ε4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is a known risk facto...

  7. Soybean Resistance Genes Specific for Different Pseudomonas Syringae Avirulence Genes Are Allelic, or Closely Linked, at the Rpg1 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfield, T.; Keen, N. T.; Buzzell, R. I.; Innes, R W

    1995-01-01

    RPG1 and RPM1 are disease resistance genes in soybean and Arabidopsis, respectively, that confer resistance to Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing the avirulence gene avrB. RPM1 has recently been demonstrated to have a second specificity, also conferring resistance to P. syringae strains expressing avrRpm1. Here we show that alleles, or closely linked genes, exist at the RPG1 locus in soybean that are specific for either avrB or avrRpm1 and thus can distinguish between these two avirulenc...

  8. Ploidy mosaicism and allele-specific gene expression differences in the allopolyploid Squalius alburnoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squalius alburnoides is an Iberian cyprinid fish resulting from an interspecific hybridisation between Squalius pyrenaicus females (P genome and males of an unknown Anaecypris hispanica-like species (A genome. S. alburnoides is an allopolyploid hybridogenetic complex, which makes it a likely candidate for ploidy mosaicism occurrence, and is also an interesting model to address questions about gene expression regulation and genomic interactions. Indeed, it was previously suggested that in S. alburnoides triploids (PAA composition silencing of one of the three alleles (mainly of the P allele occurs. However, not a whole haplome is inactivated but a more or less random inactivation of alleles varying between individuals and even between organs of the same fish was seen. In this work we intended to correlate expression differences between individuals and/or between organs to the occurrence of mosaicism, evaluating if mosaics could explain previous observations and its impact on the assessment of gene expression patterns. Results To achieve our goal, we developed flow cytometry and cell sorting protocols for this system generating more homogenous cellular and transcriptional samples. With this set-up we detected 10% ploidy mosaicism within the S. alburnoides complex, and determined the allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of mosaic and non-mosaic individuals coming from different rivers over a wide geographic range. Conclusions Ploidy mosaicism occurs sporadically within the S. alburnoides complex, but in a frequency significantly higher than reported for other organisms. Moreover, we could exclude the influence of this phenomenon on the detection of variable allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of triploid individuals. Finally, we determined that the expression patterns

  9. Allelic variation at a single gene increases food value in a drought-tolerant staple cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilding, Edward K; Frère, Celine H; Cruickshank, Alan; Rada, Anna K; Prentis, Peter J; Mudge, Agnieszka M; Mace, Emma S; Jordan, David R; Godwin, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The production of adequate agricultural outputs to support the growing human population places great demands on agriculture, especially in light of ever-greater restrictions on input resources. Sorghum is a drought-adapted cereal capable of reliable production where other cereals fail, and thus represents a good candidate to address food security as agricultural inputs of water and arable land grow scarce. A long-standing issue with sorghum grain is that it has an inherently lower digestibility. Here we show that a low-frequency allele type in the starch metabolic gene, pullulanase, is associated with increased digestibility, regardless of genotypic background. We also provide evidence that the beneficial allele type is not associated with deleterious pleiotropic effects in the modern field environment. We argue that increasing the digestibility of an adapted crop is a viable way forward towards addressing food security while maximizing water and land-use efficiency. PMID:23403584

  10. Allele characterization of genes required for rpg4-mediated wheat stem rust resistance identifies Rpg5 as the R gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, D; Gross, T; Brueggeman, R

    2013-11-01

    A highly virulent form of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK is virulent on both wheat and barley, presenting a major threat to world food security. The recessive and temperature-sensitive rpg4 gene is the only effective source of resistance identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare) against P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK. Efforts to position clone rpg4 localized resistance to a small interval on barley chromosome 5HL, tightly linked to the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) resistance (R) gene Rpg5. High-resolution genetic analysis and post-transcriptional gene silencing of the genes at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus determined that three tightly linked genes (Rpg5, HvRga1, and HvAdf3) are required together for rpg4-mediated wheat stem rust resistance. Alleles of the three genes were analyzed from a diverse set of 14 domesticated barley lines (H. vulgare) and 8 wild barley accessions (H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum) to characterize diversity that may determine incompatibility (resistance). The analysis determined that HvAdf3 and HvRga1 code for predicted functional proteins that do not appear to contain polymorphisms determining the compatible (susceptible) interactions with the wheat stem rust pathogen and were expressed at the transcriptional level from both resistant and susceptible barley lines. The HvAdf3 alleles shared 100% amino acid identity among all 22 genotypes examined. The P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ-susceptible barley lines with HvRga1 alleles containing the limited amino acid substitutions unique to the susceptible varieties also contained predicted nonfunctional rpg5 alleles. Thus, susceptibility in these lines is likely due to the nonfunctional RPG5 proteins. The Rpg5 allele analysis determined that 9 of the 13 P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ-susceptible barley lines contain alleles that either code for predicted truncated proteins as the result of a single nucleotide substitution, resulting in a

  11. A note on the change in gene frequency of a selected allele in partial full-sib mating populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, A. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1996-02-01

    The change in gene frequency of a selected allele in partial full-sib mating populations was analyzed. The implications of these papers is important in terms of the fixation probability of genes because, for the same equilibrium inbreeding coefficient, fixation rates of mutant genes would be larger for partial full-sib mating than for partial selfing. 4 refs.

  12. [Male reproductive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster strains with different alleles of the flamenco gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Karpova, N N; Iuneva, A O; Kim, A I

    2003-05-01

    The allelic state of gene flamenco has been determined in a number of Drosophila melanogaster strains using the ovoD test. The presence of an active copy of gypsy in these strains was detected by restriction analysis. Then male reproduction behavior was studied in the strains carrying a mutation in gene flamenco. In these experiments mating success has been experimentally estimated in groups of flies. It has been demonstrated that the presence of mutant allele flamMS decreases male mating activity irrespective of the presence or absence of mutation white. The active copy of gypsy does not affect mating activity in the absence of the mutation in gene flamenco. Individual analysis has demonstrated that that mutation flamMS results in characteristic changes in courtship: flamMS males exhibit a delay in the transition from the orientation stage to the vibration stage (the so-called vibration delay). The role of locus flamenco in the formation of male mating behavior in Drosophila is discussed. PMID:12838614

  13. Towards allele mining of bacterial wilt disease resistance gene in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is the most important vegetable commodity of the Philippines. Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one serious constraint in tomato production particularly during off-season planting. A major locus derived from H7996 that confers resistance to bacterial wilt has been mapped in the tomato genome. To validate the biological function of the resistance locus and generate multiple allele -mimics-, targeted mutation was induced in tomato using gamma ray and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagens. Suitable mutagen treatment was established by evaluating a wide range of mutagen doses/concentrations for a) percent seed germination, b) reduction in plant height, and c) loss of resistance. Six hundred Gy and 1.0% EMS were identified to generate large M1 families of H7996. From 10,000 initial seeds treated with either gamma ray or EMS, a total of 3,663 M1 plants were generated. M2 seeds were harvested from all surviving M1 plants. Several DNA markers have been resourced and are being developed specific to the bacterial wilt resistant gene. In the large M2 population, of H7996, both the phenotypic manifestation of bacterial wilt susceptibility and nucleotide changes in the resistance locus will be evaluated. Large M3 families for the different allele series of the bacterial wilt resistance gene will be established for future high throughput TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) analysis in the gene region

  14. SYK allelic loss and the role of Syk-regulated genes in breast cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Blancato

    Full Text Available Heterozygotic loss of SYK, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, gives rise to mouse mammary tumor formation where Syk protein levels are reduced by about half; loss of SYK mRNA is correlated with invasive cell behavior in in vitro models; and SYK loss has been correlated with distant metastases in patients. Here, allelic loss of the SYK gene was explored in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS using fluorescence in situ hybridization and pyrosequencing, respectively, and in infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC using genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Allelic loss was present in a subset of DCIS cases where adjacent IDC was present. SYK copy number loss was found in about 26% of 1002 total breast cancer cases and 30% of IDC cases. Quantitative immunofluorescence revealed Syk protein to be six-fold higher in infiltrating immune cells compared with epithelial cells. This difference distorted tumor cell mRNA and protein levels in extracts. 20% of 1002 IDC cases contained elevated immune cell infiltration as estimated by elevated immune-specific mRNAs. In cases without immune cell infiltration, loss of SYK copy number was associated with a significant reduction of SYK mRNA. Here we define a 55 Gene Set consisting of Syk interacting, motility- and invasion-related genes. We found that overall survival was significantly reduced in IDC and Luminal A+B cases where copy number and mutations of these 55 genes were affected (Kaplan-Meier, Logrank test p-value 0.007141 and Logrank test p-value 0.001198, respectively. We conclude that reduction in Syk expression and contributions of genomic instability to copy number and mutations in the 55 Syk interacting genes significantly contribute to poorer overall patient survival. A closer examination of the role of Syk interacting motility and invasion genes and their prognostic and/or causative association with metastatic disease and patient outcome is warranted.

  15. Emergence of New Alleles of the MSP-3α Gene in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Deok Hwa; Oh, Jun Seo; Nam, Myoung Hyun; Park, Hae Chul; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Won Ja; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Klein, Terry A.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Plasmodium vivax PvMSP-3α gene was conducted on blood from 143 malaria patients admitted to Korea University Medical Center from 1996 to 2007 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). From 1996 to 2002, the PvMSP-3α alleles were of two types, SKOR-67 (2.53 kb) and SKOR-69 (1.78 kb), which differed in length and amino acid sequence. Two new variants with similar size to SKOR-67 were first observed in 2002 and in 2006–2007 accounted for nearly 50% (25/51) of the sample...

  16. Allele-specific gene silencing in two mouse models of autosomal dominant skeletal myopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Loy

    Full Text Available We explored the potential of mutant allele-specific gene silencing (ASGS in providing therapeutic benefit in two established mouse models of the autosomal dominantly-inherited muscle disorders, Malignant Hyperthermia (MH and Central Core Disease (CCD. Candidate ASGS siRNAs were designed and validated for efficacy and specificity on ryanodine receptor (RyR1 cDNA mini-constructs expressed in HEK293 cells using RT-PCR- and confocal microscopy-based assays. In vivo delivery of the most efficacious identified siRNAs into flexor digitorum brevis (FDB muscles was achieved by injection/electroporation of footpads of 4-6 month old heterozygous Ryr1(Y524S/+ (YS/+ and Ryr1(I4895T/+ (IT/+ knock-in mice, established mouse models of MH with cores and CCD, respectively. Treatment of IT/+ mice resulted in a modest rescue of deficits in the maximum rate (∼38% rescue and magnitude (∼78% of ligand-induced Ca(2+ release that occurred in the absence of a change in the magnitude of electrically-evoked Ca(2+ release. Compared to the difference between the caffeine sensitivity of Ca(2+ release in FDB fibers from YS/+ and WT mice treated with SCR siRNA (EC(50: 1.1 mM versus 4.4 mM, respectively, caffeine sensitivity was normalized in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice following 2 (EC(50: 2.8 mM and 4 week (EC(50: 6.6 mM treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. Moreover, the temperature-dependent increase in resting Ca(2+ observed in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice was normalized to WT levels after 2 weeks of treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. As determined by quantitative real time PCR, the degree of functional rescue in YS/+ and IT/+ mice correlated well with the relative increase in fractional WT allele expression.

  17. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels

  18. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Chwatko, Grażyna [Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Jóźwiak, Paweł; Szymczyk, Agnieszka [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Wilkosz, Jacek; Różański, Waldemar [2nd Department of Urology, Medical University of Łódź, Pabianicka 62, 93-513 Łódź (Poland); Bryś, Magdalena, E-mail: zreg@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  19. Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Tissue-Specific Dynamics of Differential, Nonadditive, and Allelic Expression Patterns in Maize Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Jutta A; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Distantly related maize (Zea mays) inbred lines display an exceptional degree of genomic diversity. F1 progeny of such inbred lines are often more vigorous than their parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In this study, we investigated how the genetic divergence of the maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 and their F1 hybrid progeny is reflected in differential, nonadditive, and allelic expression patterns in primary root tissues. In pairwise comparisons of the four genotypes, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two parental inbred lines significantly exceeded those of parent versus hybrid comparisons in all four tissues under analysis. No differentially expressed genes were detected between reciprocal hybrids, which share the same nuclear genome. Moreover, hundreds of nonadditive and allelic expression ratios that were different from the expression ratios of the parents were observed in the reciprocal hybrids. The overlap of both nonadditive and allelic expression patterns in the reciprocal hybrids significantly exceeded the expected values. For all studied types of expression - differential, nonadditive, and allelic - substantial tissue-specific plasticity was observed. Significantly, nonsyntenic genes that evolved after the last whole genome duplication of a maize progenitor from genes with synteny to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were highly overrepresented among differential, nonadditive, and allelic expression patterns compared with the fraction of these genes among all expressed genes. This observation underscores the role of nonsyntenic genes in shaping the transcriptomic landscape of maize hybrids during the early developmental manifestation of heterosis in root tissues of maize hybrids. PMID:27208302

  20. DYX1C1基因rs3743205位点等位基因的功能研究%Function Research on DYX1C1 Gene rs3743205 Site Gene Alleles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志超; 沈黎; 刘得水; 李丹; 吴桐; 赵阿勐; 崔光成

    2016-01-01

    目的:为鉴定儿童发展性阅读障碍发病相关易感基因DYX1C1的rs3743205位点-3C/T不同等位基因对基因调控区转录活性的影响。方法本研究构建含DYX1C1基因rs3743205位点-3C/T不同等位基因的萤光素酶报告基因重组质粒,体外转染原代培养神经细胞并测定其瞬时表达萤光素酶活性。结果体外转染增殖期原代培养神经细胞,含等位基因-3T重组质粒的报告基因荧光素酶表达活性高于含等位基因-3C重组质粒,并均低于PGL3-control Plas-mid。结论位于DYX1C1基因5'调控区的rs3743205位点-3T等位基因可能参与基因的转录调控,-3C等位基因可能是儿童发展性阅读障碍的易感基因。%Objective To identify the effect of children developmental dyslexia invasion susceptibility gene DYX1C1 rs3743205 site -3C/T different gene alleles on transcription activity in gene control region. Methods The luciferase reporter gene recombinant plasmid containing DYX1C1 gene rs3743205 site -3C/T different gene alleles was structured, and the nerve cells were primarily cultured transfection in vitro and the transcient expression of luciferase activity was measured. Results The nerve cells were primarily cultured in transfection in vitro multiplication period, the expression activity of lu-ciferase containing gene alleles -3T recombinant plasmid reporter gene is higher than that of the recombinant plasmid con-taining gene alleles -3C, and both were lower than that of PGL3-control plasmid. Conclusion The rs3743205 site -3T gene alleles in the gene alleles gene 5’ control region may participate in the gene transcriptional control, and -3C gene alleles may be the susceptibility genes of children developmental dyslexia.

  1. HindIII identifies a two allele DNA polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caenazzo, L.; Hoehe, M.R.; Hsieh, W.T.; Berrettini, W.H.; Bonner, T.I.; Gershon, E.S. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-09-11

    HCNR p5, a 0.9 kb BamHI/EcoRI fragment from the human cannabinoid receptor gene inserted into pUC19, was used as probe. The fragment is located in an intron approximately 14 kb 5{prime} of the initiation codon. This fragment is a clean single copy sequence by genomic blotting. Hybridization of human genomic DNA digested with HindIII identified a two allele RFLP with bands at 5.5 (A1) and 3.3 kb (A2). The human cannabinoid receptor gene has been genetically mapped in CEPH reference pedigrees to the centromeric/q region of chromosome 6. In situ hybridization localizes it to 6q14-q15. Codominant segregation has been observed in 26 informative two- and three-generation CEPH pedigrees and in 14 medium-sized disease families.

  2. Analysis of a Larger SNP Dataset from the HapMap Project Confirmed That the Modern Human A Allele of the ABO Blood Group Genes Is a Descendant of a Recombinant between B and O Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Itou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human ABO blood group gene consists of three main alleles (A, B, and O that encode a glycosyltransferase. The A and B alleles differ by two critical amino acids in exon 7, and the major O allele has a single nucleotide deletion (Δ261 in exon 6. Previous evolutionary studies have revealed that the A allele is the most ancient, B allele diverged from the A allele with two critical amino acid substitutions in exon 7, and the major O allele diverged from the A allele with Δ261 in exon 6. However, a recent phylogenetic network analysis study showed that the A allele of humans emerged through a recombination between the B and O alleles. In the previous study, a restricted dataset from only two populations was used. In this study, therefore, we used a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP dataset from the HapMap Project. The results indicated that the A101-A201-O09 haplogroup was a recombinant lineage between the B and O haplotypes, containing the intact exon 6 from the B allele and the two critical A type sites in exon 7 from the major O allele. Its recombination point was assumed to be located just behind Δ261 in exon 6.

  3. What phylogeny and gene genealogy analyses reveal about homoplasy in citrus microsatellite alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley, Noelle A.; Krueger, Robert R.; Federici, Claire T.; Roose, Mikeal L

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five microsatellite alleles amplified from ancestral citrus accessions classified in three separate genera were evaluated for sequence polymorphism to establish the basis of inter- and intra-allelic genetic variation, evaluate the extent of size homoplasy, and determine an appropriate model (stepwise or infinite allele) for analysis of citrus microsatellite alleles. Sequences for each locus were aligned and subsequently used to determine relationships between alleles of different taxa v...

  4. GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ALLEL DIVERSITY OF THREE BALINESE GENERATIONS BASED ON FIVE AUTOSOMAL MICROSATELLITE DNA LOCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Saka Laksmita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to find out the genetic structures of three generations of Balinese population, in order to determine the best loci used for paternity testing among this population, and observed the mutation rate of these loci. The DNA samples were taken from the epithelium cell of 25 families which were collected from the children, father, mother, grandfather and grandmother of the children, from both mother and father sides (family with three generations. The DNA was extracted in Phenol-Chloroform method with modifications. DNA amplification was conducted in PCR method using pairs of primer 5, namely: FGA, D18S51, D2S1338, TPOX, and D16S539, and its products were electrophoresed and visualized in 10% of PAGE, stained in silver nitrate. The genetic structures of the three family generations showed 30 variants with different frequencies in each locus. The highest heterozygosity value was detected in FGA (8 alleles, then followed by D18S51 (7 alleles, TPOX (6 alleles, D16S539 (5 alleles, and the lowest was in D2S1338 (4 alleles. The highest value of heterozigosity and Power of Discrimination were found in FGA, followed by TPOX, D18S51, D2S1338, and the lowest was in D16S539. Therefore, it can be concluded that out of five loci tested, 4 of them can be recommended to be used for paternity testing of Balinese population, except D16S539

  5. Cellular adhesion gene SELP is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and displays differential allelic expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Burkhardt

    Full Text Available In rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a key event is infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into the synovial lining, possibly aggravated by dysregulation of cellular adhesion molecules. Therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms of 14 genes involved in cellular adhesion processes (CAST, ITGA4, ITGB1, ITGB2, PECAM1, PTEN, PTPN11, PTPRC, PXN, SELE, SELP, SRC, TYK2, and VCAM1 were analyzed for association with RA. Association analysis was performed consecutively in three European RA family sample groups (Nfamilies = 407. Additionally, we investigated differential allelic expression, a possible functional consequence of genetic variants. SELP (selectin P, CD62P SNP-allele rs6136-T was associated with risk for RA in two RA family sample groups as well as in global analysis of all three groups (ptotal = 0.003. This allele was also expressed preferentially (p<10-6 with a two- fold average increase in regulated samples. Differential expression is supported by data from Genevar MuTHER (p1 = 0.004; p2 = 0.0177. Evidence for influence of rs6136 on transcription factor binding was also found in silico and in public datasets reporting in vitro data. In summary, we found SELP rs6136-T to be associated with RA and with increased expression of SELP mRNA. SELP is located on the surface of endothelial cells and crucial for recruitment, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells into the joint. Genetically determined increased SELP expression levels might thus be a novel additional risk factor for RA.

  6. Allelic polymorphism of Ovar-DRB1 exon2 gene and parasite resistance in two dairy sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Spetsarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ovar-DRB1 gene locus is one of the most polymorphic genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (Ovar-MHC and holds a functional role to antigen presentation. The aim of this study was: a to describe the Ovar-DRB1 locus variability in two dairy Greek sheep breeds and b to investigate associations between this variability with resistance to gastrointestinal parasitosis. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 231 and 201 animals of Arta and Kalarrytiko breeds, respectively. The identification of alleles was performed using the sequence–base method. Faecal egg counting (FEC of the gastrointestinal parasites and measures of blood plasma pepsinogen levels were performed in order to evaluate parasitological parameters. From this study in the overall examined animals, thirty-nine Ovar-DRB1 alleles were identified, among them, ten new alleles, reported for the first time in the literature. In Arta breed a total of twenty-four alleles were found. Among the detected alleles, ten were breed specific and five were new. Regarding the Kalarrytiko breed, twenty-nine alleles were found, fifteen of them were unique and nine were new. The studied breeds differed in their allelic profile, with only 12 common from the total of 134 different recorded genotypes. A higher number of animals with high parasitic load and high plasma pepsinogen values were found in Kalarrytiko. Associations between Ovar-DRB1 alleles with FEC values were found with certain heterozygous genotypes to present significantly reduced FEC values. The large number of detected alleles with low frequencies and the fact that the majority of animals were heterozygous, make hard to find strong associations

  7. Novel alleles of 31-bp VNTR polymorphism in the human cystathionine -synthase (CBS) gene were detected in healthy Asians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yik-Yuen Gan; Chuan-Fei Chen

    2010-12-01

    A 31-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the cystathionine -synthase (CBS) gene was earlier reported in Caucasians of predominantly European descent and Indo–Caucasoid populations.We report here for the first time, the detection of allele 20, which was absent in Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations, as a common allele present in Singaporean Chinese (6.25%), Indians (11.7%), and Malays (11.5%). Hence, allele 20 might be a specific allele for Asian populations. A relatively common allele 19 found in the Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations (10.4%–10.6%) was absent in the Asian samples of this study. Therefore, allele 19 might be a specific allele for the Caucasian populations. A novel and rare allele 13, which was not reported before in the Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations, was found in 0.5% of Singaporean Chinese as genotype 13/17 heterozygotes. The presence of alleles 13 and 20 were verified by DNA sequencing. There were five new genotypes (13/17, 16/20, 17/20, 18/20 and 20/20) not reported before in the Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations, detected in this study. Nine genotypes (15/18, 16/18, 16/21, 17/19, 18/19, 18/21, 19/19, 19/21 and 21/21) which were present in the Caucasian and/or Indo–Caucasoid populations were absent in this study. Our results showed that CBS 31-bp VNTR polymorphism has a distinct genetic difference in allele and genotype frequencies between the European Caucasians, Indo–Caucasoid and Asian populations.

  8. Emergence of new alleles of the MSP-3alpha gene in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Deok Hwa; Oh, Jun Seo; Nam, Myoung Hyun; Park, Hae Chul; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Won Ja; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Klein, Terry A; Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-04-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Plasmodium vivax PvMSP-3alpha gene was conducted on blood from 143 malaria patients admitted to Korea University Medical Center from 1996 to 2007 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). From 1996 to 2002, the PvMSP-3alpha alleles were of two types, SKOR-67 (2.53 kb) and SKOR-69 (1.78 kb), which differed in length and amino acid sequence. Two new variants with similar size to SKOR-67 were first observed in 2002 and in 2006-2007 accounted for nearly 50% (25/51) of the sampled isolates. The new variants had the same amino acid sequence as SKOR-69 in the N-terminal region, but in Blocks I and II and in the C-terminal region, they were similar to previously reported isolates from Thailand, Papua New Guinea, India, Brazil, and Ecuador strains. PMID:20348492

  9. Novel alleles among soybean Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor gene families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YuePing; CHEN XiongTing; QIU LiJuan

    2008-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitors have been found in various animals, plants and microorganisms. There were two types of trypsin inhibitors in soybean including Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors (BBI) and Kunitz in-hibitors (KTI). The different BBI genes from wild soybean (G.soja) and cultivated soybean (G max) formed a multigene family. We constructed a cDNA library of cultivar 'SuiNong 14' seed at the R7 growth stage using the SMART Kit. Seventeen contigs or singletons were highly homologous to soy-bean protease inhibitors. Contigs of 5, 35, 8 and 9 were highly homologous to BBI family members BBI-A1, BBI-A2, BBI-C and BBI-D, respectively. Sequence analyses showed there were novel allelic varia-tions among the 4 BBI members in SuiNong 14. Based on the comparison of soybean seed cDNA li-braries from different developmental stages, it was apparent that the expression of trypsin inhibitors increased during seed development in soybean. Phylogenetic analysis of BBI gene sequences among dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants demonstrated that these genes shared a common pro-genitor.

  10. Rare structural variation of synapse and neurotransmission genes in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Gai, X; Xie, H M; Perin, J C; Takahashi, N; Murphy, K.; Wenocur, A S; D'arcy, M; O'Hara, R J; Goldmuntz, E; Grice, D. E.; Shaikh, T H; Hakonarson, H.; Buxbaum, J D; Elia, J.; White, P S

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a constellation of highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorders. Genome-wide studies of autistic individuals have implicated numerous minor risk alleles but few common variants, suggesting a complex genetic model with many contributing loci. To assess commonality of biological function among rare risk alleles, we compared functional knowledge of genes overlapping inherited structural variants in idiopathic ASD subjects relative to healthy controls. In ...

  11. Generation and characterization of mice carrying a conditional allele of the Wwox tumor suppressor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Ludes-Meyers

    Full Text Available WWOX, the gene that spans the second most common human chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D, is inactivated in multiple human cancers and behaves as a suppressor of tumor growth. Since we are interested in understanding WWOX function in both normal and cancer tissues we generated mice harboring a conditional Wwox allele by flanking Exon 1 of the Wwox gene with LoxP sites. Wwox knockout (KO mice were developed by breeding with transgenic mice carrying the Cre-recombinase gene under the control of the adenovirus EIIA promoter. We found that Wwox KO mice suffered from severe metabolic defect(s resulting in growth retardation and all mice died by 3 wk of age. All Wwox KO mice displayed significant hypocapnia suggesting a state of metabolic acidosis. This finding and the known high expression of Wwox in kidney tubules suggest a role for Wwox in acid/base balance. Importantly, Wwox KO mice displayed histopathological and hematological signs of impaired hematopoiesis, leukopenia, and splenic atrophy. Impaired hematopoiesis can also be a contributing factor to metabolic acidosis and death. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia was also observed affecting the KO mice. In addition, bone metabolic defects were evident in Wwox KO mice. Bones were smaller and thinner having reduced bone volume as a consequence of a defect in mineralization. No evidence of spontaneous neoplasia was observed in Wwox KO mice. We have generated a new mouse model to inactivate the Wwox tumor suppressor gene conditionally. This will greatly facilitate the functional analysis of Wwox in adult mice and will allow investigating neoplastic transformation in specific target tissues.

  12. The tprK gene is heterogeneous among Treponema pallidum strains and has multiple alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centurion-Lara, A; Godornes, C; Castro, C; Van Voorhis, W C; Lukehart, S A

    2000-02-01

    We have previously shown that the TprK antigen of T. pallidum, Nichols strain, is predominantly expressed in treponemes obtained 10 days after infection and that the hydrophilic domain of TprK is a target of opsonic antibodies and confers significant protection against homologous challenge. The T. pallidum genome sequence reported the presence of a single copy of the tprK gene in the Nichols strain. In the present study we demonstrate size heterogeneity in the central portions of the TprK hydrophilic domains of 14 treponemal isolates. Sequence analysis of the central domains and the complete open reading frames (ORFs) of the tprK genes confirms this heterogeneity. Further, multiple tprK sequences were found in the Nichols-defined tprK locus in three isolates (Sea 81-4, Bal 7, and Bal 73-1). In contrast, only a single tprK sequence could be identified in this locus in the Nichols strain. Alignment of the DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the whole tprK ORFs shows the presence of seven discrete variable domains flanked by highly conserved regions. We hypothesize that these heterogeneous regions may be involved in antigenic heterogeneity and, in particular, evasion of the immune response. The presence of different tprK alleles in the tprK locus strongly suggests the existence of genetically different subpopulations within treponemal isolates. PMID:10639452

  13. Allele Types ofRcGene of Weedy Rice from Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiao-yan; QIANGSheng; SONGXiao-ling; CAIKun; SUNYi-na; SHIZhi-hua; DAIWei-min

    2014-01-01

    Weedy rice(Oryza sativaf.spontanea), the predominant type of which has a red pericarp, seriously inhibits growth and yield of direct-seeded rice in Jiangsu Province, China. In this study, we randomly selected 10 weedy rice accessions from 10 plots in Jiangsu, and then sequenced the full lengths of theirRcgenes (approximately 6.4 kb). In addition, we collected 166 different full-lengthRc genes in theOryzagenus from the literature and from GenBank. A collinearity sequence analysis showed that the 10 weedy riceaccessions from Jiangsu all had the same wild-type allele of theRcgene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms indicated thatthe nucleotide polymorphisms (π= 0.19) and theproportion of segregation sites(θw= 0.28) of theRcgenes in the 10 weedy rice accessions from Jiangsu were higher than those in 56 weedy rice accessions from USA (π= 0.09 andθw= 0.07). Haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed thattheRcgenes of weedy rice accessions from Jiangsu were not revertants of therc gene found in Asian cultivated rice(O. sativa) varietieswith white pericarp. In addition,Rcgene sequences of the rice varieties Lvdao from Lianyungang, Jiangsu and Tangdao from Anhui were more similar to those of cultivated rice than to the weedy rice from Jiangsu. These findings support the continued quarantine of weedy rice and clarify the evolutionary mechanism of the red pericarp found in the weedy rice of Jiangsu.

  14. Argument within a Scientific Debate: The Case of the DRD2 A1 Allele as a Gene for Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastyn, Ronald O.; Wastyn, M. Linda

    1997-01-01

    Investigates how opposing parties advanced arguments to the scientific community about the validity of DRD2 A1 allele as a gene causing alcoholism. Demonstrates to what extent scientists debate each other in journals by advancing opposing viewpoints with rigor and insight. Reveals what it means when scientists label a discovery in terms of finding…

  15. Age of an allele and gene genealogies of nested subsamples for populations admitting large offspring numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Eldon, Bjarki

    2012-01-01

    Coalescent processes, including mutation, are derived from Moran type population models admitting large offspring numbers. Including mutation in the coalescent process allows for quantifying the turnover of alleles by computing the distribution of the number of original alleles still segregating in the population at a given time in the past. The turnover of alleles is considered for specific classes of the Moran model admitting large offspring numbers. Versions of the Kingman coalescent are a...

  16. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  17. Triglyceride associated polymorphisms of the APOA5 gene have very different allele frequencies in Pune, India compared to Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandak Giriraj R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The APOA5 gene variants, -1131T>C and S19W, are associated with altered triglyceride concentrations in studies of subjects of Caucasian and East Asian descent. There are few studies of these variants in South Asians. We investigated whether the two APOA5 variants also show similar association with various lipid parameters in Indian population as in the UK white subjects. Methods We genotyped 557 Indian adults from Pune, India, and 237 UK white adults for -1131T>C and S19W variants in the APOA5 gene, compared their allelic and genotype frequency and determined their association with fasting serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels using univariate general linear analysis. APOC3 SstI polymorphism was also analyzed in 175 Pune Indian subjects for analysis of linkage disequilibrium with the APOA5 variants. Results The APOA5 -1131C allele was more prevalent in Indians from Pune (Pune Indians compared to UK white subjects (allele frequency 20% vs. 4%, p = 0.00001, whereas the 19W allele was less prevalent (3% vs. 6% p = 0.0015. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium between the two variants were similar between the two populations and confirmed that they occur on two different haplotypes. In Pune Indians, the presence of -1131C allele and the 19W allele was associated with a 19% and 15% increase respectively in triglyceride concentrations although only -1131C was significant (p = 0.0003. This effect size was similar to that seen in the UK white subjects. Analysis of the APOC3 SstI polymorphism in 175 Pune Indian subjects showed that this variant is not in appreciable linkage disequilibrium with the APOA5 -1131T>C variant (r2 = 0.07. Conclusion This is the first study to look at the role of APOA5 in Asian Indian subjects that reside in India. The -1131C allele is more prevalent and the 19W allele is less prevalent in Pune Indians compared to UK Caucasians. We confirm that the APOA5 variants are associated

  18. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be associated with altered enzymatic activity. Using the three SNPs, eight different haplotypes were constructed. The haplotype frequencies were estimated in cases and controls and then compared. The odds ratio for each tumour type, associated with each haplotype was estimated, with reference to the most common haplotype observed in the controls. The three SNPs rs10012, rs1056827 and rs1056836 alone did not provide any significant evidence of association with colorectal cancer risk. Haplotypes of rs1056827 and rs10012 or rs1056827 and rs1056836 revealed an association with colorectal cancer which was significantly stronger in the homozygous carriers. One haplotype was under represented in the colorectal cancer patient group compared to the control population suggesting a protective effect. Genetic variants within the CYP1B1 that are associated with altered function appear to influence susceptibility to a colorectal cancer in Poland. Three haplotypes were associated with altered cancer risk; one conferred protection and two were associated with an increased risk of disease. These observations should be confirmed in other populations

  19. Integrating the genetic and physical maps of Arabidopsis thaliana: identification of mapped alleles of cloned essential (EMB genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meinke

    Full Text Available The classical genetic map of Arabidopsis includes more than 130 genes with an embryo-defective (emb mutant phenotype. Many of these essential genes remain to be cloned. Hundreds of additional EMB genes have been cloned and catalogued (www.seedgenes.org but not mapped. To facilitate EMB gene identification and assess the current level of saturation, we updated the classical map, compared the physical and genetic locations of mapped loci, and performed allelism tests between mapped (but not cloned and cloned (but not mapped emb mutants with similar chromosome locations. Two hundred pairwise combinations of genes located on chromosomes 1 and 5 were tested and more than 1100 total crosses were screened. Sixteen of 51 mapped emb mutants examined were found to be disrupted in a known EMB gene. Alleles of a wide range of published EMB genes (YDA, GLA1, TIL1, AtASP38, AtDEK1, EMB506, DG1, OEP80 were discovered. Two EMS mutants isolated 30 years ago, T-DNA mutants with complex insertion sites, and a mutant with an atypical, embryo-specific phenotype were resolved. The frequency of allelism encountered was consistent with past estimates of 500 to 1000 EMB loci. New EMB genes identified among mapped T-DNA insertion mutants included CHC1, which is required for chromatin remodeling, and SHS1/AtBT1, which encodes a plastidial nucleotide transporter similar to the maize Brittle1 protein required for normal endosperm development. Two classical genetic markers (PY, ALB1 were identified based on similar map locations of known genes required for thiamine (THIC and chlorophyll (PDE166 biosynthesis. The alignment of genetic and physical maps presented here should facilitate the continued analysis of essential genes in Arabidopsis and further characterization of a broad spectrum of mutant phenotypes in a model plant.

  20. Allelic distributions of CYP2D6 gene copy number variation in the Eastern Han Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-hui SHENG; Yun-lan DU; Jian SUN; Hua-sheng XIAO; Ai-ping ZENG; Wen-xiang ZHU; Ren-fang ZHU; Hong-mei LI; Zhi-dong ZHU; Ying QIN; Wei JIN; Yan LIU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene copy number variation, involving CYP2D6 gene deletion (CYP2D6*5) and duplication or multiduplication (CYP2D6*×N), can result in reduced or increased metabolism of many clinically used drugs. The identification of CYP2D6*5 and CYP2D6*×N and the investigation of their allelic distributions in ethnic populations can be important in deter-mining the right drug and dosage for each patient. Methods: The CYP2D6*5 andCYP2D6 genes, and CYP2D6 gene duplication were identified by 2 modified long PCR, respectively. To determine duplicated alleles, a novel long PCR was developed to amplify the entire duplicated CYP2D6 gene which was used as template for subsequent PCR amplification. A total of 363 unrelated Eastern Han Chinese individuals were analyzed for CYP2D6 gene copy number variation. Results: The frequency of CYP2D6*5 and CYP2D6*×N were 4.82% (n=35) and 0.69% (n=5) in the Eastern Han Chinese population, respectively. Of the 5 duplicated alleles, 3were CYP2D6*1×N and 2 were CYP2D6*10×N. One individual was a carrier of both CYP2D6*5 and CYP2D6*1×N. Taken together, the CYP2D6 gene rear-rangements were present in 10.74% of subjects. Conclusion: Allelic distributions of the CYP2D6 gene copy number variation differ among Chinese from different regions, indicating ethnic variety in Chinese. Long PCR are convenient, cost effective, specific and semiquantitative for the detection of the CYP2D6 gene copy number variation, and amplification of the entire duplicated CYP2D6 gene is necessary for the accurate identification of duplicated alleles.

  1. Wide allelic heterogeneity with predominance of large IDS gene complex rearrangements in a sample of Mexican patients with Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ortigoza, M A; García-de Teresa, B; González-Del Angel, A; Berumen, J; Guardado-Estrada, M; Fernández-Hernández, L; Navarrete-Martínez, J I; Maza-Morales, M; Rius-Domínguez, R

    2016-05-01

    Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is caused by pathogenic variants in the IDS gene. This is the first study that examines the mutational spectrum in 25 unrelated Mexican MPSII families. The responsible genotype was identified in 96% of the families (24/25) with 10 novel pathogenic variants: c.133G>C, c.1003C>T, c.1025A>C, c.463_464delinsCCGTATAGCTGG, c.754_767del, c.1132_1133del, c.1463del, c.508-1G>C, c.1006+1G>T and c.(-217_103del). Extensive IDS gene deletions were identified in four patients; using DNA microarray analysis two patients showed the loss of the entire AFF2 gene, and epilepsy developed in only one of them. Wide allelic heterogeneity was noted, with large gene alterations (e.g. IDS/IDSP1 gene inversions, partial to extensive IDS deletions, and one chimeric IDS-IDSP1 allele) that occurred at higher frequencies than previously reported (36% vs 18.9-29%). The frequency of carrier mothers (80%) is consistent with previous descriptions (>70%). Carrier assignment allowed molecular prenatal diagnoses. Notably, somatic and germline mosaicism was identified in one family, and two patients presented thrombocytopenic purpura and pancytopenia after idursulfase enzyme replacement treatment. Our findings suggest a wide allelic heterogeneity in Mexican MPSII patients; DNA microarray analysis contributes to further delineation of the resulting phenotype for IDS and neighboring loci deletions. PMID:26762690

  2. Allelic Variation in Developmental Genes and Effects on Winter Wheat Heading Date in the U.S. Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah M; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Haley, Scott D; McMaster, Gregory S; Reid, Scott D; Smith, Jared; Byrne, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Heading date in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other small grain cereals is affected by the vernalization and photoperiod pathways. The reduced-height loci also have an effect on growth and development. Heading date, which occurs just prior to anthesis, was evaluated in a population of 299 hard winter wheat entries representative of the U.S. Great Plains region, grown in nine environments during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The germplasm was evaluated for candidate genes at vernalization (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1), photoperiod (Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1), and reduced-height (Rht-B1 and Rht-D1) loci using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays. Our objectives were to determine allelic variants known to affect flowering time, assess the effect of allelic variants on heading date, and investigate changes in the geographic and temporal distribution of alleles and haplotypes. Our analyses enhanced understanding of the roles developmental genes have on the timing of heading date in wheat under varying environmental conditions, which could be used by breeding programs to improve breeding strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The significant main effects and two-way interactions between the candidate genes explained an average of 44% of variability in heading date at each environment. Among the loci we evaluated, most of the variation in heading date was explained by Ppd-D1, Ppd-B1, and their interaction. The prevalence of the photoperiod sensitive alleles Ppd-A1b, Ppd-B1b, and Ppd-D1b has gradually decreased in U.S. Great Plains germplasm over the past century. There is also geographic variation for photoperiod sensitive and reduced-height alleles, with germplasm from breeding programs in the northern Great Plains having greater incidences of the photoperiod sensitive alleles and lower incidence of the semi-dwarf alleles than germplasm from breeding programs in the central or southern plains. PMID:27058239

  3. Allelic Lineages of the Ficolin Genes (FCNs) Are Passed from Ancestral to Descendant Primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Nissen, Janna; Fog, Lea Munthe; Koch, Claus; Frost Bertelsen, Mads; Garred, Peter

    2011-01-01

    -human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non...... the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in...

  4. A Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy reveals two divergent allelic classes within the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.

  5. Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, L.C.C.; Sham, P.; Castle, D. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females, though the number of males in our sample is too small to draw any definite conclusions. Our data is consistent with recent reports of reduced MAOA activity in patients with abnormal behavioral phenotypes. The strength of the association is weak, but significant, which suggests that alleles at the MAOA locus contribute to susceptibility to bipolar disorder rather than being a major determinant. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Relation of the Allelic Variants of Multidrug Resistance Gene to Agranulocytosis Associated With Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Yağcioğlu, A Elif; Yoca, Gökhan; Ayhan, Yavuz; Karaca, R Özgür; Çevik, Lokman; Müderrisoğlu, Ahmet; Göktaş, Mustafa T; Eni, Nurhayat; Yazici, M Kâzim; Bozkurt, Atilla; Babaoğlu, Melih O

    2016-06-01

    Clozapine use is associated with leukopenia and more rarely agranulocytosis, which may be lethal. The drug and its metabolites are proposed to interact with the multidrug resistance transporter (ABCB1/MDR1) gene product, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Among various P-glycoprotein genetic polymorphisms, nucleotide changes in exons 26 (C3435T), 21 (G2677T), and 12 (C1236T) have been implicated for changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many substrate drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between these specific ABCB1 polymorphisms and clozapine-associated agranulocytosis (CAA). Ten patients with a history of CAA and 91 control patients without a history of CAA, despite 10 years of continuous clozapine use, were included. Patient recruitment and blood sample collection were conducted at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, in collaboration with the members of the Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Section of the Psychiatric Association of Turkey, working in various psychiatry clinics. After DNA extraction from peripheral blood lymphocytes, genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease digestion. Patients with CAA had shorter duration of clozapine use but did not show any significant difference in other clinical, sociodemographic characteristics and in genotypic or allelic distributions of ABCB1 variants and haplotypes compared with control patients. Among the 10 patients with CAA, none carried the ABCB1 all-variant haplotype (TT-TT-TT), whereas the frequency of this haplotype was approximately 12% among the controls. Larger sample size studies and thorough genetic analyses may reveal both genetic risk and protective factors for this serious adverse event. PMID:27043126

  7. The lipoprotein lipase gene in combined hyperlipidemia: evidence of a protective allele depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Malloy Mary J; Pullinger Clive R; Kulkarni Medha V; Wung Shu-Fen; Kane John P; Aouizerat Bradley E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL), a key enzyme in lipid metabolism, catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) from TG-rich lipoproteins, and serves a bridging function that enhances the cellular uptake of lipoproteins. Abnormalities in LPL function are associated with pathophysiological conditions, including familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). Whereas two LPL susceptibility alleles were found to co-segregate in a few FCH kindred, a role for common, protective alleles rema...

  8. The lipoprotein lipase gene in combined hyperlipidemia: evidence of a protective allele depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloy Mary J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism, catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG from TG-rich lipoproteins, and serves a bridging function that enhances the cellular uptake of lipoproteins. Abnormalities in LPL function are associated with pathophysiological conditions, including familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH. Whereas two LPL susceptibility alleles were found to co-segregate in a few FCH kindred, a role for common, protective alleles remains unexplored. The LPL Ser447Stop (S447X allele is associated with anti-atherogenic lipid profiles and a modest reduction in risk for coronary disease. We hypothesize that significant depletion of the 447X allele exists in combined hyperlipidemia cases versus controls. A case-control design was employed. The polymorphism was assessed by restriction assay in 212 cases and 161 controls. Genotypic, allelic, and phenotypic associations were examined. Results We found evidence of significant allelic (447Xcontrol: 0.130 vs. 447Xcase: 0.031, χ2 = 29.085; 1df; p 2 = 26.09; 1df; p Conclusion These findings suggest a role for the S447X polymorphism in combined hyperlipidemia and demonstrate the importance of evaluating both susceptibility and protective genetic risk factors.

  9. Allele-specific transcription factor binding to common and rare variants associated with disease and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Marco; Pan, Gang; Nord, Helena; Wallerman, Ola; Wallén Arzt, Emelie; Berggren, Olof; Elvers, Ingegerd; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Rönnblom, Lars; Lindblad Toh, Kerstin; Wadelius, Claes

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of disease-associated SNPs, but in few cases the functional variant and the gene it controls have been identified. To systematically identify candidate regulatory variants, we sequenced ENCODE cell lines and used public ChIP-seq data to look for transcription factors binding preferentially to one allele. We found 9962 candidate regulatory SNPs, of which 16 % were rare and showed evidence of larger functional effect than common ones. Functionally rare variants may explain divergent GWAS results between populations and are candidates for a partial explanation of the missing heritability. The majority of allele-specific variants (96 %) were specific to a cell type. Furthermore, by examining GWAS loci we found >400 allele-specific candidate SNPs, 141 of which were highly relevant in our cell types. Functionally validated SNPs support identification of an SNP in SYNGR1 which may expose to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and primary biliary cirrhosis, as well as an SNP in the last intron of COG6 exposing to the risk of psoriasis. We propose that by repeating the ChIP-seq experiments of 20 selected transcription factors in three to ten people, the most common polymorphisms can be interrogated for allele-specific binding. Our strategy may help to remove the current bottleneck in functional annotation of the genome. PMID:26993500

  10. Structure and expression of the Plasmodium falciparum SERA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W B; Bzik, D J; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1989-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, strain FCR3, genomic DNA that encodes the SERA gene of P. falciparum was isolated and sequenced. The SERA gene coding region was interrupted by 3 introns, the largest number observed, so far, in any Plasmodium gene. Two SERA gene alleles, allele I and allele II, were identified in the FCR3 strain, while only allele I was found in the Honduras-1 strain. Allele I mRNA was abundant in vivo during the late trophozoite and schizont stages. Allele II mRNA was either not expressed, or it was labile. PMID:2651911

  11. The evolution of single-copy Drosophila nuclear 4f-rnp genes: spliceosomal intron losses create polymorphic alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiber, Amy L; Rangarajan, Janaki; Vaughn, Jack C

    2002-10-01

    This study provides the first report in which spliceosomal intron losses within a single-copy gene create functional polymorphic alleles in a population. 4f-rnp has previously been shown to be a nuclear gene that is localized on the X chromosome in D. melanogaster and to have eight short spliceosomal introns. An insect species survey was done via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of a 1028-bp gene fragment spanning introns 4-8, which are located in the 3' half of the gene. The results show that 4f-rnp and (thus far) introns 7 and 8 are at least as old as order Odonata (dragonflies), an early-diverging insect line. Unexpectedly, several species within the dipteran family Drosophilidae were found to contain two differently sized 4f-rnp gene sequence variants, owing to precise in-frame intron losses. Results of single-male D. melanogaster PCR analyses show that the two gene size variants are allelic and that the intron loss mechanism appears to be biased toward the 3' end of the gene. A stable potential stem-loop has been identified in D. melanogaster, predicted to fold the 4f-rnp mRNA 3' terminus into a natural primer for subsequent reverse transcription into cDNA. When results are displayed in a phylogenetic context, multiple independent intron loss events are identified. These observations support a model in which frequently occurring cDNAs have led to numerous independent intron losses via homologous recombination/gene conversion during 4f-rnp gene evolution. The results provide insights into the evolution of intron loss and may lead to improved understanding of the dynamics of this process in natural populations. PMID:12355261

  12. Skewed allele frequencies of an Mx gene mutation with potential resistance to avian influenza virus in different chicken populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Qu, L J; Yao, J F; Yang, N

    2006-07-01

    The Mx gene is considered to confer positive antiviral responses to the orthomyxovirus in many organisms. In the chicken, 1 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (G to A) at position 2,032 of Mx cDNA was demonstrated to confer positive antiviral activity in vitro to avian influenza virus in a previous study. In the current study, 15 Chinese native chicken breeds, 4 highly selected commercial lines, and the Red Jungle Fowl were selected to detect allele frequencies of the Mx mutation. The frequencies of the favorable allele A in native breeds were 0.7241 to 0.9554, which were much higher than those (0.0565 to 0.2742) found in the commercial populations. Whereas most native breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at this locus (P > 0.01), 3 out of 4 commercial populations were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P domestication background and selection history. PMID:16830876

  13. Human-specific derived alleles of CD33 and other genes protect against postreproductive cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Flavio; Springer, Stevan A; Altheide, Tasha K; Varki, Nissi M; Gagneux, Pascal; Varki, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    The individuals of most vertebrate species die when they can no longer reproduce. Humans are a rare exception, having evolved a prolonged postreproductive lifespan. Elders contribute to cooperative offspring care, assist in foraging, and communicate important ecological and cultural knowledge, increasing the survival of younger individuals. Age-related deterioration of cognitive capacity in humans compromises these benefits and also burdens the group with socially costly members. We investigated the contribution of the immunoregulatory receptor CD33 to a uniquely human postreproductive disease, Alzheimer's dementia. Surprisingly, even though selection at advanced age is expected to be weak, a CD33 allele protective against Alzheimer's disease is derived and unique to humans and favors a functional molecular state of CD33 resembling that of the chimpanzee. Thus, derived alleles may be compensatory and restore interactions altered as a consequence of human-specific brain evolution. We found several other examples of derived alleles at other human loci that protect against age-related cognitive deterioration arising from neurodegenerative disease or cerebrovascular insufficiency. Selection by inclusive fitness may be strong enough to favor alleles protecting specifically against cognitive decline in postreproductive humans. Such selection would operate by maximizing the contributions of postreproductive individuals to the fitness of younger kin. PMID:26621708

  14. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter-572 C Allele May Play a Role in Rate of Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M. Greer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. Although the exact pathogenesis of MS is unknown, it is generally considered to be an autoimmune disease, with numerous genetic and environmental factors determining disease susceptibility and severity. One important mediator of immune responses and inflammation is interleukin-6 (IL-6. Previously, elevated levels of IL-6 in mononuclear cells in blood and in brain tissue from MS patients have been reported. Various polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL6 gene have also been linked with IL-6 protein levels. In MS, several small studies have investigated whether two IL6 promoter polymorphisms (−597 G>A and −174 G>C correlate with MS susceptibility, but with varying results. In the present study, we analyzed these polymorphisms, together with an additional polymorphism (−572 G>C in 279 healthy controls and 509 patients with MS. We found no significant differences between MS patients and healthy controls for the different −597 or −174 IL6 promoter alleles or genotypes. There was a slight reduction in the percentage of individuals with MS who carried a C allele at position −572, although this was not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Interestingly, however, the −572 C allele showed a significant correlation with the MS severity score, suggesting a possible role in disease progression.

  15. Multiple Alleles of Treponema pallidum Repeat Gene D in Treponema pallidum Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Sun, Eileen S.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Castro, Christa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2000-01-01

    Two new tprD alleles have been identified in Treponema pallidum: tprD2 is found in 7 of 12 T. pallidum subsp. pallidum isolates and 7 of 8 non-pallidum isolates, and tprD3 is found in one T. pallidum subsp. pertenue isolate. Antibodies against TprD2 are found in persons with syphilis, demonstrating that tprD2 is expressed during infection.

  16. RNA-Seq Using Two Populations Reveals Genes and Alleles Controlling Wood Traits and Growth in Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and allele...

  17. Retinal angiomatous proliferation associated with risk alleles of ARMS2/HTRA1 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkuma Y

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Ohkuma,1 Takaaki Hayashi,1 Tsutomu Sakai,1 Akira Watanabe,1 Hisashi Yamada,2 Masakazu Akahori,3 Takeshi Itabashi,3 Takeshi Iwata,3 Toru Noda,4 Hiroshi Tsuneoka11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of DNA Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Sensory Organs, 4Division of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between ARMS2/HTRA1, CFH, and C3 gene polymorphisms and retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP, an infrequent and severe form of exudative age-related macular degeneration, which is characterized by intraretinal neovascularization.Methods: Diagnosis of RAP was based on fundus photographs, images of fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies, and optical coherence tomography findings. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, A69S (rs10490924 in ARMS2, rs11200638 in HTRA1, I62V (rs800292 in CFH, Y402H (rs1061170 in CFH, R80G (rs2230199 in C3, and rs2241394 in C3, were genotyped in eight Japanese patients with RAP.Results: The two SNPs in the ARMS2/HTRA1 were in complete linkage disequilibrium. The frequency of the risk T allele in ARMS2 (the risk A allele in HTRA1 was 93.8% in the RAP patients. The frequency of homozygosity for the risk genotype TT of ARMS2 (the risk genotype AA of HTRA1 was 87.5%. The frequency of the non-risk allele (A of I62V was 100%. The frequencies of risk alleles of Y402H, R80G, and rs2241394 were 12.5%, 0%, and 18.8%, respectively.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the risk alleles of the ARMS2/HTRA1 SNPs may be associated with development of RAP and play a major role in the pathogenesis of intraretinal angiogenesis.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, retinal angiomatous proliferation, single nucleotide polymorphisms, ARMS2/HTRA1 genes, components of the complement

  18. Allelic variants of XRCC1 and XRCC3 repair genes and susceptibility of oral cancer in Brazilian patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Reis, Mariana Bisarro; Losi-Guembarovski, Roberta; de Souza Fonseca Ribeiro, Enilze Maria; Cavalli, Iglenir João; Morita, Maria Celeste; Ramos, Gyl Henrique Albrecht; de Oliveira, Benedito Valdecir; Mizuno, Lauro Toyoshi; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara

    2013-01-01

    genes have been found to be associated with oral cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of allelic variants Arg194Trp (rs:1799782) and Arg399Gln (rs: 25487) of XRCC1 gene and Thr241Met (rs: 861539) of XRCC3 gene and susceptibility to oral cancer. We also...... variants of the XRCC1 gene within codon 194 (OR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.44-1.51) and codon 399 (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) and within the XRCC3 gene (OR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.45-1.16) were not associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. A combinational analysis of SNPs in both genes indicated no association. The......BACKGROUND: The capacity for DNA repair is essential in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis; however, this capacity can be altered based on DNA sequence variations in DNA repair genes, which may contribute to the onset of cancer. Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in repair...

  19. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubouzet Joseph G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. Results B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H. The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. Conclusions B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean

  20. Molecular Basis for Genetic Resistance of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium: Structural Analysis of TEP1 Susceptible and Resistant Alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Binh V.; Williams, Marni; Logarajah, Shankar; Baxter, Richard H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a central component in the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium infection. Two classes of TEP1 alleles, TEP1*S and TEP1*R, are found in both laboratory strains and wild isolates, related by a greater or lesser susceptibility, respectively to both P. berghei and P. falciparum infection. We report the crystal structure of the full-length TEP1*S1 allele which, while similar to the previously determined structure of full-length TEP1*R1...

  1. Allelic ladder characterization of the short tandem repeat polymorphism located in the 5{prime} flanking region to the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puers, C. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)]|[Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Lins, A.M.; Sprecher, C.J. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism present within the 5{prime} untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUM-F13A01 [AAAG]{sub n}, was evaluated using an allelic ladder, i.e., a standard size marker consisting of amplified alleles from the locus. The allelic ladder was constructed by pooling 12 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified alleles identified by their differential migration in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This standard marker was used to distinguish 14 different alleles observed at this locus. Sequence analyses indicate that 13 of the alleles contain 4 through 16 iterations of the tandemly repeated AAAG sequence, respectively. The remaining allele carries four repeats and displays a deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (GT), one base distal to the repeat region. The allelic ladder was employed to type 326 F13A01 chromosomes rapidly and reliably in representatives of a German Caucasian population. Population data were analyzed with respect to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) and compared with those of a previously studied Houston, Texas, Caucasian population. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Study on occurrence of the IVS8-5T allele of the CFTR gene in Ukrainian males with spermatogenesis failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko V. M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the IVS8-5T allele of the CFTR gene and it is involvement in spermatogenesis failure in men with azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Methods. The IVS8-nT polymorphism was analyzed by PCR followed by «A.L.F.-express» fragment analysis in the infertile men group, consisting of 113 azoospermic and 217 oligozoospermic patients, and the control group of 150 fertile men with proven paternity. Results. The frequency of the IVS8-5T allele among infertile males was higher than in controls. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was observed in the frequencies of the IVS8-5T allele in azoospermia patients (5.3 % when compared with the control group (2.0 %. Conclusions. The IVS8-5T allele of the CFTR gene contributes to spermatogenesis failure and/or sperm maturation.

  3. A first genotyping assay of French cattle breeds based on a new allele of the extension gene encoding the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Raymond

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seven transmembrane domain melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r encoded by the coat color extension gene (E plays a key role in the signaling pathway of melanin synthesis. Upon the binding of agonist (melanocortin hormone, α-MSH or antagonist (Agouti protein ligands, the melanosomal synthesis of eumelanin and/or phaeomelanin pigments is stimulated or inhibited, respectively. Different alleles of the extension gene were cloned from unrelated animals belonging to French cattle breeds and sequenced. The wild type E allele was mainly present in Normande cattle, the dominant ED allele in animals with black color (i.e. Holstein, whereas the recessive e allele was identified in homozygous animals exhibiting a more or less strong red coat color (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolaise, Limousine and Salers. A new allele, named E1, was found in either homozygous (E1/E1 or heterozygous (E1/E individuals in Aubrac and Gasconne breeds. This allele displayed a 4 amino acid duplication (12 nucleotides located within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor, a region known to interact with G proteins. A first genotyping assay of the main French cattle breeds is described based on these four extension alleles.

  4. Allelic variants of the genes of apolipoproteins B and CII in patients with coronary heart disease and in healthy individuals from the Moscow population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogoda, T.V.; Kolosova, T.V.; Lyudvikova, E.K. [Institute of Molecular Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Allelic frequencies of a microsatellite of the apolipoprotein CII gene (APOCII) and a minisatellite of the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) were studied by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The study was conducted on a random sample of male Moscow inhabitants and a sample of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from the same population. Fourteen variants of the APOB minisatellite (the 82% heterozygosity level) and 13 alleles of the APOCII microsatellite (the 85% heterozygosity level) were found. CHD patients significantly differed from the control group in the distributions of alleles in these loci: APOB 32, APOB 46, APOB 48, and APOB 50 as well as APOCII 17 and APOCII 29 were found more frequently. A relationship was found between the distributions of APOB and APOCII in the CHD patients. The CHD patients with alleles APOCII 21 and APOCII 30 very often had the allele APOB 32; and patients with the genotype APOB 34, 36 had the allele APOCII 29 even more often than affected individuals in general. Individuals of the control group with the allele APOCII30 exhibited hypertriglyceridemia without increased levels of total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in plasma. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Hybrid sterility and evolution in Hawaiian Drosophila: differential gene and allele-specific expression analysis of backcross males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, E; Kang, L; Michalak, K; Michalak, P; Price, D K

    2016-08-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila are an iconic example of sequential colonization, adaptive radiation and speciation on islands. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of closely related species pairs that exhibit incomplete reproductive isolation can provide insights into the mechanisms of speciation. Drosophila silvestris from Hawai'i Island and Drosophila planitibia from Maui are two closely related allopatric Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila that produce sterile F1 males but fertile F1 females, a pattern consistent with Haldane's rule. Backcrossing F1 hybrid females between these two species to parental species gives rise to recombinant males with three distinct sperm phenotypes despite a similar genomic background: motile sperm, no sperm (sterile), and immotile sperm. We found that these three reproductive morphologies of backcross hybrid males produce divergent gene expression profiles in testes, as measured with RNA sequencing. There were a total of 71 genes significantly differentially expressed between backcross males with no sperm compared with those backcross males with motile sperm and immotile sperm, but no significant differential gene expression between backcross males with motile sperm and backcross males with immotile sperm. All of these genes were underexpressed in males with no sperm, including a number of genes with previously known activities in adult testis. An allele-specific expression analysis showed overwhelmingly more cis-divergent than trans-divergent genes, with no significant difference in the ratio of cis- and trans-divergent genes among the sperm phenotypes. Overall, the results indicate that the regulation of gene expression involved in sperm production likely diverged relatively rapidly between these two closely related species. PMID:27220308

  6. Preliminary evidence that allelic variation in the LMX1A gene influences training-related working memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Brehmer, Yvonne; Westerberg, Helena; Karlsson, Sari; Fürth, Daniel; Bergman, Olle; Eriksson, Elias; Bäckman, Lars

    2011-06-01

    LMX1A is a transcription factor involved in the development of dopamine (DA)-producing neurons in midbrain. Previous research has shown that allelic variations in three LMX1A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that these SNPs may influence the number of mesencephalic DA neurons. Prompted by the established link between striatal DA functions and working memory (WM) performance, we examined two of these SNPs in relation to the ability to benefit from 4 weeks of WM training. One SNP (rs4657412) was strongly associated with the magnitude of training-related gains in verbal WM. The allele linked to larger gains has previously been suggested to be associated with higher dopaminergic nerve cell density. No differential gains of either SNP were observed for spatial WM, and the genotype groups were also indistinguishable in tests of attention, interference control, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning for both SNPs. This pattern of data is in agreement with previous findings from our group, suggesting that cognitive effects of DA-related genes may be more easily detected in a training context than for single-assessment performance scores. PMID:21435346

  7. Use of gap repair in fission yeast to obtain novel alleles of specific genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrub, C F; Lei, E P; Enoch, T

    1998-01-01

    We have adapted a method for making libraries of mutations in any specific gene for use in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe . This elegant and simple method consists of PCR amplification of the gene of interest, followed by co-transformation of fission yeast with the PCR fragment and a linearized plasmid vector prepared such that the ends of the vector share DNA sequence with the ends of the PCR fragment. Homologous recombination between the vector and the PCR fragment occurs at a ...

  8. A new allele of acid soil tolerance gene from a malting barley variety

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Miao; Jin, Xiaoli; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhou, Gaofeng; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Sun, Dongfa; Li, Chengdao

    2015-01-01

    Background Acid soil is a serious limitation to crop production all over the world. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations in acid soil inhibit root growth and reduce yield. Although a gene tolerant to acid soil has been identified, it has not been used in malting barley breeding, which is partly due to the acid soil tolerance gene being linked to unfavorable malting quality traits. Results A Brazilian malting barley variety Br2 was identified as tolerant to acid soil. A doubled haploid (DH) population...

  9. Lack of association between TaqI A1 Allele of dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcohol-use disorders in Atayal natives of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-Hsiang Chen [Cheng Hsin Rehabilitation and Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Shih-Hsiang Chien; Hai-Gwo Hwu [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-20

    Association studies between the A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene TaqI A polymorphism and alcoholism remain controversial. A recent study from Japan demonstrated that the A1 allele is associated with severe alcoholism in the Japanese population. We were interested in knowing if this association also exists in the Atayals of Taiwan, who were found to have a higher prevalence of alcohol-use disorders than the Han Chinese in Taiwan. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in alcohol-abusing, alcohol-dependent, and nonalcoholic control Atayal natives in Taiwan. A1 allele frequencies in alcohol-dependent, alcohol-abusing, and normal control Atayals were 0.39, 0.42, and 0.39, respectively. No difference in A1 allele frequency was found among these three groups. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the A1 allele of the TaqI A polymorphism of the DRD2 gene increases susceptibility to alcohol-use disorders in the Atayals of Taiwan. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Allelic variations in the CYBA gene of NADPH oxidase and risk of kidney complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patente, Thiago A; Mohammedi, Kamel; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Driss, Fathi; Sanchez, Manuel; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system is an important source of reactive oxygen species in hyperglycemic conditions in the kidney. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a marker of oxidative stress, is increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated associations of variants in the CYBA gene, encoding the regulatory subunit p22(phox) of NADPH oxidase, with diabetic nephropathy and plasma AOPP and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in type 1 diabetic patients. Seven SNPs in the CYBA region were analyzed in 1357 Caucasian subjects with type 1 diabetes from the SURGENE (n=340), GENEDIAB (n=444), and GENESIS (n=573) cohorts. Duration of follow-up was 10, 9, and 6 years, respectively. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) for incidence and prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. The major G-allele of rs9932581 was associated with the incidence of renal events defined as new cases of microalbuminuria or the progression to a more severe stage of nephropathy during follow-up (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.18, P=0.003) in SURGENE. The same allele was associated with established/advanced nephropathy (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, P=0.0001) and with the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.30-3.24, P=0.001) in GENEDIAB/GENESIS pooled studies. The risk allele was also associated with higher plasma AOPP concentration in subsets of SURGENE and GENEDIAB, with higher plasma MPO concentration in a subset of GENEDIAB, and with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the three cohorts. In conclusion, a functional variant in the promoter of the CYBA gene was associated with lower eGFR and with prevalence and incidence of diabetic nephropathy and ESRD in type 1 diabetic patients. These results are consistent with

  11. A nonsense nucleotide substitution in the oculocutaneous albinism II gene underlies the original pink-eyed dilution allele (Oca2p ) in mice

    OpenAIRE

    SHOJI, Haruka; Kiniwa, Yukiko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Yang, Mu; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original pink-eyed dilution (p) on chromosome 7 is a very old spontaneous mutation in mice. The oculocutaneous albinism II (Oca2) gene has previously been identified as the p gene. Oca2 transcripts have been shown to be absent in the skin of SJL/J mice with the original p mutant allele (Oca2p ); however, the molecular genetic lesion underlying the original Oca2p allele has never been reported. The NCT mouse (commonly known as Nakano cataract mouse) has a pink-eyed dilution phenotype, whic...

  12. [Features of allele polymorphism of genes involved in homocysteine and folate metabolism in patients with atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenkova, N A; Kapustin, S I; Saltykova, N B; Shmeleva, V M; Blinov, M N

    2009-01-01

    Under study were features of allele polymorphism of genes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MS A 2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD G1958A) in patients with atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries (ALEA). Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) had statistically significant increase of allele MTHFR 677T and MTRR 66GG as compared both with the control group and with the group of patients without HHcy. It suggests that polymorphism of genes involved in homocystein and folate metabolism might affect the risk of HHcy in patients with ALEA. PMID:20209990

  13. Allelic analysis of stripe rust resistance genes on wheat chromosome 2BS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, P G; Hu, X Y; Ren, Z L; Zhang, H Y; Shu, K; Yang, Z J

    2008-11-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiormis Westend f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Stripe rust resistance genes Yr27, Yr31, YrSp, YrV23, and YrCN19 on chromosome 2BS confer resistance to some or all Chinese P. striiormis f. sp. tritici races CYR31, CYR32, SY11-4, and SY11-14 in the greenhouse. To screen microsatellite (SSR) markers linked with YrCN19, F1, F2, and F3 populations derived from cross Ch377/CN19 were screened with race CYR32 and 35 SSR primer pairs. Linkage analysis indicated that the single dominant gene YrCN19 in cultivar CN19 was linked with SSR markers Xgwm410, Xgwm374, Xwmc477, and Xgwm382 on chromosome 2BS with genetic distances of 0.3, 7.9, 12.3, and 21.2 cM, respectively. Crosses of CN19 with wheat lines carrying other genes on chromosome 2B showed that all were located at different loci. YrCN19 is thus different from the other reported Yr genes in chromosomal location and resistance response and was therefore named Yr41. Prospects and strategies of using Yr41 and other Yr genes in wheat improvement for stripe rust resistance are discussed. PMID:18956025

  14. Cellular Adhesion Gene SELP Is Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Displays Differential Allelic Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhardt, J.; Blume, M.; Petit-Teixeira, E.; Teixeira, V.H.; Steiner, A.; Quente, E.; Wolfram, G.; Scholz, M.; Pierlot, C.; Migliorini, P.; Bombardieri, S.; Balsa, A.; Westhovens, R.; Barrera, P.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Alves, H.; Bardin, T.; Prum, B.; Emmrich, F.; Cornelis, F.; Ahnert, P.; Kirsten, H.

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a key event is infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into the synovial lining, possibly aggravated by dysregulation of cellular adhesion molecules. Therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms of 14 genes involved in cellular adhesion processes (CAST, ITGA4, ITGB1, IT

  15. Evidence of extensive non-allelic gene conversion among LTR elements in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Beniamino; Fantini, Gloria; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) are nearly identical DNA sequences found at either end of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs). The high sequence similarity that exists among different LTRs suggests they could be substrate of ectopic gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which gene conversion occurs and to gain new insights into the evolutionary history of these elements in humans, we performed an intra-species phylogenetic study of 52 LTRs on different unrelated Y chromosomes. From this analysis, we obtained direct evidence that demonstrates the occurrence of ectopic gene conversion in several LTRs, with donor sequences located on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. We also found that some of these elements are characterized by an extremely high density of polymorphisms, showing one of the highest nucleotide diversities in the human genome, as well as a complex patchwork of sequences derived from different LTRs. Finally, we highlighted the limits of current short-read NGS studies in the analysis of genetic diversity of the LTRs in the human genome. In conclusion, our comparative re-sequencing analysis revealed that ectopic gene conversion is a common event in the evolution of LTR elements, suggesting complex genetic links among LTRs from different chromosomes. PMID:27346230

  16. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R) and weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Santos, José; De la Cruz, Rolando; Holst, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 recep...

  17. Evidence of extensive non-allelic gene conversion among LTR elements in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Beniamino; Fantini, Gloria; D’Atanasio, Eugenia; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) are nearly identical DNA sequences found at either end of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs). The high sequence similarity that exists among different LTRs suggests they could be substrate of ectopic gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which gene conversion occurs and to gain new insights into the evolutionary history of these elements in humans, we performed an intra-species phylogenetic study of 52 LTRs on different unrelated Y chromosomes. From this analysis, we obtained direct evidence that demonstrates the occurrence of ectopic gene conversion in several LTRs, with donor sequences located on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. We also found that some of these elements are characterized by an extremely high density of polymorphisms, showing one of the highest nucleotide diversities in the human genome, as well as a complex patchwork of sequences derived from different LTRs. Finally, we highlighted the limits of current short-read NGS studies in the analysis of genetic diversity of the LTRs in the human genome. In conclusion, our comparative re-sequencing analysis revealed that ectopic gene conversion is a common event in the evolution of LTR elements, suggesting complex genetic links among LTRs from different chromosomes. PMID:27346230

  18. Impaired Uptake and/or Utilization of Leucine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Suppressed by the SPT15-300 Allele of the TATA-Binding Protein Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baerends, RJ; Qiu, Jin-Long; Rasmussen, Simon;

    2009-01-01

    mutant allele of the SPT15 gene (SPT15-300) corresponding to the three amino acid changes F177S, Y195H, and K218R has been reported (H. Alper, J. Moxley, E. Nevoigt, G. R. Fink, and G. Stephanopoulos, Science 314:1565-1568, 2006). The SPT15 gene codes for the TATA-binding protein. This finding prompted...... us to examine the effect of expression of the SPT15-300 allele in various yeast species of industrial importance. Expression of SPT15-300 in leucine-prototrophic strains of S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, or Saccharomyces pastorianus (lager brewing yeast), however, did not improve tolerance to...... ethanol on complex rich medium (yeast extract-peptone-dextrose). The enhanced growth of the laboratory yeast strain BY4741 expressing the SPT15-300 mutant allele was seen only on defined media with low concentrations of leucine, indicating that the apparent improved growth in the presence of ethanol was...

  19. Differential allelic expression of the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) in osteoarthritic cartilage.

    OpenAIRE

    Loughlin, J.; Irven, C; Athanasou, N; Carr, A; Sykes, B

    1995-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease resulting from the degeneration of articular cartilage. The major protein of cartilage is type II collagen, which is encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Mutations at this locus have been discovered in several individuals with inherited disorders of cartilage. We have identified 27 primary OA patients who are heterozygous for sequence dimorphisms located in the coding region of COL2A1. These dimorphisms were used to distinguish the mRNA output from ...

  20. Generation of two modified mouse alleles of the Hic1 tumor suppressor gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíchalová, Vendula; Turečková, Jolana; Fafílek, Bohumil; Vojtěchová, Martina; Krausová, Michaela; Lukáš, Jan; Šloncová, Eva; Takacova, S.; Divoký, V.; Leprince, D.; Plachý, Jiří; Kořínek, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2011), s. 142-151. ISSN 1526-954X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1567; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Hypermethylated In Cancer 1 * Hic1 tumor suppressor * gene targeting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.527, year: 2011

  1. Allelic variation, alternative splicing and expression analysis of Psy1 gene in Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wild barley Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. is a valuable source of genes for increasing carotenoid content in wheat. Tritordeums, the amphiploids derived from durum or common wheat and H. chilense, systematically show higher values of yellow pigment colour and carotenoid content than durum wheat. Phytoene synthase 1 gene (Psy1 is considered a key step limiting the carotenoid biosynthesis, and the correlation of Psy1 transcripts accumulation and endosperm carotenoid content has been demonstrated in the main grass species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze the variability of Psy1 alleles in three lines of H. chilense (H1, H7 and H16 representing the three ecotypes described in this species. Moreover, we analyze Psy1 expression in leaves and in two seed developing stages of H1 and H7, showing mRNA accumulation patterns similar to those of wheat. Finally, we identify thirty-six different transcripts forms originated by alternative splicing of the 5' UTR and/or exons 1 to 5 of Psy1 gene. Transcripts function is tested in a heterologous complementation assay, revealing that from the sixteen different predicted proteins only four types (those of 432, 370, 364 and 271 amino acids, are functional in the bacterial system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of transcripts originated by alternative splicing of Psy1, and the coexistence of functional and non functional forms, suggest a fine regulation of PSY activity in H. chilense. This work is the first analysis of H. chilense Psy1 gene and the results reported here are the bases for its potential use in carotenoid enhancement in durum wheat.

  2. Allele loss and down-regulation of heparanase gene are associated with the progression and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The role of heparanase (HPSE gene in cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently controversial. This study was aimed at investigating the impact of genetic alteration and expression change of HPSE on the progression and prognosis of HCC. METHODS: The HPSE gene was studied in three different aspects: (1 loss of heterozygosity (LOH by a custom SNP microarray and DNA copy number by real-time PCR; (2 mRNA level by qRT-PCR; and (3 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. The clinical significances of allele loss and expression change of HPSE were analyzed. RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed that the average LOH frequency for 10 SNPs located within HPSE gene was 31.6%, three of which were significantly correlated with tumor grade, serum HBV-DNA level, and AFP concentration. In agreement with SNP LOH data, DNA copy number loss of HPSE was observed in 38.74% (43/111 of HCC cases. HPSE mRNA level was notably reduced in 74.1% (83/112 of tumor tissues compared with non-tumor liver tissues, which was significantly associated with DNA copy number loss, increased tumor size, and post-operative metastasis. HPSE protein level was also remarkably reduced in 66.3% (53/80 of tumor tissues, which was correlated with tumor grade. Patients with lower expression level of HPSE mRNA or protein had a significantly lower survival rate than those with higher expression. Cox regression analysis suggested that HPSE protein was an independent predictor of overall survival in HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this study demonstrate that genetic alteration and reduction of HPSE expression are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis of HCCs, suggesting that HPSE behaves like a tumor suppressor gene and is a potential prognostic marker for HCC patients.

  3. Characterization of a null allelic mutant of the rice NAL1 gene reveals its role in regulating cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available Leaf morphology is closely associated with cell division. In rice, mutations in Narrow leaf 1 (NAL1 show narrow leaf phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that NAL1 plays a role in regulating vein patterning and increasing grain yield in indica cultivars, but its role in leaf growth and development remains unknown. In this report, we characterized two allelic mutants of NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1, nal1-2 and nal1-3, both of which showed a 50% reduction in leaf width and length, as well as a dwarf culm. Longitudinal and transverse histological analyses of leaves and internodes revealed that cell division was suppressed in the anticlinal orientation but enhanced in the periclinal orientation in the mutants, while cell size remained unaltered. In addition to defects in cell proliferation, the mutants showed abnormal midrib in leaves. Map-based cloning revealed that nal1-2 is a null allelic mutant of NAL1 since both the whole promoter and a 404-bp fragment in the first exon of NAL1 were deleted, and that a 6-bp fragment was deleted in the mutant nal1-3. We demonstrated that NAL1 functions in the regulation of cell division as early as during leaf primordia initiation. The altered transcript level of G1- and S-phase-specific genes suggested that NAL1 affects cell cycle regulation. Heterogeneous expression of NAL1 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe further supported that NAL1 affects cell division. These results suggest that NAL1 controls leaf width and plant height through its effects on cell division.

  4. Multiple, non-allelic, intein-coding sequences in eukaryotic RNA polymerase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butler Margaret I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inteins are self-splicing protein elements. They are translated as inserts within host proteins that excise themselves and ligate the flanking portions of the host protein (exteins with a peptide bond. They are encoded as in-frame insertions within the genes for the host proteins. Inteins are found in all three domains of life and in viruses, but have a very sporadic distribution. Only a small number of intein coding sequences have been identified in eukaryotic nuclear genes, and all of these are from ascomycete or basidiomycete fungi. Results We identified seven intein coding sequences within nuclear genes coding for the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase. These sequences were found in diverse eukaryotes: one is in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (RPA2 from the ascomycete fungus Phaeosphaeria nodorum, one is in the RNA polymerase III (RPC2 of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum and four intein coding sequences are in RNA polymerase II genes (RPB2, one each from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the zygomycete fungus Spiromyces aspiralis and the chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Coelomomyces stegomyiae. The remaining intein coding sequence is in a viral relic embedded within the genome of the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum. The Chlamydomonas and Dictyostelium inteins are the first nuclear-encoded inteins found outside of the fungi. These new inteins represent a unique dataset: they are found in homologous proteins that form a paralogous group. Although these paralogues diverged early in eukaryotic evolution, their sequences can be aligned over most of their length. The inteins are inserted at multiple distinct sites, each of which corresponds to a highly conserved region of RNA polymerase. This dataset supports earlier work suggesting that inteins preferentially occur in highly conserved regions of their host proteins. Conclusion The identification of these new inteins

  5. Allele discovery of ten candidate drought-response genes in Austrian oak using a systematically informatics approach based on 454 amplicon sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homolka Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rise of temperatures and shortening of available water as result of predicted climate change will impose significant pressure on long-lived forest tree species. Discovering allelic variation present in drought related genes of two Austrian oak species can be the key to understand mechanisms of natural selection and provide forestry with key tools to cope with future challenges. Results In the present study we have used Roche 454 sequencing and developed a bioinformatic pipeline to process multiplexed tagged amplicons in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and allelic sequences of ten candidate genes related to drought/osmotic stress from sessile oak (Quercus robur and sessile oak (Q. petraea individuals. Out of these, eight genes of 336 oak individuals growing in Austria have been detected with a total number of 158 polymorphic sites. Allele numbers ranged from ten to 52 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.115 to 0.640. All loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium was found among six combinations of loci. Conclusions We have characterized 183 alleles of drought related genes from oak species and detected first evidences of natural selection. Beside the potential for marker development, we have created an expandable bioinformatic pipeline for the analysis of next generation sequencing data.

  6. The Dopamine Receptor D4 7-Repeat Allele and Prenatal Smoking in ADHD-Affected Children and Their Unaffected Siblings: No Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altink, Marieke E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Anney, Richard; Brookes, Keeley-Joanne; Chen, Wai; Gill, Michael; Mulligan, Aisling; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Thompson, Margaret; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The dopamine receptor D4 ("DRD4") 7-repeat allele and maternal smoking during pregnancy are both considered as risk factors in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have been conducted on their interactive effects in causing ADHD. The purpose of this study is to examine the gene by…

  7. Genome-wide identification and quantification of cis- and trans-regulated genes responding to Marek's disease virus infection via analysis of allele-specific expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Marek’s disease (MD) is a commercially important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a naturally-occurring oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. We attempted to identify genes conferring MD resistance, by completing a genome-wide screen for allele-specific expr...

  8. Detection of R576 interleukin-4 receptor αn allele gene, serum interleukin-4, and eosinophilic cationic protein in atopic dermatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mawla M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic pruritic skin disease. It results from a complex interplay between strong genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this work was to study some biochemical markers of the dermatosis. This included detection of R576 interleukin-4 receptor alpha allele gene. Twenty five patients with AD and 25 controls participated in this study.

  9. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Vett K; Sinclair, D A R; Alperyn, M; Grigliatti, T A

    2002-04-01

    The white gene encodes an ABC-type transmembrane transporter that has a role in normal eye pigment deposition. In addition, overexpression in Drosophila leads to homosexual male courtship. Its human homologue has been implicated in cholesterol transport in macrophages and in mood disorders in human males. The garnet gene is a member of a group of other Drosophila eye colour genes that have been shown, or proposed, to function in intracellular protein transport. Recent molecular analysis indicates that it encodes the delta subunit of the AP-3 adaptin complex involved in vesicle transport from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and related organelles, such as pigment granules. This identification revealed a novel role for intracellular vesicular transport in Drosophila pigmentation. To further analyze this intracellular transport system, we examined the genetic interactions between garnet and a second site enhancer mutation, enhancer of garnet (e(g)). We show here that e(g) is a cryptic allele of the white gene. The white-garnet interaction is highly sensitive to the levels of both gene products but also shows some allele specificity for the white gene. The additive effect on pigmentation and the predicted protein products of these genes suggest that the garnet/AP-3 transport system ensures the correct intracellular localization of the white gene product. This model is further supported by the observation of homosexual male courtship behavior in garnet mutants, similar to that seen in flies overexpressing, and presumably mis-sorting, the white gene product. The w(e(g)) allele also enhances mutations in the subset of other eye-color genes with phenotypes similar to garnet. This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes. PMID:11962627

  10. Detecting key structural features within highly recombined genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Wertz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many microorganisms exhibit high levels of intragenic recombination following horizontal gene transfer events. Furthermore, many microbial genes are subject to strong diversifying selection as part of the pathogenic process. A multiple sequence alignment is an essential starting point for many of the tools that provide fundamental insights on gene structure and evolution, such as phylogenetics; however, an accurate alignment is not always possible to attain. In this study, a new analytic approach was developed in order to better quantify the genetic organization of highly diversified genes whose alleles do not align. This BLAST-based method, denoted BLAST Miner, employs an iterative process that places short segments of highly similar sequence into discrete datasets that are designated "modules." The relative positions of modules along the length of the genes, and their frequency of occurrence, are used to identify sequence duplications, insertions, and rearrangements. Partial alleles of sof from Streptococcus pyogenes, encoding a surface protein under host immune selection, were analyzed for module content. High-frequency Modules 6 and 13 were identified and examined in depth. Nucleotide sequences corresponding to both modules contain numerous duplications and inverted repeats, whereby many codons form palindromic pairs. Combined with evidence for a strong codon usage bias, data suggest that Module 6 and 13 sequences are under selection to preserve their nucleic acid secondary structure. The concentration of overlapping tandem and inverted repeats within a small region of DNA is highly suggestive of a mechanistic role for Module 6 and 13 sequences in promoting aberrant recombination. Analysis of pbp2X alleles from Streptococcus pneumoniae, encoding cell wall enzymes that confer antibiotic resistance, supports the broad applicability of this tool in deciphering the genetic organization of highly recombined genes. BLAST Miner shares with

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome): Six unique arylsulfatase B gene alleles causing variable disease phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbrandt, D.; Arlt, G.; Figura, K. von; Peters, C.; Brooks, D.A.; Hopwood, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, or Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ASB), also known as N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase. Multiple clinical phenotypes of this autosomal recessively inherited disease have been described. Recent isolation and characterization of the human ASB gene facilitated the analysis of molecular defects underlying the different phenotypes. Conditions for PCR amplification of the entire open reading frame from genomic DNA and for subsequent direct automated DNA sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments were established. Besides two polymorphisms described elsewhere that cause methionine-for-valine substitutions in the arylsulfatase B gene, six new mutations in six patients were detected: four point mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions, a 1-bp deletion, and a 1-bp insertion. The point mutations were two G-to-A and two T-to-C transitions. The G-to-A transitions cause an arginine-for-glycine substitution at residue 144 in a homoallelic patient with a severe disease phenotype and a tyrosine-for-cysteine substitution at residue 521 in a potentially heteroallelic patient with the severe form of the disease. The T-to-C transitions cause an arginine-for-cysteine substitution at amino acid residue 192 in a homoallelic patient with mild symptoms and a proline-for-leucine substitution at amino acid 321 in a homoallelic patient with the intermediate form. The insertion between nucleotides T1284 and G1285 resulted in a loss of the 100 C-terminal amino acids of the wild-type protein and in the deletion of nucleotide C1577 in a 39-amino-acid C-terminal extension of the ASB polypeptide. Both mutations were detected in homoallelic patients with the severe form of the disease. Expression of mutant cDNAs encoding the four amino acid substitutions and the deletion resulted in reduction of both ASB protein levels and arylsulfatase enzyme activity. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  12. β-Thalassemia Due to Intronic LINE-1 Insertion in the β-Globin Gene (HBB): Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Reduced Transcript Levels of the β-GlobinL1 Allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanikova, Lucie; Kucerova, Jana; Indrak, Karel; Divoka, Martina; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Prchal, Josef T.; Divoky, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We describe the molecular etiology of β+-thalassemia that is caused by the insertion of the full-length transposable element LINE-1 (L1) into the intron-2 of the β-globin gene (HBB). The transcript level of the affected β-globin gene was severely reduced. The remaining transcripts consisted of full-length, correctly processed β-globin mRNA and a minute amount of three aberrantly spliced transcripts with a decreased half-life due to activation of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. The lower steady-state amount of mRNA produced by the β-globinL1 allele also resulted from a reduced rate of transcription and decreased production of full-length β-globin primary transcripts. The promoter and enhancer sequences of the β-globinL1 allele were hypermethylated; however, treatment with a demethylating agent did not restore the impaired transcription. A histone deacetylase inhibitor partially reactivated the β-globinL1 transcription despite permanent β-globinL1 promoter CpG methylation. This result indicates that the decreased rate of transcription from the β-globinL1 allele is associated with an altered chromatin structure. Therefore, the molecular defect caused by intronic L1 insertion in the β-globin gene represents a novel etiology of β-thalassemia. PMID:23878091

  13. Mutation analysis of methylmalonyl CoA mutase gene exon 2 in Egyptian families: Identification of 25 novel allelic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A. Ghoraba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA is an autosomal recessive disorder of methylmalonate and cobalamin (cbl; vitamin B12 metabolism. It is an inborn error of organic acid metabolism which commonly results from a defect in the gene encoding the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM apoenzyme. Here we report the results of mutation study of exon 2 of the methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MUT gene, coding MCM residues from 1 to 128, in ten unrelated Egyptian families affected with methylmalonic aciduria. Patients were presented with a wide-anion gap metabolic acidosis. The diagnosis has established by the measurement of C3 (propionylcarnitine and C3:C2 (propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine in blood by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS–MS and was confirmed by the detection of an abnormally elevated level of methylmalonic acid in urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS and isocratic cation exchange high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC. Direct sequencing of gDNA of the MUT gene exon 2 has revealed a total of 26 allelic variants: ten of which were intronic, eight were located upstream to the exon 2 coding region, four were novel modifications predicted to affect the splicing region, three were novel mutations within the coding region: c.15G>A (p.K5K, c.165C>A (p.N55K and c.7del (p.R3EfsX14, as well as the previously reported mutation c.323G>A (p.R108H.

  14. A Hypomorphic Allele in the FGF8 Gene Contributes to Holoprosencephaly and Is Allelic to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz, R.F.; Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D.E.; Gropman, A.L.; Parsons, J. A.; Roessler, E.; Muenke, M

    2010-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the human forebrain, may arise due to interacting genetic and environmental factors. To date, at least 12 contributory genes have been identified. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) belongs to the FGF family of genes expressed in several developmental signaling centers, including the anterior neural ridge, which is implicated in midline anomalies in mice. In humans, FGF8 mutations have been previously reported in facial clefting and in h...

  15. A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howles, Paul A; Gebbie, Leigh K; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind; Broad, Ronan C; Ohms, Stephen; Birch, Rosemary J; Cork, Ann H; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis. Instead, the mutation has strong effects on expression of secondary cell wall related genes. Many genes potentially associated with secondary walls were present in the most significant WGCNA module, as were genes coding for arabinogalactans and proteins with GPI anchors. The proportion of up-regulated genes that possess introns in rsw12 was above that expected if splicing was unrelated to the activity of the RNA helicase, suggesting that the helicase does indeed play a role in splicing in Arabidopsis. The phenotype may be due to a change in the expression of one or more genes coding for cell wall proteins. PMID:27008640

  16. Allele-specific expression of mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) gene and alternative susceptibility to colorectal cancer in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Yanfei; Huang, Xiaoye; Yu, Tao; Wei, Zhiyun; McGrath, John; Xu, Fei; Bi, Yan; Li, Xingwang; Yang, Fengping; Li, Weidong; Zou, Xia; Peng, Zhihai; Xiao, Yanzeng; Zhang, Yan; He, Lin; He, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among schizophrenia is lower than normal. To explore this potential protective effect, we employed an innovative strategy combining association study with allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis in MCC gene. We first genotyped four polymorphisms within MCC in 312 CRC patients, 270 schizophrenia patients and 270 controls. Using the MassArray technique, we performed ASE measurements in a second sample series consisting of 50 sporadic CRC patients, 50 schizophrenia patients and 52 controls. Rs2227947 showed significant differences between schizophrenia cases and controls, and haplotype analysis reported some significant discrepancies among these three subject groups. ASE values of rs2227948 and rs2227947 presented consistently differences between CRC (or schizophrenia) patients and controls. Of the three groups, highest frequencies of ASE in MCC were concordantly found in CRC group, whereas lowest frequencies of ASE were observed in schizophrenia group. Similar trends were confirmed in both haplotype frequencies and ASE frequencies (i.e. CRC > control > schizophrenia). We provide a first indication that MCC might confer alterative genetic susceptibility to CRC in individuals with schizophrenia promising to shed more light on the relationship between schizophrenia and cancer progression. PMID:27226254

  17. Correlating alleles of genes LPH, CALCR, COL1A1, VDR with the indicators of bone tissue mineral density in female population of Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Akilzhanova

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper attemts to identify distribution of frequency of alleles of LPH,CALCR, COL1A1, VDR genes and correlation with indicators of bonetissue mineral density (BTMD in population of reproductive agefemales in the Eastern region of Kazakhstan.Genetic research has been conducted on 475 females exhibiting LPH,CALCR, COL1A1, VDR genes, presence of which, according to previousresearch, is due to confirmed increased risk of osteoporosis. Examinedfemales were distributed by race: 213 women were of European descent,262 -Asian (Turkic.Women of Turkic descent presented a much elevated rate of allelespertaining to the genes associated with the risk of reduced BTMD.Moreover, correlation has been established between osteopeniacsyndrome and existence of certain recessive alleles in heterozygouscases.

  18. The importance of HLA DRB1 gene allele to clinical features and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of HLA DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently reported although its effect on the clinical features and disability is still unclear probably due to diversity in ethnicity and geographic location of the studied populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of HLA DRB1 alleles on the clinical features and disability of the patients with MS in Lithuania. Methods This was a prospective study of 120 patients with MS. HLA DRB1 alleles were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The first symptoms of MS in patients with HLA DRB1*15 allele manifested at younger age than in those without this allele (28.32 +/− 5.49 yrs vs. 30.94 +/− 8.43 yrs, respectively, p = 0.043). HLA DRB1*08 allele was more prevalent among relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients than among patients with progressive course of MS (25.0% vs. 8.3%, respectively, chi^2 = 6.000, p = 0.05). MS patients with this allele had lower relapse rate than those without this allele (1.00 +/− 0.97 and 1.44 +/− 0.85, respectively, p = 0.043). Degree of disability during the last visit was lower among the patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele (EDSS score 3.15 +/− 1.95 vs. 4.49 +/− 1.96, p = 0.006), and higher among those with HLA DRB1*15 allele (EDSS score 4.60 +/− 2.10 vs.4.05 +/− 1.94, p = 0.047) compared to patients without these alleles but there were no significant associations between these alleles and the duration of the disease to disability. HLA DRB1*08 allele (OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0,039-0,8, p = 0.029) was demonstradet to be independent factor to take a longer time to reach an EDSS of 6, while HLA DRB1*01 allele (OR = 5.92, 95% CI 1,30-26,8, p = 0.021) was related in a shorter time to reach and EDSS of 6. Patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele had lower IgG index compared to patients without this allele (0.58 +/− 0.17 and 0.73 +/− 0.31, respectively, p

  19. A Hypomorphic Allele in the FGF8 Gene Contributes to Holoprosencephaly and Is Allelic to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauz, R F; Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D E; Gropman, A L; Parsons, J A; Roessler, E; Muenke, M

    2010-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the human forebrain, may arise due to interacting genetic and environmental factors. To date, at least 12 contributory genes have been identified. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) belongs to the FGF family of genes expressed in several developmental signaling centers, including the anterior neural ridge, which is implicated in midline anomalies in mice. In humans, FGF8 mutations have been previously reported in facial clefting and in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but have not been reported in patients with HPE. We screened 360 probands with HPE for sequence variations in FGF8 using High Resolution DNA Melting (HRM) and sequenced all identified variations. Here we describe a total of 8 sequence variations in HPE patients, including a putative loss-of-function mutation in 3 members of a family with variable forms of classic HPE, and relate these findings to the phenotypes seen in other conditions. PMID:21045958

  20. Allelic structure and distribution of 103 STR loci in a Southern Tunisian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdellatif Maalej; Ahmed Rebai; Adnen Ayadi; Jomaa Jouida; Hafedh Makni; Hammadi Ayadi

    2004-04-01

    Genotypes of 103 short tandem repeat (STR) markers distributed at an average of 40 cM intervals throughout the genome were determined for 40 individuals from the village of BirEl Hfai (BEH). This village of approximately 31.000 individuals is localized in the south-west of Tunisia. The allele frequency distributions in BEH were compared with those obtained for individuals in the CEPH (Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) data using a Kolmogorov–Smirnov two-sample test. Fourteen out of the 103 markers (13.2%) showed significant differences ($P\\lt 0.05$) in distribution between the two populations. Population heterogeneity in BEH was indicated by an excess of observed homozygosity deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium at 3 loci ($P\\lt 0.0005$). No evidence for genotypic disequilibrium was found for any of the marker pairs. This demonstrated that in spite of a high inbreeding level in the population, few markers showed evidence for a different pattern of allelic distribution compared to CEPH.

  1. A nonsense nucleotide substitution in the oculocutaneous albinism II gene underlies the original pink-eyed dilution allele (Oca2(p)) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Haruka; Kiniwa, Yukiko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Yang, Mu; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original pink-eyed dilution (p) on chromosome 7 is a very old spontaneous mutation in mice. The oculocutaneous albinism II (Oca2) gene has previously been identified as the p gene. Oca2 transcripts have been shown to be absent in the skin of SJL/J mice with the original p mutant allele (Oca2(p)); however, the molecular genetic lesion underlying the original Oca2(p) allele has never been reported. The NCT mouse (commonly known as Nakano cataract mouse) has a pink-eyed dilution phenotype, which prompted us to undertake a molecular genetic analysis of the Oca2 gene of this strain. Our genetic linkage analysis suggests that the locus for the pink-eyed dilution phenotype of NCT is tightly linked to the Oca2 locus. PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the NCT mouse has a nonsense nucleotide substitution at exon 7 of the Oca2 gene. Examination of three mouse strains (NZW/NSlc, SJL/J, and 129X1/SvJJmsSlc) with the original Oca2(p) allele revealed the presence of a nonsense nucleotide substitution identical to that in the NCT strain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Oca2 transcripts were absent in the skin of NCT mice, suggesting intervention of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Collectively, the data in this study indicate that the nonsense nucleotide substitution in the Oca2 gene underlies the Oca2(p) allele. Our data also indicate that the NCT mouse can be used not only as a cataract model, but also as a model for human type II oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:25736709

  2. Novel Molecular Variants of Allele I of the Escherichia coli P Fimbrial Adhesin Gene papG

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; Stell, Adam L.; Kaster, Nicholas; Fasching, Claudine; O'Bryan, Timothy T.

    2002-01-01

    P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli mediate digalactoside-specific adherence via the tip adhesin molecule PapG, which occurs in three known variants (I to III), which are encoded by the corresponding three alleles of papG. In the present study, newly discovered variants of papG allele I and the respective wild-type source strains were characterized. One of the new papG allele I variants conferred a unique agglutination phenotype that combined the phenotypes associated wi...

  3. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ann Carpenter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p<0.001 were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD, starch branching enzyme I (SBEI and the starch synthase III (SSIII genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato.

  4. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs) are passed from ancestral to descendant primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Nissen, Janna; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Koch, Claus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Garred, Peter

    2011-01-01

    -human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non...... the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in...

  5. Molecular screening of domestic germplasm for allelic variants at the dwarfing gene Rht8 locus in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobiljski Borislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In last 7 years, researches revealed the presence of 16 allelic variants at the Xgwm 261 locus with 165, 174, 180, 192, 194, 196, 197, 198, 200, 201 202, 204, 205, 207, 210 and 215 base pairs, while nearly 90% of the worldwide wheat germplasm carry one of the alleles with 165bp, 174bp or 192bp. The results of microsatellite screening of 269 wheat varieties and advanced lines from Serbia and Montenegro showed clear selection pressure for the three main fragments at Rht8 locus, but also trend to expand allelic variability in the locus (in the most recent varieties and advanced lines avoiding "adaptive uniformity" of the elite germplasm. The presence of 192bp allele as diagnostic of Rht8 has been confirmed as quite common in wheat genotypes from Serbia and Montenegro, but not at the rate it has been determined in earlier researches. Out of 269 registered wheat varieties and advanced lines 73.6% carry 192bp allele, 14.9% are with 174bp allele, 7% carry 165 fragment and 4.56% novel fragments around 200bp in length. This research revealed that from the beginning of the 1990s wheat breeding objectives in Serbia and Montenegro were partially focused towards novel alleles (different from 192bp at Xgwm261 locus. Recently registered varieties from Novi Sad have either the 192bp fragment (Cipovka, Simfonija, Balada, Arija, Rapsodija Helena, Diva, Vila, Astra, 174bp fragment (Sofija, Dragana, Italija Francuska, Oda or fragments around 200bp (Sonata, Kantata, Jefimija. In addition, two very promising advanced lines (NS 260/02 and NS 2-4629/1 and some excellent advanced lines frequently used as parents in hybridization (NS 20/96, NS 23/94, NS 85/97 and L152/89 also carry allele around 200bp in size.

  6. Ongoing Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Virulence Genes and papA Alleles among Escherichia coli Blood Isolates from Patients with Diverse-Source Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greatest concentration of individual VFs, and contained the largest number of familiar virulent clones, other phylogenetic groups exhibited greater concentrations of certain VFs than did group B2 and included several additional virulent clones. Certain of the newly detected VF genes, e.g., fyuA (yersiniabactin; 76%) and focG (F1C fimbriae; 25%), were as prevalent or more prevalent than their more familiar traditional counterparts, e.g., iut (aerobactin; 57%) and sfaS (S fimbriae; 14%), thus possibly offering additional useful targets for preventive interventions. Considerable diversity of VF profiles was observed at every level within the phylogenetic tree, including even within individual lineages. This suggested that many different pathways can lead to extraintestinal virulence in E. coli and that the evolution of ExPEC, which involves extensive horizontal transmission of VFs and continuous remodeling of pathogenicity-associated islands, is a highly active, ongoing process. PMID:11500406

  7. Short rare hTERT-VNTR2-2nd alleles are associated with prostate cancer susceptibility and influence gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) gene contains five variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and previous studies have described polymorphisms for hTERT-VNTR2-2nd. We investigated how allelic variation in hTERT-VNTR2-2nd may affect susceptibility to prostate cancer. A case-control study was performed using DNA from 421 cancer-free male controls and 329 patients with prostate cancer. In addition, to determine whether the VNTR polymorphisms have a functional consequence, we examined the transcriptional levels of a reporter gene linked to these VNTRs and driven by the hTERT promoter in cell lines. Three new rare alleles were detected from this study, two of which were identified only in cancer subjects. A statistically significant association between rare hTERT-VNTR2-2nd alleles and risk of prostate cancer was observed [OR, 5.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-24.43; P = 0.021]. Furthermore, the results indicated that these VNTRs inserted in the enhancer region could influence the expression of hTERT in prostate cancer cell lines. This is the first study to report that rare hTERT VNTRs are associated with prostate cancer predisposition and that the VNTRs can induce enhanced levels of hTERT promoter activity in prostate cancer cell lines. Thus, the hTERT-VNTR2-2nd locus may function as a modifier of prostate cancer risk by affecting gene expression

  8. Increased prevalence of the Taq I A1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) in obesity with comorbid substance use disorder: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, K; Braverman, E R; Wood, R C; Gill, J; Li, C; Chen, T J; Taub, M; Montgomery, A R; Sheridan, P J; Cull, J G

    1996-08-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of the Taq I A1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) in obesity with and without comorbid substance use disorder, a total of 40 patients, from an outpatient neuropsychiatric clinic in Princeton, New Jersey, were genotyped for presence or absence of the Taq I DRD2 A1 allele. The primary inclusion criterion for 40 obese subjects was a body mass index (BMI) equal to or over 25 (uncharacterized); 11 obese subjects had severe substance use disorder; 20 controls had a BMI below 25; and, 33 substance use disorder (less severe) patients had a BMI below 25. The data were statistically compared with three different sets of controls divided into three separate groups (Group I, n = 20; Group II, n = 286; Group III, n = 714). They differed according to screening criteria (drug, alcohol, nicotine abuse/dependence, BMI below 25 and other related behaviours including parental history of alcoholism or drug abuse and DSM IV, Axis I and Axis II diagnoses). Groups II and III were population controls derived from the literature. The prevalence of the Taq I A1D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) alleles was determined in 40 Caucasian obese females and males. In this sample with a mean BMI of 32.35 +/- 1.02, the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene was present in 52.5% of these obese subjects. Furthermore, we found that in the 23 obese subjects possessing comorbid substance use disorder, the prevalence of the DRD2 A1 allele significantly increased compared to the 17 obese subjects without comorbid substance use disorder. The DRD2 A1 allele was present in 73.9% of the obese subjects with comorbid substance use disorder compared to 23.5% in obese subjects without comorbid substance use disorder. Moreover, when we assessed severity of substance usage (alcoholism, cocaine dependence, etc.) increasing severity of drug use increased the prevalence of the Taq I DRD2 A1 allele; where 66.67% (8/12) of less severe probands possessed the A1 allele compared to 82% (9

  9. [Allelic polymorphism of kappa-casein gene (CSN3) in Russian cattle breeds and its informative value as a genetic marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimova, G E; Abani Azari, M; Rostamzadeh, J; Mohammad Abani, M R; Lazebnyĭ, O E

    2007-01-01

    The frequencies of the kappa-casein gene (CSN3) alleles and genotypes have been determined in five Russian cattle breeds (Bestuzhev, Kalmyk, Russian Black Pied, Yaroslavl, and Yakut breeds) by means of PCR-RFLP analysis using two independent restriction nucleases (HinfI and TaqI) and by allele-specific PCR. Typing alleles A and B of CSN3 is of practical importance, because allele B is correlated with commercially valuable parameters of milk productivity (protein content and milk yield) and improves the cheese yielding capacity. The frequencies of the B allele of CSN3 in the breeds studied vary from 0.16 to 0.50; and those of the AB and BB genotypes, from 0.27 to 0.60 and from 0.02 to 0.23, respectively. The Yaroslavl breed had the highest frequencies of CSN3 allele B and genotype BB (0.50 and 0.23, respectively). The frequencies of the B allele and BB genotype in other breeds studied varied from 0.25 to 0.32 and from 0.03 to 0.09, respectively. In none of the breeds studied have the observed and expected heterozygosities been found to differ from each other significantly. However, the observed genotype distributions significantly differ from the expected one in some herds (in most such cases, an excess of heterozygotes is observed). Two herds of the Yaroslavl breed dramatically differ from each other in the heterozygosity level: a deficit (D = -0.14) and an excess (D = 0.20) of heterozygotes have been observed at the Mikhailovskoe and Gorshikha farms, respectively. In general, however, the heterozygosity of the Yaroslavl breed corresponds to the expected level (D = 0.04). Analysis of breeds for homogeneity with the use of Kulback's test has shown that all cattle breeds studied are heterogeneous, the CSN3 diversity within breeds being higher than that among different breeds, which is confirmed by low Fst values (0.0025-0.0431). Thus, a DNA marker based on CSN3 gene polymorphism is extremely important for breeding practice as a marker of milk quality; however, it is

  10. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene YrCH42 in Chinese wheat cultivar Chuanmai 42 and its allelism with Yr24 and Yr26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G Q; Li, Z F; Yang, W Y; Zhang, Y; He, Z H; Xu, S C; Singh, R P; Qu, Y Y; Xia, X C

    2006-05-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most devastating diseases in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. The objectives of this study were to map a stripe rust resistance gene in Chinese wheat cultivar Chuanmai 42 using molecular markers and to investigate its allelism with Yr24 and Yr26. A total of 787 F2 plants and 186 F3 lines derived from a cross between resistant cultivar Chuanmai 42 and susceptible line Taichung 29 were used for resistance gene tagging. Also 197 F2 plants from the cross Chuanmai 42xYr24/3*Avocet S and 726 F2 plants from Chuanmai 42xYr26/3*Avocet S were employed for allelic test of the resistance genes. In all, 819 pairs of wheat SSR primers were used to test the two parents, as well as resistant and susceptible bulks. Subsequently, nine polymorphic markers were employed for genotyping the F2 and F3 populations. Results indicated that the stripe rust resistance in Chuanmai 42 was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated YrCH42, located close to the centromere of chromosome 1B and flanked by nine SSR markers Xwmc626, Xgwm273, Xgwm11, Xgwm18, Xbarc137, Xbarc187, Xgwm498, Xbarc240 and Xwmc216. The resistance gene was closely linked to Xgwm498 and Xbarc187 with genetic distances of 1.6 and 2.3 cM, respectively. The seedling tests with 26 PST isolates and allelic tests indicated that YrCH42, Yr24 and Yr26 are likely to be the same gene. PMID:16525837

  11. Polymorphisms in the glucocerebrosidase gene and pseudogene urge caution in clinical analysis of Gaucher disease allele c.1448T>C (L444P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahey Cora

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher disease is a potentially severe lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the human glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA. We have developed a multiplexed genetic assay for eight diseases prevalent in the Ashkenazi population: Tay-Sachs, Gaucher type I, Niemann-Pick types A and B, mucolipidosis type IV, familial dysautonomia, Canavan, Bloom syndrome, and Fanconi anemia type C. This assay includes an allelic determination for GBA allele c.1448T>C (L444P. The goal of this study was to clinically evaluate this assay. Methods Biotinylated, multiplex PCR products were directly hybridized to capture probes immobilized on fluorescently addressed microspheres. After incubation with streptavidin-conjugated fluorophore, the reactions were analyzed by Luminex IS100. Clinical evaluations were conducted using de-identified patient DNA samples. Results We evaluated a multiplexed suspension array assay that includes wild-type and mutant genetic determinations for Gaucher disease allele c.1448T>C. Two percent of samples reported to be wild-type by conventional methods were observed to be c.1448T>C heterozygous using our assay. Sequence analysis suggested that this phenomenon was due to co-amplification of the functional gene and a paralogous pseudogene (ΨGBA due to a polymorphism in the primer-binding site of the latter. Primers for the amplification of this allele were then repositioned to span an upstream deletion in the pseudogene, yielding a much longer amplicon. Although it is widely reported that long amplicons negatively impact amplification or detection efficiency in recently adopted multiplex techniques, this assay design functioned properly and resolved the occurrence of false heterozygosity. Conclusion Although previously available sequence information suggested GBA gene/pseudogene discrimination capabilities with a short amplified product, we identified common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the pseudogene that

  12. A rare allele combination of the interleukin-1 gene complex is associated with high interleukin-1 beta plasma levels in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkkonen, J; Laippala, P; Hurme, M

    2000-06-01

    Increases in the plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines can be detected in various infectious and inflammatory diseases, but in healthy individuals these levels are in most cases low or undetectable. There is now increasing evidence that genes of the inflammatory cytokines are polymorphic and the various alleles may differ in their capability to produce the cytokine. We have measured the plasma levels IL-1 beta of 400 healthy blood donors and correlated these to the genotype (biallelelic base exchanges at the position - 889 of the IL-1 alpha gene, and at the position - 511 of the IL-1 beta gene and the pentaallelic VNTR in the second intron of the IL-1Ra gene). The median concentration of IL-1 beta was 5.8 pg/ml (upper and lower quartiles 2.2-13.6). The polymorphisms of the IL-1 beta and IL-1 Ra genes did not have any significant influence on the IL-1 beta levels, but the IL-1 alpha 2.2 homozygotes (32/400 blood donors) had significantly elevated levels (median 7.0 pg/ml, quartiles 2.2-22.4, one-way ANOVA p < 0.008 as compared to the IL-1 alpha 1.1 homozygotes and p < 0.02 as compared to the IL-1 alpha 1.2 heterozygotes). This effect of IL-1 alpha 2.2 homozygosity was more pronounced in donors, who also were carriers of the IL-1 beta allele 2. Thus these data suggest that this allele combination has a regulatory effect on basal IL-1 beta production. PMID:10903804

  13. Control of Anthocyanin Synthesis in PETUNIA HYBRIDA by Multiple Allelic Series of the Genes An1 and An2

    OpenAIRE

    Gerats, Anton G. M.; Farcy, Eliane; Wallroth, Marco; Groot, Steven P. C.; Schram, André

    1984-01-01

    A mutable allele of the An1 locus in Petunia hybrida has given rise to a multiple series of stable derivative alleles. Anthocyanin concentration in mature flowers of these mutants (an1+/ p/an1) decreases from the wild-type red to the recessive white in a continuous series. Anthocyanin composition changes regularly: the ratio of peonidin to cyanidin is 3.5 for an an1+/+/ an1 and 1.2 for an an1+/p5/an1 mutant. Analysis of anthocyanins during flower development indicates that these differences ...

  14. Two mutant alleles of the human cytochrome P-450dbl gene (P450C2D1) associated with genetically deficient metabolism of debrisoquine and other drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debrisoquine polymorphism is a clinically important genetic defect of drug metabolism affecting 5-10% of individuals in Caucasian populations. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A full-length cDNA for human cytochrome P-450db1, the deficient enzyme (also designated P450IID1 for P450 family II subfamily D isozyme 1), has recently been cloned. Leukocyte DNA from extensive metabolizers (EMs) or poor metabolizers (PMs) of debrisoquine was examined by Southern analysis. Two polymorphic restriction fragments were associated with the PM phenotype when DNAs from 24 unrelated PM and 29 unrelated EM individuals were probed with P-450db1 cDNA after digestion with Xba I restriction endonuclease and Southern blotting. Seventy-five percent of PMs had either the 44-kb or the 11.5-kb fragment or both. Segregation of these restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the families of six PM probands demonstrated that each of the two fragments is allelic with the 29-kb fragment present in all EM individuals and suggests that they identify two independent mutated alleles of the P-450db1 gene (designated P450C2D1). The Xba I 44-kb fragment and 11.5-kb fragment were in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by four and five additional restriction endonucleases, respectively, which can be used to identify the same mutant alleles for the P-450db1 gene

  15. Rapid genotyping assays for the 4-base pair deletion of canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene and low frequency of the mutant allele in Border Collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yabuki, Akira; Kawamichi, Takuji; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR1 or ABCB1 gene, is an integral component of the blood-brain barrier as an efflux pump for xenobiotics crucial in limiting drug uptake into the central nervous system. Dogs homozygous for a 4-base pair deletion of the canine MDR1 gene show altered expression or function of P-glycoprotein, resulting in neurotoxicosis after administration of the substrate drugs. In the present study, the usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for genotyping assays detecting this deletion mutation was evaluated. Mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and real-time PCR assays were newly developed and evaluated. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of Border Collies dogs in Japan to determine the allele frequency in this breed. Microchip electrophoresis showed advantages in detection sensitivity and time saving over other modes of electrophoresis. The MS-PCR assay clearly discriminated all genotypes. Real-time PCR assay was most suitable for a large-scale survey due to its high throughput and rapidity. The genotyping survey demonstrated that the carrier and mutant allele frequencies were 0.49% and 0.25%, respectively, suggesting that the mutant allele frequency in Border Collies is markedly low compared to that in the susceptible dog breeds such as rough and smooth Collies. PMID:22362942

  16. Characterization of a new mutant allele of the Arabidopsis Flowering Locus D (FLD) gene that controls the flowering time by repressing FLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ruiqiang; ZHANG Suzhi; SUN Shulan; CHANG Jianhong; ZUO Jianru

    2005-01-01

    Flowering in higher plants is controlled by both the internal and environmental cues. In Arabidopsis, several major genetic loci have been defined as the key switches to control flowering. The Flowering Locus C (FLC) gene has been shown in the autonomous pathway to inhibit the vegetative-to-reproductive transition. FLC appears to be repressed by Flowering Locus D (FLD), which encodes a component of the histone deacetylase complex. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new mutant allele fld-5. Genetic analysis indicates that fld-5 (in the Wassilewskija background) is allelic to the previously characterized fld-3 and fld-4 (in the Colombia-0 background). Genetic and molecular analyses reveal that fld-5 carries a frame-shift mutation, resulting in a premature termination of the FLD open reading frame. The FLC expression is remarkably increased in fld-5, which presumably attributes to the extremely delayed flowering phenotype of the mutant.

  17. Candidate gene analysis of tooth agenesis identifies novel mutations in six genes and suggests significant role for WNT and EDA signaling and allele combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arte, Sirpa; Parmanen, Satu; Pirinen, Sinikka; Alaluusua, Satu; Nieminen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Failure to develop complete dentition, tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly manifested most often as isolated but also as associated with many developmental syndromes. It typically affects third molars or one or few other permanent teeth but severe agenesis is also relatively prevalent. Here we report mutational analyses of seven candidate genes in a cohort of 127 probands with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. 82 lacked more than five permanent teeth excluding third molars, called as oligodontia. We identified 28 mutations, 17 of which were novel. Together with our previous reports, we have identified two mutations in MSX1, AXIN2 and EDARADD, five in PAX9, four in EDA and EDAR, and nine in WNT10A. They were observed in 58 probands (44%), with a mean number of missing teeth of 11.7 (range 4 to 34). Almost all of these probands had severe agenesis. Only few of the probands but several relatives with heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A or EDAR conformed to the common type of non-syndromic tooth agenesis, incisor-premolar hypodontia. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 affected predominantly posterior teeth, whereas both deciduous and permanent incisors were especially sensitive to mutations in EDA and EDAR. Many mutations in EDAR, EDARADD and WNT10A were present in several families. Biallelic or heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A were observed in 32 and hemizygous or heterozygous genotypes of EDA, EDAR or EDARADD in 22 probands. An EDARADD variant were in seven probands present together with variants in EDAR or WNT10A, suggesting combined phenotypic effects of alleles in distinct genes. PMID:23991204

  18. Candidate gene analysis of tooth agenesis identifies novel mutations in six genes and suggests significant role for WNT and EDA signaling and allele combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Arte

    Full Text Available Failure to develop complete dentition, tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly manifested most often as isolated but also as associated with many developmental syndromes. It typically affects third molars or one or few other permanent teeth but severe agenesis is also relatively prevalent. Here we report mutational analyses of seven candidate genes in a cohort of 127 probands with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. 82 lacked more than five permanent teeth excluding third molars, called as oligodontia. We identified 28 mutations, 17 of which were novel. Together with our previous reports, we have identified two mutations in MSX1, AXIN2 and EDARADD, five in PAX9, four in EDA and EDAR, and nine in WNT10A. They were observed in 58 probands (44%, with a mean number of missing teeth of 11.7 (range 4 to 34. Almost all of these probands had severe agenesis. Only few of the probands but several relatives with heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A or EDAR conformed to the common type of non-syndromic tooth agenesis, incisor-premolar hypodontia. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 affected predominantly posterior teeth, whereas both deciduous and permanent incisors were especially sensitive to mutations in EDA and EDAR. Many mutations in EDAR, EDARADD and WNT10A were present in several families. Biallelic or heterozygous genotypes of WNT10A were observed in 32 and hemizygous or heterozygous genotypes of EDA, EDAR or EDARADD in 22 probands. An EDARADD variant were in seven probands present together with variants in EDAR or WNT10A, suggesting combined phenotypic effects of alleles in distinct genes.

  19. Impact of population structure, effective bottleneck time, and allele frequency on linkage disequilibrium maps

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weihua; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Tapper, William J; Hunt, Sarah; Deloukas, Panos; Bentley, David R.; Morton, Newton E.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic maps in linkage disequilibrium (LD) units play the same role for association mapping as maps in centimorgans provide at much lower resolution for linkage mapping. Association mapping of genes determining disease susceptibility and other phenotypes is based on the theory of LD, here applied to relations with three phenomena. To test the theory, markers at high density along a 10-Mb continuous segment of chromosome 20q were studied in African-American, Asian, and Caucasian samples. Popu...

  20. Diurnal Expression Pattern, Allelic Variation, and Association Analysis Reveal Functional Features of the E1 Gene in Control of Photoperiodic Flowering in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yupeng; Zhang, Xingzheng; Yang, Jiayin; Wang, Yaying; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Hongmei; Cui, Tingting; Xia, Zhengjun

    2015-01-01

    Although four maturity genes, E1 to E4, in soybean have been successfully cloned, their functional mechanisms and the regulatory network of photoperiodic flowering remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated how the diurnal expression pattern of the E1 gene is related to photoperiodic length; and to what extent allelic variation in the B3-like domain of the E1 gene is associated with flowering time phenotype. The bimodal expression of the E1 gene peaked first at around 2 hours after dawn in long-day condition. The basal expression level of E1 was enhanced by the long light phase, and decreased by duration of dark. We identified a 5bp (3 SNP and 2-bp deletion) mutation, referred to an e1-b3a, which occurs in the middle of B3 domain of the E1 gene in the early flowering cultivar Yanhuang 3. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the putative truncated e1-b3a protein was predominately distributed in nuclei, indicating the distribution pattern of e1-b3a was similar to that of E1, but not to that of e1-as. Furthermore, genetic analysis demonstrated allelic variations at the E1 locus significantly underlay flowering time in three F2 populations. Taken together, we can conclude the legume specific E1 gene confers some special features in photoperiodic control of flowering in soybean. Further characterization of the E1 gene will extend our understanding of the soybean flowering pathway in soybean. PMID:26275311

  1. Ongoing Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Virulence Genes and papA Alleles among Escherichia coli Blood Isolates from Patients with Diverse-Source Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greate...

  2. The mouse pink-eyed dilution allele of the P-gene greatly inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2011-02-01

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus is known to control eumelanin synthesis, melanosome morphology, and tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. However, it has not been fully determined whether the mutant allele, p affects pheomelanin synthesis. Effects of the p allele on eumelanin and phemelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice obtained from the F(2) generations (black, pink-eyed black, recessive yellow, pink-eyed recessive yellow, agouti, and pink-eyed agouti) between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-congenic pink-eyed black mice (B10-p/p) and recessive yellow (B10-Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e)) or agouti (B10-A/A) mice. The eumelanin content was dramatically (>20-fold) decreased in pink-eyed black and pink-eyed agouti mice, whereas the pheomelanin content did not decrease in pink-eyed black, pink-eyed recessive yellow, or pink-eyed agouti mice compared to the corresponding P/- mice. These results suggest that the pink-eyed dilution allele greatly inhibits eumelanin synthesis, but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:21232027

  3. Linkage map positions and allelic diversity of two Mal d 3 (non-specific lipid transfer protein) genes in the cultivated apple (Malus domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. S.; Weg, van de, H; Schaart, J.G.; Meer, van der, D; Kodde, L.P.; Laimer, M; Breiteneder, H; K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) of Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apricot, cherry, plum and apple, represent major allergens for Mediterranean atopic populations. As a first step in elucidating the genetics of nsLTPs, we directed the research reported here towards identifying the number and location of nsLTP (Mal d 3) genes in the apple genome and determining their allelic diversity. PCR cloning was initially performed on two cultivars, Prima and Fiesta, parents of a core apple...

  4. Deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene is sufficient to cause oxidative stress, delayed differentiation and neuronal death in mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Ahlemeyer; Magdalena Gottwald; Eveline Baumgart-Vogt

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired neuronal migration and cell death are commonly observed in patients with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs), and in mouse models of this diseases. In Pex11β-deficient mice, we observed that the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene (Pex11β+/− heterozygous mice) caused cell death in primary neuronal cultures prepared from the neocortex and cerebellum, although to a lesser extent as compared with the homozygous-null animals (Pex11β−/− mice). In corresponding br...

  5. Functional nsSNPs from carcinogenesis-related genes expressed in breast tissue: Potential breast cancer risk alleles and their distribution across human populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Sevtap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although highly penetrant alleles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been shown to predispose to breast cancer, the majority of breast cancer cases are assumed to result from the presence of low-moderate penetrant alleles and environmental carcinogens. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs are hypothesised to contribute to disease susceptibility and approximately 30 per cent of them are predicted to have a biological significance. In this study, we have applied a bioinformatics-based strategy to identify breast cancer-related nsSNPs from 981 carcinogenesis-related genes expressed in breast tissue. Our results revealed a total of 367 validated nsSNPs, 109 (29.7 per cent of which are predicted to affect the protein function (functional nsSNPs, suggesting that these nsSNPs are likely to influence the development and homeostasis of breast tissue and hence contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. Sixty-seven of the functional nsSNPs presented as commonly occurring nsSNPs (minor allele frequencies ≥ 5 per cent, representing excellent candidates for breast cancer susceptibility. Additionally, a non-uniform distribution of the common functional nsSNPs among different human populations was observed: 15 nsSNPs were reported to be present in all populations analysed, whereas another set of 15 nsSNPs was specific to particular population(s. We propose that the nsSNPs analysed in this study constitute a unique resource of potential genetic factors for breast cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, the variations in functional nsSNP allele frequencies across major population backgrounds may point to the potential variability of the molecular basis of breast cancer predisposition and treatment response among different human populations.

  6. Population studies of the human V kappa A18 gene polymorphism in Caucasians, blacks and Eskimos. New functional alleles and evidence for evolutionary selection of a more restricted antibody repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, L; Hougs, L; Andersen, V; Garred, P; Ryder, L; Svejgaard, A; Høgh, B; Lamm, L; Graugaard, B; Barington, T

    1997-01-01

    Immunoglobulin gene polymorphisms are interesting because they reflect differences in the available antibody repertoire which may affect the susceptibility to specific infections. Until recently, the human V kappa gene, A18, was known as a nonfunctional gene only. In this study, we cloned and...... rearranged and somatically hypermutated A18b messenger RNA present in the blood lymphocytes of individuals carrying this allele. The expression clearly exceeded that of a known functional V gene, A2, indicating that functional A18 alleles contribute significantly to the available antibody repertoire. In this...

  7. Multiplex PCR detection of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene variants: simultaneously detecting GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene copy number and the allelic status of the GSTP1 Ile105Val genetic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchard, Anders; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Dalhoff, Kim;

    2007-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 are involved in the detoxification of a broad range of toxic substances. Genetic polymorphisms in these genes have been studied intensively for their potential role in cancer susceptibility and drug response. In Caucasians, the...... none, one, or two copies of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and simultaneously detects the allelic status of the GSTP1 Ile105Val genetic variant. A total of 200 Danes, 100 Somalis, and 100 Greenlanders were genotyped. This multiplex PCR assay enables future large-scale studies to investigate the role of GSTs....

  8. Deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene is sufficient to cause oxidative stress, delayed differentiation and neuronal death in mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ahlemeyer

    2012-01-01

    Impaired neuronal migration and cell death are commonly observed in patients with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs, and in mouse models of this diseases. In Pex11β-deficient mice, we observed that the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene (Pex11β+/− heterozygous mice caused cell death in primary neuronal cultures prepared from the neocortex and cerebellum, although to a lesser extent as compared with the homozygous-null animals (Pex11β−/− mice. In corresponding brain sections, cell death was rare, but differences between the genotypes were similar to those found in vitro. Because PEX11β has been implicated in peroxisomal proliferation, we searched for alterations in peroxisomal abundance in the brain of heterozygous and homozygous Pex11β-null mice compared with wild-type animals. Deletion of one allele of the Pex11β gene slightly increased the abundance of peroxisomes, whereas the deletion of both alleles caused a 30% reduction in peroxisome number. The size of the peroxisomal compartment did not correlate with neuronal death. Similar to cell death, neuronal development was delayed in Pex11β+/− mice, and to a further extent in Pex11β−/− mice, as measured by a reduced mRNA and protein level of synaptophysin and a reduced protein level of the mature isoform of MAP2. Moreover, a gradual increase in oxidative stress was found in brain sections and primary neuronal cultures from wild-type to heterozygous to homozygous Pex11β-deficient mice. SOD2 was upregulated in neurons from Pex11β+/− mice, but not from Pex11β−/− animals, whereas the level of catalase remained unchanged in neurons from Pex11β+/− mice and was reduced in those from Pex11β−/− mice, suggesting a partial compensation of oxidative stress in the heterozygotes, but a failure thereof in the homozygous Pex11β−/− brain. In conclusion, we report the alterations in the brain caused by the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene. Our data might lead

  9. Allelic variant in the anti-Mullerian hormone gene leads to autosomal and temperature-dependent sex reversal in a selected Nile tilapia line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Wessels

    Full Text Available Owing to the demand for sustainable sex-control protocols in aquaculture, research in tilapia sex determination is gaining momentum. The mutual influence of environmental and genetic factors hampers disentangling the complex sex determination mechanism in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Previous linkage analyses have demonstrated quantitative trait loci for the phenotypic sex on linkage groups 1, 3, and 23. Quantitative trait loci for temperature-dependent sex reversal similarly reside on linkage group 23. The anti-Müllerian hormone gene (amh, located in this genomic region, is important for sexual fate in higher vertebrates, and shows sexually dimorphic expression in Nile tilapia. Therefore this study aimed at detecting allelic variants and marker-sex associations in the amh gene. Sequencing identified six allelic variants. A significant effect on the phenotypic sex for SNP ss831884014 (p<0.0017 was found by stepwise logistic regression. The remaining variants were not significantly associated. Functional annotation of SNP ss831884014 revealed a non-synonymous amino acid substitution in the amh protein. Consequently, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET based genotyping assay was developed and validated with a representative sample of fish. A logistic linear model confirmed a highly significant effect of the treatment and genotype on the phenotypic sex, but not for the interaction term (treatment: p<0.0001; genotype: p<0.0025. An additive genetic model proved a linear allele substitution effect of 12% in individuals from controls and groups treated at high temperature, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the genotype on the male proportion was significantly higher in groups treated at high temperature, giving 31% more males on average of the three genotypes. In addition, the groups treated at high temperature showed a positive dominance deviation (+11.4% males. In summary, marker-assisted selection for amh variant ss831884014

  10. High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms′ tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The product of Wilms′ tumor suppressor gene (WT1, a nuclear transcription factor, regulates the expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF and transforming growth factor (TGF systems, both of which are implicated in breast tumorigenesis and are known to facilitate angiogenesis. In the present study, WT1 allelic integrity was examined by Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH studies in infiltrating breast carcinoma (n=60, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS (n=10 and benign breast disease (n=5 patients, to determine its possible association with tumor progression. Methods: LOH at the WT1 locus (11p13 as determined by PCR-RFLP for Hinf1 restriction site and was subsequently examined for its association with intratumoral expression of various growth factors i.e. TGF-β1, IGF-II, IGF-1R and angiogenesis (VEGF and Intratumoral micro-vessel density in breast carcinoma. Results: Six of 22 (27.2% genetically heterozygous of infiltrating breast carcinoma and 1 of 4 DCIS cases showed loss of one allele at WT1 locus. Histologically, the tumors with LOH at WT1 were Intraductal carcinoma (IDC and were of grade II and III. There was no correlation in the appearance of LOH at WT1 locus with age, tumor stage, menopausal status, chemotherapy status and lymph node metastasis. The expression of factor IGF-II and its receptor, IGF-1R was significantly higher in carcinoma having LOH at WT1 locus. A positive correlation was observed between the TGF-β1, VEGF expression and IMD scores in infiltrating carcinoma. Conclusions: The current study indicates that the high frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms′ tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in high-graded breast tumors is associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.

  11. The allelic distribution of -308 Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer and control women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is due to infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Although the incidence of genital HPV infection in various population groups is high, most of these regress without intervention. Investigating genetic host factors and cellular immune responses, particularly cytokines, could help to understand the association between genital HPV infection and carcinogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine plays an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and has the ability to induce the regression of human tumors. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the allelic distribution of -308 TNF-α gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer compared to control women. Included in our study were women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 244) and hospital-based controls (n = 228). All patients and controls were from mixed race and black population groups in South Africa. The detection of a bi-allelic -308 (A/G) polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-α was investigated using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both patients and controls into two South African ethnic population groups. In this study we observed no association between the distribution of -308 TNF-α polymorphism and the risk of developing cervical cancer even after combining the data from the two ethnic populations (X2 = 2.26). In addition, using the chi-squared test we found no significant association between the known risk factors for cervical cancer and the allele distribution of -308 TNF-α. However, the frequency of the rare high-producing allele -308A of TNF-α was significantly lower in the South African population when compared to Caucasians and Chinese population groups. We demonstrated no association between -308 TNF-α polymorphism and the risk of cervical cancer among two

  12. Population genetic analysis of bi-allelic structural variants from low-coverage sequence data with an expectation-maximization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Population genetics and association studies usually rely on a set of known variable sites that are then genotyped in subsequent samples, because it is easier to genotype than to discover the variation. This is also true for structural variation detected from sequence data. However, the genotypes at known variable sites can only be inferred with uncertainty from low coverage data. Thus, statistical approaches that infer genotype likelihoods, test hypotheses, and estimate population parameters without requiring accurate genotypes are becoming popular. Unfortunately, the current implementations of these methods are intended to analyse only single nucleotide and short indel variation, and they usually assume that the two alleles in a heterozygous individual are sampled with equal probability. This is generally false for structural variants detected with paired ends or split reads. Therefore, the population genetics of structural variants cannot be studied, unless a painstaking and potentially biased genotyping is performed first. Results We present svgem, an expectation-maximization implementation to estimate allele and genotype frequencies, calculate genotype posterior probabilities, and test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and for population differences, from the numbers of times the alleles are observed in each individual. Although applicable to single nucleotide variation, it aims at bi-allelic structural variation of any type, observed by either split reads or paired ends, with arbitrarily high allele sampling bias. We test svgem with simulated and real data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Conclusions svgem makes it possible to use low-coverage sequencing data to study the population distribution of structural variants without having to know their genotypes. Furthermore, this advance allows the combined analysis of structural and nucleotide variation within the same genotype-free statistical framework, thus preventing biases introduced by genotype

  13. Allelic polymorphism of GSTM1 and NAT2 genes modifies dietary-induced DNA damage in colorectal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I; Sándor, J; Ember, I

    2000-12-01

    Typically, cancer is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. In colorectal carcinogenesis, diet and nutritional habits are the most important external risk determinants. Allelic polymorphisms of certain metabolizing enzymes may have an influence on cancer risk by modifying the concentration of active carcinogenic compounds in the body. In the present study we investigated the interaction between nutritional and genetic susceptibility factors in human colon carcinogenesis. Healthy volunteers were divided into four groups, based on allelic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 and glutathione-S-transferase M1 enzymes. Comet assay was used to determine the level of DNA strand breaks in exfoliated colorectal mucosal cells, following a 2-day vegetarian diet, and after switching to a 2-day 'high-meat' diet. The 'high-meat' diet statistically significantly increased the amount of single-strand breaks in rapid acetylators and among individuals with a GSMT1 + genotype, while it caused only a slight and not significant increase in the other groups. Our study emphasizes the importance of using susceptibility markers in cancer epidemiology, since environmental effects are strongly modified by these genetic factors. PMID:11201682

  14. Association of deletion allele of insertion/deletion polymorphism in α2B adrenoceptor gene and hypertension with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayel SI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Safaa I Tayel,1 Heba F Khader,1 Nesreen G El-Helbawy,1 Waleed A Ibrahim21Department of Medical Biochemistry, 2Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Shebin Elkom, EgyptBackground: Vascular α2B-adrenoreceptors have the potential to increase blood pressure by mediating vasoconstriction. A nine-nucleotide deletion in the receptor enhances vasoconstriction and exacerbates hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the association between insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of the α2B-adrenoceptor and hypertension with and without diabetes.Methods: The study was carried out in 35 hypertensive patients with diabetes, 35 hypertensive patients without diabetes, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical data, blood lipid profiles, and I/D polymorphism were assessed.Results: Hypertensive patients were significantly older, with significantly higher systolic/diastolic blood pressures and worse plasma lipid profiles than controls. The frequency of the DD genotype was significantly higher in both hypertensive patients with (77.14%, P < 0.01 and without (71.43%, P < 0.05 diabetes versus controls (40%. Also, the D allele was significantly more common in both hypertensive patients with (84.29%, P < 0.01 and without (80%, P < 0.05 diabetes versus controls (58.33%. Hypertensive patients were more likely to have the D allele with (3.83-fold and without (2.85-fold diabetes. The frequencies of the DD genotype and the D allele were not significantly (P > 0.05 different between the patient groups. The DD genotype was associated with significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.001 and significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.017 levels versus the II and ID genotypes in the hypertensive group without diabetes.Conclusion: A marked and statistically significant association between DD genotype and D allele of I/D polymorphism in the α2B-adrenoceptor gene may be a risk factor for hypertension ± diabetes. The association

  15. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Stolle, C. (Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Pope, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterization of the proteasome ß2 subunit gene and its mutant allele in the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditional lethal release (CLR) is a proposed variation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the biological control of pest insects that would result from the release of transgenic insects carrying dominant conditional lethal genes. After mating with pest insects in the field, lethal gene exp...

  17. Determination of cis/trans phase of variations in the MC1R gene with allele-specific PCR and single base extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J;

    2008-01-01

    The MC1R gene encodes a protein with key regulatory functions in the melanin synthesis. A multiplex PCR and a multiplex single base extension protocol were established for genotyping six exonic MC1R variations highly penetrant for red hair (R), four exonic MC1R variations weakly penetrant for red...... hair (r), two frameshift variations highly penetrant for red hair (R) and three variations in the promoter region. We genotyped 600 individuals from Denmark using either CE or MALDI-TOF MS as the detection platform. A total of 62 individuals were genotyped R/R and among the 62 individuals, 57 had red...... hair and five had blond hair colour. Two different R alleles may be located in cis (RR/-) position or trans (R/R) position, and the phenotype associated with RR/- and R/R may be different. Two allele-specific PCRs were established with primers targeting the -G445A variation in the MC1R promoter and the...

  18. An obesity-associated risk allele within the FTO gene affects human brain activity for areas important for emotion, impulse control and reward in response to food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Ence-Eriksson, Fia; Castillo, Sandra; Larsen, Anna L; Bylund, Simon B A; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Olivo, Gaia; Bandstein, Marcus; Titova, Olga E; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing. PMID:26797854

  19. Genomewide Expression Analysis in Zebrafish mind bomb Alleles with Pancreas Defects of Different Severity Identifies Putative Notch Responsive Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Ashok; Qiu, Nick Chuanxin; Qiu, Xuehui; Ho, Steven Hao-Kee; Tay, Kenny Qi-Ye; George, Joshy; Ng, Felicia Soo Lee; Govindarajan, Kunde Ramamoorthy; Gong, Zhiyuan; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Jiang, Yun-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved developmental pathway. Zebrafish mind bomb (mib) mutants carry mutations on mib gene, which encodes a RING E3 ligase required for Notch activation via Delta/Jagged ubiquitylation and internalization. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the mib mutants for defects in pancreas development using in situ hybridization and GFP expression analysis of pancreas-specific GFP lines, carried out the global gene expression profile analysis ...

  20. Genotyping of the 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of beta-hydroxylase gene by dissociation analysis of allele-specific PCR products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We have developed a simple, reliable and inexpensive closed-tube assay for genotyping of this polymorphism based upon T(m) determination of amplified...... DNA fragments. Mistyping of heterozygote samples due to preferential allele amplification was prevented by use of an optimized concentration of Mg(2+), addition of dimethyl sulfoxide and annealing/extension at an appropriate temperature. Comparison of results achieved by the closed-tube assay and a...... conventional approach based upon agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified fragments revealed complete concordance between the two procedures. The insights obtained in this study may be utilized to develop assays based upon dissociation analysis of PCR products for genotyping of other insertion...

  1. Allele frequency-based and polymorphism-versus-divergence indices of balancing selection in a new filtered set of polymorphic genes in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochola, Lynette Isabella; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Stewart, Lindsay B; Riitho, Victor; Marsh, Kevin; Conway, David J

    2010-10-01

    Signatures of balancing selection operating on specific gene loci in endemic pathogens can identify candidate targets of naturally acquired immunity. In malaria parasites, several leading vaccine candidates convincingly show such signatures when subjected to several tests of neutrality, but the discovery of new targets affected by selection to a similar extent has been slow. A small minority of all genes are under such selection, as indicated by a recent study of 26 Plasmodium falciparum merozoite-stage genes that were not previously prioritized as vaccine candidates, of which only one (locus PF10_0348) showed a strong signature. Therefore, to focus discovery efforts on genes that are polymorphic, we scanned all available shotgun genome sequence data from laboratory lines of P. falciparum and chose six loci with more than five single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (including PF10_0348) for in-depth frequency-based analyses in a Kenyan population (allele sample sizes >50 for each locus) and comparison of Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade (HKA) ratios of population diversity (π) to interspecific divergence (K) from the chimpanzee parasite Plasmodium reichenowi. Three of these (the msp3/6-like genes PF10_0348 and PF10_0355 and the surf(4.1) gene PFD1160w) showed exceptionally high positive values of Tajima's D and Fu and Li's F indices and have the highest HKA ratios, indicating that they are under balancing selection and should be prioritized for studies of their protein products as candidate targets of immunity. Combined with earlier results, there is now strong evidence that high HKA ratio (as well as the frequency-independent ratio of Watterson's /K) is predictive of high values of Tajima's D. Thus, the former offers value for use in genome-wide screening when numbers of genome sequences within a species are low or in combination with Tajima's D as a 2D test on large population genomic samples. PMID:20457586

  2. Distinct pattern of allelic loss and inactivation of cadherin 1 and 5 genes in mammary carcinomas arising in p53+/- mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    p53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in mammary carcinomas (MCs). To detect tumor suppressor genes cooperating with a hetero-deficient p53 gene in mammary carcinogenesis, we first examined allelotypes in MCs from (BALB/cHeA x MSM/Ms) F1-p53+/- and (BALB/cHeA x 129/SvEv) F1-p53+/- female mice, and then surveyed down-regulated genes in the allelic loss regions. Genome-wide screening at 42 loci identified frequent (more than 30%) loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 5, 8, 11, 12, 14 and 18 in the MCs from either of the F1 mice. The MCs in the p53+/- mice indicated highly frequent LOH, especially on chromosomes 8, 11 and 12, distinct from other mouse tumors. More than 60% of the 38 MCs from (BALB/cHeA x MSM/Ms) F1-p53+/- mice showed LOH in a region ranging from D8Mit85 (105.0 Mb from centromere) to D8Mit113 (111.8 Mb) on chromosome 8, a region syntenic to human chromosome 16q22.1, on which LOH has been found in breast cancers. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the LOH of chromosome 8 was associated with the reduced and/or complete loss of expression of Cdh1 and Cdh5 genes in 15 (58%) and 8 (31%) of 26 MCs derived from the F1 mice, respectively. Thus, inactivation of Cdh1 and Cdh5 is likely to cooperate with the loss of p53, suggesting a possible tumor suppressive function of these genes in mammary carcinogenesis. (author)

  3. A candidate subspecies discrimination system involving a vomeronasal receptor gene with different alleles fixed in M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Karn

    Full Text Available Assortative mating, a potentially efficient prezygotic reproductive barrier, may prevent loss of genetic potential by avoiding the production of unfit hybrids (i.e., because of hybrid infertility or hybrid breakdown that occur at regions of secondary contact between incipient species. In the case of the mouse hybrid zone, where two subspecies of Mus musculus (M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus meet and exchange genes to a limited extent, assortative mating requires a means of subspecies recognition. We based the work reported here on the hypothesis that, if there is a pheromone sufficiently diverged between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus to mediate subspecies recognition, then that process must also require a specific receptor(s, also sufficiently diverged between the subspecies, to receive the signal and elicit an assortative mating response. We studied the mouse V1R genes, which encode a large family of receptors in the vomeronasal organ (VNO, by screening Perlegen SNP data and identified one, Vmn1r67, with 24 fixed SNP differences most of which (15/24 are nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. We observed substantial linkage disequilibrium (LD between Vmn1r67 and Abpa27, a mouse salivary androgen-binding protein gene that encodes a proteinaceous pheromone (ABP capable of mediating assortative mating, perhaps in conjunction with its bound small lipophilic ligand. The LD we observed is likely a case of association rather than residual physical linkage from a very recent selective sweep, because an intervening gene, Vmn1r71, shows significant intra(subspecific polymorphism but no inter(subspecific divergence in its nucleotide sequence. We discuss alternative explanations of these observations, for example that Abpa27 and Vmn1r67 are coevolving as signal and receptor to reinforce subspecies hybridization barriers or that the unusually divergent Vmn1r67 allele was not a product of fast positive

  4. Allelic variation in porcine resistin (RETN) gene is associated with fatness traits in a Wild Boar x Meishan reference family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Knoll, A.; Masopust, Martin; Vykoukalová, Z.; Bartenschlager, H.; Nonneman, D.; Rohrer, G. A.; Geldermann, H.

    Porto Seguro : ISAG, 2006, s. 72. ISBN 85-85584-02-5. [30th International Conference on Animal Genetics. Porto Seguro (BR), 20.08.2006-25.08.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/04/0106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : RETN gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Overview of gene structure in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, John; Lawson, Daniel; Davis, Paul; Williams, Gary; Howe, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In the early stage of the C. elegans sequencing project, the ab initio gene prediction program Genefinder was used to find protein-coding genes. Subsequently, protein-coding genes structures have been actively curated by WormBase using evidence from all available data sources. Most coding loci were identified by the Genefinder program, but the process of gene curation results in a continual refinement of the details of gene structure, involving the correction and confirmation of intron splice sites, the addition of alternate splicing forms, the merging and splitting of incorrect predictions, and the creation and extension of 5' and 3' ends. The development of new technologies results in the availability of further data sources, and these are incorporated into the evidence used to support the curated structures. Non-coding genes are more difficult to curate using this methodology, and so the structures for most of these have been imported from the literature or from specialist databases of ncRNA data. This article describes the structure and curation of transcribed regions of genes. PMID:25368915

  6. Statistical epistasis between candidate gene alleles for complex tuber traits in an association mapping population of tetraploid potato

    OpenAIRE

    Li LI; Paulo, M.J.; Eeuwijk, van, F.A.; Gebhardt, C.

    2010-01-01

    Association mapping using DNA-based markers is a novel tool in plant genetics for the analysis of complex traits. Potato tuber yield, starch content, starch yield and chip color are complex traits of agronomic relevance, for which carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role. At the functional level, the genes and biochemical pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism are among the best studied in plants. Quantitative traits such as tuber starch and sugar content are therefore models for...

  7. Genetic analysis of Chinese families reveals a novel truncation allele of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make comprehensive molecular diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa (RP patients in a consanguineous Han Chinese family using next generation sequencing based Capture-NGS screen technology. METHODS: A five-generation Han Chinese family diagnosed as non-syndromic X-linked recessive RP (XLRP was recruited, including four affected males, four obligate female carriers and eleven unaffected family members. Capture-NGS was performed using a custom designed capture panel covers 163 known retinal disease genes including 47 RP genes, followed by the validation of detected mutation using Sanger sequencing in all recruited family members. RESULTS: Capture-NGS in one affected 47-year-old male reveals a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in exon ORF15 of RP GTPase regulator (RPGR gene results in a frameshift change that results in a premature stop codon and a truncated protein product. The mutation was further validated in three of four affected males and two of four female carriers but not in the other unaffected family members. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in a Han Chinese family with XLRP. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RPGR and the phenotypic spectrum of XLRP in Han Chinese families, and confirms Capture-NGS could be an effective and economic approach for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP.

  8. Genetic analysis of Chinese families reveals a novel truncation allele of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang; Hu; Xiang-Yun; Zeng; Lin-Lin; Liu; Yao-Ling; Luo; Yi-Ping; Jiang; Hui; Wang; Jing; Xie; Cheng-Quan; Hu; Lin; Gan; Liang; Huang

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To make comprehensive molecular diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa(RP) patients in a consanguineous Han Chinese family using next generation sequencing based Capture-NGS screen technology.METHODS:A five-generation Han Chinese family diagnosed as non-syndromic X-linked recessive RP(XLRP) was recruited, including four affected males, four obligate female carriers and eleven unaffected family members. Capture-NGS was performed using a custom designed capture panel covers 163 known retinal disease genes including 47 RP genes, followed by the validation of detected mutation using Sanger sequencing in all recruited family members.RESULTS:Capture-NGS in one affected 47-year-old male reveals a novel mutation, c.24172418insG:p.E806 fs,in exon ORF15 of RP GTPase regulator(RPGR) gene results in a frameshift change that results in a premature stop codon and a truncated protein product. The mutation was further validated in three of four affected males and two of four female carriers but not in the other unaffected family members.CONCLUSION:We have identified a novel mutation,c.24172418insG:p.E806 fs, in a Han Chinese family with XLRP. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RPGR and the phenotypic spectrum of XLRP in Han Chinese families, and confirms Capture-NGS could be aneffective and economic approach for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP.

  9. The novel complex allele [A238V;F508del] of the CFTR gene: clinical phenotype and possible implications for cystic fibrosis etiological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Anna; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Santostasi, Teresa; Ratclif, Luigi; Pantaleo, Maria Giuseppina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Iusco, Danila Rosa; Gallo, Crescenzio; Conese, Massimo; Manca, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Few mutations in cis have been annotated for F508del homozygous patients. Southern Italy patients who at a first analysis appeared homozygous for the F508del mutation (n=63) or compound heterozygous for the F508del and another mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (n=155) were searched for the A238V mutation in exon 6. The allelic frequency of the complex allele [A238V;F508del] was 0.04. When the whole data set was used (comprised also of 56 F508del/F508del and 34 F508del/other mutation controls), no differences reached the statistical significance in the clinical parameters, except chloride concentrations which were lower in [A238V;F508del]/other mutation compared with F508del/other mutation (P=0.03). The two study groups presented less complications than the control groups. Within the minimal data set (34 F508del/F508del, 27 F508del/other mutation, 4 [A238V;F508del]/F508del cases and 5 [A238V;F508del]/other mutation cases); that is, presenting all the variables in each patient, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity presented a trend to lower levels in the study groups in comparison with the F508del/F508del group, and C-reactive protein approximated statistically significant higher levels in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation as compared with F508del/F508del patients (P=0.09). The analysis of statistical dependence among the variables showed a significant anticorrelation between chloride and body mass index in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation group. In conclusion, the complex allele [A238V;F508del] seems to be associated with less general complications than in the control groups, on the other hand possibly giving a worse pulmonary phenotype and higher systemic/local inflammatory response. These findings have implications for the correct recruitment and clinical response of F508del patients in the clinical trials testing the new etiological drugs for cystic fibrosis. PMID:26911355

  10. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA analog and its protein product: rec-102 is a mutant allele of the P. aeruginosa PAO recA gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We cloned a 2.3-kilobase-pair fragment of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO chromosome which is capable of complementing recA mutations of Escherichia coli. The recA-complementing activity was further localized to a 1.5-kilobase-pair PvuII-HindIII fragment. Southern blot analysis under conditions of high stringency indicated that DNA sequence homology is shared by the E. coli recA gene and the P. aeruginosa recA analog. The cloned recA analog was shown to restore resistance to methyl methanesulfonate, nitrofurantoin, and UV irradiation to E. coli recA mutants. Upon introduction of the cloned P. aeruginosa gene, these mutants regained recombination proficiency in HfrH-mediated conjugation and the ability to induce lambda prophages and SOS functions (din gene transcription) after exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Lambda prophage carrying a cI ind mutation was not inducible, suggesting that the mechanism of induction of these SOS functions by the P. aeruginosa RecA analog is similar to that by the activated E. coli RecA protein. The product of the recA analog was identified in minicells as a protein of approximately 47,000 daltons. Western blot analysis using anti-E. coli RecA antibody demonstrated that this protein is antigenically cross-reactive with the E. coli recA protein. The recA-containing fragment was cloned into the broad-host-range vector pCP13 and introduced into Rec- strains of P. aeruginosa containing the rec-102 allele. The plasmid was shown to restore recombination proficiency in FP5-mediated conjugations and to restore resistance to UV irradiation and methyl methanesulfonate to these Rec- mutants. It was shown that a wild-type allele of rec-102 is necessary for UV-mediated induction of D3 and F116 prophages. The cloned recA analog restored the UV inducibility of these prophages in rec-102 mutants

  11. Natural variation in rosette size under salt stress conditions corresponds to developmental differences between Arabidopsis accessions and allelic variation in the LRR-KISS gene

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena M.

    2016-02-11

    Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions is an important genetic resource to identify mechanisms underlying plant development and stress tolerance. To evaluate the natural variation in salinity stress tolerance, two large-scale experiments were performed on two populations consisting of 160 Arabidopsis accessions each. Multiple traits, including projected rosette area, and fresh and dry weight were collected as an estimate for salinity tolerance. Our results reveal a correlation between rosette size under salt stress conditions and developmental differences between the accessions grown in control conditions, suggesting that in general larger plants were more salt tolerant. This correlation was less pronounced when plants were grown under severe salt stress conditions. Subsequent genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed associations with novel candidate genes for salinity tolerance such as LRR-KISS (At4g08850), flowering locus KH-domain containing protein and a DUF1639-containing protein. Accessions with high LRR-KISS expression developed larger rosettes under salt stress conditions. Further characterization of allelic variation in candidate genes identified in this study will provide more insight into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance due to enhanced shoot growth.

  12. Difference in allelic expression of the CLCN1 gene and the possible influence on the myotonia congenita phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunø, Morten; Colding-Jørgensen, Eskild; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; Vissing, John; Schwartz, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the CLCN1 gene, encoding a muscle-specific chloride channel, can cause either recessive or dominant myotonia congenita (MC). The recessive form, Becker's myotonia, is believed to be caused by two loss-of-function mutations, whereas the dominant form, Thomsen's myotonia, is assumed to...... be a consequence of a dominant-negative effect. However, a subset of CLCN1 mutations can cause both recessive and dominant MC. We have identified two recessive and two dominant MC families segregating the common R894X mutation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR did not reveal any obvious association...

  13. Highly variable clinical phenotype of carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 deficiency in one family: an effect of allelic variation in gene expression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaus, V; Vermeulen, T; Minassian, B;

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) causes hyperammonemia with a vast range of clinical severity from neonatal onset with early lethality to onset after age 40 with rare episodes of hyperammonemic confusion. The cause for this variability is not understood. We...... report two patients from one family with highly divergent clinical course, one presenting neonatally with a fatal form and the other at age 45 with benign diet-responsive disease. The patients are compound heterozygous for two mutations of the CPS1 gene, c.3558 + 1G > C and c.4101 + 2T > C...

  14. No allelic variation in genes with high gliadin homology in patients with celiac disease and type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Hansen, Dorte; Husby, Steffen;

    2004-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a complex inflammatory disorder of the small intestine, induced by dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is strongly associated with HLA-DQ2 and it has recently been established that gut-derived DQ2-restricted T cells from patients with CD predominantly...... single-nucleotide polymorphisms using direct sequencing of DNA from 20 CD patients, 27 type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients with associated CD, 24 patients with T1DM without CD and 110 healthy controls, all of Caucasian origin. No variants in any of these genes in any of the investigated groups were...

  15. Gene Composer in a structural genomics environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For structural biology applications, protein-construct engineering is guided by comparative sequence analysis and structural information, which allow the researcher to better define domain boundaries for terminal deletions and nonconserved regions for surface mutants. A database software application called Gene Composer has been developed to facilitate construct design. The structural genomics effort at the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) requires the manipulation of large numbers of amino-acid sequences and the underlying DNA sequences which are to be cloned into expression vectors. To improve efficiency in high-throughput protein structure determination, a database software package, Gene Composer, has been developed which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their underlying gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bioinformatics steps used in modern structure-guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An example of the structure determination of H1N1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PB2 subunit is given

  16. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Papa

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change.

  17. Are ???Endurance??? Alleles ???Survival??? Alleles? Insights from the ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Rodr??guez-Romo, Gabriel; Santiago, Catalina; G??mez-Gallego, F??lix; Yvert, Thomas; Cano-Nieto, Amalia; Garatechea, Nuria; Mor??n, Mar??a; Luc??a, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Exercise phenotypes have played a key role for ensuring survival over human evolution. We speculated that some genetic variants that influence exercise phenotypes could be associated with exceptional survival (i.e. reaching ???100years of age). Owing to its effects on muscle structure/function, a potential candidate is the Arg(R)577Ter(X) polymorphism (rs1815739) in ACTN3, the structural gene encoding the skeletal muscle protein ??-actinin-3. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotype/allele freque...

  18. Allele-specific gene expression patterns in primary leukemic cells reveal regulation of gene expression by CpG site methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milani, Lili; Lundmark, Anders; Nordlund, Jessica; Kiialainen, Anna; Flaegstad, Trond; Jonmundsson, Gudmundur; Kanerva, Jukka; Schmiegelow, K.; Gunderson, Kevin L; Lönnerholm, Gudmar; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2008-01-01

    samples of 197 children with ALL. Using a reproducible, quantitative genotyping method and stringent criteria for scoring ASE, we found that 16% of the analyzed genes display ASE in multiple ALL cell samples. For most of the genes, the level of ASE varied largely between the samples, from 1.4-fold...

  19. Pulmonary Embolism in a Sarcoidosis Patient Double Heterozygous for Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms and Factor V Leiden and Homozygous for the D-Allele of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim El-Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It presents in patients younger than 40 years of age. The lungs are the most commonly affected organ. Till the present day, there is no single specific test that will accurately diagnose sarcoidosis; as a result, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis relies on a combination of clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings. Patients with sarcoidosis have been found to have an increased risk of pulmonary embolism compared to the normal population. MTHFR and factor V Leiden mutations have been reported to increase the risk of thrombosis in patients. We hereby present a case of a middle aged man with sarcoidosis who developed a right main pulmonary embolism and was found to be double heterozygous for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and factor V Leiden and homozygous for the D-allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene.

  20. Allelic dropout of amelogenin gene on X chromosome%X染色体Amelogenin等位基因缺失的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 孙宏钰; 陈爱萍; 陈维红; 何树文

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨采用Amelogenin基因常规Sullivan106/112 bp体系进行性别鉴定时X染色体Amelogenin等位基因片段(Amel-X)缺失的原因以及缺失后对法医物证性别鉴定和临床疾病诊断的影响.方法 采用Sullivan212/218 bp和Haas-Rochholz80/83 bp引物体系对Amel-X缺失的样本进行验证,并对缺失的Amel-X进行序列分析.结果 采用Sullivan212/218 bp和Haas-Rochholz80/83 bp引物体系分型时均可重获缺失的等位基因.测序分析在Sullivan106/112 bp体系的正向引物结合区检出3种点突变,包括分别位于3'端第2位、第13位的单点突变以及第2位和第13位同时发生的杂合多点突变.结论 引物结合区点突变导致的无效扩增是Amel-X等位基因缺失的原因,这在实践中会干扰性别鉴定,需引起重视.%Objective To investigate the mechanism that cause allelic dropout of amelogenin gene on X chromosome(Amel-X)when using routine Sullivan106/112 bp primer set in sex identification and discuss its influence on the forensic sex identification and the clinical diagnosis.Methods Amel-X dropout was validated with Sullivan212/218 bp and Haas-Rochholz80/83 bp primer sets.Amplification of amelogenin gene was used to analyze dropout of the Amex-X followed by sequencin.Results Sullivan212/218 bp and Hgas-Rochholz80/83 bp primer sets could be used to identify gender correctly.Three types of point mntation were observed in the forward primer binding region of the Sullivan106/112 bp primer set by sequencing in the lost Amel-X,including single point mutation at 2nd and 13th sites,respectively,and heterozygous multiple point mutations at 2nd and 13th sites.Conclusions Point mutation in the primer binding region may result in a failure to amplify amelogenin allele and thus lead to a null allele.This finding should be mid attention to because it may interfere with the sex identification.

  1. The functional importance of sequence versus expression variability of MHC alleles in parasite resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2012-12-01

    Understanding selection processes driving the pronounced allelic polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and its functional associations to parasite load have been the focus of many recent wildlife studies. Two main selection scenarios are currently debated which explain the susceptibility or resistance to parasite infections either by the effects of (1) specific MHC alleles which are selected frequency-dependent in space and time or (2) a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage. So far, most studies have focused only on structural variance in co-evolutionary processes although this might not be the only trait subject to natural selection. In the present study, we analysed structural variance stretching from exon1 through exon3 of MHC class II DRB genes as well as genotypic expression variance in relation to the gastrointestinal helminth prevalence and infection intensity in wild yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). We found support for the functional importance of specific alleles both on the sequence and expression level. By resampling a previously investigated study population we identified specific MHC alleles affected by temporal shifts in parasite pressure and recorded associated changes in allele frequencies. The allele Apfl-DRB*23 was associated with resistance to infections by the oxyurid nematode Syphacia stroma and at the same time with susceptibility to cestode infection intensity. In line with our expectation, MHC mRNA transcript levels tended to be higher in cestode-infected animals carrying the allele Apfl-DRB*23. However, no support for a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage on the sequence or expression level was detected. The individual amino acid distance of genotypes did not explain individual differences in parasite loads and the genetic distance had no effect on MHC genotype expression. For ongoing studies on the functional importance of expression variance in parasite resistance, allele

  2. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I; Theodorides, Maria L; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2007-12-19

    The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The results were generally consistent across the three measures. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene influenced taste responsiveness to nonnutritive sweeteners (saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, SC-45647), sugars (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose), sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol), and some amino acids (D-tryptophan, D-phenylalanine, L-proline). Tas1r3 genotype did not affect taste responses to several sweet-tasting amino acids (L-glutamine, L-threonine, L-alanine, glycine), glucose polymers (Polycose, maltooligosaccharide), and nonsweet NaCl, HCl, quinine, monosodium glutamate, and inosine 5'-monophosphate. Thus Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect taste responses to many nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners (all of which must interact with a taste receptor involving T1R3), but not to all carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition, we found that the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness changes depending on the measure of taste response and the intensity of the sweet taste stimulus. Variation in the T1R3 receptor influenced peripheral taste responsiveness over a wide range of sweetener concentrations, but behavioral responses to higher concentrations of some sweeteners increasingly depended on mechanisms that could override input from the peripheral taste system. PMID:17911381

  3. Activation of ERK/IER3/PP2A-B56γ-positive feedback loop in lung adenocarcinoma by allelic deletion of B56γ gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoko; Ozaki, Satoru; Chanasong, Rachanee; Mizutani, Yuki; Oyama, Takeru; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Takemura, Hirofumi; Kawahara, Ei

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate the involvement of the IER3/PP2A-B56γ/ERK-positive feedback loop, which leads to sustained phosphorylation/activation of ERK in carcinogenesis, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of IER3 and phosphorylated ERK in lung tumor tissues. IER3 was overexpressed in all cases of adenocarcinomas examined, but was not overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas. Phosphorylated ERK (pERK) was also overexpressed in almost all adenocarcinomas. EGFR and RAS, whose gene product is located upstream of ERK, were sequenced. Activating mutation of EGFR, which is a possible cause of overexpression of IER3 and pERK, was found only in 5 adenocarcinomas (42%). No mutation of RAS was found. We further examined the sequences of all exons of B56γ gene (PPP2R5C) and IER3, but no mutation was found. Using a single nucleotide insertion in intron 1 of PPP2R5C, which was found in the process of sequencing, allelic deletion of PPP2R5C was examined. Eight cases were informative (67%), and the deletion was found in 4 of them (50%). Three cases having deletion of PPP2R5C did not have EGFR mutation. Finally, PPP2R5C deletion or EGFR mutation that could be responsible for IER3/pERK overexpression was found in at least 8 cases (67% or more). This is the first report of a high incidence of deletion of PPP2R5C in human carcinomas. PMID:26986830

  4. Human rotavirus strains bearing VP4 gene P[6] allele recovered from asymptomatic or symptomatic infections share similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotavirus VP4 gene P[6] allele has been documented in a number of countries to be characteristically associated with an endemic predominantly asymptomatic infection in neonates in maternity hospital nurseries. The mechanisms underlying the endemicity and asymptomatic nature of such neonatal infections remain unknown. Rotavirus strains sharing this same P genotype, however, have more recently been recovered from an increasing number of symptomatic diarrheal episodes in infants and young children in various parts of the world. Previously, we have shown that an asymptomatic P[6] rotavirus neonatal infection is not associated with a unique VP7 (G) serotype but may occur in conjunction with various G types. Although amino acid sequence comparisons of the VP4 gene between selected 'asymptomatic' and 'symptomatic' P[6] rotavirus strains have been reported and yielded information concerning their VP4 genotypes, serotypic comparisons of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 of such viruses have not been studied systematically by two-way cross-neutralizations. We determined the VP4 neutralization specificities of four asymptomatic and four symptomatic P[6] strains: two each of asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by two-way tests, and two each of additional asymptomatic and symptomatic strains by one-way tests. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic P[6] strains were shown to bear similar, if not identical, VP4 neutralization specificities. Thus, P[6] rotavirus strains causing asymptomatic or symptomatic infections did not appear to belong to unique P (VP4) serotypes. In addition, a close VP4 serotypic relationship between human P[6] rotavirus strains and the porcine P[6] rotavirus Gottfried strain was confirmed

  5. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  6. Consequences of Marfan mutations to expression of fibrillin gene and to the structure of microfibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltonen, L.; Karttunen, L.; Rantamaeki, T. [NPHI, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder which is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Over 40 family-specific FBN1 mutations have been identified. We have characterized 18 different heterozygous mutations including amino acid substitutions, premature stop, and splicing defects leading to deletions or one insertion, and one compound heterozygote with two differently mutated FBN1 alleles inherited from his affected parents. To unravel the consequences of FBN1 mutations to the transcription of FBN1 gene, we have measured the steady state levels of mRNA transcribed from the normal and mutated alleles. The missense mutations do not affect the transcription of the allele while the nonsense mutation leads to lower steady state amount of mutated allele. For the dissection of molecular pathogenesis of FBN1 mutations we have performed rotary shadowing of the microfibrils produced by the cell cultures from MFS patients. The cells from the neonatal patients with established mutations produced only disorganized fibrillin aggregates but no clearly defined microfibrils could be detected, suggesting a major role of this gene region coding for exons 24-26 in stabilization and organization of the bead structure of microfibrils. From the cells of a rare compound heterozygote case carrying two different mutations, no detectable microfibrils could be detected whereas the cells of his parents with heterozygous mutations were able to form identifiable but disorganized microfibrils. In the cells of an MFS case caused by a premature stop removing the C-terminus of fibrillin, the microfibril assembly takes place but the appropriate packing of the microfibrils is disturbed suggesting that C-terminae are actually located within the interbead domain of the microfibrils.

  7. M-protein gene-type distribution and hyaluronic acid capsule in group A Streptococcus clinical isolates in Chile: association of emm gene markers with csrR alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A; Rojas, P; Rodríguez, C; Undabarrena, A; Garate, C; Riedel, I; Román, J C; Kalergis, A M; García, P

    2012-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of infections because of virulence factors such as capsular hyaluronic acid and M protein. The aim of this study was to determine emm types and capsule phenotype in 110 isolates of S. pyogenes from patients with invasive (sterile sites) and non-invasive (mainly pharyngitis) infections in Chile, and the relationship between both virulence factors. The most abundant types found were emm12, emm1, emm4 and emm28 and their distribution was similar to that seen in Latin America and developed countries, but very different from that in Asia and Pacific Island countries. Ten of 16 emm types identified in pharyngeal isolates were found in sterile-site isolates, and three of nine emm types of sterile-site isolates occurred in pharyngeal isolates; three emm subtypes were novel. The amount of hyaluronic acid was significantly higher in sterile-site isolates but did not differ substantially among emm types. Only three isolates were markedly capsulate and two of them had mutations in the csrR gene that codes for a repressor of capsule synthesis genes. We found a non-random association between emm types and csrR gene alleles suggesting that horizontal gene transfer is not freely occurring in the population. PMID:21906413

  8. Normal synaptonemal complex and abnormal recombination nodules in two alleles of the Drosophila meiotic mutant mei-W68.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Adelaide T. C.

    2003-01-01

    The meiotic phenotypes of two mutant alleles of the mei-W68 gene, 1 and L1, were studied by genetics and by serial-section electron microscopy. Despite no or reduced exchange, both mutant alleles have normal synaptonemal complex. However, neither has any early recombination nodules; instead, both exhibit high numbers of very long (up to 2 microm) structures here named "noodles." These are hypothesized to be formed by the unchecked extension of identical but much shorter structures ephemerally...

  9. Allelic variation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes located on chromosomes 2A and 2D and development of functional markers for the PPO genes in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity is highly related to the undesirable browning of wheat-based end products, especially Asian noodles. Characterization of PPO genes and the development of their functional markers are of great importance for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. In the prese...

  10. Serum amyloid A1: Structure, function and gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Ye, Richard D

    2016-05-25

    Inducible expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a hallmark of the acute-phase response, which is a conserved reaction of vertebrates to environmental challenges such as tissue injury, infection and surgery. Human SAA1 is encoded by one of the four SAA genes and is the best-characterized SAA protein. Initially known as a major precursor of amyloid A (AA), SAA1 has been found to play an important role in lipid metabolism and contributes to bacterial clearance, the regulation of inflammation and tumor pathogenesis. SAA1 has five polymorphic coding alleles (SAA1.1-SAA1.5) that encode distinct proteins with minor amino acid substitutions. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified in both the coding and non-coding regions of human SAA1. Despite high levels of sequence homology among these variants, SAA1 polymorphisms have been reported as risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and several types of cancer. A recently solved crystal structure of SAA1.1 reveals a hexameric bundle with each of the SAA1 subunits assuming a 4-helix structure stabilized by the C-terminal tail. Analysis of the native SAA1.1 structure has led to the identification of a competing site for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and heparin, thus providing the structural basis for a role of heparin and heparan sulfate in the conversion of SAA1 to AA. In this brief review, we compares human SAA1 with other forms of human and mouse SAAs, and discuss how structural and genetic studies of SAA1 have advanced our understanding of the physiological functions of the SAA proteins. PMID:26945629

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Non-structural (NS) Gene of Influenza A Viruses Isolated in Kazakhstan in 2002-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy; Marat Sayatov; Kainar Zhumatov; Vladimir Berezin; Alexey Prilipov; I lya Korotetskiy; Irina Zaitseva; Aydyn Kydyrmanov; Kobey Karamedin; Nailya Ishmukhametova; Saule Asanova

    2011-01-01

    Although the important role of the non-structural (NSI and NEP) gene of influenza A in virulence of the virus is well established,our knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene pool of influenza A viruses in their natural reservoirs in Kazakhstan is incomplete.17 influenza A viruses of different subtypes were studied in this paper.Seven types of haemagglutinin and five different neuraminidase subtypes in eight combinations were found among the isolated viruses.A comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolated viruses revealed a substantial number of silent mutations,which results in high degree of homology in amino acid sequences.By phylogenetic analysis it was shown that two distinct gene pools,corresponding to both NS allele A with 5 Clades and B,were present at the same time in Kazakhstan.The degree of variation within the alleles was very low.In our study allele A viruses had a maximum of 5% amino acid divergence in Clade while allele B viruses had only 4% amino acid divergence.

  12. Multilocus Inherited Neoplasia Alleles Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitworth, James; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Sunde, Lone; Lim, Derek H; Arends, Mark J; Happerfield, Lisa; Frayling, Ian M; van Minkelen, Rick; Woodward, Emma R; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Maher, Eamonn R

    Mendelian causes of inherited cancer susceptibility are mostly rare and characterized by variable expression and incomplete penetrance. Phenotypic variability may result from a range of causes including locus heterogeneity, allelic heterogeneity, genetic and environmental modifier effects, or...... chance. Another potential cause is the presence of 2 or more inherited cancer predisposition alleles in the same individual. Although the frequency of such occurrences might be predicted to be low, such cases have probably been underascertained because standard clinical practice has been to test...... candidate inherited cancer genes sequentially until a pathogenic mutation is detected. However, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies now provide the opportunity to perform simultaneous parallel testing of large numbers of inherited cancer genes. Herein we provide examples of patients...

  13. RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulds Joann M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant and non-functional RHD alleles are much more frequent in Africans than in Europeans. The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking. Results We surveyed the molecular structure and frequency of RHD alleles in Mali (West Africa by evaluating 116 haplotypes. Only 69% could be attributed to standard RHD (55% or the RHD deletion (14%. The aberrant RHD allele DAU-0 was predicted for 19%, RHDΨ for 7% and Ccdes for 4% of all haplotypes. DAU-3 and the new RHD allele RHD(L207F, dubbed DMA, were found in one haplotype each. A PCR-RFLP for the detection of the hybrid Rhesus box diagnostic for the RHD deletion in Europeans was false positive in 9 individuals, including all carriers of RHDΨ . Including two silent mutations and the RHD deletion, a total of 9 alleles could be differentiated. Conclusion Besides standard RHD and the RHD deletion, DAU-0, RHDΨ and Ccdes are major alleles in Mali. Our survey proved that the most frequent alleles of West Africans have been recognized allowing to devise reliable genotyping and phenotyping strategies.

  14. Structure of the SLC7A7 Gene and Mutational Analysis of Patients Affected by Lysinuric Protein Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Sperandeo, Maria Pia; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Riboni, Mirko; Parenti, Giancarlo; Buoninconti, Anna; Manzoni, Marta; Incerti, Barbara; Larocca, Maria Rosaria; Di Rocco, Maja; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Dianzani, Irma; Parini, Rossella; Candito, Miranda; Endo, Fumio; Ballabio, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive defect of cationic amino acid transport caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene. We report the genomic structure of the gene and the results of the mutational analysis in Italian, Tunisian, and Japanese patients. The SLC7A7 gene consists of 10 exons; sequences of all of the exon-intron boundaries are reported here. All of the mutant alleles were characterized and eight novel mutations were detected, including two missense mutati...

  15. Quantitative differences in adhesiveness of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli due to structural differences in fimH genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sokurenko, E V; Courtney, H S; Maslow, J; Siitonen, A.; Hasty, D L

    1995-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are heteropolymeric surface organelles responsible for the D-mannose-sensitive (MS) adhesion of Escherichia coli. We recently reported that variation of receptor specificity of type 1 fimbriae can result solely from minor alterations in the structure of the gene for the FimH adhesin subunit. To further study the relationship between allelic variation of the fimH gene and adhesive properties of type 1 fimbriae, the fimH genes from five additional strains were cloned and used to...

  16. Genetic variation at selected SNPs in the leptin gene and association of alleles with markers of kidney disease in a Xhosa population of South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechi G Okpechi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a significant public health problem that leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD with as many as 2 million people predicted to need therapy worldwide by 2010. Obesity is a risk factor for CKD and leptin, the obesity hormone, correlates with body fat mass and markers of renal function. A number of clinical and experimental studies have suggested a link between serum leptin and kidney disease. We hypothesised that variants in the leptin gene (LEP may be associated with markers of CKD in indigenous black Africans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Black South Africans of Xhosa (distinct cultural Bantu-speaking population descent were recruited for the study and four common polymorphisms of the LEP (rs7799039, rs791620, rs2167270 and STS-U43653 [ENSSNP5824596] were analysed for genotype and haplotype association with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, Serum creatinine (Scr and serum leptin level. In one of the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs we examined, an association with the renal phenotypes was observed. Hypertensive subjects with the T allele (CT genotype of the ENSSNP5824596 SNP had a significantly higher eGFR (p = 0.0141, and significantly lower Scr (p = 0.0137. This was confirmed by haplotype analysis. Also, the haplotype GAAC had a modest effect on urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in normotensive subjects (p = 0.0482. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that genetic variations of the LEP may be associated with phenotypes that are markers of CKD in black Africans.

  17. Frequency of the allelic variant c.1150T > C in exon 10 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 gene is not increased in patients with pathogenic mutations and related chondrodysplasia phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiane Yoshie Kanazawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the FGFR3 gene cause the phenotypic spectrum of FGFR3 chondrodysplasias ranging from lethal forms to the milder phenotype seen in hypochondroplasia (Hch. The p.N540K mutation in the FGFR3 gene occurs in ~70% of individuals with Hch, and nearly 30% of individuals with the Hch phenotype have no mutations in the FGFR3, which suggests genetic heterogeneity. The identification of a severe case of Hch associated with the typical mutation c.1620C > A and the occurrence of a c.1150T > C change that resulted in a p.F384L in exon 10, together with the suspicion that this second change could be a modulator of the phenotype, prompted us to investigate this hypothesis in a cohort of patients. An analysis of 48 patients with FGFR3 chondrodysplasia phenotypes and 330 healthy (control individuals revealed no significant difference in the frequency of the C allele at the c.1150 position (p = 0.34. One patient carrying the combination `pathogenic mutation plus the allelic variant c.1150T > C' had a typical achondroplasia (Ach phenotype. In addition, three other patients with atypical phenotypes showed no association with the allelic variant. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis of a modulatory role for the c.1150T > C change in the FGFR3 gene.

  18. GeneNet: a database on structure and functional organisation of gene networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ananko, E A; Podkolodny, N. L.; Stepanenko, I. L.; Ignatieva, E. V.; Podkolodnaya, O. A.; Kolchanov, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The GeneNet database is designed for accumulation of information on gene networks. Original technology applied in GeneNet enables description of not only a gene network structure and functional relationships between components, but also metabolic and signal transduction pathways. Specialised software, GeneNet Viewer, automatically displays the graphical diagram of gene networks described in the database. Current release 3.0 of GeneNet database contains descriptions of 25 gene networks, 945 pr...

  19. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.starska@umed.lodz.pl [I Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcinskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź (Poland); Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 142/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Olszewski, Jurek [II Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź (Poland); Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Łódź, Paderewskiego 4, 93-509 Łódź (Poland); Aleksandrowicz, Paweł [Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin (Poland); Lewy-Trenda, Iwona [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Łódź, Pomorska 251, 92-213 Łódź (Poland); and others

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.

  20. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels

  1. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Soderlund

    Full Text Available Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor, where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense, and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available

  2. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.;

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular...

  3. Two amino acid substitutions in apolipoprotein B are in complete allelic association with the antigen group (x/y) polymorphism: Evidence for little recombination in the 3 prime end of the human gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, A.M.; Renges, H.H.; Xu, Chunfang; Peacock, R.; Humphries, S.E.; Talmud, P.; Laxer, G. (Bickbeck Coll., London (England)); Brasseur, R. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)); Tikkanen, M.J. (Univ. of Helsinki (Switzerland)); Buetler, R. (Swiss Red Cross, Berne (Switzerland)); Saha, N. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)); Hamsten, A. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosseneu, M. (A.Z. St-Jan, Brugge (Belgium))

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the identification of an A-to-G base change, in exon 29 of the apolipoprotein B (apo B) gene, that results in the substitution of serine for asparagine at residue 4,311 of mature apo B100. In a recent publication, Huang et al. have reported a C-to-T base change in exon 26 that causes the substitution of leucine for proline at residue 2712 of apo B. The authors have found complete linkage disequilibrium between the alleles at both these sites and an immunochemical polymorphism of LDL designated antigen group (x/y) (Ag(x/y)) in a sample of 118 Finnish individuals. This implies that either one of these substitutions - or both of them combined - could be the molecular basis of the Ag(x/y) antigenic determinants, with the allele encoding serine{sub 4311} plus leucine{sub 2,712} representing the Ag(x) epitope, and that encoding asparagine{sub 4,311} plus proline{sub 2,712} the Ag(y) epitope. In a sample of 90 healthy Swedish individuals the Leu{sub 2,712}/Ser{sub 4,311} allele is associated both with reduced serum levels of LDL cholesterol and apo B and with raised levels of HDL. They have also genotyped 523 individuals from European, Asian, Chinese, and Afro-Caribbean populations and have found complete association between the sites encoding residues 2,712 and 4,311 in all of these samples, although there are large allele frequency differences between these populations. Taken together, these data suggest that, since the divergence of the major ethnic groups, there has been little or no recombination in the 3' end of the human apo B gene.

  4. Distribution of the CCR5delta32 allele (gene variant CCR5) in Rondônia, Western Amazonian region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Josileide Duarte; Santos, Marlene Guimarães; de França, Andonai Krauze; Delani, Daniel; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Casseb, Almeida Andrade; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; Engracia, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Since around 1723, on the occasion of its initial colonization by Europeans, Rondonia has received successive waves of immigrants. This has been further swelled by individuals from northeastern Brazil, who began entering at the beginning of the twentieth century. The ethnic composition varies across the state according to the various sites of settlement of each wave of immigrants. We analyzed the frequency of the CCR5Δ32 allele of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, which is considered a Caucasian marker, in five sample sets from the population. Four were collected in Porto Velho, the state capital and the site of several waves of migration. Of these, two, from the Hospital de Base were comprised of HB Mothers and HB Newborns presenting allele frequencies of 3.5% and 3.1%, respectively, a third from the peri-urban neighborhoods of Candelária/Bate-Estaca (1.8%), whereas a fourth, from the Research Center on Tropical Medicine/CEPEM (0.6%), was composed of malaria patients under treament. The fifth sample (3.4%) came from the inland Quilombola village of Pedras Negras. Two homozygous individuals (CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32) were detected among the HB Mother samples. The frequency of this allele was heterogeneous and higher where the European inflow was more pronounced. The presence of the allele in Pedras Negras revealed European miscegenation in a community largely comprising Quilombolas. PMID:22481870

  5. Distribution of the CCR5delta32 allele (gene variant CCR5 in Rondônia, Western Amazonian region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josileide Duarte de Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since around 1723, on the occasion of its initial colonization by Europeans, Rondonia has received successive waves of immigrants. This has been further swelled by individuals from northeastern Brazil, who began entering at the beginning of the twentieth century. The ethnic composition varies across the state according to the various sites of settlement of each wave of immigrants. We analyzed the frequency of the CCR5L32 allele of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, which is considered a Caucasian marker, in five sample sets from the population. Four were collected in Porto Velho, the state capital and the site of several waves of migration. Of these, two, from the Hospital de Base were comprised of HB Mothers and HB Newborns presenting allele frequencies of 3.5% and 3.1%, respectively, a third from the peri-urban neighborhoods of Candelária/Bate-Estaca (1.8%, whereas a fourth, from the Research Center on Tropical Medicine/CEPEM (0.6%, was composed of malaria patients under treament. The fifth sample (3.4% came from the inland Quilombola village of Pedras Negras. Two homozygous individuals (CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 were detected among the HB Mother samples. The frequency of this allele was heterogeneous and higher where the European inflow was more pronounced. The presence of the allele in Pedras Negras revealed European miscegenation in a community largely comprising Quilombolas.

  6. Limited evidence for adaptive evolution and functional effect of allelic variation at rs702424 in the promoter of the TAS2R16 bitter taste receptor gene in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Ranciaro, Alessia; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Rawlings-Goss, Renata; Hirbo, Jibril; Thompson, Simon; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Froment, Alain; Omar, Sabah A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Belay, Gurja; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A S; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-06-01

    Bitter taste perception, mediated by receptors encoded by the TAS2R loci, has important roles in human health and nutrition. Prior studies have demonstrated that nonsynonymous variation at site 516 in the coding exon of TAS2R16, a bitter taste receptor gene on chromosome 7, has been subject to positive selection and is strongly correlated with differences in sensitivity to salicin, a bitter anti-inflammatory compound, in human populations. However, a recent study suggested that the derived G-allele at rs702424 in the TAS2R16 promoter has also been the target of recent selection and may have an additional effect on the levels of salicin bitter taste perception. Here, we examined alleles at rs702424 for signatures of selection using Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH) and FST statistics in diverse populations from West Central, Central and East Africa. We also performed a genotype-phenotype analysis of salicin sensitivity in a subset of 135 individuals from East Africa. Based on our data, we did not find evidence for positive selection at rs702424 in African populations, suggesting that nucleotide position 516 is likely the site under selection at TAS2R16. Moreover, we did not detect a significant association between rs702424 alleles and salicin bitter taste recognition, implying that this site does not contribute to salicin phenotypic variance. Overall, this study of African diversity provides further information regarding the genetic architecture and evolutionary history of a biologically-relevant trait in humans. PMID:24785689

  7. Limited Evidence for Adaptive Evolution and Functional Effect of Allelic Variation at rs702424 in the Promoter of the TAS2R16 Bitter Taste Receptor Gene in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C.; Ranciaro, Alessia; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Rawlings-Goss, Renata; Hirbo, Jibril; Thompson, Simon; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Froment, Alain; Omar, Sabah A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Belay, Gurja; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A.S.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste perception, mediated by receptors encoded by the TAS2R loci, plays important roles in human health and nutrition. Prior studies have demonstrated that nonsynonymous variation at site 516 in the coding exon of TAS2R16, a bitter taste receptor gene on chromosome 7, has been subject to positive selection and is strongly correlated with differences in sensitivity to salicin, a bitter anti-inflammatory compound, in human populations. However, a recent study suggested that the derived G-allele at rs702424 in the TAS2R16 promoter has also been the target of recent selection and may have an additional effect on levels of salicin bitter taste perception. Here, we examined alleles at rs702424 for signatures of selection using Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH) and FST statistics in 44 diverse populations from West Central, Central and East Africa. We also performed a genotype-phenotype analysis of salicin sensitivity in a subset of 135 individuals from East Africa. Based on our data, we did not find evidence for positive selection at rs702424 in African populations, suggesting that site 516 is likely the variant under selection at TAS2R16. Additionally, we did not detect a significant association between rs702424 alleles and salicin bitter taste recognition, implying that this site does not contribute to salicin phenotypic variance. Overall, this study of African diversity provides further information regarding the genetic architecture and evolutionary history of a biologically-relevant trait in humans. PMID:24785689

  8. [Analysis of the structure and expression of the cluster of Drosophila melanogaster genes DIP1, CG32500, CG32819, and CG14476 in the flamenco gene region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, M V; Nefedova, L N; Kim, A I

    2009-10-01

    The flamenco gene controlling transpositions of the gypsy retrovirus is localized in the 20A1-3 region, in which eight open reading frames organized in a cluster were discovered: DIP1, three repeats of CG32500 and CG32819, and CG14476. Analysis of the genes composing the cluster indicates that their transcription in Drosophila melanogaster is a stage-specific process. Comparison of the expression of these genes in the strains OreR, SS, and MS having the flamenco phenotype and in the strain 413 having the flamenco+ phenotype revealed differences only for the DIP1 gene, transcription of this gene being altered only in the OreR strain. Thus, mutant flamenco alleles are differently expressed in different strains. The structural organization of the flamenco gene region was studied in different Drosophila species: D. sechellia, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, D. yakuba, D. erecta, D. virilis, D. ananassae, D. grimshawi, and D. pseudoobscura. The genes of the cluster were found to be highly conserved in genomes of different species, but in none of them, except D. sechellia, the structural organization of the region repeats the structure of the D. melanogaster cluster. PMID:19947543

  9. Compensatory Aspects of Allele Diversity at Immunoglobulin Loci: Gene Correlations in Rabbit Populations Devoid of Light Chain Diversity (Oryctolagus Cuniculus L.; Kerguelen Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    van-der-Loo, W.; Bousses, P.; ARTHUR, C. P.; Chapuis, J L

    1996-01-01

    Is there a selective advantage of increased diversity at one immunoglobulin locus when diversity at another locus is low? A previous paper demonstrated excess heterozygosity at the rabbit light chain b locus when heterozygosity was low at the heavy chain constant region e locus. Here we consider the reverse situation by analyzing allele distributions at heavy chain loci in populations fixed for the light chain b locus. We analyzed the a locus that encodes the predominantly expressed heavy cha...

  10. Carriage of the V279F null allele within the gene encoding Lp-PLA₂ is protective from coronary artery disease in South Korean males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsoo Jang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asia-specific PLA2G7 994G-T transversion leads to V279F substitution within the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2 (Lp-PLA₂ and to absence of enzyme activity in plasma. This variant offers a unique natural experiment to assess the role of Lp-PLA₂ in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD in humans. Given conflicting results from mostly small studies, a large two-stage case-control study was warranted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PLA2G7 V279F genotypes were initially compared in 2890 male cases diagnosed with CAD before age 60 with 3128 male controls without CAD at age 50 and above and subsequently in a second independent male dataset of 877 CAD cases and 1230 controls. In the first dataset, the prevalence of the 279F null allele was 11.5% in cases and 12.8% in controls. After adjustment for age, body mass index, diabetes, smoking, glucose and lipid levels, the OR (95% CI for CAD for this allele was 0.80 (0.66-0.97, p = 0.02. The results were very similar in the second dataset, despite lower power, with an allele frequency of 11.2% in cases and 12.5% in controls, leading to a combined OR of 0.80 (0.69-0.92, p = 0.002. The magnitude and direction of this genetic effect were fully consistent with large epidemiological studies on plasma Lp-PLA₂ activity and CAD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Natural deficiency in Lp-PLA₂ activity due to carriage of PLA2G7 279F allele protects from CAD in Korean men. These results provide evidence for a causal relationship between Lp-PLA₂ and CAD, and support pharmacological inhibition of this enzyme as an innovative way to prevent CAD.

  11. Isolation and characterization of new alleles of the cyclin-dependent kinase gene CDC28 with cyclin-specific functional and biochemical defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, K; Oehlen, L J; Cross, F R

    1998-01-01

    The G1 cyclin Cln2 negatively regulates the mating-factor pathway. In a genetic screen to identify factors required for this regulation, we identified an allele of CDC28 (cdc28-csr1) that blocked this function of Cln2. Cln2 immunoprecipitated from cdc28-csr1 cells was completely defective in histone H1 kinase activity, due to defects in Cdc28 binding and activation by Cln2. In contrast, Clb2-associated H1 kinase and Cdc28 binding was normal in immunoprecipitates from these cells. cdc28-csr1 was significantly deficient in other aspects of genetic interaction with Cln2. The cdc28-csr1 mutation was determined to be Q188P, in the T loop distal to most of the probable Cdk-cyclin interaction regions. We performed random mutagenesis of CDC28 to identify additional alleles incapable of causing CLN2-dependent mating-factor resistance but capable of complementing cdc28 temperature-sensitive and null alleles. Two such mutants had highly defective Cln2-associated kinase, but, surprisingly, two other mutants had levels of Cln2-associated kinase near to wild-type levels. We performed a complementary screen for CDC28 mutants that could cause efficient Cln2-dependent mating-factor resistance but not complement a cdc28 null allele. Most such mutants were found to alter residues essential for kinase activity; the proteins had little or no associated kinase activity in bulk or in association with Cln2. Several of these mutants also functioned in another assay for CLN2-dependent function not involving the mating-factor pathway, complementing the temperature sensitivity of a cln1 cln3 cdc28-csr1 strain. These results could indicate that Cln2-Cdc28 kinase activity is not directly relevant to some CLN2-mediated functions. Mutants of this sort should be useful in differentiating the function of Cdc28 complexed with different cyclin regulatory subunits. PMID:9418876

  12. 重庆地区汉族人群HLA-DRB1等位基因多态性研究%HLA-DRB1 allele gene polymorphisms of the Han population in Chongqing district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁一; 陈立; 李滨; 杨武晨; 章金勇; 毛旭虎; 吴超; 邹全明

    2012-01-01

    This study designed to investigate HLA-DRB1 allele frequency and polymorphism of Han population in Chongqing district Polymerase chain reaction-sequence based typing (PCR-SBT) was used to detect gene-types and polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1 allele in 190 Han individuals in Chongqing. Total of 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles and 20 allele genotypes were detected in 190 samples. The allele frequency of HLA-DRB 1*09:01 (29.1%) was the highest among these alleles, then HLA-DRB 1*04:05 (12.2%), HLA-DRB 1*08:03 (9.3%). HLA-DRB1*12:01, 12:02, 14:05 and 15:02 were the lowest alleles (1.26% respectively). In addition, There was no difference in allele frequency between male and female individuals. The method of HLA-DRB 1 genotyping with PCR-SBT was successfully established. We found that the HLA-DRB 1 alleles were highly polymorphic in Chongqing district which will be a convincing evidence for the study of the association between genetic factors and disease.%目的 了解中国重庆地区汉族人群人类白细胞抗原HLA-DRB1基因多态性及其分布特点.方法 应用自行建立的聚合酶链式反应-测序为基础的分型方法(PCR-SBT)对190例重庆地区汉族人群进行HLA-DRB1基因分型和多态性分析.结果 共检测出13种HLA-DRB1等位基因,20种等位基因型.其中,HLA-DRB1*09:01(29.1%)等位基因频率最高,其次为HLA-DRB1*04:05(12.2%)、HLA-DRB1*08:03 (9.3%),基因频率最低的是HLA-DRB1*12:01、HLA-DRB1*12:02、HLA-DRB1*14:05和HLA-DRB1*15:02,各占1.26%.此外,检出的20种HLA-DRB1等位基因型在男女性别间无显著差异.结论 成功建立并优化了HLA-DRB1的PCR-SBT基因分型方法;重庆地区汉族人群HLA-DRB1等位基因呈现多态性,为群体遗传和疾病关联的研究提供了可靠的遗传学数据.

  13. Somatic mutations, allele loss, and DNA methylation of the Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1 gene reveals association with early age of diagnosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Y Shull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1 gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 8, codes for a type I transmembrane protein whose function is currently unknown. CSMD1 expression is frequently lost in many epithelial cancers. Our goal was to characterize the relationships between CSMD1 somatic mutations, allele imbalance, DNA methylation, and the clinical characteristics in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: We sequenced the CSMD1 coding regions in 54 colorectal tumors using the 454FLX pyrosequencing platform to interrogate 72 amplicons covering the entire coding sequence. We used heterozygous SNP allele ratios at multiple CSMD1 loci to determine allelic balance and infer loss of heterozygosity. Finally, we performed methylation-specific PCR on 76 colorectal tumors to determine DNA methylation status for CSMD1 and known methylation targets ALX4, RUNX3, NEUROG1, and CDKN2A. RESULTS: Using 454FLX sequencing and confirming with Sanger sequencing, 16 CSMD1 somatic mutations were identified in 6 of the 54 colorectal tumors (11%. The nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation ratio of the 16 somatic mutations was 15:1, a ratio significantly higher than the expected 2:1 ratio (p = 0.014. This ratio indicates a presence of positive selection for mutations in the CSMD1 protein sequence. CSMD1 allelic imbalance was present in 19 of 37 informative cases (56%. Patients with allelic imbalance and CSMD1 mutations were significantly younger (average age, 41 years than those without somatic mutations (average age, 68 years. The majority of tumors were methylated at one or more CpG loci within the CSMD1 coding sequence, and CSMD1 methylation significantly correlated with two known methylation targets ALX4 and RUNX3. C:G>T:A substitutions were significantly overrepresented (47%, suggesting extensive cytosine methylation predisposing to somatic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Deep amplicon sequencing and methylation-specific PCR reveal that CSMD1

  14. Spatial Genetic Structure of Two HIV-I-resistant Polymorphisms (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A) Alleles in Population of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the spatial genetic structure of two HIV-I-resistant polymorphisms (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A) alleles in the population of Shandong Province, China. Methods Using the techniques of spatial stratified sampling and spatial statistics, the spatial genetic structure of the locus (CCR2-64Ⅰand SDF1-3'A), which was shown to be important co-receptor for HIV infection, was quantified from the populations of 36 sampled counties of Shandong Province, and a total of 3147 and 3172 samples were taken for testing CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A respectively from individuals without known history of HIV-I infection and AIDS symptoms. Results There were significantly spatial genetic structures of the two alleles at different spatial distance classes on the scale of populations, but on the scale of individuals, no spatial structure was found in either the whole area of Shandong Province or the area of each sampled county. Although the change of frequencies of the two alleles with geographic locations in Shandong Province both showed gradual increase trends, their changing directions were inverse. The frequency of CCR2-64I allele gradually increased from the southwest to the northeast, while the frequency of SDF1-3'A allele gradually increased from the northeast to the southwest. However the RH to AIDS of combined types of their different genotypes did not represent obvious geographic diversity on the whole area of the Province. Conclusion The frequency of allele usually has some spatial genetic structures or spatial autocorrelation with different spatial distance classes, but the genotypes of individuals have random distribution in the same geographic area. Evaluating spatial distribution of the genetic susceptibility of HIV (AIDS) to CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles, should focus on the frequencies of combined genotypes of CCR2 and SDF1 based on the two-locus genotypes of each individual rather than the frequencies of CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles.

  15. Structural allele-specific patterns adopted by epitopes in the MHC-I cleft and reconstruction of MHC:peptide complexes to cross-reactivity assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinler A Antunes

    Full Text Available The immune system is engaged in a constant antigenic surveillance through the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. This is an efficient mechanism for detection of intracellular infections, especially viral ones. In this work we describe conformational patterns shared by epitopes presented by a given MHC allele and use these features to develop a docking approach that simulates the peptide loading into the MHC cleft. Our strategy, to construct in silico MHC:peptide complexes, was successfully tested by reproducing four different crystal structures of MHC-I molecules available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB. An in silico study of cross-reactivity potential was also performed between the wild-type complex HLA-A2-NS31073 and nine MHC:peptide complexes presenting alanine exchange peptides. This indicates that structural similarities among the complexes can give us important clues about cross reactivity. The approach used in this work allows the selection of epitopes with potential to induce cross-reactive immune responses, providing useful tools for studies in autoimmunity and to the development of more comprehensive vaccines.

  16. Structure of two solanum tuberosum steroidal glycoalkaloid glycosyltransferase genes and expression of their promoters in transgenic potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sgt2 gene in potato encodes a solanidine glucosyltransferase and is present as two distinct alleles expressed in cultivated potatoes. Promoter regions upstream from both steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthetic gene alleles, Sgt2.1 and Sgt2.2, were isolated from Solanum tuberosum cv. Russet Burbank ...

  17. Transmission of an FMR1 premutation allele in a large family identified through newborn screening: the role of AGG interruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Mendoza-Morales, Guadalupe; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    The CGG repeat within the premutation range in the FMR1 gene can lead to neurodegenerative disorders and intellectual disabilities. An increase in size upon transmission from parent to child is more likely to occur for larger alleles and without AGG interruptions. We describe the molecular structure and the transmission of an FMR1 premutation allele in a multigenerational family, identified through newborn screening for fragile X syndrome. Transmission of the premutation allele was traced through 5 generations in 14 of the 23 individuals who were genotyped through cascade testing. Allele size instability during transmission was observed but no expansions to a full mutation were detected. Clinical and molecular characterizations of the participants lead to the diagnosis of FXTAS in one subject identified as a premutation carrier. A gradual small increase in the size of the premutation allele was observed during transmission through five generations. The relative stability is likely due to the presence of two AGGs within the allele. The detection of AGG interruptions within the premutation alleles is important in genetic counseling to better predict the risk of expansion during transmission from a premutation to a full mutation allele. PMID:23739124

  18. Structure of the human lipoprotein lipase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human genomic clones that span the entire lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene have been isolated and used to determine its structure. The gene is approximately 30 kilobase (kb) pairs in length in which the mRNA specifying sequence is divided into 10 exons. Exons 1-9 are of average size (105-276 bp) whereas exon 10, which specifies the entire 3' uncoding sequence, is 1,948 bp in length. Exon 1 codes for the signal peptide, exon 2 includes the protein domain that was shown to bind to the lipoprotein substrate, and exons 6 and 9 code for sequences that are relatively rich in basic amino acids and therefore likely to be involved in anchoring of the enzyme to the capillary endothelium by interaction with the acidic domain of heparan sulfate. Four closely spaced mRNA 5' termini were observed, indicating multiple transcription initiation sites, one of which seems to be favored. Two potential enhancer sequence motifs in the 5' upstream region were observed. One may specify expression in response to intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, and the other may be responsible for expression in adipocytes

  19. Excess of transmission of the G allele of the -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A receptor gene in patients with schizophrenia responsive to antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamon Michel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene has been found to be associated with clinical response to clozapine and other second generation antipsychotics. Testing the impact of this marker on response to first generation antipsychotics (which have a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor provides the opportunity to help disentangling the two different roles that this polymorphism might have. A psychopharmacogenetic role should be detected only for antipsychotics with high affinity to the 5-HT2A receptor (therefore to second generation antipsychotics. An alternative role would imply tagging a subgroup of patients responsive to any antipsychotic, whatever their affinity, meaning that the association is more depending on non pharmacological charaterictics, such as clinical specificities. Methods A family-based sample of 100 Algerian patients with schizophrenia (according to DSM-IV criteria and their 200 biological parents was recruited, in order to avoid stratification biases. Patients were all treated, or have been treated, by conventional antipsychotics (mainly haloperidol for at least four weeks, at appropriate dosage. May and Dencker scale was used to distinguish responders and non responders. Results No allele of the -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene was transmitted in excess (50 transmitted for 38 untransmitted in the whole sample of patients with schizophrenia (p = .90. In contrast, a significant excess of transmission of the G allele was observed (p = .02 in the subgroup of patients with good treatment response (17 transmitted for 6 untransmitted. Conclusion Using a TDT approach, we showed that the G allele of the -1438A/G polymorphism of the gene coding for the 5-HT2A receptor was associated to schizophrenia with good response to conventional antipsychotics, although this conclusion is based on 88 informative patients only. Because previous data showed the same result with atypical antipsychotics, it can be

  20. Isolation and Characterization of New Alleles of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Gene CDC28 with Cyclin-Specific Functional and Biochemical Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Kristi; Oehlen, L. J. W. M.; Cross, Frederick R.

    1998-01-01

    The G1 cyclin Cln2 negatively regulates the mating-factor pathway. In a genetic screen to identify factors required for this regulation, we identified an allele of CDC28 (cdc28-csr1) that blocked this function of Cln2. Cln2 immunoprecipitated from cdc28-csr1 cells was completely defective in histone H1 kinase activity, due to defects in Cdc28 binding and activation by Cln2. In contrast, Clb2-associated H1 kinase and Cdc28 binding was normal in immunoprecipitates from these cells. cdc28-csr1 w...

  1. Structure of HLA-A*0301 in complex with a peptide of proteolipid protein: insights into the role of HLA-A alleles in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Róisín M. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Friis, Lone [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom); Siebold, Christian [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Friese, Manuel A. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Falkenried 94, 20251 Hamburg (Germany); Fugger, Lars, E-mail: lars.fugger@imm.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby Sygehus, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 N Aarhus (Denmark); Jones, E. Yvonne, E-mail: lars.fugger@imm.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-01

    The structure of the human major histocompatability (MHC) class I molecule HLA-A*0301 (HLA-A3) in complex with a nonameric peptide (KLIETYFSK) has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.7 Å resolution. The structure of the human major histocompatability (MHC) class I molecule HLA-A*0301 (HLA-A3) in complex with a nonameric peptide (KLIETYFSK) has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.7 Å resolution. HLA-A3 is a predisposing allele for multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. The KLIETYFSK peptide is a naturally processed epitope of proteolipid protein, a myelin protein and candidate target for immune-mediated myelin destruction in MS. Comparison of the structure of HLA-A3 with that of HLA-A2, an MHC class I molecule which is protective against MS, indicates that both MHC class I molecules present very similar faces for T-cell receptor recognition whilst differing in the specificity of their peptide-binding grooves. These characteristics may underlie the opposing (predisposing versus protective) associations that they exhibit both in humans and in mouse models of MS-like disease. Furthermore, subtle alterations within the peptide-binding groove of HLA-A3 and other A3-like MHC class I molecules, members of the so-called A3 superfamily, may be sufficient to alter their presentation of autoantigen peptides such as KLIETYFSK. This in turn may modulate their contribution to the associated risk of autoimmune disease.

  2. Microsatellite Variation in Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Populations: Hierarchical Genetic Structure and Test of the Infinite Allele and Stepwise Mutation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Estoup, A.; Garnery, L.; Solignac, M.; Cornuet, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Samples from nine populations belonging to three African (intermissa, scutellata and capensis) and four European (mellifera, ligustica, carnica and cecropia) Apis mellifera subspecies were scored for seven microsatellite loci. A large amount of genetic variation (between seven and 30 alleles per locus) was detected. Average heterozygosity and average number of alleles were significantly higher in African than in European subspecies, in agreement with larger effective population sizes in Afric...

  3. Structure and evolution of Apetala3, a sex-linked gene in Silene latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegan Radim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of sex chromosomes is often accompanied by gene or chromosome rearrangements. Recently, the gene AP3 was characterized in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia. It was suggested that this gene had been transferred from an autosome to the Y chromosome. Results In the present study we provide evidence for the existence of an X linked copy of the AP3 gene. We further show that the Y copy is probably located in a chromosomal region where recombination restriction occurred during the first steps of sex chromosome evolution. A comparison of X and Y copies did not reveal any clear signs of degenerative processes in exon regions. Instead, both X and Y copies show evidence for relaxed selection compared to the autosomal orthologues in S. vulgaris and S. conica. We further found that promoter sequences differ significantly. Comparison of the genic region of AP3 between the X and Y alleles and the corresponding autosomal copies in the gynodioecious species S. vulgaris revealed a massive accumulation of retrotransposons within one intron of the Y copy of AP3. Analysis of the genomic distribution of these repetitive elements does not indicate that these elements played an important role in the size increase characteristic of the Y chromosome. However, in silico expression analysis shows biased expression of individual domains of the identified retroelements in male plants. Conclusions We characterized the structure and evolution of AP3, a sex linked gene with copies on the X and Y chromosomes in the dioecious plant S. latifolia. These copies showed complementary expression patterns and relaxed evolution at protein level compared to autosomal orthologues, which suggests subfunctionalization. One intron of the Y-linked allele was invaded by retrotransposons that display sex-specific expression patterns that are similar to the expression pattern of the corresponding allele, which suggests that these transposable elements

  4. Divergence of exonic splicing elements after gene duplication and the impact on gene structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhenguo; Zhou, Li; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xianfeng; Hu, Landian; Kong, Xiangyin

    2009-01-01

    Background The origin of new genes and their contribution to functional novelty has been the subject of considerable interest. There has been much progress in understanding the mechanisms by which new genes originate. Here we examine a novel way that new gene structures could originate, namely through the evolution of new alternative splicing isoforms after gene duplication. Results We studied the divergence of exonic splicing enhancers and silencers after gene duplication and the contributio...

  5. Diversity of Lactase Persistence Alleles in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, BL; Raga, TO; Liebert, Anke;

    2013-01-01

    The persistent expression of lactase into adulthood in humans is a recent genetic adaptation that allows the consumption of milk from other mammals after weaning. In Europe, a single allele (−13910∗T, rs4988235) in an upstream region that acts as an enhancer to the expression of the lactase gene ...

  6. Studies on recombination between allele in the ml-o locus of barley and on pleiotropic effects of the alleles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five independently arisen genes, which are functionally allelic in the m1-o locus and conditioning resistance to the powdery mildew fungus, were tested for structural allelism by recombination. Two heteroallelic crosses produced susceptible recombinants in F2 with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.0 x 10-4, respectively, showing that m1-o 1 is structurally non-allelic to m1-o 5 and to m1-o 9. Homozygous resistant populations derived from crossing different m1-o resistant barleys with susceptible varieties were exposed to two successive cycles of selection against necrotic leaf spotting. Field experiments with selected F5 lines and their parents showed that the m1-o resistant parents differed in severity of spotting, and that the spotting can be reduced or eliminated by crossing and subsequent selection. It appears that a reduction in the necrotic leaf spotting is accopanied by an increase in grain yield. Two new experiments designed to further elucidate the interallelic recombination in m1-o and the pleiotropic effects are briefly described. (author)

  7. Association and linkage studies of the TAQI A1 allele at the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene in samples of female and male alcoholics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiswanger, K.; Hill, S.Y.; Kaplan, B.B. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    To address the controversy surrounding DRD2 and alcoholism, we performed linkage and association studies utilizing alcoholic men from high density families largely uncontaminated by other psychopathology and female alcoholics for whom secondary drug dependence (averaging 10 years later onset) was a prominent feature. The males and females were combined for a total of 52 alcoholics, and compared to 30 controls screened for the absence of alcoholism and other psychopathology, revealing a significant association between the frequency of the TaqI allele and alcoholism. However, linkage and family-based association study, placed in the context of the literature, suggest that minimizing psychopathology in control groups is probably a more important explanation for divergent results than either sampling error or population stratification. When combined with the complete lack of within-family evidence, we conclude that the association, while not specific to the alcoholism phenotype, per se. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Structure and sequence variation of mink interleukin-6 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sequencing of the 20 mink and genotyping of an additional 82 animals from the five colour types. Only two intronic SNP were segregating at high frequencies, indicating that the level of polymorphisms in the mink IL-6 gene was low. A bi-allelic tetranucleotide repeat was detected in the promoter region, with the frequency of 0.0, 0.17, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.40 in the wild, black, pastel, brown and sapphire mink, respectively, suggesting that this locus may influence immune response to infection. A polymorphic (CA)16 with 10 alleles was also detected in intron 2. (author)

  9. Identification of a key recombinant narrows the CADASIL gene region to 8 cM and argues against allelism of CADASIL and familial hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dichgans, M.; Mayer, M.; Straube, A. [Univ. of Munich (Germany)] [and others

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on new information regarding the genetic mapping of the human CADASIL gene region. Previously, the gene had been mapped to human chromosome 19q12. Using the identification of a chromosomal crossover, the region has been refined to an 8-cM interval. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Influence of the Epsilon4 Allele of the Apolipoprotein E Gene on Childhood IQ, Nonverbal Reasoning in Old Age, and Lifetime Cognitive Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; St. Clair, David; Breen, Gerome; Leaper, Steve; Lemmon, Helen; Hayward, Caroline; Starr, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the influence of apolipoprotein E gene states on three cognitive outcomes in 173 people at age 11 and in the same people at age 77 and examined the change in IQ between these ages. There was no significant main effect of gene status on IQ in youth or old age, nor in cognitive change across the lifespan. (SLD)

  11. Complete sequencing of an IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-5 allele reveals an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Krishnaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to perform molecular characterisation of the blaNDM plasmids and to understand the mechanism of its spread among pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six non-repetitive carbapenem-resistant isolates which were collected during Nov 2011 to April 2013 from four hospitals in Chennai were analyzed for the presence of the blaNDM gene by PCR. Further, the genetic context of the blaNDM gene was analyzed by PCR specific to ISAba125 and bleMBL gene. One of the blaNDM plasmid was completely sequenced in the Illumina HiSeq platform. Results: Twenty-three isolates consisting of 8 Escherichia coli, 8 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Klebsiella oxytoca, 3 Acinetobacter baumanii and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to carry the blaNDM gene. In 18 isolates the blaNDM gene was associated with a bleMBL gene and the ISAba125 element. The complete sequencing of pNDM-MGR194 revealed an IncX3 replication type plasmid, with a length of 46,253 bp, an average GC content of 47% and 59 putative ORFs. The iteron region contained the blaNDM5 gene and the bleMBL , trpF and dsbC genes downstream and an IS5 inserted within the ISAba125 element upstream. Conclusion: This is the first report where the blaNDM gene insertion in a plasmid is not accompanied by other resistance gene determinants. These observations suggest that the IncX3 plasmid pNDM-MGR194 is an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM .

  12. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  13. Structure of the human interleukin 2 gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, T.; Takaoka, C; Matsui, H.; Taniguchi, T.

    1983-01-01

    We have cloned two species of EcoRI-cleaved DNA segments that together cover the entire sequence for the human interleukin 2 gene and have determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene and its flanking regions. The gene contains three introns and the exon sequences can be aligned with the previously reported cDNA sequence almost perfectly except for a few nucleotides in the 3' nontranslated region. The promoter region contains a prototype "TATA" sequence as well as a notable palindromic sequ...

  14. Allele Frequency–Based and Polymorphism-Versus-Divergence Indices of Balancing Selection in a New Filtered Set of Polymorphic Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Ochola, Lynette Isabella; Tetteh, Kevin K. A.; Stewart, Lindsay B.; Riitho, Victor; Marsh, Kevin; Conway, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Signatures of balancing selection operating on specific gene loci in endemic pathogens can identify candidate targets of naturally acquired immunity. In malaria parasites, several leading vaccine candidates convincingly show such signatures when subjected to several tests of neutrality, but the discovery of new targets affected by selection to a similar extent has been slow. A small minority of all genes are under such selection, as indicated by a recent study of 26 Plasmodium falciparum mero...

  15. Analysis of the population structure of Uruguayan Creole cattle as inferred from milk major gene polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rincón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancestors of Uruguayan Creole cattle were introduced by the Spanish conquerors in the XVII century, following which the population grew extensively and became semi-feral before the introduction of selected breeds. Today the Uruguayan Creole cattle genetic reserve consists of 575 animals. We used the tetra primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR to analyze the kappa-casein, beta-casein, alphaS1-casein and alpha-lactoalbumin gene polymorphisms and restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR for the beta-lactoglobulin and the acylCoA:diacyl glycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 genes. The kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin genes presented very similar A and B allele frequencies, while the alphas1-casein and alpha-lactoalbumin gene B alleles showed much higher frequencies than the corresponding A alleles. The beta-casein B allele was not found in the population sampled. There was a very high frequency of the DGAT1 gene A allele which is associated with low milk fat content and high milk yield. All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the level of heterozygosity agreed with the high genetic diversity observed in a previous analysis of this population. Preservation of the allelic richness observed in the Uruguayan Creole cattle should be considered for future dairy management and livestock genetic improvement. The results also emphasize the value of the tetra primers ARMS-PCR technique as a rapid, easy and economical way of genotyping cattle breeds for milk gene single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  16. Structural gene for beta-nerve growth factor not defective in familial dysautonomia.

    OpenAIRE

    Breakefield, X O; Orloff, G; Castiglione, C; Coussens, L.; Axelrod, F. B.; Ullrich, A

    1984-01-01

    The developmental loss of neurons in sympathetic, sensory, and some parasympathetic ganglia in familial dysautonomia suggests an inherited defect in the action of beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF). The role of this growth factor in dysautonomia has been difficult to resolve as there is no known source of authentic human beta-NGF. The availability of a cloned DNA probe for the human beta-NGF gene has allowed identification of some copies of the gene (alleles) in six affected families. Allele...

  17. Random survey for RH allele polymorphism among 50 native Tibetans

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Qing

    2006-01-01

    Rhesus D (RHD) allele distribution varied significantly among different population. However, no data are available for people, like Tibetans, living at extreme altitudes, where the oxygen density is decreased. A comprehensive study has been performed to define the Rhesus (RH) allele polymorphism and RH haplotype distribution in 50 native Tibetans. Nucleotide sequencing from genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for 10 Rhesus D gene (RHD) exons in all of 50 samples plus 10 Rhesus CE gene (RHCE) ...

  18. MHC-DAB allele polymorphism in Japanese flounders Paralichthys olivaceus

    OpenAIRE

    XU Tian-Jun; Chen, Song-Lin; Tian, Yong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex DAB gene in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using sequences analysis. In this study, 24 individuals were selected to amplify partial exon1 and intron2, complete intron1 and exon2 of DAB gene. 131 sequences were subsequently used to analyze genetic variation and revealed 31 different sequences, which presented 31 novel alleles belonging to 19 allele major types according to accepted nomenclature rules. Frequency o...

  19. Investigation of lethal and mutagenetic effects of UV-light on Salmonella currying wild and mutant alleles of lex A gene of Escherichia coli in the Salmonella genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inheritance of LexA-gene of Escherichia coli- by Salmonella takes place during intergeneric trunsduction cross of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The presence of LexA-E. coli gene-did not eliminate earlier revealed peculiarity consisting in the absence of UV-induced mutagenesis in most of studied salmonollosis strains. So it is shown that the absence of UV mutagenesis in Salmonella does not result from mutation in LexA-gene. Inheritance of pKM101 by LexA-hybrid provides pronounced UV mutability and protective effect. Inheritance of this plasmid by LexA-hybrid did not result in the appearance of capability for UV-induced mutagenesis and improving UV resistance of bacteria. Thus the plasmids effect on repair and mutagenesis in Salmonella, the same as in E. coli, reveals in LexA-phenotype

  20. A functional polymorphism in the Eta-1 promoter is associated with allele specific binding to the transcription factor Sp1 and elevated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, Tina; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O; Odum, Niels; Svejgaard, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Early T lymphocyte activator 1 (Eta-1), also known as Osteopontin, is a cytokine produced by macrophages and T lymphocytes. It is involved in the regulation of IL-12 and IL-10 expression in macrophages and stimulates the polarization of T cells to the Th1 subset. Three promoter polymorphisms of the...... human Eta-1 gene, -443T/C, -156delG/G, -66T/G, were investigated for possible influence on gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with nuclear extract from the human myeloid leukaemia premonocyte cell line, THP-1, revealed sequence specific binding of the transcription factor Sp1...

  1. Chromatin structure near transcriptionally active genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypersensitive domains are the most prominent features of transcriptionally active chromatin. In the case of the β/sup A/-globin gene, it seems likely that two or more protein factors are capable of binding to the DNA so tightly that the nucleosome is prevented from binding. We have shown that nucleosomes, once bound in the assembly process in vitro, cannot be displaced. The interaction of the 5S gene transcription factor TFIIIA with its target DNA also is blocked by histones, and it has been suggested that the activation of the gene must occur during replication, before histones are reassembled on the DNA. We suppose that a similar mechanism may govern the binding of the hypersensitivity factors. It should be noted that nucleosomes are excluded not only from the sites to which the factors bind, but also from the regions between the two domains and at either side. 12 refs., 6 figs

  2. Allele-specific PCR genotyping of the HSP70 gene polymorphism discriminating the green and red color variants sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Ha Kang; Ki Hwan Yu; Jung-Youn Park; Chul-Min An; Je-Cheon Jun; Sang-Jun Lee

    2011-01-01

    Color variation is a well-known feature of sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus),which are classified into three groups based on their colors of red,green and black.It is also one of the most important traits related to how they taste,and it thereby affects their market price.Attempts were made to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to analyze differences associated with SNP genotypes between green and red color variants using HSP70 as the target gene.The HSP70 gene,which is found universally in organisms from bacteria to humans,is one of the most evolutionarily conserved genes and the most widely studied biomarker of stress response.DNA fragments of 1074 bp covering a partial sequence of the sea cucumber HSP70 gene,were amplified from both red and green variants,and subsequently analyzed for the presence of SNPs.Twenty-seven polymorphic sites in total,including heterozygous sites,were observed.Of these,six sites were found to be significantly different SNP genotypes between green and red variants.Furthermore,PCR with an internal primer designed to include an allelespecific SNP at the 3' end (site 443) showed differentiation between the two variants,100% and 4.2% amplification in green and red variants,respectively.The validated SNPs may serve as informative genetic markers that can be used to distinguish variants at the early developmental stage,prior to color differentiation.

  3. Allelic imbalance at the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1 at 3p22-21.3) in various human tumor types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F; van den Berg, Anke; Kersemaekers, AM; CletonJansen, AM; Berx, G; VanderVeen, AY; Eichperger, C; Wieland, [No Value; DeGreve, J; Liefers, GJ; Xiao, WH; Buys, CHCM; Cornelisse, C; VanRoy, F

    1997-01-01

    beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein: it plays a central role in the cell-cell adhesive junctions, and participates in transduction of the morphogenic Wingless/Wnt-signal. Upon detailed analysis of the human beta-catenin gene, an intragenic polymorphic microsatellite marker could be identified.

  4. The alleles at the E1 locus impact the expression pattern of two soybean FT-like genes shown to induce flowering in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small gene family of phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP) has been shown to function as key regulators in flowering; inArabidopsis thaliana the FT protein promotes flowering whilst theclosely related TFL1 protein represses flowering. Control of flowering time in soybean [Glycine max ...

  5. 164Ile allele in the beta2-Adrenergic receptor gene is associated with risk of elevated blood pressure in women. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Amar A; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B;

    2005-01-01

    Since beta2-adrenergic receptors are important regulators of blood pressure, genetic variation in this receptor could explain risk of elevated blood pressure in selected individuals. We tested the hypothesis that Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene associated w...

  6. The small ribosomal protein S12P gene rpsL as an efficient positive selection marker in allelic exchange mutation systems for Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Kwon; Jeong, Weol Kyu; Lim, Seong Han; Hwang, In Kwan; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    We report that the mutant rpsL K43R in streptomycin-resistant and lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum is responsible for streptomycin resistance. In addition, we describe its effective application in gene modification in C. glutamicum. PMID:20951172

  7. Genotyping of the 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of beta-hydroxylase gene by dissociation analysis of allele-specific PCR products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We have developed a simple, reliable and inexpensive closed-tube assay for genotyping of this polymorphism based upon T(m) determination of amplified...

  8. Organization and structure of the mouse interleukin-2 gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuse, A; Fujita, T.; Yasumitsu, H; Kashima, N; Hasegawa, K; Taniguchi, T.

    1984-01-01

    We have cloned a chromosomal DNA segment which covers the entire sequence for the murine interleukin-2 gene and analysed the structure of the gene. The coding regions are separated into four blocks by three introns each of which is located similarly to the corresponding human gene. The exon sequences can be aligned perfectly with the previously cloned cDNA sequence. Of particular interests is the presence of sequences within the 5'-flanking region which are highly conserved between mouse and ...

  9. Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Lena S; Gutleb, Daria R; Hofer, Martin; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard; Steinborn, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Sequence variations in genes of the monoamine neurotransmitter system and their common function in human and non-human primate species are an ongoing issue of investigation. However, the COMT gene, coding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase, has not yet attracted much scientific attention regarding its functional role in non-human primates. Considering that a polymorphism of the human COMT gene affects the enzyme activity and cortisol level in response to a social stressor, this study investigated the impact of COMT on endocrine stress and behavioural parameters in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The species exemplifies a despotic hierarchy in which males' social rank positions require an adaptation of behaviour strategies. During the mating period steroid secretion and the frequency of aggressive encounters between males increase. We addressed i) whether this species exhibits potential functional COMT variants, ii) whether these variants are associated with faecal cortisol excretion of males, iii) how they are distributed among different social rank positions and iv) whether they are associated with behavioural strategies during times of mate competition. By genotyping 26 males we identified three COMT haplotypes (HT), including a putative splice mutant (HT3). This variant was associated with increased cortisol excretion. Given the observed inverse correlation between cortisol and physical aggression, we assume that different COMT haplotypes may predispose individuals to pursue more or less aggressive strategies. How these gene-stress effects might favour a specific social role is discussed. Our study of non-invasive genotyping in combination with behavioural and endocrine parameters represents an important step towards the understanding of gene-stress effects in a hierarchically organised primate society. PMID:26657779

  10. Comparative genomics of the relationship between gene structure and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the structure of genes and their expression is a relatively new aspect of genome organization and regulation. With more genome sequences and expression data becoming available, bioinformatics approaches can help the further elucidation of the relationships between gene struc

  11. Genetic Variation at Selected SNPs in the Leptin Gene and Association of Alleles with Markers of Kidney Disease in a Xhosa Population of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Okpechi, Ikechi G; Rayner, Brian L; Lize van der Merwe; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Adebowale Adeyemo; Nicki Tiffin; Rajkumar Ramesar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem that leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with as many as 2 million people predicted to need therapy worldwide by 2010. Obesity is a risk factor for CKD and leptin, the obesity hormone, correlates with body fat mass and markers of renal function. A number of clinical and experimental studies have suggested a link between serum leptin and kidney disease. We hypothesised that variants in the leptin gene (LEP) may...

  12. A TILLING allele of the tomato Aux/IAA9 gene offers new insights into fruit set mechanisms and perspectives for breeding seedless tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Cellini, Francesco; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed; Mila, Isabelle; Minoia, Silvia; Petrozza, Angelo; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Carriero, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is a desired trait in fruit crops; it enables fruit set under environmental conditions suboptimal for pollination, and seedless fruits represent a valuable consumer product. We employed TILLING-based screening of a mutant tomato population to find genetic lesions in Aux/IAA9, a negative regulator of the auxin response involved in the control of fruit set. We identified three mutations located in the coding region of this gene, including two singlebase substitutions and one singl...

  13. Identification of a cys-ser substitution in the 5-HT{sub 2C} (HTR2C) receptor gene and allelic association to violent behavior and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, J.; Ozaki, N.; Goldman, D. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain serotonergic functions, including behavioral and neurochemical responses to 5-HT{sub 2C} agonist, are abnormal in some individuals with alcoholism and aggressive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify coding sequence variants in the human 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor gene which may cause abnormal or variant function of this receptor. Using SSCP analysis, a non-conservative cys-ser substitution was found in the 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor (designated 5-HT{sub 2Ccys} and 5-HT{sub 2Cser}). The polymorphism was typed in CEPH families to genetically map the gene. To test for association of the variant to alcoholism, violent behavior and serotonin function, the 5-HT{sub 2C} genotypes of 151 non-related Finnish male alcoholic violent offenders and impulsive fire setters and 127 Finnish psychiatrically interviewed healthy male volunteers were determined. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were available for 74 alcoholic violent offenders and 25 healthy volunteers. Linkage analysis placed the 5-HT{sub 2C} gene on Xq21, a region that has been previously shown to contain genes for several mental retardation syndromes. The 5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} genotype frequencies in alcoholic violent offenders and controls differed significantly (0.90/0.10 and 0.82/0.18, respectively, P=0.048). The association was found to be strongest in the violent offenders who did not fulfill the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} 0.93/0.07, p=0.021). No association was found between CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and 5-HT{sub 2C} genotype. These results implicate a 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor amino acid substitution in predisposition to alcohol abuse and violent behavior in a subgroup of alcoholics.

  14. Are 'endurance' alleles 'survival' alleles? Insights from the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fiuza-Luces

    Full Text Available Exercise phenotypes have played a key role for ensuring survival over human evolution. We speculated that some genetic variants that influence exercise phenotypes could be associated with exceptional survival (i.e. reaching ≥100 years of age. Owing to its effects on muscle structure/function, a potential candidate is the Arg(R577Ter(X polymorphism (rs1815739 in ACTN3, the structural gene encoding the skeletal muscle protein α-actinin-3. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotype/allele frequencies between the following groups of ethnically-matched (Spanish individuals: centenarians (cases, n = 64; 57 female; age range: 100-108 years, young healthy controls (n = 283, 67 females, 216 males; 21±2 years, and humans who are at the two end-points of exercise capacity phenotypes, i.e. muscle endurance (50 male professional road cyclists and muscle power (63 male jumpers/sprinters. Although there were no differences in genotype/allele frequencies between centenarians (RR:28.8%; RX:47.5%; XX:23.7%, and controls (RR:31.8%; RX:49.8%; XX:18.4% or endurance athletes (RR:28.0%; RX:46%; XX:26.0%, we observed a significantly higher frequency of the X allele (P = 0.019 and XX genotype (P = 0.011 in centenarians compared with power athletes (RR:47.6%; RX:36.5%;XX:15.9%. Notably, the frequency of the null XX (α-actinin-3 deficient genotype in centenarians was the highest ever reported in non-athletic Caucasian populations. In conclusion, despite there were no significant differences with the younger, control population, overall the ACTN3 genotype of centenarians resembles that of world-class elite endurance athletes and differs from that of elite power athletes. Our preliminary data would suggest a certain 'survival' advantage brought about by α-actinin-3 deficiency and the 'endurance'/oxidative muscle phenotype that is commonly associated with this condition.

  15. Differences in the ability to suppress interferon β production between allele A and allele B NS1 proteins from H10 influenza A viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohari Siamak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our previous study concerning the genetic relationship among H10 avian influenza viruses with different pathogenicity in mink (Mustela vison, we found that these differences were related to amino acid variations in the NS1 protein. In this study, we extend our previous work to further investigate the effect of the NS1 from different gene pools on type I IFN promoter activity, the production of IFN-β, as well as the expression of the IFN-β mRNA in response to poly I:C. Results Using a model system, we first demonstrated that NS1 from A/mink/Sweden/84 (H10N4 (allele A could suppress an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE reporter system to about 85%. The other NS1 (allele B, from A/chicken/Germany/N/49 (H10N7, was also able to suppress the reporter system, but only to about 20%. The differences in the abilities of the two NS1s from different alleles to suppress the ISRE reporter system were clearly reflected by the protein and mRNA expressions of IFN-β as shown by ELISA and RT-PCR assays. Conclusions These studies reveal that different non-structural protein 1 (NS1 of influenza viruses, one from allele A and another from allele B, show different abilities to suppress the type I interferon β expression. It has been hypothesised that some of the differences in the different abilities of the alleles to suppress ISRE were because of the interactions and inhibitions at later stages from the IFN receptor, such as the JAK/STAT pathway. This might reflect the additional effects of the immune evasion potential of different NS1s.

  16. Detection of genomic mutations in katG, inhA and rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using polymerase chain reaction and multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Dokht Khosravi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Isoniazid (INH and rifampin (RIF are the most effective first line antibiotics against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations in several genes determine resistance of M. tuberculosis to INH, with the most common gene target of katG, and resistance to RIF is due to mutation in rpoB gene. The aim of present study was to assess the mutations in the regions related to RIF and INH resistance. METHODS: We characterized 80 clinical isolates of confirmed M. tuberculosis to analyze the most commonly observed INH and RIF mutations. PCR analysis and sequencing were used to detect mutations related to RIF and INH resistance. The multiplex allele-specific-PCR (MAS-PCR was performed as a comparative assay and for evaluation of this method. RESULTS: The sequencing of the 250-bp region of katG codon 315, revealed point mutations at 5 different codons in 13.7% of the M. tuberculosis isolates. The sequencing of the 270-bp central region of the rpoB gene revealed point mutations at 7 different codons in 12 (15% of the M. tuberculosis isolates. The results obtained with MAS-PCR are in accordance with PCR-sequencing with high sensitivity and specificity for katG315, inhA15, and rpoB (531, 516, 526. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested that molecular techniques can be used as a rapid tool for the identification of drug resistance in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Both DNA sequencing and MAS-PCR yielded high sensitivity for the detection of RIF and INH mutations and detecting multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases.

  17. Gene-based and semantic structure of the Gene Ontology as a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronnello, Claudia; Tumminello, Michele; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    The last decade has seen the advent and consolidation of ontology based tools for the identification and biological interpretation of classes of genes, such as the Gene Ontology. The Gene Ontology (GO) is constantly evolving over time. The information accumulated time-by-time and included in the GO is encoded in the definition of terms and in the setting up of semantic relations amongst terms. Here we investigate the Gene Ontology from a complex network perspective. We consider the semantic network of terms naturally associated with the semantic relationships provided by the Gene Ontology consortium. Moreover, the GO is a natural example of bipartite network of terms and genes. Here we are interested in studying the properties of the projected network of terms, i.e. a gene-based weighted network of GO terms, in which a link between any two terms is set if at least one gene is annotated in both terms. One aim of the present paper is to compare the structural properties of the semantic and the gene-based network. The relative importance of terms is very similar in the two networks, but the community structure changes. We show that in some cases GO terms that appear to be distinct from a semantic point of view are instead connected, and appear in the same community when considering their gene content. The identification of such gene-based communities of terms might therefore be the basis of a simple protocol aiming at improving the semantic structure of GO. Information about terms that share large gene content might also be important from a biomedical point of view, as it might reveal how genes over-expressed in a certain term also affect other biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components not directly linked according to GO semantics.

  18. Nanoscale structure of protamine/DNA complexes for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simona; Brocca, Paola; Del Favero, Elena; Rondelli, Valeria; Cantù, Laura; Amici, Augusto; Pozzi, Daniela; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the internal packing of gene carriers is a key-factor to realize both gene protection during transport and de-complexation at the delivery site. Here, we investigate the structure of complexes formed by DNA fragments and protamine, applied in gene delivery. We found that complexes are charge- and size-tunable aggregates, depending on the protamine/DNA ratio, hundred nanometers in size. Their compactness and fractal structure depend on the length of the DNA fragments. Accordingly, on the local scale, the sites of protamine/DNA complexation assume different morphologies, seemingly displaying clumping ability for the DNA network only for shorter DNA fragments.

  19. Increased complexity of gene structure and base composition in vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wu; Huizhong Yuan; Shengjun Tan; Jian-Qun Chen; Dacheng Tian; Haiwang Yang

    2011-01-01

    How the structure and base composition of genes changed with the evolution of vertebrates remains a puzzling question. Here we analyzed 895 orthologous protein-coding genes in six multicellular animals: human, chicken, zebrafish, sea squirt, fruit fly, and worm. Our analyses reveal that many gene regions, particularly intron and 3' UTR, gradually expanded throughout the evolution of vertebrates from their invertebrate ancestors, and that the number of exons per gene increased. Studies based on all protein-coding genes in each genome provide consistent results.We also find that GC-content increased in many gene regions (especially 5' UTR) in the evolution of endotherms, except in coding-exons.Analysis of individual genomes shows that 3′ UTR demonstrated stronger length and CC-content correlation with intron than 5' UTR, and gene with large intron in all six species demonstrated relatively similar GC-content. Our data indicates a great increase in complexity in vertebrate genes and we propose that the requirement for morphological and functional changes is probably the driving force behind the evolution of structure and base composition complexity in multicellular animal genes.

  20. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. PMID:25533973

  1. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I.; Maria L Theodorides; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Alexander A Bachmanov

    2007-01-01

    The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The res...

  2. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) L allele interacts with stress to increase anxiety symptoms in Chinese adolescents: a multiwave longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Qingsen; Zhang, Yun; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Xiang; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of the interaction between a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and stress in anxiety-related phenotypes have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of the 5-HTTLPR × stress interaction on anxiety symptoms in Chinese adolescents. Methods A total of 651 healthy adolescents [323 females and 328 males; age 14–17 (mean = 16.27, standard deviation = 0.77)] participate...

  3. A B2 SINE insertion in the Comt1 gene (Comt1 B2i ) results in an overexpressing, behavior modifying allele present in classical inbred mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kember, R L; Fernandes, C.; Tunbridge, E.M.; Liu, L; Payá-Cano, J L; M. J. Parsons; Schalkwyk, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme for dopamine catabolism and COMT is a candidate gene for human psychiatric disorders. In mouse it is located on chromosome 16 in a large genomic region of extremely low variation among the classical inbred strains, with no confirmed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J within a 600-kB window. We found a B2 SINE in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Comt1 which is present in C57BL/6J (Comt1 B2i ) and oth...

  4. RHD alleles in the Tunisian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ouchari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in Tunisia population was lacking. The aim of this study was to use a multiplex RHD typing assay for simultaneous detection of partial D especially with RHD/RHCE deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence exchange mechanism and some weak D alleles. Materials and Methods: Six RHD specific primer sets were designed to amplify RHD exons 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9. DNA from 2000 blood donors (1777 D+ and 223 D- from several regions was selected for RHD genotyping using a PCR multiplex assay. Further molecular investigations were done to characterize the RHD variants that were identified by the PCR multiplex assay. Results: In the 1777 D+ samples, only 10 individuals showed the absence of amplification of exons 4 and 5 that were subsequently identified by PCR-SSP as weak D type 4 variants. No hybrid allele was detected. In the 223 D-, RHD amplification of some exons was observed only in 5 samples: 4 individuals expressed only RHD exon 9, and one subject lacking exons 4 and 5. These samples were then screened by PCR-SSPs on d(C ce s and weak D type 4, respectively. Conclusion: The weak D type 4 appears to be the most common D variant allele. We have not found any partial D variant. Findings also indicated that RHD gene deletion is the most prevalent cause of the D- phenotype in the Tunisian population.

  5. Allelic Variation in the Perennial Ryegrass FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene is Associated with Changes in Flowering Time across a Range of Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Sanderson, Ruth; Thomas, Ann;

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene and its orthologs in other plant species (e.g. rice [Oryza sativa] OsFTL2/Hd3a) have an established role in the photoperiodic induction of flowering response. The genomic and phenotypic variations associated with the perennial...... ryegrass (Lolium perenne) ortholog of FT, designated LpFT3, was assessed in a diverse collection of nine European germplasm populations, which together constituted an association panel of 864 plants. Sequencing and genotyping of a series of amplicons derived from the nine populations, containing the...... complete exon and intron sequences as well as 5' and 3' noncoding sequences of LpFT3, identified a total of seven haplotypes. Genotyping assays designed to detect the genomic variation showed that three haplotypes were present in approximately equal proportions and represented 84% of the total, with a...

  6. Allelic variations of a light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb1 associated with agronomic traits in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshi Xia

    Full Text Available Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING. A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits.

  7. Structure and expression of the humic GATA3 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labastie, M.C.; Bories, D.; Chabret, C.; Gregoire, J.M.; Romeo, P.H. (INSERM, Creteil (France)); Chretien, S. (INSERM, Paris (France))

    1994-05-01

    GATA3, a member of the GATA family that is abundantly expressed in the T-lymphocyte lineage, is thought to participate in T-cell receptor gene activation through binding to enhancers. To understand GATA3 gene regulation, the authors cloned the human gene and the 5[prime] end of the mouse GATA3 gene. They show that the human GATA3 gene contains six exons distributed over 17 kb of DNA. The two human GATA3 zinc fingers are encoded by two separate exons highly conserved with those of GATA1, but no other structural homologies between these two genes can be found. The human and mouse GATA3 transcription units start at a major initiation site. The promoter sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that they are embedded within a CpG island and share structural features often found in the promoters of housekeeping genes. Finally, they show that a DNA fragment containing the human GATA3 transcription unit, 3 kb upstream from the initiation site and 4 kb downstream from the polyadenylation site, displays T-cell specificity. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  8. AllelicImbalance: An R/ bioconductor package for detecting, managing, and visualizing allele expression imbalance data from RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gådin, Jesper R.; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Eriksson, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Background: One aspect in which RNA sequencing is more valuable than microarray-based methods is the ability to examine the allelic imbalance of the expression of a gene. This process is often a complex task that entails quality control, alignment, and the counting of reads over heterozygous single...... possible biases. Results: We present AllelicImblance, a software program that is designed to detect, manage, and visualize allelic imbalances comprehensively. The purpose of this software is to allow users to pose genetic questions in any RNA sequencing experiment quickly, enhancing the general utility of...... RNA sequencing. The visualization features can reveal notable, non-trivial allelic imbalance behavior over specific regions, such as exons. Conclusions: The software provides a complete framework to perform allelic imbalance analyses of aligned RNA sequencing data, from detection to visualization...

  9. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  10. Rescue of progeria in trichothiodystrophy by homozygous lethal Xpd alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan-Olle Andressoo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Although compound heterozygosity, or the presence of two different mutant alleles of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been well documented. This is most likely because of the inherent difficulty in distinguishing specific biallelic effects from differences in environment or genetic background. We addressed the potential of different recessive alleles to contribute to the enigmatic pleiotropy associated with XPD recessive disorders in compound heterozygous mouse models. Alterations in this essential helicase, with functions in both DNA repair and basal transcription, result in diverse pathologies ranging from elevated UV sensitivity and cancer predisposition to accelerated segmental progeria. We report a variety of biallelic effects on organismal phenotype attributable to combinations of recessive Xpd alleles, including the following: (i the ability of homozygous lethal Xpd alleles to ameliorate a variety of disease symptoms when their essential basal transcription function is supplied by a different disease-causing allele, (ii differential developmental and tissue-specific functions of distinct Xpd allele products, and (iii interallelic complementation, a phenomenon rarely reported at clinically relevant loci in mammals. Our data suggest a re-evaluation of the contribution of "null" alleles to XPD disorders and highlight the potential of combinations of recessive alleles to affect both normal and pathological phenotypic plasticity in mammals.

  11. Evidence for schizophrenia susceptibility alleles in the Indian population: An association of neurodevelopmental genes in case-control and familial samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajodia, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet; Kumari, Kalpana; Gupta, Meenal; Baghel, Ruchi; Srivastava, Ankit; Sood, Mamta; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Sanjeev; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with lifetime prevalence of ~1% worldwide. A genotyping study was conducted using a custom panel of Illumina 1536 SNPs in 840 schizophrenia cases and 876 controls (351 patients and 385 controls from North India; and 436 patients, 401 controls and 143 familial samples with 53 probands containing 37 complete and 16 incomplete trios from South India). Meta-analysis of this population of Indo-European and Dravidian ancestry identified three strongly associated variants with schizophrenia: STT3A (rs548181, p=1.47×10(-5)), NRG1 (rs17603876, p=8.66×10(-5)) and GRM7 (rs3864075, p=4.06×10(-3)). Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted comparing our data with data from the Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC-SCZ) that supported rs548181 (p=1.39×10(-7)). In addition, combined analysis of sporadic case-control association and a transmission disequilibrium test in familial samples from South Indian population identified three associations: rs1062613 (p=3.12×10(-3)), a functional promoter variant of HTR3A; rs6710782 (p=3.50×10(-3)), an intronic variant of ERBB4; and rs891903 (p=1.05×10(-2)), an intronic variant of EBF1. The results support the risk variants observed in the earlier published work and suggest a potential role of neurodevelopmental genes in the schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:25579050

  12. Influence of allelic Variations of hypoxia-related and DNA repair genes on patient outcome and toxicity in head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy plus cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Carmen; Caballero, Miguel; Hakim, Sofia; Verger, Eugenia; Grau, Juan Jose

    2016-08-01

    Although cetuximab plus radiotherapy is a standard treatment for patients with inoperable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), its efficacy varies greatly among individuals. To identify predictive markers of efficacy, we examined the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hypoxia-related and DNA repair genes on the clinical outcome and occurrence of skin toxicity. We analyzed 61 consecutive patients with HNSCC for the presence of specific SNPs (HIF-1α, HIF-2α, HIF-1β, VHL, FIH-1, XRCC1, and XRCC5). The results were then correlated with time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and toxicity (epithelitis, mucositis, and folliculitis). The median TTP and OS were better in patients with severe vs mild mucositis (17 vs 7 months, p = 0.03; and 26 vs 12 months, p = 0.016, respectively) and folliculitis (10 vs 7 months, p = 0.01, and 26 vs 10 months, p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with the HIF-1α CT/TT genotype had better OS than those with the wild-type HIF-1α CC genotype (28 vs 13 months, p = 0.035). Patients with the XRCC5 GG/AA genotype had longer TTP than patients with the XRCC5 AG genotype (11 vs 7 months, p = 0.035). Severe skin toxicity and SNPs of HIF-1α and XRCC5 were associated with different outcomes among patients treated with radiotherapy plus cetuximab. PMID:26245169

  13. Relationship between the 46/1 haplotype of the JAK2 gene and the JAK2 mutational status and allele burden, the initial findings, and the survival of patients with myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Maffioli, Margherita; Colomer, Dolors; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Pereira, Arturo; Angona, Anna; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Cervantes, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An association has been reported between a specific haplotype of the JAK2 gene, the homozygous 46/1 haplotype, and a predisposition to the development of chromosome Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Concerning myelofibrosis (MF), controversy remains on the relationship between the above JAK2 haplotype and the patients' clinicohematological features and survival. Among 132 patients with MF (60 % primary MF, 20 % postpolycythemia vera MF, 20 % post-essential thrombocythemia MF; 59 % JAK2V617F positive) who were analyzed for the JAK2 46/1 haplotype, 29 were found to be homozygous and 53 heterozygous. The homozygous 46/1 haplotype was more often observed in JAK2V617F-positive patients (29.5 versus 11 %, p = 0.012). Moreover, among JAK2V617F-positive patients, those who were homozygous for the 46/1 haplotype had a higher allele burden than the remainder (92 versus 48 %, p = 0.0017). Overall, patients with homozygous 46/1 haplotype showed significantly higher hemoglobin values and higher leukocyte counts, but no association was seen with other clinicohematological features. Finally, no relationship was observed between the JAK2 46/1 haplotype and either the patients' prognostic score or survival. PMID:24337516

  14. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in Swedish sheep flocks based on a comparison of the results from the faecal egg count reduction test and resistant allele frequencies of the beta-tubulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Johan; Gustafsson, Katarina; Ljungström, Britt-Louise; Engström, Annie; Donnan, Alison; Skuce, Philip

    2009-04-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) survey was conducted during the grazing season 2006 and 2007 to provide an updated indication of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in Sweden. A total of 1330 faecal samples from 90 flocks on 45 farms, with a minimum of 20 ewes each, was collected by local sheep veterinarians. Per treatment group, approximately 15 lambs were dewormed either with oral suspensions of ivermectin (Ivomec vet.) or albendazole (Valbazen vet.). The efficacy on each farm was investigated either in 2006 or 2007 by faecal egg counts collected on the day of treatment and in a new sample from the same animals 7-10 days later. Third-stage larvae (L3) were initially identified morphologically from pooled cultures. These were then used as the source of genomic DNA template for two molecular tests. The first was a PCR-based test for specific identification of Haemonchus contortus, and the second was a Pyrosequencing assay for the analysis of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance targeting the P200 mutation in the parasite's beta-tubulin gene. Larval cultures indicated that Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus were the predominant genera, but Haemonchus was diagnosed in 37% of the flocks. The PCR results revealed an almost 100% agreement with those farms that had previously been shown to have Haemonchus present, even when the % prevalence was low (approximately 3%). Only two (4%) of the surveyed farms showed evidence of BZ-resistant worm populations, with H. contortus being the species implicated according to post-treatment larval culture results. The Pyrosequencing assay detected BZ resistant allele frequencies of >40% in the Haemonchus-positive farms and 100% resistant alleles in the clinically most resistant farms. These preliminary results suggest that the FECRT is less sensitive than the molecular test at detecting BZ resistance. However, both tests need to be interpreted carefully, bearing in mind the relative proportions of species

  16. Transposon-mediated death of an ancestral A-23-like allele: evolution of TCR-positioning motifs in the HLA-A lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph S

    2015-08-01

    HLA-A alleles are characterized by tandem arginine and histidine/arginine motifs (i.e., R65 and H151R motifs) present on the α1- and α2-helix, respectively. In crystallographic structures, α/β T-cell receptors (TCR) contact both motifs and appear to be geometrically positioned for alloreactivity. Herein, bioinformatics of "dual-motif" MHC A-like alleles were investigated across phylogeny. While A-like alleles with the R65 motif are widespread, the H151R motif has segregated out of most species. Surprisingly, an uncharacterized orf in tarsiers (Loc-103275158) encodes R151 within a truncated A-23-like gene, which is in frame with short footprints of Tc5 and Tigger transposons (TE); the extant tarsier A-23 allele is totally missing exon-3 and part of exon-4; together, suggesting TE-mediated inactivation of an intact/ancestral A-23 allele. Since the only other (non-human) dual-motif A-like alleles are in gorilla, chimpanzee, and the Florida manatee, we speculate that dual-motif A alleles first emerged in the Afrotherian lineage and reappeared during the evolution of higher primates. PMID:26063599

  17. Complex structure and regulation of the ABP/SHBG gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, D R; Sullivan, P M; Wang, Y M; Millhorn, D E; Bayliss, D M

    1991-01-01

    Extracellular androgen-binding proteins (ABPs) are thought to modulate the regulatory functions of androgens and the trans-acting nuclear androgen receptor. Testicular ABP and plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which is produced in the liver, are encoded by the same gene. We report here that the ABP/SHBG gene is also expressed in fetal rat liver and adult brain. Immunoreactive ABP was localized in the brain and fetal liver and mRNAs were identified in both tissues by northern blot hybridization. Analysis of brain and fetal liver cDNA clones revealed alternatively processed RNAs with sequence characteristics suggesting the encoded proteins could act as competitors of ABP/SHBG binding to cell surface receptors. One cDNA represented a fused transcript of the ABP/SHBG gene and the histidine decarboxylase gene that was apparently formed by a trans-splicing process. Gene sequencing experiments indicate that tissue-specific ABP/SHBG gene promoter-enhancer elements are utilized in testis, brain and fetal liver. These data demonstrate that the structure, RNA transcript processing and likely regulation of the ABP/SHBG gene are very complex. PMID:1958575

  18. Structure and Gene-Silencing Mechanisms of Small Noncoding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.

    Small (19-31-nucleotides) noncoding RNAs were identified in the past 10 years for their distinct function in gene silencing. The best known gene-silencing phenomenon, RNA interference (RNAi), is triggered in a sequence-specific manner by endogenously produced or exogenously introduced small doubled-stranded RNAs. As knowledge of the structure and function of the RNAi machinery has expanded, this phenomenon has become a powerful tool for biochemical research; it has enormous potential for therapeutics. This chapter summarizes significant aspects of three major classes of small noncoding, regulatory RNAs: small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here, we focus on the biogenesis of these small RNAs, their structural features and coupled effectors as well as the mechanisms of each small regulatory RNA pathway which reveal fascinating ways by which gene silencing is controlled and fine-tuned at an epigenetic level.

  19. Positive selection on multiple antique allelic lineages of transferrin in the polyploid Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2004-07-01

    Transferrin polymorphism has been studied in the polyploid Carassius auratus by cloning and sequence analysis of cDNAs from its three subspecies C. auratus gibelio, C. auratus auratus, and C. auratus cuvieri. DNA polymorphism of extremely high extent was shown for the transferrin gene by the 248 segregation sites among coding region sequences of its alleles. The deduced amino acid sequences of the transferrin alleles showed variable theoretical physicochemical parameters, which might constitute molecular basis for their electrophoretic heterogeneity. Positive selection was inferred by the replacement/synonymous ratios larger than 1 in partial allelic lineages which was subsequently confirmed by likelihood simulation under neutral or selection models. Furthermore, the correspondent sites to these selected codons were collectively located at two planes in the crystallographic structure of rabbit transferrin, which suggested that the rapid evolution of C. auratus transferrin might correlate to its adaptation to variable environmental elements such as oxygen pressure. The minimal 26 recombination events were detected among coding sequences of C. auratus transferrin, with partial mosaic sequences and breakpoints identified by identity scanning and information site analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed multiple antique allelic lineages of transferrin, which was estimated to diverge fifteen to twenty MYA. All these features strongly suggested the role of balancing selection in long persistence of high transferrin polymorphism in C. auratus. Furthermore, owing to its particular evolutionary backgrounds, the silver crucian carp might possess a distinctive balancing selection mechanism. PMID:15014154

  20. Resistance to Infection by Subgroups B, D, and E Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Viruses Is Explained by a Premature Stop Codon within a Resistance Allele of the tvb Receptor Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Klucking, Sara; Adkins, Heather B.; Young, John A. T.

    2002-01-01

    Here we present the first molecular characterization of the defect associated with an avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) receptor resistance allele, tvbr. We show that resistance to infection by subgroups B, D, and E ASLV is explained by the presence of a single base pair mutation that distinguishes this allele from tvbs1, an allele which encodes a receptor for all three viral subgroups. This mutation generates an in-frame stop codon that is predicted to lead to the production of a sever...

  1. Structural and transcriptional analysis of plant genes encoding the bifunctional lysine ketoglutarate reductase saccharopine dehydrogenase enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analysis of a wheat lysine ketoglutarate reductase – saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH) gene and comparative structural and functional analyses among available plant genes provides new information on this important gene. Both the structure of the LKR/SDH gene and the immediately adjacent genes...

  2. Targeted insertions of two exogenous collagen genes into both alleles of their endogenous loci in cultured human cells: the insertions are directed by relatively short fragments containing the promoters and the 5' ends of the genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, A.; Smelt, S; Mewar, R.; Fertala, A; Sieron, A L; Overhauser, J; Prockop, D J

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that type II procollagen is synthesized by HT-1080 cells that are stably transfected with constructs of the human COL2A1 gene that contain the promoter and 5' end of either the COL2A1 gene or the human COL1A1 gene. Since the host HT-1080 cells were from a human tumor line that synthesizes type IV collagen but not type II or type I procollagen, the results suggested that the constructs were integrated near active enhancers or promoters. Here, however, we demonstra...

  3. Chloroplast genetics of chlamydomonas. I. Allelic segregation ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents allelic segregation data from a series of 16 crosses segregated for nuclear and chloroplast genes. By means of pedigree analysis, segregants of chloroplast genes. By means of pedigree analysis, segregants of chloroplast markers occurring in the zygote have been distinguished from those occurring in zoospore clones. The genes ac1, ac2, and tm1 showed little if any deviation from 1:1 either in zygotic segregation or in zoospore clones. The genes sm2, ery, and spc showed a significant excess of the allele from the mt+ parent in zygotes. However, in zoospores, mt+ excess was seen only when the allele was the mutant (resistant) form but not when it was wild type (sensitive). These results show that the extent of preferential segregation differs in zygotes and in zoospores, and that preferential segregation is influenced by map location and by allele specificity. A comparison of progeny from zygotes mated after 0, 15'', 30'', and 50'' uv irradiation of the mt+ gametes demonstrated the lack of an effect of uv upon allelic segregation ratios. In total, these results exclude the multi-copy model of chloroplast genome segregation suggested by Gillham. Boynton and Lee (1974) and support the diploid model we have previously proposed

  4. Chloroplast genetics of chlamydomonas. I. Allelic segregation ratios. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, R.; Ramanis, Z.

    1976-06-01

    This paper presents allelic segregation data from a series of 16 crosses segregated for nuclear and chloroplast genes. By means of pedigree analysis, segregants of chloroplast genes. By means of pedigree analysis, segregants of chloroplast markers occurring in the zygote have been distinguished from those occurring in zoospore clones. The genes ac1, ac2, and tm1 showed little if any deviation from 1:1 either in zygotic segregation or in zoospore clones. The genes sm2, ery, and spc showed a significant excess of the allele from the mt+ parent in zygotes. However, in zoospores, mt+ excess was seen only when the allele was the mutant (resistant) form but not when it was wild type (sensitive). These results show that the extent of preferential segregation differs in zygotes and in zoospores, and that preferential segregation is influenced by map location and by allele specificity. A comparison of progeny from zygotes mated after 0, 15'', 30'', and 50'' uv irradiation of the mt+ gametes demonstrated the lack of an effect of uv upon allelic segregation ratios. In total, these results exclude the multi-copy model of chloroplast genome segregation suggested by Gillham. Boynton and Lee (1974) and support the diploid model we have previously proposed.

  5. Implication of HLA-DMA Alleles in Corsican IDDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cucchi-Mouillot

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The HLA-DM molecule catalyses the CLIP/antigen peptide exchange in the classical class II peptide-binding groove. As such, DM is an antigen presentation regulator and may be linked to autoimmune diseases. Using PCR derived methods, a relationship was revealed between DM gene polymorphism and IDDM, in a Corsican population. The DMA*0101 allele was observed to confer a significant predisposition to this autoimmune disease while the DMA*0102 allele protected significantly. Experiments examining polymorphism of the HLA-DRB1 gene established that these relationships are not a consequence of linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1 alleles implicated in this pathology. The study of the DMA gene could therefore be an additional tool for early IDDM diagnosis in the Corsican population.

  6. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices...

  7. Comparison of CYP2D6 genotyping by allele-specific PCR with DXT phe-notype and gene chip testing%CYP2D6 PCR基因型与DXT表型和基因芯片检测的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    目的:为了评价CYP2D6的基因型和表型的联系以及基因芯片在CYP2D6多基因分析中的应用.方法:242健康志愿者,口服dextromethorphan后收集尿液测定其代谢率,收集20ml血提取DNA,并通过基因特异性PCR和/(或)基因芯片分析CYP2D6*2--*11,*17和多拷贝CYP2D6基因,其中5个基因(*3、*4、*6、*7和*9)用PCR和CYD450基因芯片同时分析.结果:CYP2D6基因型比表型更富有信息和更能反映CYP2D6酶的表达.CYP2D6*3、*4、*6、*7和*9的基因检测在CYP450基因芯片和基因特异性PCR中显示高度的一致性.结论:基因芯片在检测基因多位点的多基因中是一个有发展前途和可靠的方法.%To evaluate association of genotype and phenotype of CYP2D6 and the application of oligonucleotide microarray hybridization genetic testing in CYP2D6 multiple alleles analyses. METHODS: Two hundred forty-two healthy volunteers were recruited, and a 60 mg oral dose of dextromethorphan (DXT) was administered to each for assessment of the DXT metabolic ratio [ MR]. A 20 ml blood sample was also collected for DNA isolation and testing. CYP2D6 alleles * 2-*11; * 17 and multiple CYP2D6 gene copies were tested by allele-specific PCR and/or the affymetrix CYP450 gene chip assay. Five of the CYP2D6 alleles ( * 3, * 4, *6, * 7, and * 9) were evaluated by both PCR and the CYP450 gene chip assay. RESULTS: The CYP2D6genotype was more informative and reflective in CYP2D6 enzyme expression than a phenotype. Genetic tests for the CYP2D6 * 3, * 4, * 6, * 7 and * 9 alleles showed a high degree of concordance between the CYP450 gene chip and AS-PCR methods. CONCLUSION: Oligonucleotide microarray hybridization is a promising and reliable approach for detecting multiple alleles at gene loci.

  8. The Structural Characterization of Tumor Fusion Genes and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocation, which generates fusion proteins in blood tumor or solid tumor, is considered as one of the major causes leading to cancer. Recent studies suggested that the disordered fragments in a fusion protein might contribute to its carcinogenicity. Here, we investigated the sequence feature near the breakpoints in the fusion partner genes, the structure features of breakpoints in fusion proteins, and the posttranslational modification preference in the fusion proteins. Results show that the breakpoints in the fusion partner genes have both sequence preference and structural preference. At the sequence level, nucleotide combination AG is preferred before the breakpoint and GG is preferred at the breakpoint. At the structural level, the breakpoints in the fusion proteins prefer to be located in the disordered regions. Further analysis suggests the phosphorylation sites at serine, threonine, and the methylation sites at arginine are enriched in disordered regions of the fusion proteins. Using EML4-ALK as an example, we further explained how the fusion protein leads to the protein disorder and contributes to its carcinogenicity. The sequence and structural features of the fusion proteins may help the scientific community to predict novel breakpoints in fusion genes and better understand the structure and function of fusion proteins.

  9. Identification of a New Rice Blast Resistance Gene, Pid3, by Genomewide Comparison of Paired Nucleotide-Binding Site–Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes and Their Pseudogene Alleles Between the Two Sequenced Rice Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Junjun; Tao, Yong; Chen, Xuewei; Zou, Yan; Lei, Cailin; Wang, Jing; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xianfeng; Zhang, Meijun; Lu, Zhike; Xu, Jichen; Cheng, Zhukuan; Wan, Jianmin; Zhu, Lihuang

    2009-01-01

    Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases. The two major subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), indica and japonica, have shown obvious differences in rice blast resistance, but the genomic basis that underlies the difference is not clear. We performed a genomewide comparison of the major class of resistant gene family, the nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NBS–LRR) gene family, between 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica)...

  10. Long-Range (17.7 kb) Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Direct Haplotyping of R117H and IVS-8 Mutations of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Pont-Kingdon, Genevieve; Jama, Mohamed; Miller, Christine; Millson, Alison; Lyon, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Genotyping of genetic polymorphisms is widely used in clinical molecular laboratories to confirm or predict diseases due to single locus mutations. In contrast, very few molecular methods determine the phase or haplotype of two or more mutations that are kilobases apart. In this report, we describe a new method for haplotyping based on long-range allele-specific PCR. Reaction conditions were established to circumvent the incompatibility of using allele-specific primers and a polymerase with p...

  11. Allelic diversity of the population of Phytophthora infestans in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y; Huang, S.; Lee; Kessel, G.J.T.; Jacobsen, E.; Zhang, R.; Jin, G.; Lan, C.; Zhao, Z.; Kamoun, S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of resistance genes from wild Solanum species into potato cultivars is considered the most promising and environmentally safe approach to achieve late blight resistance. An R-gene stacking breeding program using cisgenesis is planning to trial its products in China. To adapt this approach to local conditions, we propose to assess the allelic diversity of known avirulent genes of P. infestans from the intended introduction regions of the GM-potatoes in China. So far, we have a lar...

  12. Impriniting of human H19: Allele-specific CpG methylation, loss of the active allele in Wilms tumor, and potential for somatic allele switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Shields, T.; Crenshaw, T.; Hao, Y.; Moulton, T.; Tycko, B. (Columbia Univ., New York (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Genomic imprinting and monoallelic gene expression appear to play a role in human genetic disease and tumorigenesis. The human H19 gene, at chromosome 11p15, has previously been shown to be monoallelically expressed. Since CpG methylation has been implicated in imprinting, the authors analyzed methylation of H19 DNA. In fetal and adult organs the transcriptionally silent H19 allele was extensively hypermethylated through the entire gene and its promoter, and, consistent with a functional role for DNA methylation, expression of an H19 promoter-reporter construct was inhibited by in vitro methylation. Gynogenetic ovarian teratomas were found to contain only hypomethylated H19 DNA, suggesting that the expressed H19 allele might be maternal. This was confirmed by analysis of 11p15 polymorphisms in a patient with Wilms tumor. The tumor had lost the maternal 11p15, and H19 expression in the normal kidney was exclusively from this allele. Imprinting of human H19 appears to be susceptible to tissue-specific modulation in somatic development; in one individual, cerebellar cells were found to express only the otherwise silent allele. Implications of these findings for the role of DNA methylation in imprinting and for H19 as a candidate imprinted tumor-suppressor gene are discussed. 57 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Association of kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene polymorphism/ haplotypes with recurrent spontaneous abortion and genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Shiva; Noormohammadi, Zahra; Zare Karizi, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion is one of the diseases that can lead to physical, psychological, and, economical problems for both individuals and society. Recently a few numbers of genetic polymorphisms in kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene are examined that can endanger the life of the fetus in pregnant women. Objective: The risk of KDR gene polymorphisms was investigated in Iranian women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Materials and Methods: A case controlled study was performed. One hundred idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients with at least two consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestational age with normal karyotypes were included in the study. Also, 100 healthy women with at least one natural pregnancy were studied as control group. Two functional SNPs located in KDR gene; rs1870377 (Q472H), and rs2305948 (V297I) as well as one tag SNP in the intron region (rs6838752) were genotyped by using PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Haplotype frequency was determined for these three SNPs’ genotypes. Analysis of genetic STRUCTURE and K means clustering were performed to study genetic variation. Results: Functional SNP (rs1870377) was highly linked to tag SNP (rs6838752) (D´ value=0. 214; χ2 = 16.44, p<0. 001). K means clustering showed that k = 8 as the best fit for the optimal number of genetic subgroups in our studied materials. This result was in agreement with Neighbor Joining cluster analysis. Conclusion: In our study, the allele and genotype frequencies were not associated with RSA between patient and control individuals. Inconsistent results in different populations with different allele frequencies among RSA patients and controls may be due to ethnic variation and used sample size. PMID:27141535

  14. Polymorphism and Genetic Structure of LGB Gene (Rsai in Valachian Sheep Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The work was oriented to identification of beta-lactoglobulin gene (LGB polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Valachian sheep. LGB is the major milk whey protein in the ruminants. AA and AB genotypes are associated with protein and casein content and curd yield. BB LGB genotype sheep were characterized by a significantly higher protein content of milk than sheep with the other two LGB genotypes — AA and AB. LGB variant AB is associated with higher body weight, while genotype AA could be linked with sheep wool density. The material involved 34 Valachian sheep. Ovine genomic DNA was isolated by salting out method and used in order to estimate LGB genotypes by PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with RsaI restriction enzyme. In the population included in the study, we detected all genotypes: homozygote genotype AA (6 animals, heterozygote genotype AB (12 animals and homozygote genotype BB (16 animals. In the population of sheep homozygotes BB – 0.4706 were the most frequent, while homozygotes AA – 0.1765 were the least frequent ones. This suggests a slight superiority of allele B – 0.6471.

  15. Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedhly, A; Wünsch, A; Kartal, Ö; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2016-03-01

    Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations are the results of gametophytic or sexual selection. Although these two forces are difficult to disentangle, testing S-alleles in the offspring of controlled crosses provides an opportunity to separate these two phenomena. In this work, segregation and transmission of S-alleles have been characterized in progenies of mixed donors and fully compatible pollinations under field conditions in Prunus avium. Seed set patterns and pollen performance have also been characterized. The results reveal paternal-specific distorted transmission of S-alleles in most of the crosses. Interestingly, S-allele segregation within any given paternal or maternal S-locus was random. Observations on pollen germination, pollen tube growth rate, pollen tube cohort size, seed set dynamics and transmission patterns strongly suggest post-pollination, prezygotic sexual selection, with male-male competition as the most likely mechanism. According to these results, post-pollination sexual selection takes precedence over frequency-dependent selection in explaining unequal S-haplotype frequencies. PMID:26559165

  16. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abedi-Tizaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function is not yet known. The Fg16 gene is involved in lipid biosynthesis and leads to sexual development during colonization in wheat stalks. This gene is used to detect F. graminearum and determine the lineage of F. graminearum complex species. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction–single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation in 172 F. graminearum s.s. isolates. The PCR reaction forced the amplification of 410-bp fragments of Fg16. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (T82C and A352T and one amino acid exchange (C65S with three patterns (TA/TA, CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes were found in the Fg16 gene fragment. Two haplotypes, 1A and 1B, were identified within F. graminearum s.s. populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Two different secondary structures of protein were predicted for CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes of Fg16 gene. The average diversity levels detected were relatively high (He: 0.3238; Heu: 0.334; Ho: 0.2894; mean PIC: 0.514; mean Shannon's information index: 0.4132; mean number of alleles per locus: 1.473. On the basis of the obtained results, it was revealed that the Fg16 gene had a high degree of polymorphism that can be considered for future control programming strategies and thus the associations between the SSCP patterns with different traits of F. graminearum such as wheat colonization, perithecium formation on stalk tissues and lineage discrimination should be investigated.

  17. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Tizaki, Mostafa; Zafari, Doustmorad

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function is not yet known. The Fg16 gene is involved in lipid biosynthesis and leads to sexual development during colonization in wheat stalks. This gene is used to detect F. graminearum and determine the lineage of F. graminearum complex species. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation in 172 F. graminearum s.s. isolates. The PCR reaction forced the amplification of 410-bp fragments of Fg16. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (T82C and A352T) and one amino acid exchange (C65S) with three patterns (TA/TA, CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes) were found in the Fg16 gene fragment. Two haplotypes, 1A and 1B, were identified within F. graminearum s.s. populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Two different secondary structures of protein were predicted for CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes of Fg16 gene. The average diversity levels detected were relatively high (He: 0.3238; Heu: 0.334; Ho: 0.2894; mean PIC: 0.514; mean Shannon's information index: 0.4132; mean number of alleles per locus: 1.473). On the basis of the obtained results, it was revealed that the Fg16 gene had a high degree of polymorphism that can be considered for future control programming strategies and thus the associations between the SSCP patterns with different traits of F. graminearum such as wheat colonization, perithecium formation on stalk tissues and lineage discrimination should be investigated. PMID:27222818

  18. Analysis of ribosomal protein gene structures: implications for intron evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many spliceosomal introns exist in the eukaryotic nuclear genome. Despite much research, the evolution of spliceosomal introns remains poorly understood. In this paper, we tried to gain insights into intron evolution from a novel perspective by comparing the gene structures of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (CRPs and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs, which are held to be of archaeal and bacterial origin, respectively. We analyzed 25 homologous pairs of CRP and MRP genes that together had a total of 527 intron positions. We found that all 12 of the intron positions shared by CRP and MRP genes resulted from parallel intron gains and none could be considered to be "conserved," i.e., descendants of the same ancestor. This was supported further by the high frequency of proto-splice sites at these shared positions; proto-splice sites are proposed to be sites for intron insertion. Although we could not definitively disprove that spliceosomal introns were already present in the last universal common ancestor, our results lend more support to the idea that introns were gained late. At least, our results show that MRP genes were intronless at the time of endosymbiosis. The parallel intron gains between CRP and MRP genes accounted for 2.3% of total intron positions, which should provide a reliable estimate for future inferences of intron evolution.

  19. The Structural Characterization of Tumor Fusion Genes and Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dandan; Li, Daixi; Qin, Guangrong; Zhang, Wen; Ouyang, Jian; Zhang, Menghuan; Xie, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation, which generates fusion proteins in blood tumor or solid tumor, is considered as one of the major causes leading to cancer. Recent studies suggested that the disordered fragments in a fusion protein might contribute to its carcinogenicity. Here, we investigated the sequence feature near the breakpoints in the fusion partner genes, the structure features of breakpoints in fusion proteins, and the posttranslational modification preference in the fusion proteins. Result...

  20. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae in China: two gene pools inferred by microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in China. An understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. However, there is no adequate data of A. sinensis population genetics available yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used 5 microsatellite loci to estimate population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of A. sinensis from 14 representative localities in China. All 5 microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic across populations, with high allelic richness and heterozygosity. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium was found in 12 populations associated with heterozygote deficits, which was likely caused by the presence of null allele and the Wahlund effect. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed two gene pools, grouping samples into two population clusters; one includes six and the other includes eight populations. Out of 14 samples, six samples were mixed with individuals from both gene pools, indicating the coexistence of two genetic units in the areas sampled. The overall differentiation between two genetic pools was moderate (F(ST = 0.156. Pairwise differentiation between populations were lower within clusters (F(ST = 0.008-0.028 in cluster I and F(ST = 0.004-0.048 in cluster II than between clusters (F(ST = 0.120-0.201. A reduced gene flow (Nm = 1-1.7 was detected between clusters. No evidence of isolation by distance was detected among populations neither within nor between the two clusters. There are differences in effective population size (Ne = 14.3-infinite across sampled populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Two genetic pools with moderate genetic differentiation were identified in the A. sinensis populations in China. The population divergence was not correlated with geographic distance or barrier in the range. Variable effective population size and other demographic effects of historical population

  1. SNP GENOTYPING BY TAQMAN ALLELE DISCRIMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm in women worldwide and the principal cause of deaths by cancer, the majority being by metastatic disease. About half of breast tumors are hormone dependent, and in post-menopause women the preferred first line treatment uses third generation aromatase inhibitors. Aromatase is encoded by CYP19 gene on 15q21.1, and there is strong evidence that mutations in this gene affect its expression, with directconsequences on cancer phenotype and response to treatment. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have beenstudied on CYP19A1 transcription variant, notably rs727479, rs10046, rs4646 and rs700518. We implemented a Taqman-based allele discrimination assay for the rapid investigation of the 4 SNPs in CYP19A1. We genotyped 22 metastaticbreast cancer patients by the technique described.

  2. Gilbert's syndrome: High frequency of the (TA)7 TAA allele in India and its interaction with a novel CAT insertion in promoter of the gene for bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shabana Farheen; Sanghamitra Sengupta; Amal Santra; Suparna Pal; Gopal Krishna Dhali; Meenakshi Chakravorty; Partha P Majumder; Abhijit Chowdhury

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify the variants in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1) gene in Gilbert's syndrome (GS) and to estimate the association between homozygosity for TA insertion and GS in India, as well as the frequency of TA insertion and its impact among normal controls in India.METHODS: Ninety-five GS cases and 95 normal controls were selected. Liver function and other tests were done. The promoter and all 5 exons of UGT1A1 gene were resequenced. Functional assessment of a novel trinucleotide insertion was done byin silico analysis and by estimating UGT1A1 promoter activity carried out by luciferase reporter assay of appropriate constructs in Hep G2 cell line.RESULTS: Among the GS patients, 80% were homozygous for the TA insertion, which was several-fold higher than reports from other ethnic groups. The mean UCB level was elevated among individuals with only one copy of this insertion, which was not significantly different from those with two copies. Many new DNA variants in UGT1A1 gene were discovered, including a trinucleotide (CAT) insertion in the promoter found in a subset (10%) of GS patients, but not among normal controls. In-silico analysis showed marked changes in the DNA-folding of the promoter and functional analysis showed a 20-fold reduction in transcription efficiency of UGT1A1 gene resulting from this insertion, thereby significantly elevating the UCB level.CONCLUSION: The genetic epidemiology of GS is variable across ethnic groups and the epistatic interactions among UGT1A1 promoter variants modulate bilirubin glucuronidation.

  3. Divergence of gene regulation through chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messing Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms that modify genome structures to give birth and death to alleles are still not well understood. To investigate the causative chromosomal rearrangements, we took advantage of the allelic diversity of the duplicated p1 and p2 genes in maize. Both genes encode a transcription factor involved in maysin synthesis, which confers resistance to corn earworm. However, p1 also controls accumulation of reddish pigments in floral tissues and has therefore acquired a new function after gene duplication. p1 alleles vary in their tissue-specific expression, which is indicated in their allele designation: the first suffix refers to red or white pericarp pigmentation and the second to red or white glume pigmentation. Results Comparing chromosomal regions comprising p1-ww[4Co63], P1-rw1077 and P1-rr4B2 alleles with that of the reference genome, P1-wr[B73], enabled us to reconstruct additive events of transposition, chromosome breaks and repairs, and recombination that resulted in phenotypic variation and chimeric regulatory signals. The p1-ww[4Co63] null allele is probably derived from P1-wr[B73] by unequal crossover between large flanking sequences. A transposon insertion in a P1-wr-like allele and NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining could have resulted in the formation of the P1-rw1077 allele. A second NHEJ event, followed by unequal crossover, probably led to the duplication of an enhancer region, creating the P1-rr4B2 allele. Moreover, a rather dynamic picture emerged in the use of polyadenylation signals by different p1 alleles. Interestingly, p1 alleles can be placed on both sides of a large retrotransposon cluster through recombination, while functional p2 alleles have only been found proximal to the cluster. Conclusions Allelic diversity of the p locus exemplifies how gene duplications promote phenotypic variability through composite regulatory signals. Transposition events increase the level of genomic complexity

  4. Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B.W. Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%, which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%. This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%, rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4% and absent in the Kaingang Amerindians and the Oriental-Brazilians. R223Q is common in the Oriental-Brazilians (7.7% and R60S in the Afro-Brazilians (5.0%. A29S and L55Q present an impaired response to b-chemokines and occurred in Afro- and Euro-Brazilians with cumulative frequencies of 4.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two new non-synonymous alleles were found in Amerindians: C323F (g.3729G > T in Guarani (1.4% and Y68C (g.2964A > G in Kaingang (10.3%. The functional characteristics of these alleles should be defined and considered in epidemiological investigations about HIV-1 infection and AIDS incidence in Amerindian populations.

  5. Alternative RNA Structure-Coupled Gene Regulations in Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Chi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative RNA structures (ARSs, or alternative transcript isoforms, are critical for regulating cellular phenotypes in humans. In addition to generating functionally diverse protein isoforms from a single gene, ARS can alter the sequence contents of 5'/3' untranslated regions (UTRs and intronic regions, thus also affecting the regulatory effects of these regions. ARS may introduce premature stop codon(s into a transcript, and render the transcript susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay, which in turn can influence the overall gene expression level. Meanwhile, ARS can regulate the presence/absence of upstream open reading frames and microRNA targeting sites in 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs, respectively, thus affecting translational efficiencies and protein expression levels. Furthermore, since ARS may alter exon-intron structures, it can influence the biogenesis of intronic microRNAs and indirectly affect the expression of the target genes of these microRNAs. The connections between ARS and multiple regulatory mechanisms underline the importance of ARS in determining cell fate. Accumulating evidence indicates that ARS-coupled regulations play important roles in tumorigenesis. Here I will review our current knowledge in this field, and discuss potential future directions.

  6. Structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene was determined from multiple cosmid clones. All the exons, exon-intron junctions, and 845 bp of the 5' and 254 bp of the 3' flanking DNA were sequenced. Comparison of the exon sequences to three previously published cDNA sequences revealed differences in the sequence of the codons for residue 133, 193, 202, and 234 that may represent sequence polymorphisms. By primer extension, hepatic lipase mRNA initiates at an adenine 77 bases upstream of the translation initiation site. The hepatic lipase gene spans over 60 kb containing 9 exons and 8 introns, the latter being all located within the region encoding the mature protein. The exons are all of average size (118-234 bp). Exon 1 encodes the signal peptide, exon 4, a region that binds to the lipoprotein substrate, and exon 5, an evolutionarily highly conserved region of potential catalytic function, and exons 6 and 9 encode sequences rich in basic amino acids thought to be important in anchoring the enzyme to the endothelial surface by interacting with acidic domains of the surface glycosaminoglycans. The human lipoprotein lipase gene has been recently reported to have an identical exon-intron organization containing the analogous structural domains. The observations strongly support the common evolutionary origin of these two lipolytic enzymes

  7. The A Allele of the rs1990760 Polymorphism in the IFIH1 Gene Is Associated with Protection for Arterial Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic Patients and with Expression of This Gene in Human Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bouças, Ana P.; Brondani, Letícia A.; Souza, Bianca M.; Lemos, Natália E.; Oliveira, Fernanda S.; Canani, Luis H; Crispim, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Background The rs1990760 polymorphism of interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) has been associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, we investigated whether this polymorphism is associated with T1DM or its clinical characteristics in a Brazilian population, and if IFIH1 gene expression in mononuclear cells from T1DM patients differs according to the genotypes of this polymorphism. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate if the rs1990760 polymorphism is associate...

  8. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  9. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and HLA-DR4 alleles are associated with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Soren; Baslund, Bo; Madsen, Hans Ole;

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene causing low serum concentrations of MBL and/or polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1 are associated with increased susceptibility to polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) or particular clinical phenotypes of PMR/GCA....

  10. Borrowed alleles and convergence in serpentine adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Brian J; Lahner, Brett; DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Weisman, Caroline M; Hollister, Jesse D; Salt, David E; Bomblies, Kirsten; Yant, Levi

    2016-07-19

    Serpentine barrens represent extreme hazards for plant colonists. These sites are characterized by high porosity leading to drought, lack of essential mineral nutrients, and phytotoxic levels of metals. Nevertheless, nature forged populations adapted to these challenges. Here, we use a population-based evolutionary genomic approach coupled with elemental profiling to assess how autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa adapted to a multichallenge serpentine habitat in the Austrian Alps. We first demonstrate that serpentine-adapted plants exhibit dramatically altered elemental accumulation levels in common conditions, and then resequence 24 autotetraploid individuals from three populations to perform a genome scan. We find evidence for highly localized selective sweeps that point to a polygenic, multitrait basis for serpentine adaptation. Comparing our results to a previous study of independent serpentine colonizations in the closely related diploid Arabidopsis lyrata in the United Kingdom and United States, we find the highest levels of differentiation in 11 of the same loci, providing candidate alleles for mediating convergent evolution. This overlap between independent colonizations in different species suggests that a limited number of evolutionary strategies are suited to overcome the multiple challenges of serpentine adaptation. Interestingly, we detect footprints of selection in A. arenosa in the context of substantial gene flow from nearby off-serpentine populations of A. arenosa, as well as from A. lyrata In several cases, quantitative tests of introgression indicate that some alleles exhibiting strong selective sweep signatures appear to have been introgressed from A. lyrata This finding suggests that migrant alleles may have facilitated adaptation of A. arenosa to this multihazard environment. PMID:27357660

  11. The lost p1 allele in sh2 sweet corn: Quantitative effects of p1 and a1 genes on the concentrations of maysin, apimaysin, methoxymaysin, and chlorogenic acid in maize silk, and the antibiotic activity against corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flavor of sh2 super-sweet corn is preferred by consumers. Unfortunately, sh2 sweet corn has very little genetic variation for resistance to insects. This presentation will review and summarize the studies of the functions of two loci, p1 and a1. The P1 allele can have a major role in the resista...

  12. Myostatin-2 gene structure and polymorphism of the promoter and first intron in the marine fish Sparus aurata: evidence for DNA duplications and/or translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funkenstein Bruria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myostatin (MSTN is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Fish express at least two genes for MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. To date, MSTN-2 promoters have been cloned only from salmonids and zebrafish. Results Here we described the cloning and sequence analysis of MSTN-2 gene and its 5' flanking region in the marine fish Sparus aurata (saMSTN-2. We demonstrate the existence of three alleles of the promoter and three alleles of the first intron. Sequence comparison of the promoter region in the three alleles revealed that although the sequences of the first 1050 bp upstream of the translation start site are almost identical in the three alleles, a substantial sequence divergence is seen further upstream. Careful sequence analysis of the region upstream of the first 1050 bp in the three alleles identified several elements that appear to be repeated in some or all sequences, at different positions. This suggests that the promoter region of saMSTN-2 has been subjected to various chromosomal rearrangements during the course of evolution, reflecting either insertion or deletion events. Screening of several genomic DNA collections indicated differences in allele frequency, with allele 'b' being the most abundant, followed by allele 'c', whereas allele 'a' is relatively rare. Sequence analysis of saMSTN-2 gene also revealed polymorphism in the first intron, identifying three alleles. The length difference in alleles '1R' and '2R' of the first intron is due to the presence of one or two copies of a repeated block of approximately 150 bp, located at the 5' end of the first intron. The third allele, '4R', has an additional insertion of 323 bp located 116 bp upstream of the 3' end of the first intron. Analysis of several DNA collections showed that the '2R' allele is the most common, followed by the '4R' allele, whereas the '1R

  13. Cloning the Structure Genes and Expression the N Gene of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus DX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-qiang LI; Ji-xing LIU; Xi LAN; Jie CHENG; Run WU; Zhong-Zi LOU; Xiang-ping YIN; Xue-rui LI; Bao-yu LI; Bin YANG; Zhi-yong LI

    2009-01-01

    The structure genes spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), small membrane (sM) of a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain DX isolated in Gansu province, North-west of China, were cloned, sequenced and compared with published sequences of PEDV strains. The nucleotide sequences encoding the entire S, sM, M and N genes open reading frame (ORF) of DX were 4 152, 231, 681 and 1 326 bases long respectively. There were transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) upstream of the initiator ATG of the S, N and M genes. The amino acids sequences of S, M and N contained 30, 3 and 7 potential asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites. Homologous analysis and phylogenetic trees showed that DX had the closest relationship with strains LJB/06, JS-2004-2Z and CH/HLJH/06 that were also isolated from China and indicated the prevalence of some PEDV isolates in China were widespread since the JS-2004-2Z strain originated from the south of the China, and LJB/06 and CH/HLJH/06 were isolated from northeast China. The N gene was cloned using two primers which contained Nco I and BamH I restriction enzyme sites and subcloned into expression vector pET30a. The recombinant plasmid was then transformed into E.coli Rossta. SDS-PAGE showed there was a protein of about 55kDa as expected and Western blot indicated the N protein had biological activity.

  14. Genome Editing of Structural Variations: Modeling and Gene Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Yong; Sung, Jin Jea; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of chromosomal structural variations (SVs), such as inversions and translocations, was made possible by the completion of the human genome project and the development of genome-wide sequencing technologies. SVs contribute to genetic diversity and evolution, although some SVs can cause diseases such as hemophilia A in humans. Genome engineering technology using programmable nucleases (e.g., ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9) has been rapidly developed, enabling precise and efficient genome editing for SV research. Here, we review advances in modeling and gene correction of SVs, focusing on inversion, translocation, and nucleotide repeat expansion. PMID:27016031

  15. Disparities in allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Variations in gene allele frequencies can contribute to differences in the prevalence of some common complex diseases among populations. Natural selection modulates the balance in allele frequencies across populations. Population differentiation (FST) can evidence environmental selection...

  16. Genome-wide SNPs and re-sequencing of growth habit and inflorescence genes in barley: implications for association mapping in germplasm arrays varying in size and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muehlbauer Gary J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerations in applying association mapping (AM to plant breeding are population structure and size: not accounting for structure and/or using small populations can lead to elevated false-positive rates. The principal determinants of population structure in cultivated barley are growth habit and inflorescence type. Both are under complex genetic control: growth habit is controlled by the epistatic interactions of several genes. For inflorescence type, multiple loss-of-function alleles in one gene lead to the same phenotype. We used these two traits as models for assessing the effectiveness of AM. This research was initiated using the CAP Core germplasm array (n = 102 assembled at the start of the Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP. This array was genotyped with 4,608 SNPs and we re-sequenced genes involved in morphology, growth and development. Larger arrays of breeding germplasm were subsequently genotyped and phenotyped under the auspices of the CAP project. This provided sets of 247 accessions phenotyped for growth habit and 2,473 accessions phenotyped for inflorescence type. Each of the larger populations was genotyped with 3,072 SNPs derived from the original set of 4,608. Results Significant associations with SNPs located in the vicinity of the loci involved in growth habit and inflorescence type were found in the CAP Core. Differentiation of true and spurious associations was not possible without a priori knowledge of the candidate genes, based on re-sequencing. The re-sequencing data were used to define allele types of the determinant genes based on functional polymorphisms. In a second round of association mapping, these synthetic markers based on allele types gave the most significant associations. When the synthetic markers were used as anchor points for analysis of interactions, we detected other known-function genes and candidate loci involved in the control of growth habit and inflorescence type. We

  17. Molecular detection and identification of intimin alleles in pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S D; Betting, D J; Whittam, T S

    1999-08-01

    A multiplex PCR was designed to detect the eae gene and simultaneously identify specific alleles in pathogenic Escherichia coli. The method was tested on 87 strains representing the diarrheagenic E. coli clones. The results show that the PCR assay accurately detects eae and resolves alleles encoding the alpha, beta, and gamma intimin variants. PMID:10405431

  18. Mannose-binding lectin variant alleles and the risk of arterial thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlaeger, Tommy; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O;

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene are associated with SLE as well as with severe atherosclerosis. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin variant alleles were associated...

  19. A common allele on chromosome 9 associated with coronary heartdisease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Ruth; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Kavaslar, Nihan; Stewart, Alexandre; Roberts, Robert; Cox, David R.; Hinds, David; Pennachio, Len; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle,Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2007-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death in Western countries. Here we used genome-wide association scanning to identify a 58 kb interval on chromosome 9 that was consistently associated with CHD in six independent samples. The interval contains no annotated genes and is not associated with established CHD risk factors such as plasma lipoproteins, hypertension or diabetes. Homozygotes for the risk allele comprise 20-25% of Caucasians and have a {approx}30-40% increased risk of CHD. These data indicate that the susceptibility allele acts through a novel mechanism to increase CHD risk in a large fraction of the population.

  20. Quantitative differences in adhesiveness of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli due to structural differences in fimH genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokurenko, E V; Courtney, H S; Maslow, J; Siitonen, A; Hasty, D L

    1995-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are heteropolymeric surface organelles responsible for the D-mannose-sensitive (MS) adhesion of Escherichia coli. We recently reported that variation of receptor specificity of type 1 fimbriae can result solely from minor alterations in the structure of the gene for the FimH adhesin subunit. To further study the relationship between allelic variation of the fimH gene and adhesive properties of type 1 fimbriae, the fimH genes from five additional strains were cloned and used to complement the FimH deletion in E. coli KB18. When the parental and recombinant strains were tested for adhesion to immobilized mannan, a wide quantitative range in the ability of bacteria to adhere was noted. The differences in adhesion do not appear to be due to differences in the levels of fimbriation or relative levels of incorporation of FimH, because these parameters were similar in low-adhesion and high-adhesion strains. The nucleotide sequence for each of the fimH genes was determined. Analysis of deduced FimH sequences allowed identification of two sequence homology groups, based on the presence of Asn-70 and Ser-78 or Ser-70 and Asn-78 residues. The consensus sequences for each group conferred very low adhesion activity, and this low-adhesion phenotype predominated among a group of 43 fecal isolates. Strains isolated from a different host niche, the urinary tract, expressed type 1 fimbriae that conferred an increased level of adhesion. The results presented here strongly suggest that the quantitative variations in MS adhesion are due primarily to structural differences in the FimH adhesin. The observed differences in MS adhesion among populations of E. coli isolated from different host niches call attention to the possibility that phenotypic variants of FimH may play a functional role in populations dynamics. PMID:7601831

  1. Use of Polymer Micro-Structures for Drug & Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ben

    2005-03-01

    The design of polymer microstructures, including polyelectrolyte-surfactant complex formation, plays an important role in the protection and controlled release of drugs & DNA fragments. Two examples are presented: one for drug release and one for gene delivery. Non-viral gene therapy is a challenging problem that has not yet met much success even though numerous attempts have been made. The gene delivery illustration aims to present one specific approach on how DNA fragments can be delivered to a cell by using an electro-spun scaffold as a carrier, i.e., to consider how DNA fragments can be trapped into a scaffold for subsequent release and transfection. Our scheme is to capture the DNA fragments by taking advantage of the DNA coil-to-globule transition and to encapsulate the condensed DNA globule by using block copolymers. The supra-molecular capsule can then be incorporated into a nano-structured biodegradable polymer scaffold by means of electro-spinning. Subsequent DNA release to cells that adhere to the scaffolds was measured by using fluorescence microscopy.AcknowledgementsFinancial Support:National Science Foundation, Polymers Program (DMR9984102 & Creativity Extension Award), Center for Biotechnology at Stony Brook, ITG Grant, and NIH SBIR Grant to STAR.Main contributors include Professors Benjamin S. Hsiao and Michael Hadjiargyrou, Drs. Dufei Fang, Dehai Liang and Kwangsok Kim, Ms. K. Luu and Mr. J. Chiu.

  2. Inferred vs realized patterns of gene flow: an analysis of population structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Colosimo

    Full Text Available Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p<<0.01. These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes.

  3. Inferred vs realized patterns of gene flow: an analysis of population structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosimo, Giuliano; Knapp, Charles R; Wallace, Lisa E; Welch, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p<0.01). These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes. PMID:25229344

  4. Disease-Causing Allele-Specific Silencing by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohiko Hohjoh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Small double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs of approximately 21-nucleotides in size, referred to as small interfering RNA (siRNA duplexes, can induce sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing, or RNA interference (RNAi. Since chemically synthesized siRNA duplexes were found to induce RNAi in mammalian cells, RNAi has become a powerful reverse genetic tool for suppressing the expression of a gene of interest in mammals, including human, and its application has been expanding to various fields. Recent studies further suggest that synthetic siRNA duplexes have the potential for specifically inhibiting the expression of an allele of interest without suppressing the expression of other alleles, i.e., siRNA duplexes likely confer allele-specific silencing. Such gene silencing by RNAi is an advanced technique with very promising applications. In this review, I would like to discuss the potential utility of allele-specific silencing by RNAi as a therapeutic method for dominantly inherited diseases, and describe possible improvements in siRNA duplexes for enhancing their efficacy.

  5. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  6. Alpha-synuclein gene structure,evolution,and protein aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Xiong; Peng Zhao; Zhiyun Guo; Jianhua Zhang; Diqiang Li; Canquan Mao

    2010-01-01

    α-synuclein,a member of the synuclein family,is predominately expressed in brain tissues,where it is the major component of Lewy bodies,the major hallmark of Parkinson's disease.We analyzed the phylogenetics,gene structure,and effects of different forms of α-synuclein on in vitro protein aggregation.The synuclein phylogenetic tree showed that sequences could be classified into α,β,and γ protein groups.The orthologous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein showed similar evolutionary distance to the paralogous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein.Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the amino-acid sequence of human α-synuclein can be divided into three regions: N-terminal amphipathic region(1-60),central hydrophobic non-amyloid beta component segment(61-95),and the C-terminal acidic part(96-140).The mutant site of A30P is at the second exon of α-synuclein,whereas E46K is located at the third exon of α-synuclein.α-synuclein alternative splicing results in four isomers,and five exons,all of which participate in protein coding,comprising 140 amino acids to produce the major α-synuclein in vivo.The threeα-synuclein isoforms are products of alternative splicing,α-synuclein 126,112 and 98.We also review the genetic and cellular factors that affect the aggregation of α-synuclein and compounds that inhibit aggregation.A better understanding of α-synuclein sequences,structure,and function may allow better targeted therapy and diagnosis of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect ge...

  8. Abnormalities in structure and expression of the retinoblastoma gene in small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Sorenson, G D; Pettengill, O S;

    1990-01-01

    The putative retinoblastoma gene (Rb) is a tumor suppressor gene which is believed to cause retinoblastomas when both alleles are inactivated, leading to lack of the encoded Mr 110,000-116,000 phosphoprotein. Inactivation of the Rb gene has also been found in several other tumor types, including...

  9. Complete sequence of HLA-B27 cDNA identified through the characterization of structural markers unique to the HLA-A, -B, and -C allelic series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoets, H.; Reithmueller, G.; Weiss, E.; Meo, T.

    1986-03-01

    Antigen HLA-B27 is a high-risk genetic factor with respect to a group of rheumatoid disorders, especially ankylosing spondylitis. A cDNA library was constructed from an autozygous B-cell line expressing HLA-B27, HLA-Cw1, and the previously cloned HLA-A2 antigen. Clones detected with an HLA probe were isolated and sorted into homology groups by differential hybridization and restriction maps. Nucleotide sequencing allowed the unambiguous assignment of cDNAs to HLA-A, -B, and -C loci. The HLA-B27 mRNA has the structure features and the codon variability typical of an HLA class I transcript but it specifies two uncommon amino acid replacements: a cysteine in position 67 and a serine in position 131. The latter substitution may have functional consequences, because it occurs in a conserved region and at a position invariably occupied by a species-specific arginine in humans and lysine in mice. The availability of the complete sequence of HLA-B27 and of the partial sequence of HLA-Cw1 allows the recognition of locus-specific sequence markers, particularly, but not exclusively, in the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains.

  10. [Features of the distribution of alleles of the HLA-DRB1 04 and HLA-DQB1 03 genes among healthy people of European origin in Western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartakova, M L; Konenkov, V I; Kimura, A

    1993-04-01

    The allelic HLA-DRB1 04 and HLA-DQB1 03 polymorphism in caucasians living among the West Siberia Mongoloid aborigenes was studied. As a result of our studies, it was shown that the HLA-DRB1 0403/07 predominates and HLA-DRB1 0404/08 is absent in the Russian population of West Siberia, in contrast to those among Caucasians living in West Europe and North America. The frequencies of HLA-DQB1 03 alleles are similar to those observed among the all Caucasians. Gametic association HLA-DR4 - HLA-DQw was found for the first time in Caucasians of West Siberia. PMID:8354474

  11. Novel method for analysis of allele specific expression in triploid Oryzias latipes reveals consistent pattern of allele exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzuni I Garcia

    Full Text Available Assessing allele-specific gene expression (ASE on a large scale continues to be a technically challenging problem. Certain biological phenomena, such as X chromosome inactivation and parental imprinting, affect ASE most drastically by completely shutting down the expression of a whole set of alleles. Other more subtle effects on ASE are likely to be much more complex and dependent on the genetic environment and are perhaps more important to understand since they may be responsible for a significant amount of biological diversity. Tools to assess ASE in a diploid biological system are becoming more reliable. Non-diploid systems are, however, not uncommon. In humans full or partial polyploid states are regularly found in both healthy (meiotic cells, polynucleated cell types and diseased tissues (trisomies, non-disjunction events, cancerous tissues. In this work we have studied ASE in the medaka fish model system. We have developed a method for determining ASE in polyploid organisms from RNAseq data and we have implemented this method in a software tool set. As a biological model system we have used nuclear transplantation to experimentally produce artificial triploid medaka composed of three different haplomes. We measured ASE in RNA isolated from the livers of two adult, triploid medaka fish that showed a high degree of similarity. The majority of genes examined (82% shared expression more or less evenly among the three alleles in both triploids. The rest of the genes (18% displayed a wide range of ASE levels. Interestingly the majority of genes (78% displayed generally consistent ASE levels in both triploid individuals. A large contingent of these genes had the same allele entirely suppressed in both triploids. When viewed in a chromosomal context, it is revealed that these genes are from large sections of 4 chromosomes and may be indicative of some broad scale suppression of gene expression.

  12. Gene variation, population differentiation, and sociogenetic structure of nests of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlo Rivero Moura; Martins, Celso Feitosa; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Gene variation and the differentiation of two populations of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) from the Caatinga biome, a semiarid ecosystem unique to Brazil, were estimated through allozymic and microsatellite analyses. These populations exhibited similar low degrees of enzyme gene variation. Observed genotype frequencies at the allozyme and microsatellite loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two populations. Both markers demonstrated that the two populations are not genetically homogeneous and must be considered distinct populations. The occurrence of private alleles at the allozyme and microsatellite loci corroborates this differentiation, sustaining the hypothesis of a low level of interpopulation gene flow. The phenotypic segregations clearly demonstrated that the progeny inside each nest were the result of mating between the queen of the colony and only one male. PMID:21938561

  13. Genetic Diversity Based on Allozyme Alleles of Chinese Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; JIANG Yun-zhu; D S Brar; G S Khush

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity was analyzed with 6 632 core rice cultivars selected from 60 282 Chinese rice accessions on the basis of 12 allozyme loci, Pgil, Pgi2, Ampl, Amp2, Amp3, Amp4, Sdh1, Adh1, Est1, Est2, Est5 and Est9, by starch gel electrophoresis. Among the materials examined, 52 alleles at 12 polymorphic loci were identified, which occupied 96.3% of 54 alleles found in cultivated germplasm of O.sativa L. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 4.33. The gene diversity (He) each locus varied considerably from 0.017 for Amp4 to 0.583 for Est2 with an average gene diversity (Ht) 0.271, and Shannon-Wiener index from 0.055 to 0.946 with an average of 0.468. The degree of polymorphism (DP) was in a range from 0.9 to 46.9% with an average of 21.4%. It was found that the genetic diversity in japonica (Keng) subspecies was lower in terms of allele's number, Ht and S-W index, being 91.8, 66.2 and 75.7% of indica (Hsien) one, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between indica and japonica rice has been appeared in the loci Pgil, Amp2, Pgi2, and Est2, with higher average coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst) 0.635, 0.626, 0.322 and 0.282, respectively. Except less allele number per locus (3.33) for modern cultivars, being 76.9% of landraces, the Ht and S-W index showed in similar between the modern cultivars and the landraces detected. In terms of allozyme, the rice cultivars in the Southwest Plateau and Central China have richer genetic diversity. The present study reveals again that Chinese cultivated rice germplasm has rich genetic diversity, showed by the allozyme allele variation.

  14. A common mutation associated with the Duarte galactosemia allele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Dembure, P.P.; Langley, S.; Paulk, E.M.; Hjelm, L.N.; Fridovich-Keil, J. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The human cDNA and gene for galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) have been cloned and sequenced. A prevalant mutation (Q188R) is known to cause classic galactosemia (G/G). G/G galactosemia has an incidence of 1/38,886 in 1,396,766 Georgia live-born infants, but a more common variant of galactosemia, Duarte, has an unknown incidence. The proposed Duarte biochemical phenotypes of GALT are as follows: D/N, D/D, and D/G, which have [approximately]75%, 50%, and 25% of normal GALT activity, respectively. In addition, the D allele has isoforms of its enzyme that have more acidic pI than normal. Here the authors systematically determine (a) the prevalence of an A-to-G transition at base pair 2744 of exon 10 in the GALT gene, a transition that produces a codon change converting asparagine to aspartic acid at position 314 (N314D), and (b) the association of this mutation with the Duarte biochemical phenotype. The 2744G nucleotide change adds an AvaII (SinI) cut site, which was identified in PCR-amplified DNA. In 111 biochemically unphenotyped controls with no history of galactosemia, 13 N314D alleles were identified (prevalence 5.9%). In a prospective study, 40 D alleles were biochemically phenotyped, and 40 N314D alleles were found. By contrast, in 36 individuals known not to have the Duarte biochemical phenotype, no N314D alleles were found. The authors conclude that the N314D mutation is a common allele that probably causes the Duarte GALT biochemical phenotype and occurs in a predominantly Caucasian, nongalactosemic population, with a prevalence of 5.9%. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Invasive Allele Spread under Preemptive Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Yasi, J. A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study a discrete spatial model for invasive allele spread in which two alleles compete preemptively, initially only the "residents" (weaker competitors) being present. We find that the spread of the advantageous mutation is well described by homogeneous nucleation; in particular, in large systems the time-dependent global density of the resident allele is well approximated by Avrami's law.

  16. Using multi-locus allelic sequence data to estimate genetic divergence among four Lilium (Liliaceae cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa eShahin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing (NGS may enable estimating relationships among genotypes using allelic variation of multiple nuclear genes simultaneously. We explored the potential and caveats of this strategy in four genetically distant Lilium cultivars to estimate their genetic divergence from transcriptome sequences using three approaches: POFAD (Phylogeny of Organisms from Allelic Data, uses allelic information of sequence data, RAxML (Randomized Accelerated Maximum Likelihood, tree building based on concatenated consensus sequences and Consensus Network (constructing a network summarizing among gene tree conflicts. Twenty six gene contigs were chosen based on the presence of orthologous sequences in all cultivars, seven of which also had an orthologous sequence in Tulipa, used as out-group. The three approaches generated the same topology. Although the resolution offered by these approaches is high, in this case there was no extra benefit in using allelic information. We conclude that these 26 genes can be widely applied to construct a species tree for the genus Lilium.

  17. A new analysis tool for individual-level allele frequency for genomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wen-Harn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allele frequency is one of the most important population indices and has been broadly applied to genetic/genomic studies. Estimation of allele frequency using genotypes is convenient but may lose data information and be sensitive to genotyping errors. Results This study utilizes a unified intensity-measuring approach to estimating individual-level allele frequencies for 1,104 and 1,270 samples genotyped with the single-nucleotide-polymorphism arrays of the Affymetrix Human Mapping 100K and 500K Sets, respectively. Allele frequencies of all samples are estimated and adjusted by coefficients of preferential amplification/hybridization (CPA, and large ethnicity-specific and cross-ethnicity databases of CPA and allele frequency are established. The results show that using the CPA significantly improves the accuracy of allele frequency estimates; moreover, this paramount factor is insensitive to the time of data acquisition, effect of laboratory site, type of gene chip, and phenotypic status. Based on accurate allele frequency estimates, analytic methods based on individual-level allele frequencies are developed and successfully applied to discover genomic patterns of allele frequencies, detect chromosomal abnormalities, classify sample groups, identify outlier samples, and estimate the purity of tumor samples. The methods are packaged into a new analysis tool, ALOHA (Allele-frequency/Loss-of-heterozygosity/Allele-imbalance. Conclusions This is the first time that these important genetic/genomic applications have been simultaneously conducted by the analyses of individual-level allele frequencies estimated by a unified intensity-measuring approach. We expect that additional practical applications for allele frequency analysis will be found. The developed databases and tools provide useful resources for human genome analysis via high-throughput single-nucleotide-polymorphism arrays. The ALOHA software was written in R and R GUI and

  18. Human glucose phosphate isomerase: Exon mapping and gene structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Weiming; Lee, Pauline; Beutler, E. [Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1995-10-10

    The structure of the gene for human glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) has been determined. Three GPI clones were isolated from a human genomic library by using a full-length GPI cDNA probe and were characterized. Oligonucleotides based on the known cDNA sequence were used as primers in amplification and sequence analyses. This led to the identification of the exon-intron junctions. By this approach, 18 exons and 17 introns have been identified. The exons range in size from 44 to 431 nucleotides. The intronic sequences surrounding the exons provide useful information for the identification of mutations that give rise to human GPI deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic anemia. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Gain-of-Function Alleles in Caenorhabditis elegans Nuclear Hormone Receptor nhr-49 Are Functionally Distinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Goh, Grace Ying Shyen; Wong, Marcus Andrew; Klassen, Tara Leah; Taubert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors that regulate numerous physiological and developmental processes and represent important drug targets. NHR-49, an ortholog of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 (HNF4), has emerged as a key regulator of lipid metabolism and life span in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. However, many aspects of NHR-49 function remain poorly understood, including whether and how it regulates individual sets of target genes and whether its activity is modulated by a ligand. A recent study identified three gain-of-function (gof) missense mutations in nhr-49 (nhr-49(et7), nhr-49(et8), and nhr-49(et13), respectively). These substitutions all affect the ligand-binding domain (LBD), which is critical for ligand binding and protein interactions. Thus, these alleles provide an opportunity to test how three specific residues contribute to NHR-49 dependent gene regulation. We used computational and molecular methods to delineate how these mutations alter NHR-49 activity. We find that despite originating from a screen favoring the activation of specific NHR-49 targets, all three gof alleles cause broad upregulation of NHR-49 regulated genes. Interestingly, nhr-49(et7) and nhr-49(et8) exclusively affect nhr-49 dependent activation, whereas the nhr-49(et13) surprisingly affects both nhr-49 mediated activation and repression, implicating the affected residue as dually important. We also observed phenotypic non-equivalence of these alleles, as they unexpectedly caused a long, short, and normal life span, respectively. Mechanistically, the gof substitutions altered neither protein interactions with the repressive partner NHR-66 and the coactivator MDT-15 nor the subcellular localization or expression of NHR-49. However, in silico structural modeling revealed that NHR-49 likely interacts with small molecule ligands and that the missense mutations might alter ligand binding, providing a possible explanation for increased NHR-49 activity. In

  20. GeneViTo: Visualizing gene-product functional and structural features in genomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promponas Vasilis J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of increasing amounts of sequence data from completely sequenced genomes boosts the development of new computational methods for automated genome annotation and comparative genomics. Therefore, there is a need for tools that facilitate the visualization of raw data and results produced by bioinformatics analysis, providing new means for interactive genome exploration. Visual inspection can be used as a basis to assess the quality of various analysis algorithms and to aid in-depth genomic studies. Results GeneViTo is a JAVA-based computer application that serves as a workbench for genome-wide analysis through visual interaction. The application deals with various experimental information concerning both DNA and protein sequences (derived from public sequence databases or proprietary data sources and meta-data obtained by various prediction algorithms, classification schemes or user-defined features. Interaction with a Graphical User Interface (GUI allows easy extraction of genomic and proteomic data referring to the sequence itself, sequence features, or general structural and functional features. Emphasis is laid on the potential comparison between annotation and prediction data in order to offer a supplement to the provided information, especially in cases of "poor" annotation, or an evaluation of available predictions. Moreover, desired information can be output in high quality JPEG image files for further elaboration and scientific use. A compilation of properly formatted GeneViTo input data for demonstration is available to interested readers for two completely sequenced prokaryotes, Chlamydia trachomatis and Methanococcus jannaschii. Conclusions GeneViTo offers an inspectional view of genomic functional elements, concerning data stemming both from database annotation and analysis tools for an overall analysis of existing genomes. The application is compatible with Linux or Windows ME-2000-XP operating

  1. Chromosomal mapping, gene structure and characterization of the human and murine RAB27B gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rab GTPases are regulators of intracellular membrane traffic. The Rab27 subfamily consists of Rab27a and Rab27b. Rab27a has been recently implicated in Griscelli Disease, a disease combining partial albinism with severe immunodeficiency. Rab27a plays a key role in the function of lysosomal-like organelles such as melanosomes in melanocytes and lytic granules in cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Little is known about Rab27b. Results The human RAB27B gene is organised in six exons, spanning about 69 kb in the chromosome 18q21.1 region. Exon 1 is non-coding and is separated from the others by 49 kb of DNA and exon 6 contains a long 3' untranslated sequence (6.4 kb. The mouse Rab27b cDNA shows 95% identity with the human cDNA at the protein level and maps to mouse chromosome 18. The mouse mRNA was detected in stomach, large intestine, spleen and eye by RT-PCR, and in heart, brain, spleen and kidney by Northern blot. Transient over-expression of EGF-Rab27b fusion protein in cultured melanocytes revealed that Rab27b is associated with melanosomes, as observed for EGF-Rab27a. Conclusions Our results indicate that the Rab27 subfamily of Ras-like GTPases is highly conserved in mammals. There is high degree of conservation in sequence and gene structure between RAB27A and RAB27B genes. Exogenous expression of Rab27b in melanocytes results in melanosomal association as observed for Rab27a, suggesting the two Rab27 proteins are functional homologues. As with RAB27A in Griscelli Disease, RAB27B may be also associated with human disease mapping to chromosome 18.

  2. The structure of an unusual leghemoglobin gene from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O;

    1983-01-01

    A clone containing an unusual leghemoglobin (Lb) gene was isolated from a soybean DNA library present in Charon 4A phage. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the isolated Lb gene has three intervening sequences (IVS-1, IVS-2 and IVS-3) located in the same positions as those found in other Lb genes....... Due to a large increase of IVS-2 and IVS-3, the isolated Lb gene is about twice the size of a normal Lb gene. The coding sequence derived from the DNA sequence corresponds to no known soybean Lb and attempts to find a corresponding mRNA failed. In addition, the 5'-flanking sequence of the Lb gene is...

  3. Structure and ovarian expression of the oxytocin gene in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivell, R; Hunt, N; Abend, N; Brackman, B; Nollmeyer, D; Lamsa, J C; McCracken, J A

    1990-01-01

    In sheep, the oxytocin gene is highly up-regulated in the ovarian corpus luteum as well as in the hypothalamus. This expression is already elevated on Day 2 of the oestrous cycle, representing 1% of all transcripts in this tissue, and it declines thereafter to low levels after Day 6 of the cycle. In order to study the mechanisms involved in luteal oxytocin gene expression, we have cloned and sequenced the oxytocin gene from the sheep. This gene is closely homologous to other known mammalian oxytocin genes, especially the bovine one, and comparison of the gene promoter regions highlights several blocks of putative control elements. PMID:2095591

  4. Genetic variation and population structure of interleukin genes among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srilakshmi M. Raj; Diddahally R. Govindaraju; Ranajit Chakraborty

    2007-12-01

    The extent of genetic variation and the degree of genetic differentiation among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India (Bunt, Havyak, Iyengar, Lingayath, Smartha, Vaishya, Vokkaliga), was investigated using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: IL-1A 4845, IL-1B 3954, IL-1B 511 and IL-1RA 2018) of the interleukin gene cluster. Allele frequencies varied by threefold among these populations, which also differed for gene diversity and heterozygosity levels. The average degree of population subdivision among these castes was low ($F_{ST} = 0.02$). However, pair-wise interpopulation differentiation ranged from 0–7%, indicating no detectable differentiation to moderate differentiation between specific populations. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on genetic distances between populations agreed with known social and cultural data on these ethnic groups. Variation in the allele frequencies, as well as differentiation, may be attributed to differential selection and demographic factors including consanguinity among the ethnic groups. Information on the distribution of functionally relevant polymorphisms among ethnic populations may be important towards developing community medicine and public health policies.

  5. Allele-specific enzymatic amplification of. beta. -globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.Y.; Ugozzoli, L.; Pal, B.K.; Wallace, B. (Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    A rapid nonradioactive approach to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is described based on an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR). This method allows direct detection of the normal or the sickle cell {beta}-globin allele in genomic DNA without additional steps of probe hybridization, ligation, or restriction enzyme cleavage. Two allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, one specific for the sickle cell allele and one specific for the normal allele, together with another primer complementary to both alleles were used in the polymerase chain reaction with genomic DNA templates. The allele-specific primers differed from each other in their terminal 3{prime} nucleotide. Under the proper annealing temperature and polymerase chain reaction conditions, these primers only directed amplification on their complementary allele. In a single blind study of DNA samples from 12 individuals, this method correctly and unambiguously allowed for the determination of the genotypes with no false negatives or positives. If ASPCR is able to discriminate all allelic variation (both transition and transversion mutations), this method has the potential to be a powerful approach for genetic disease diagnosis, carrier screening, HLA typing, human gene mapping, forensics, and paternity testing.

  6. Persistence of the common Hartnup disease D173N allele in populations of European origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmanov, Dimitar N; Rodgers, Helen; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Giguère, Robert; Bailey, Charles; Bröer, Stefan; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen A

    2007-11-01

    Hartnup disorder is an aminoaciduria that results from mutations in the recently described gene SLC6A19 on chromosome 5p15.33. The disease is inherited in a simple recessive manner and ten different mutations have been described to date. One mutation, the D173N allele, is present in 42% of Hartnup chromosomes from apparently unrelated families from both Australia and North America. We report an investigation of the origins of the D173N allele using a unique combination of variants including SNPs, microsatellites, and a VNTR across 211 Kb spanning the SLC6A19 locus. All individuals who carry the mutant allele share an identical core haplotype suggesting a single common ancestor, indicating that the elevated frequency of the D173N allele is not a result of recurrent mutation. Analyses of these data indicate that the allele is more than 1000 years old. We compare the reasons for survival of this allele with other major alleles in some other common autosomal recessive diseases occurring in European Caucasians. We postulate that survival of this allele may be a consequence of failure of the allele to completely inactivate the transport of neutral amino acids. PMID:17555458

  7. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  8. Distribution of a pseudodeficiency allele among Tay-Sachs carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, J.; Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Boogen, C. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Recently Triggs-Raine et al. (1992) identified a new mutation in the gene coding for the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (hex A), the enzyme whose deficiency causes Tay-Sachs disease. This mutation, a C[sub 739]-to-T transition in exon 7, results in an altered enzyme that is active (albeit at reduced levels) in cells but that has essentially no activity in serum. This so-called pseudodeficient allele was first detected in compound heterozygotes who also carried a Tay-Sachs disease allele and therefore had no detectable hex A in their serum but who were in good health. Carriers of this apparently benign mutation are generally indistinguishable from carriers of a lethal mutation by means of routine enzyme-based screening tests, because the product of the pseudodeficient allele is not detectable in serum and has decreased activity in cells. This suggests that some individuals who have been classified as Tay-Sachs carriers are actually carriers of the pseudodeficient allele and are not at risk to have a child affected with Tay-Sachs disease. The pseudodeficient allele may also be responsible for some inconclusive diagnoses, where leukocyte values fall below the normal range but are still above the carrier range. The fact that there are now two mutant alleles (the psuedodeficient and the adult) that are indistinguishable from the lethal infantile mutations by means of enzyme assay yet that are phenotypically very different and that together may account for as much as 12% of enzyme-defined carriers on the basis of the data here suggests that DNA analysis should be part of a comprehensive screening program. It will be particularly useful to identify the mutations in couples at risk, before they undergo prenatal diagnosis. DNA analysis will also resolve some inconclusive diagnoses.

  9. Early allelic selection in maize as revealed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenicke-Després, Viviane; Buckler, Ed S; Smith, Bruce D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Cooper, Alan; Doebley, John; Pääbo, Svante

    2003-11-14

    Maize was domesticated from teosinte, a wild grass, by approximately 6300 years ago in Mexico. After initial domestication, early farmers continued to select for advantageous morphological and biochemical traits in this important crop. However, the timing and sequence of character selection are, thus far, known only for morphological features discernible in corn cobs. We have analyzed three genes involved in the control of plant architecture, storage protein synthesis, and starch production from archaeological maize samples from Mexico and the southwestern United States. The results reveal that the alleles typical of contemporary maize were present in Mexican maize by 4400 years ago. However, as recently as 2000 years ago, allelic selection at one of the genes may not yet have been complete. PMID:14615538

  10. Structure of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cytochrome c gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, P R; Hall, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    The cytochrome c gene of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been cloned by using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae iso-1-cytochrome c gene as a molecular hybridization probe. The DNA sequence and the 5' termini of the mRNA transcripts of the gene have been determined. The DNA sequence has confirmed, with two exceptions, the previously determined protein sequence. The nonrandom distribution of silent third base differences which was observed between the two cytochrome c genes of S. cer...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus clfB and spa alleles of the repeat regions are segregated into major phylogenetic lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Patrick; Hammer, Nevena Basic; Kuhn, Gerrit; Vogel, Valérie; Sakwinska, Olga; Blanc, Dominique S

    2009-09-01

    To reliably differentiate among Staphylococcus aureus isolates we recently developed the Double Locus Sequence Typing (DLST) based on the analysis of partial sequences of clfB and spa genes. This method is highly discriminatory and gives unambiguous definition of types. The highly clonal population structure of S. aureus suggests that isolates with identical clfB or spa alleles belong to the same clonal complex (CC) defined by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). To test this hypothesis as well as to investigate putative intra-CC genetic structure, we analyzed a total of 289 isolates (186 MSSA and 103 MRSA) with DLST-, spa- and MLST-typing. Among the 289 strains, 242 were clustered into 7 major MLST CCs, 40 into minor CCs and 7 were not grouped into CCs. A total of 205 DLST- and 129 spa-types were observed. With one exception, all DLST-clfB, DLST-spa and spa-type alleles were segregated into CCs. DLST-types sharing an identical allele (clfB or spa) were clustered using eBURST. Except for one strain, all isolates from each DLST cluster belonged to the same CC. However, using both DLST- and spa-typing we were not able to disclose a clear intra-CC structure. Nevertheless, the high diversity of these loci confirmed that they are good markers for local epidemiological investigations. PMID:19559820

  12. The primary structures of two leghemoglobin genes from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O; Paludan, K; Wiborg, O; Garrett, R; Jørgensen, Poul; Marcker, K A

    1982-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes isolated from soybean DNA. Both genes contain three intervening sequences which interrupt the two coding sequences in identical positions. The 5' and 3' flanking sequences in both genes contain conserved sequences similar to...

  13. MADS-box gene evolution-structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise B; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a phylogenetic analysis of 198 MADS-box genes based on 420 parsimony-informative characters. The analysis includes only MIKC genes; therefore several genes from gymnosperms and pteridophytes are excluded. The strict consensus tree identifies all major monophyletic groups known...

  14. Generating Novel Allelic Variation Through Activator Insertional Mutagenesis in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Ling; Singh, Manjit; Pitt, Lauren; Sweeney, Meredith; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    The maize transposable element Activator (Ac) has been exploited as an insertional mutagen to disrupt, clone, and characterize genes in a number of plant species. To develop an Ac-based mutagenesis platform for maize, a large-scale mutagenesis was conducted targeting the pink scutellum1 locus. We selected 1092 Ac transposition events from a closely linked donor Ac, resulting in the recovery of 17 novel ps1 alleles. Multiple phenotypic classes were identified corresponding to Ac insertions in ...

  15. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Detection by Pyrosequencing®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer Kristensen, Lasse; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays important roles in healthy as well as diseased cells, by influencing the transcription of genes. In spite the fact that human somatic cells are diploid, most of the currently available methods for the study of DNA methylation do not provide......-effective protocol for allele-specific DNA methylation detection based on Pyrosequencing(®) of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) products including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the amplicon....

  16. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  17. A Risk Allele for Nicotine Dependence in CHRNA5 Is a Protective Allele for Cocaine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Saccone, Scott F.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Budde, John P.; Fox, Louis; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kramer, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Tischfield, Jay; Nurnberger, John. I.; Almasy, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A non-synonymous coding polymorphism, rs16969968, of the CHRNA5 gene which encodes the alpha-5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been found to be associated with nicotine dependence (20). The goal of the present study is to examine the association of this variant with cocaine dependence. Methods Genetic association analysis in two, independent samples of unrelated cases and controls; 1.) 504 European-American participating in the Family Study on Cocaine Dependence (FSCD); 2.) 814 European Americans participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholsim (COGA). Results In the FSCD, there was a significant association between the CHRNA5 variant and cocaine dependence (OR = 0.67 per allele, p = 0.0045, assuming an additive genetic model), but in the reverse direction compared to that previously observed for nicotine dependence. In multivariate analyses that controlled for the effects of nicotine dependence, both the protective effect for cocaine dependence and the previously documented risk effect for nicotine dependence were statistically significant. The protective effect for cocaine dependence was replicated in the COGA sample. In COGA, effect sizes for habitual smoking, a proxy phenotype for nicotine dependence, were consistent with those observed in FSCD. Conclusion The minor (A) allele of rs16969968, relative to the major G allele, appears to be both a risk factor for nicotine dependence and a protective factor for cocaine dependence. The biological plausibility of such a bidirectional association stems from the involvement of nAChRs with both excitatory and inhibitory modulation of dopamine-mediated reward pathways. PMID:18519132

  18. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human renal kallikrein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glandular kallikreins are a family of proteases encoded by a variable number of genes in different mammalian species. In all species examined, however, one particular kallikrein is functionally conserved in its capacity to release the vasoactive peptide, Lys-bradykinin, from low molecular weight kininogen. This kallikrein is found in the kidney, pancreas, and salivary gland, showing a unique pattern of tissue-specific expression relative to other members of the family. The authors have isolated a genomic clone carrying the human renal kallikrein gene and compared the nucleotide sequence of its promoter region with those of the mouse renal kallikrein gene and another mouse kallikrein gene expressed in a distinct cell type. They find four sequence elements conserved between renal kallikrein genes from the two species. They have also shown that the human gene is localized to 19q13, a position analogous to that of the kallikrein gene family on mouse chromosome 7

  19. Overdispersion in allelic counts and θ-correction in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    2010-01-01

    We present a statistical model for incorporating the extra variability in allelic counts due to subpopulation structures. In forensic genetics, this effect is modelled by the identical-by-descent parameter θ, which measures the relationship between pairs of alleles within a population relative to...... the relationship of alleles between populations (Weir, 2007). In our statistical approach, we demonstrate that θ may be defined as an overdispersion parameter capturing the subpopulation effects. This formulation allows derivation of maximum likelihood estimates of the allele probabilities and θ...

  20. THE MAIZE UNSTABLE FACTOR FOR ORANGE1 IS A DOMINANT EPIGENETIC MODIFIER OF A TISSUE SPECIFICALLY SILENT ALLELE OF PERICARP COLOR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have characterized Ufo1 (unstable factor for orange1), a dominant, allele-specific modifier of expression of the maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene. The p1 gene encodes a Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments. The P1-wr allele speci...

  1. Informational structure of genetic sequences and nature of gene splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, E. N.

    1991-10-01

    Only about 1/20 of DNA of higher organisms codes for proteins, by means of classical triplet code. The rest of DNA sequences is largely silent, with unclear functions, if any. The triplet code is not the only code (message) carried by the sequences. There are three levels of molecular communication, where the same sequence ``talks'' to various bimolecules, while having, respectively, three different appearances: DNA, RNA and protein. Since the molecular structures and, hence, sequence specific preferences of these are substantially different, the original DNA sequence has to carry simultaneously three types of sequence patterns (codes, messages), thus, being a composite structure in which one had the same letter (nucleotide) is frequently involved in several overlapping codes of different nature. This multiplicity and overlapping of the codes is a unique feature of the Gnomic, language of genetic sequences. The coexisting codes have to be degenerate in various degrees to allow an optimal and concerted performance of all the encoded functions. There is an obvious conflict between the best possible performance of a given function and necessity to compromise the quality of a given sequence pattern in favor of other patterns. It appears that the major role of various changes in the sequences on their ``ontogenetic'' way from DNA to RNA to protein, like RNA editing and splicing, or protein post-translational modifications is to resolve such conflicts. New data are presented strongly indicating that the gene splicing is such a device to resolve the conflict between the code of DNA folding in chromatin and the triplet code for protein synthesis.

  2. Beyond branching: multiknot structured polymer for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aied, Ahmed; Zheng, Yu; Newland, Ben; Wang, Wenxin

    2014-12-01

    Polymer-based transfection vectors are increasingly becoming the preferred alternative to viral vectors thanks to their safety and ease of production, but low transfection potency has limited their application. Many polycationic vectors show high efficiency in vitro, but their excessive charge density makes them toxic for in vivo applications. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of new and unique disulfide-reducible polymeric gene nanocarriers that exhibit significantly enhanced transfection potency and low cytotoxicity, particularly in skin cells, surpassing the efficiency of the well-known transfection reagents polyethylenimine (PEI) and Lipofectamine2000. The unique three-dimensional (3D) "multiknot" vectors were synthesized from in situ deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical (co)polymerization (DE-ATRP) of multivinyl monomers (MVMs). The high transfection levels and low toxicity of this multiknot structured polymer in vitro, combined with its ability to mediate collagen VII expression in 3D skin equivalents made from cells of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa patients, demonstrates its use as a platform nanotechnology which should be investigated further for dermatological disease therapies. Our findings suggest that the marked improvements stem from the dense multiknot architecture and degradable property, which facilitate both the binding and releasing process of the plasmid DNA. PMID:25375252

  3. A new gene co-expression network analysis based on Core Structure Detection (CSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet, A-C; Azais, J-M; Loubes, J-M; Amar, J; Burcelin, R

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method to cluster gene networks. Based on a dissimilarity built using correlation structures, we consider networks that connect all the genes based on the strength of their dissimilarity. The large number of genes require the use of the threshold to find sparse structures in the graph. in this work, using the notion of graph coreness, we identify clusters of genes which are central in the network. Then we estimate a network that has these genes as main hubs. We use this new...

  4. Structure of homeobox-leucine zipper genes suggests a model for the evolution of gene families.

    OpenAIRE

    Schena, M; Davis, R W

    1994-01-01

    Homeobox genes are present in both plants and animals. Homeobox-leucine zipper genes, however, have been identified thus far only in the small mustard plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This observation suggests that homeobox-leucine zipper genes evolved after the divergence of plants and animals, perhaps to mediate specific regulatory events. To better understand this gene family, we isolated several sequences containing the homeobox-leucine zipper motif and carried out a comparative analysis of ni...

  5. Estimating the age of alleles by use of intraallelic variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatkin, M.; Rannala, B. [Univ of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A method is presented for estimating the age of an allele by use of its frequency and the extent of variation among different copies. The method uses the joint distribution of the number of copies in a population sample and the coalescence times of the intraallelic gene genealogy conditioned on the number of copies. The linear birth-death process is used to approximate the dynamics of a rare allele in a finite population. A maximum-likelihood estimate of the age of the allele is obtained by Monte Carlo integration over the coalescence times. The method is applied to two alleles at the cystic fibrosis (CFTR) locus, {Delta}F508 and G542X, for which intraallelic variability at three intronic microsatellite loci has been examined. Our results indicate that G542X is somewhat older than {Delta}F508. Although absolute estimates depend on the mutation rates at the microsatellite loci, our results support the hypothesis that {Delta}F508 arose <500 generations ({approx}10,000 years) ago. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  7. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  8. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fupeng Li; Chaoyun Hao; Lin Yan; Baoduo Wu; Xiaowei Qin; Jianxiong Lai; Yinghui Song

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  9. Validation of a Multiplex Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of KRAS Gene Mutations in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues from Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat Seekhuntod

    Full Text Available Patients with KRAS mutations do not respond to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors and fail to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mutation analysis of KRAS is needed before starting treatment with monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. The objective of this study is to develop a multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR assay to detect KRAS mutations.We developed a single-tube MAS-PCR assay for the detection of seven KRAS mutations (G12D, G12A, G12R, G12C, G12S, G12V, and G13D. We performed MAS-PCR assay analysis for KRAS on DNA isolated from 270 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE colorectal cancer tissues. Sequences of all 270 samples were determined by pyrosequencing. Seven known point-mutation DNA samples diluted with wild-type DNA were assayed to determine the limitation of detection and reproducibility of the MAS-PCR assay.Overall, the results of MAS-PCR assay were in good concordance with pyrosequencing, and only seven discordant samples were found. The MAS-PCR assay reproducibly detected 1 to 2% mutant alleles. The most common mutations were G13D in codon 13 (49.17%, G12D (25.83% and G12V (12.50% in codon 12.The MAS-PCR assay provides a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tool for accurate detection of KRAS mutations in routine FFPE colorectal cancer tissues.

  10. Origin of laccase gene structural diversity in edible mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Billette, Christophe; Gibard, Thierry; Foulongne Oriol, Marie; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Laccase genes have been found in fungi, plants, insects and bacteria. In Basidiomycetes, the number of laccase genes ranges from 0 to 17. The role of these genes is not well known. It seems to be important in fungal interaction, development, melanine synthesis, human and plant pathogenesis, [ectomycorrhizal association and nutrition of the fungi]. Their role as ligninmodifying enzymes is controversial. Laccase phylogeny already published is not congruent with species phylogeny. Phylogeny of g...

  11. Hierarchical structure of genetic distances: Effects of matrix size, spatial distribution and correlation structure among gene frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Flávia Melo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic structure of genetic distances among local populations within species, based on allozyme data, has usually been evaluated by estimating genetic distances clustered with hierarchical algorithms, such as the unweighted pair-group method by arithmetic averages (UPGMA. The distortion produced in the clustering process is estimated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient. This hierarchical approach, however, can fail to produce an accurate representation of genetic distances among populations in a low dimensional space, especially when continuous (clinal or reticulate patterns of variation exist. In the present study, we analyzed 50 genetic distance matrices from the literature, for animal taxa ranging from Platyhelminthes to Mammalia, in order to determine in which situations the UPGMA is useful to understand patterns of genetic variation among populations. The cophenetic correlation coefficients, derived from UPGMA based on three types of genetic distance coefficients, were correlated with other parameters of each matrix, including number of populations, loci, alleles, maximum geographic distance among populations, relative magnitude of the first eigenvalue of covariance matrix among alleles and logarithm of body size. Most cophenetic correlations were higher than 0.80, and the highest values appeared for Nei's and Rogers' genetic distances. The relationship between cophenetic correlation coefficients and the other parameters analyzed was defined by an "envelope space", forming triangles in which higher values of cophenetic correlations are found for higher values in the parameters, though low values do not necessarily correspond to high cophenetic correlations. We concluded that UPGMA is useful to describe genetic distances based on large distance matrices (both in terms of elevated number of populations or alleles, when dimensionality of the system is low (matrices with large first eigenvalues or when local populations are separated

  12. Spontaneous gene flow and population structure in wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiaer, L.P.; Felber, F.; Flavell, A.; Guadagnuola, R.; Guiatti, D.; Hauser, T.P.; Olivieri, A. M.; Scotti, I.; Syed, N; Vischi, M.; Wiel, van de, L.; Jorgensen, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous gene flow between wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L. , may have implications for the genetic structure and evolution of populations and varieties. One aspect of this crop-wild gene flow is the dispersal of transgenes from genetically modified varieties, e.g. gene flow from GM chicory to natural chicory could have unwanted consequences. With the purpose to identify and quantify crop-wild gene flow in chicory, we analysed introgression in 19 wild chicory populations a...

  13. The genomic structure of the DMBT1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Holmskov, U; Wiemann, S;

    1999-01-01

    Increasing evidence has accumulated for an involvement of the inactivation of tumour suppressor genes at chromosome 10q in the carcinogenesis of brain tumours, melanomas, and carcinomas of the lung, the prostate, the pancreas, and the endometrium. The gene DMBT1 (Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours...... gastrointestinal and lung cancers. Based on these properties, DMBT1 has been proposed to be a candidate tumour suppressor gene. We have determined the genomic sequence of DMBT1 to allow analyses of mutations. The gene has at least 54 exons that span a genomic region of about 80 kb. We have identified a putative...

  14. Genome-wide identification of structural variants in genes encoding drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Dahmcke, Christina Mackeprang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify structural variants of drug target-encoding genes on a genome-wide scale. We also aimed at identifying drugs that are potentially amenable for individualization of treatments based on knowledge about structural variation in the genes encoding the...

  15. Gene3D: structural assignments for the biologist and bioinformaticist alike

    OpenAIRE

    Buchan, D. W. A.; Rison, S. C. G.; Bray, J.E.; Lee, D; Pearl, F.; Thornton, J M; Orengo, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Gene3D database ( http: / / www. biochem. ucl. ac. uk/ bsm/ cath_ new/ Gene3D/) provides structural assignments for genes within complete genomes. These are available via the internet from either the World Wide Web or FTP. Assignments are made using PSI- BLAST and subsequently processed using the DRange protocol. The DRange protocol is an empirically benchmarked method for assessing the validity of structural assignments made using sequence searching methods where appropriate assignment s...

  16. Interaction of alleles of the relA, relC and spoT genes in Escherichia coli: analysis of the interconversion of GTP, ppGpp and pppGpp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, N P; Willumsen, B M; Friesen, J D;

    1977-01-01

    Mutants in the spo T gene have been isolated as stringent second site revertants of the relC mutation. These show varying degrees of the characteristics associated with the spoT1 gene, viz relative amount and absolute levels of both pppGpp and ppGpp and the decay rate of the latter. The entry of ...

  17. KIR2DL2/2DL3-E35 alleles are functionally stronger than -Q35 alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Rafijul; Thapa, Rajoo; Bao, Ju; Li, Ying; Zheng, Jie; Leung, Wing

    2016-03-01

    KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 segregate as alleles of a single locus in the centromeric motif of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family. Although KIR2DL2/L3 polymorphism is known to be associated with many human diseases and is an important factor for donor selection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the molecular determinant of functional diversity among various alleles is unclear. In this study we found that KIR2DL2/L3 with glutamic acid at position 35 (E35) are functionally stronger than those with glutamine at the same position (Q35). Cytotoxicity assay showed that NK cells from HLA-C1 positive donors with KIR2DL2/L3-E35 could kill more target cells lacking their ligands than NK cells with the weaker -Q35 alleles, indicating better licensing of KIR2DL2/L3+ NK cells with the stronger alleles. Molecular modeling analysis reveals that the glutamic acid, which is negatively charged, interacts with positively charged histidine located at position 55, thereby stabilizing KIR2DL2/L3 dimer and reducing entropy loss when KIR2DL2/3 binds to HLA-C ligand. The results of this study will be important for future studies of KIR2DL2/L3-associated diseases as well as for donor selection in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  18. Evaluating bacterial gene-finding HMM structures as probabilistic logic programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Søren; Holmes, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Probabilistic logic programming offers a powerful way to describe and evaluate structured statistical models. To investigate the practicality of probabilistic logic programming for structure learning in bioinformatics, we undertook a simplified bacterial gene-finding benchmark in PRISM...... modeling and three-state versions of the five model structures. The models are all represented as probabilistic logic programs and evaluated using the PRISM machine learning system in terms of statistical information criteria and gene-finding prediction accuracy, in two bacterial genomes. Neither of our......, a probabilistic dialect of Prolog. Results: We evaluate Hidden Markov Model structures for bacterial protein-coding gene potential, including a simple null model structure, three structures based on existing bacterial gene finders and two novel model structures. We test standard versions as well as ADPH length...

  19. Structural organization of glycophorin A and B genes: Glycophorin B gene evolved by homologous recombination at Alu repeat sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycophorins A (GPA) and B (GPB) are two major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane. Here the authors present a comparison of the genomic structures of GPA and GPB developed by analyzing DNA clones isolated from a K562 genomic library. Nucleotide sequences of exon-intron junctions and 5' and 3' flanking sequences revealed that the GPA and GPB genes consist of 7 and 5 exons, respectively, and both genes have >95% identical sequence from the 5' flanking region to the region ∼ 1 kilobase downstream from the exon encoding the transmembrane regions. In this homologous part of the genes, GPB lacks one exon due to a point mutation at the 5' splicing site of the third intron, which inactivates the 5' cleavage event of splicing and leads to ligation of the second to the fourth exon. Following these very homologous sequences, the genomic sequences for GPA and GPB diverge significantly and no homology can be detected in their 3' end sequences. The analysis of the Alu sequences and their flanking direct repeat sequences suggest that an ancestral genomic structure has been maintained in the GPA gene, whereas the GPB gene has arisen from the acquisition of 3' sequences different from those of the GPA gene by homologous recombination at the Alu repeats during or after gene duplication

  20. Genetic diversity of the msp-1,msp-2,and glurp genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates along the Thai-Myanmar borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanungnit; Congpuong; Rungniran; Sukaram; Yuparat; Prompan; Aibteesam; Dornae

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the genetic diversity at the msp—1,msp—2,and glurp genes of Plasmodium falciparum(P.falciparum) isolates from 3 endemic areas in Thailand:Tak.Kanchanaburi and Ranong provinces.Methods:A total of 144 P.falciparum isolates collected prior to Irealmenl during January.2012 to June,2013 were genotyped.DNA was extracted:allele frequency and diversity of msp-1.msp-2,and glurp genes were investigated by nested polymerase chain reaction.Results:P.falciparum isolates in this study had high rate of multiple genotypes infection(96.5%)with an overall mean multiplicity of infection of 3.21.The distribution of allelic families of msp-1was significantly different among isolales from Tak.kanchanahnri.and Ranong but not for the msp-2.K1 and MAD20 were the predominant allelic families at the msp-1 gene,whereas alleles belonging to 3D7 were more frequent at the msp-2 gene.The glurp gene had the least diverse alleles.Population structure of P.falciparum isolates from Tak and Ranong was quite similar as revealed by the presence of similar proportions of MAD20 and K1 alleles at msp-1 loci.3D7 and FC27 alleles at msp-2 loci as well as comparable mean MOI.Isolates from Kanchanaburi had different structures;the most prevalent alleles were K1 and RO33.Conclusions:The present study shows that P.falciparum isolates from Tak and Ranong provinces had similar allelic pattern of msp—1 and msp—2 and diversity but different from Kanchanaburi isolates.These allelic variant profiles are valuable baseline data for future epidemiological study of malaria transmission and for continued monitoring of polymorphisms associated with antimalarial drug resistance in these areas.

  1. Genetic diversity of the msp-1, msp-2, and glurp genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates along the Thai-Myanmar borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanungnit Congpuong; Rungniran Sukaram; Yuparat Prompan; Aibteesam Dornae

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the genetic diversity at the msp-1, msp-2, and glurp genes of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) isolates from 3 endemic areas in Thailand: Tak, Kanchanaburi and Ranong provinces. Methods:A total of 144 P. falciparum isolates collected prior to treatment during January, 2012 to June, 2013 were genotyped. DNA was extracted;allele frequency and diversity of msp-1, msp-2, and glurp genes were investigated by nested polymerase chain reaction. Results:P. falciparum isolates in this study had high rate of multiple genotypes infection (96.5%) with an overall mean multiplicity of infection of 3.21. The distribution of allelic families of msp-1 was significantly different among isolates from Tak, Kanchanaburi, and Ranong but not for the msp-2. K1 and MAD20 were the predominant allelic families at the msp-1 gene, whereas alleles belonging to 3D7 were more frequent at the msp-2 gene. The glurp gene had the least diverse alleles. Population structure of P. falciparum isolates from Tak and Ranong was quite similar as revealed by the presence of similar proportions of MAD20 and K1 alleles at msp-1 loci, 3D7 and FC27 alleles at msp-2 loci as well as comparable mean MOI. Isolates from Kanchanaburi had different structures;the most prevalent alleles were K1 and RO33. Conclusions: The present study shows that P. falciparum isolates from Tak and Ranong provinces had similar allelic pattern of msp-1 and msp-2 and diversity but different from Kanchanaburi isolates. These allelic variant profiles are valuable baseline data for future epidemiological study of malaria transmission and for continued monitoring of polymorphisms associated with antimalarial drug resistance in these areas.

  2. Dynamics of insecticide resistance alleles in house fly populations from New York and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Hamm, Ronda L; Geden, Christopher J; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2007-06-01

    The frequency of insecticide-resistance alleles for two genes (Vssc1 and CYP6D1) was studied in field collected populations of house flies from two different climates. While the frequency of these resistance alleles in flies at dairies from four states has recently been reported, there is no information on the relative change of these allele frequencies over time. House flies were collected during the 2003-2004 season from New York and Florida before the first application of permethrin, during the middle of the field season, after the final application, and again the following spring (following months without permethrin use). Bioassay results indicated that homozygous susceptible and extremely resistant flies were rare, while moderately and highly resistant individuals were relatively common at all times in both states. The frequency of resistance alleles at the New York dairy rose during the season and declined over the winter, suggesting an overwintering fitness cost associated with these alleles. The super-kdr allele was detected for the first time in North America at the end of 2003. In Florida the frequency of the resistance alleles did not increase during the spray season or decrease during the winter, suggesting there is substantial immigration of susceptible alleles to the Florida dairy and no overwintering fitness cost associated with resistance alleles in this climate. Resistance to permethrin correlated well with the frequency of the Vssc1 and CYP6D1 resistance alleles in flies from New York, but not as well in the population from Florida. This suggests there may be a new resistance mechanism or allele evolving in Florida. PMID:17517332

  3. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  4. Polymorphic allele of human IRGM1 is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Y King

    Full Text Available An ancestral polymorphic allele of the human autophagy-related gene IRGM1 is associated with altered gene expression and a genetic risk for Crohn's Disease (CD. We used the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10065172C/T as a marker of this polymorphic allele and genotyped 370 African American and 177 Caucasian tuberculosis (TB cases and 180 African American and 110 Caucasian controls. Among African Americans, the TB cases were more likely to carry the CD-related T allele of rs10065172 (odds ratio of 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.02; P<0.01 compared to controls. Our finding suggests that this CD-related IRGM1 polymorphic allele is also associated with human susceptibility to TB disease among African Americans.

  5. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt;

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop...

  6. FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF POLYMORPHIC VARIANTS OF ENOS AND AGTR2 GENES IN PATIENTS WITH CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Khokhlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major cause of mortality. Morphological substrate of CHD in most cases is atherosclerosis, which is based on structural genes polymorphism eNOS and AGTR2. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of eNOS and AGTR2 genes in patients with coronary artery disease and the association of these genes with coronary heart disease. The study involved 187 patients aged 36 to 86 years (62,2±11,2 with different forms of CHD: stable and unstable angina, myocardial infarction and 45 people without CHD. Determination of gene polymorphisms was performed by real-time PCR analyzer of nucleic acids IQ 5 Bio-Rad. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. The study revealed a significant difference between the incidence of homozygous AA allelic variant gene AGTR2 group of patients with myocardial infarction and the comparison group; polymorphic variant AA AGTR2 gene is associated with earlier onset of coronary artery disease; It found that carriers of the polymorphic variant gene GA AGTR2 beginning statistically CHD occurred significantly later than in carriers of alleles GG and AA; age CHD debut TT allele carriers of the eNOS gene is associated with an earlier onset of the disease and statistically significantly different from the age of first CHD in carriers of alleles of polymorphic variants of GG and GT; revealed a positive correlation between the polymorphic allele AGTR2 gene with the presence of arterial hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease; It determined that the T allele carriers of the polymorphic gene eNOS is associated more early onset of hypertension, found the association of the polymorphic allele gene AGTR2 the need to use higher doses of ACE inhibitor — perindopril.

  7. Structure and function of Rac genes in higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Min; WU Naihu

    2003-01-01

    As the sole ubiquitous signal GTP-binding protein in higher plants, Rac genes act as pivotal molecular switches and participate in regulations of many life activities, such as cell morphogenesis and polarity growth, programmed cell death, production of H2O2, cell differentiation, and hormone reaction. Based on our work on rice Rac genes, this paper summarizes the researches on Rac genes in higher plant of the last ten years. It will help us to understand the relation between the signal tranduction and the biological functions of plant Rac.

  8. Structure of the immediate early gene of canine herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, M; Takiguchi, M; Yasuda, J; Hashimoto, A; Takada, A; Okazaki, K; Kida, H

    1999-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the immediate early (IE) gene of canine herpesvirus was determined. This gene was located in the inverted repeat regions, encoding a polypeptide of 1,383 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was most closely related to that of the feline herpesvirus 1 IE protein among those of other alphaherpesviruses. DNA binding and transcriptional activation domains were found in the IE protein. A spliced region of the IE gene transcript was determined in its 5' non-coding region. PMID:10470264

  9. Predicting Gene Structures from Multiple RT-PCR Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Jakub; Vinař, Tomáš; Brejová, Broňa

    It has been demonstrated that the use of additional information such as ESTs and protein homology can significantly improve accuracy of gene prediction. However, many sources of external information are still being omitted from consideration. Here, we investigate the use of product lengths from RT-PCR experiments in gene finding. We present hardness results and practical algorithms for several variants of the problem and apply our methods to a real RT-PCR data set in the Drosophila genome. We conclude that the use of RT-PCR data can improve the sensitivity of gene prediction and locate novel splicing variants.

  10. Clarifying the Relationship between Average Excesses and Average Effects of Allele Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Castro, José M; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Fisher's concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. PMID:22509178

  11. Clarifying the relationship between average excesses and average effects of allele substitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M eÁlvarez-Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fisher’s concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one-locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance.

  12. Estimation of the frequency of hexosaminidase a variant alleles in the American Jewish population.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, D A; Kaback, M M

    1982-01-01

    There appear to be several alleles of the hexosaminidase A (HEX A) gene that lead to different clinical syndromes. In addition to the infantile-onset Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), there is a juvenile-onset and an adult-onset form, which are also characterized by low HEX A levels. There are also apparently healthy adults with low HEX A activity. Based primarily on data from population screening for TSD carrier status, we estimate the allele frequency of the combined variant alleles for which data a...

  13. Genotype and allele frequency of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, Maryam; Tajik, Nader; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is important in metabolism of wide range of drugs. CYP2C19*17 is a novel variant allele which increases gene transcription and therefore results in ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype (URM). Distribution of this variant allele has not been well studied worldwide. The aim of present study was to investigate allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian population and compare them with other ethnic groups. Methods: One hundred eighty...

  14. Investigation of MGMT and DAPK1 methylation patterns in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using allelic MSP-pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach; Asmar, Fazila;

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor genes MGMT and DAPK1 become methylated in several cancers including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, allelic methylation patterns have not been investigated in DLBCL. We developed a fast and cost-efficient method for the analysis of allelic methylation based on...

  15. Structural implications of mutations in the pea SYM8 symbiosis gene, the DMI1 ortholog, encoding a predicted ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anne; Heckmann, Anne B; Yousafzai, Faridoon; Duc, Gerard; Downie, J Allan

    2007-10-01

    The Pisum sativum SYM8 gene plays an essential part in both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses. Mutation of sym8 in the original type line R25 blocks nodulation, mycorrhization, and Nod-factor-induced calcium spiking, an early component of the nodulation signaling pathway. We describe four new sym8 alleles of pea, which fall into the same complementation group as R25. The sym8 mutants are phenotypically similar to Medicago truncatula dmi1 mutants and map to a syntenic location. We used sequence homology to isolate the pea ortholog of M. truncatula DMI1 and have shown that the cloned pea ortholog can complement a M. truncatula dmi1 mutant for nodulation. Each of the five pea sym8 mutants carries a mutation in the DMI1 ortholog, confirming that the pea SYM8 is the DMI1 ortholog. Based on predicted structural similarities with an archaebacterial ion channel, we propose that SYM8 forms a tetrameric calcium-gated channel of a predicted structure similar to the archaebacterial potassium channel but containing a filter region that is different. The predicted structure identifies four aspartate residues (one from each subunit) forming the channel opening. We made a mutation changing the aspartate to valine and identified a missense mutation (changing alanine to valine adjacent to the aspartate residues) in this predicted filter region; both mutations caused a loss of function. We also identified a loss-of-function missense mutation (changing arginine to isoleucine) in a domain proposed to link the predicted channel and the gating ring domains, indicating that this mutation may block function by preventing a protein conformational change being transmitted from the gating-ring domain to the pore domain. PMID:17918620

  16. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer's disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer's disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.)

  17. The zeste-white interaction: induction and genetic analysis of a novel class of zeste alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Lifschytz, Eliezer; Green, Melvin M.

    1984-01-01

    The recovery and analysis of a novel class of zeste mutations is described. zop6 and zop11 do not require two w+ genes for their expression unless the z+ gene is present. Analysis of genetic interactions among zeste alleles proved that zop mutations are strong antagonists of the z+ gene product. zop6 is readily reverted by X-rays or by ethylmethane sulphonate to a range of intermediate zeste alleles and thus it is considered to be an insertional mutation. We suggest that z1 and op mutations a...

  18. Allele frequencies and segregation of human polymorphic keratins K4 and K5.

    OpenAIRE

    Mischke, D; Wille, G; Wild, A G

    1990-01-01

    Two electrophoretic variants for each of the human keratins K4 and K5 that are expressed in squamous nonkeratinizing epithelia lining the upper digestive tract could be distinguished on SDS-PAGE. Based on a sampling size of 1,299 unrelated individuals, calculation of allele frequencies showed the alleles to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic basis of this variation was confirmed by both quantitative gene dosage dependence and the transmission of the variants as Mendelian traits in ...

  19. Detectings low introgression of invasive alleles in an extensively restocked game bird

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Donoso, Inés; Huisman, J.; Echegaray, J.; Puigcerver Oliván, Manuel; Rodríguez Teijeiro, José Domingo; Hailer, F.; Vilà i Arbonès, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Interbreeding of two species in the wild implies introgression of alleles from one species into the other only when admixed individuals survive and successfully backcross with the parental species. Consequently, estimating the proportion of first generation hybrids in a population may not inform about the evolutionary impact of hybridization. Samples obtained over a long time span may offer a more accurate view of the spreading of introgressed alleles in a species" gene pool. Common quail (Co...

  20. On the basic computational structure of gene regulatory networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Caso, Carlos; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Solé, Ricard V.

    2009-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks constitute the first layer of the cellular computation for cell adaptation and surveillance. In these webs, a set of causal relations is built up from thousands of interactions between transcription factors and their target genes. The large size of these webs and their entangled nature make difficult to achieve a global view of their internal organisation. Here, this problem has been addressed through a comparative study for {\\em Escherichia coli}, {\\em Bacillus subti...

  1. 小麦新抗源CH7103抗条锈基因的遗传及其与已知基因的关系%Inheritance of Stripe Rust Resistance Gene in Wheat Line CH7103 Introgressed from Thinopyrum ponticum and Its Allelism with Known Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云; 李欣; 张丛卓; 张晓军; 詹海仙; 畅志坚

    2011-01-01

    为了更好地利用小麦条锈病新抗源,以衍生于八倍体小偃麦"小偃7430"的新抗源CH7103为材料,对其抗条锈性及抗病基因的来源、遗传模式和细胞学特征及其与已知抗病基因的关系进行了分析和鉴定.结果表明,CH7103苗期和成株期对条锈菌系条中31、32号生理小种表现免疫或近免疫,与其抗性供体小偃7430及其野生亲本的抗病侵染型相似,而其小麦亲本均感病,说明CH7103对条锈病的抗性来自彭提卡偃麦草.抗×感的F1代均表现免疫,侵染型为0~0;级,且F2、F2∶3、BC1代的抗、感分离比均符合显性单基因控制的分离模式.通过等住性检测,初步明确CH7103含有的抗条锈病基因与已有的抗CYR32小种的基因Yr5、Yr10、Yr15、Yr41不存在等位关系,可能属于新的抗小麦条锈病基因.细胞学研究表明,CH7103及其与小麦品种"中国春"等杂种F1的染色体数目均为2n=42,绝大多数花粉母细胞具有2n=21Ⅱ的配对构型,并能与小麦染色体完好配对.说明CH7103不含较大的外源染色体片段,是一个携带偃麦草抗条锈病基因的异源渐渗系.%CH7103 is a Thinopyrum ponticurn-derived wheat breeding line, which was resistant to stripe rust and powdery mildew, and derived from cross between partial amphiploid Xiaoyan7430 and wheat susceptible cultivars. This study was made to determine the inheritance of resistance to stripe rust in CH7103, and to characterize the origin of the resistance gene and its allelism with known genes, The disease screening demonstrated that CH7103 and its donor Xiaoyan7430 as well as the wild parent were resistant at the seedling and adult stages to CYR31 and CYR32 of the prevalent and most widely virulent in China, whereas all the wheat parents involved were susceptible, indicating that the stripe rust resistance in CH7103 was possibly derived from Th. ponticum. Genetic analysis on the F1,F2, F2∶3 and BC1 populations from stripe rust resistant

  2. Novel SLA-DR Alleles of Three Chinese Pig Strains and the Related Function in Human T Cell Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxiang Chen; Jin Xie; Yun Zhou; Ningli Li; Kuang-Yen Chou

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the structures of SLA-DR (swine leukocyte antigen DR) genes of three Chinese pig strains (Gz, Bm and Yn), the SLA-DRA and SLA-DRB cDNA were amplified by RT-PCR and subjected to determine the sequences. The whole structures of SLA-DRA alleles are identical among three strains, consisting of 759 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF), and are shared with those reported from NIH minipigs SLA-DRAc and SLA-DRAd. The same length of the ORF-containing SLA-DRB genes of three Chinese pig strains was also identified. They are composed of 801 nucleotides encoding a xenogeneic antigen molecule of 266 amino acid residues. The nucleotide sequences of the SLA-DRB genes, however, are different when compared either among the three strains or with the published data of SLA-DRB sequences, which allowed our novel SLA-DRB alleles receiving their accession numbers AY102479, AY102480 and AY102481 from the GenBank. This study further reveals that the phylogenic homologies of MHC DR or DR-like genes in structures of nucleotides and deduced amino acids between Chinese pigs (SLA) and human (HLA-DRB1*0901) are better than those between pigs and mice (H-2b Eβ). High similarities were also found for DRα-DRβ heterodimers between Chinese pigs and human in terms of amino acids sequences critical for binding with human CD4 coreceptor molecule, which are better than those between SLA-DR and H-2 I-E molecules. A functional test indicated that, by cotransfection with Bm-DRA and Bm-DRB genes, the Bm-DR molecule-expressed L929 cells could stimulate human T cells quite well in a xenogeneic reaction in presence of human APCs.

  3. Novel SLA-DR Alleles of Three Chinese Pig Strains and the Related Function in Human T Cell Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuxiangChen; JinXie; YunZhou; NingliLi; Kuang-YenChou

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the structures of SLA-DR (swine leukocyte antigen DR) genes of three Chinese pig strains (Gz, Bm and Yn), the SLA-DRA and SLA-DRB cDNA were amplified by RT-PCR and subjected to determine the sequences. The whole structures of SLA-DRA alleles are identical among three strains, consisting of 759 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF), and are shared with those reported from NIH minipigs SLA-DRAc and SLA-DRAd. The same length of the ORF-containing SLA-DRB genes of three Chinese pig strains was also identified. They are composed of 801 nucleotides encoding a xenogeneic antigen molecule of 266 amino acid residues. The nucleotide sequences of the SLA-DRB genes, however, are different when compared either among the three strains or with the published data of SLA-DRB sequences, which allowed our novel SLA-DRB alleles receiving their accession numbers AY102479, AY102480 and AY102481 from the GenBank. This study further reveals that the phylogenic homologies of MHC DR or DR-like genes in structures of nucleotides and deduced amino acids between Chinese pigs (SLA) and human (HLA-DRBI*0901) are better than those between pigs and mice (H-2b Eβ). High similarities were also found for DRα-DRβ heterodimers between Chinese pigs and human in terms of amino acids sequences critical for binding with human CD4 coreceptor molecule, which are better than those between SLA-DR and H-2 I-E molecules. A functional test indicated that, by cotransfection with Bm-DRA and Bm-DRB genes, the Bm-DR molecule-expressed L929 cells could stimulate human T cells quite well in a xenogeneic reaction in presence of human APCs.

  4. Construction and analysis of deletions in the structural gene (uvrD) for DNA helicase II of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, B K; Kushner, S R

    1991-01-01

    DNA helicase II, the product of the uvrD gene, has been implicated in DNA repair, replication, and recombination. Because the phenotypes of individual uvrD alleles vary significantly, we constructed deletion-insertion mutations in the uvrD gene to determine the phenotype of cells lacking DNA helicase II. Deletion mutants completely lacking the protein, as well as one which contains a truncated protein retaining the ATP-binding site, remained viable. However, they were sensitive to UV light an...

  5. The mammalian adult neurogenesis gene ontology (MANGO provides a structural framework for published information on genes regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not a single phenotype, but consists of a number of sub-processes, each of which is under complex genetic control. Interpretation of gene expression studies using existing resources often does not lead to results that address the interrelatedness of these processes. Formal structure, such as provided by ontologies, is essential in any field for comprehensive interpretation of existing knowledge but, until now, such a structure has been lacking for adult neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have created a resource with three components 1. A structured ontology describing the key stages in the development of adult hippocampal neural stem cells into functional granule cell neurons. 2. A comprehensive survey of the literature to annotate the results of all published reports on gene function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (257 manuscripts covering 228 genes to the appropriate terms in our ontology. 3. An easy-to-use searchable interface to the resulting database made freely available online. The manuscript presents an overview of the database highlighting global trends such as the current bias towards research on early proliferative stages, and an example gene set enrichment analysis. A limitation of the resource is the current scope of the literature which, however, is growing by around 100 publications per year. With the ontology and database in place, new findings can be rapidly annotated and regular updates of the database will be made publicly available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The resource we present allows relevant interpretation of gene expression screens in terms of defined stages of postnatal neuronal development. Annotation of genes by hand from the adult neurogenesis literature ensures the data are directly applicable to the system under study. We believe this approach could also serve as an example to other fields in a 'bottom-up' community effort complementing the already

  6. MRPS18CP2 alleles and DEFA3 absence as putative chromosome 8p23.1 modifiers of hearing loss due to mtDNA mutation A1555G in the 12S rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischel-Ghodsian Nathan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations account for at least 5% of cases of postlingual, nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Among them, mutation A1555G is frequently found associated with aminoglycoside-induced and/or nonsyndromic hearing loss in families presenting with extremely variable clinical phenotypes. Biochemical and genetic data have suggested that nuclear background is the main factor involved in modulating the phenotypic expression of mutation A1555G. However, although a major nuclear modifying locus was located on chromosome 8p23.1 and regardless intensive screening of the region, the gene involved has not been identified. Methods With the aim to gain insights into the factors that determine the phenotypic expression of A1555G mutation, we have analysed in detail different genetic and genomic elements on 8p23.1 region (DEFA3 gene absence, CLDN23 gene and MRPS18CP2 pseudogene in a group of 213 A1555G carriers. Results Family based association studies identified a positive association for a polymorphism on MRPS18CP2 and an overrepresentation of DEFA3 gene absence in the deaf group of A1555G carriers. Conclusion Although none of the factors analysed seem to have a major contribution to the phenotype, our findings provide further evidences of the involvement of 8p23.1 region as a modifying locus for A1555G 12S rRNA gene mutation.

  7. 春化、光周期和矮秆基因在不同国家小麦品种中的分布及其效应%Distribution of Allelic Variation for Vernalization, Photoperiod, and Dwarfing Genes and Their Effects on Growth Period and Plant Height among Cultivars from Major Wheat Producing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳萍; 李式昭; 何中虎; 夏先春; 张勇; 张晓科; 刘建军; 唐建卫; 杨学明; 张俊儒; 刘茜

    2012-01-01

    To efficiently use exotic resources in Chinese wheat breeding programs, we investigated the heading date, maturity date, and plant height of 100 representative cultivars collected from 14 countries at eight locations in China, and detected the allelic variations of vernalization loci VRN-1 and VRN-B3, photoperiod gene Ppd-Dla, and dwarfing genes Rht-Bib and Rht-Dib by means of molecular markers. The frequencies of vernalization loci were 8.0% for Vrn-Ala, 21.0% for Vrn-BI, 21.0% for Vrn-DI and 64.0% for vrn-AI+vm-BI+ vrn-Dl, except for the absence of dominant allele Vrn-B3 in all tested materials. Dominant vernalization alleles Vrn-Ala, Vm-BI, and Vm-DI were mainly observed in cultivars from Chinese spring wheat region, Italy, India, Canada, Mexico, and Australia; whereas, cultivars carrying all recessive alleles at the four vernalization loci and vm-AI+ vrn-DI+Vm-BI+vm-B3 genotype were mostly found in cultivars from Chinese winter wheat region, United States (US) winter wheat region, Russia winter wheat region, United Kingdom (UK), France, Germany, Romania, Turkey, and Hungary. All cultivars headed normally when sown in autumn. Cultivars with dominant alleles showed earlier heading date than those with recessive alleles, and genotypes with two or more dominant alleles showed additive effects. Some European and US cultivars with recessive genes at the four vernalization loci could not mature in Yangling and Chengdu. Under spring-sown condition, the cultivars with dominant vernalization alleles showed high heading frequency; in contrast, most cultivars with recessive alleles failed to head. Gene Ppd-Dla was distributed mainly in cultivars from China, France, Romania, Russia, Mexico, Australia, and India with the total frequency of 68%. Most cultivars with Ppd-Dlb were from high latitude regions, such as UK, Germany, Hungary, and Canada. The Ppd-Dla genotypes appeared to head earlier than the Ppd-Dlb genotypes. Daylight condition had no effect on maturity of most Ppd

  8. ENIGMA-Evidence-based network for the interpretation of germline mutant alleles: An international initiative to evaluate risk and clinical significance associated with sequence variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Healey, Sue; Devereau, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    As genetic testing for predisposition to human diseases has become an increasingly common practice in medicine, the need for clear interpretation of the test results is apparent. However, for many disease genes, including the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, a significant...... than 100 research scientists and clinicians from 19 countries. Within ENIGMA, there are presently six working groups focused on the following topics: analysis, clinical, database, functional, tumor histopathology, and mRNA splicing. ENIGMA provides a mechanism to pool resources, exchange methods and...

  9. Identification and structural analysis of a novel snoRNA gene cluster from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惠; 孟清; 屈良鹄

    2000-01-01

    A 22 snoRNA gene cluster, consisting of four antisense snoRNA genes, was identified from Arabidopsis thaliana. The sequence and structural analysis showed that the 22 snoRNA gene cluster might be transcribed as a polycistronic precursor from an upstream promoter, and the in-tergenic spacers of the gene cluster encode the ’hairpin’ structures similar to the processing recognition signals of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae polycistronic snoRNA precursor. The results also revealed that plant snoRNA gene with multiple copies is a characteristic in common, and provides a good system for further revealing the transcription and expression mechanism of plant snoRNA gene cluster.

  10. Fibrillin levels in a severely affected Marfan syndrome patient with a null allele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxer, M.; Withers, A.P.; Al-Ghaban, Z. [Univ. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)]|[Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by defects in the cardiovascular, skeletal and ocular systems. A patient was first examined in 1992 having survived an acute sortic dissection with subsequent composite repair and insertion of a prosthetic aortic valve. Clinical examination revealed arachnodactyly, narrow, high arched palate with dental crowding, an arm span exceeding her height by 10.5 cm, joint laxity and bilateral lens subluxation. Analysis of the family showed affected members in three generations and the fibrillin gene, FBN1, was shown to segregate with the disease when using polymorphic markers including an RsaI polymorphism in the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the gene. Analysis of patient mRNA for this RsaI polymorphism by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR products showed that the copy of the gene segregating with the disease was not transcribed. No low level expression of this allele was observed despite RT-PCR amplification incorporating radioactively labelled dCTP, thus revealing a null allele phenotype. Western blotting analysis of fibrillin secreted by the patient`s dermal fibroblasts using fibrillin-specific antibodies showed only normal sized fibrillin protein. However, immunohistochemical studies of the patient`s tissue and fibroblasts showed markedly lowered levels in staining of microfibrillar structures compared with age-matched controls. This low level of expression of the protein affected in Marfan syndrome in a patient with such severe clinical manifestations is surprising since current understanding would suggest that this molecular phenotype should lead to a mild clinical disorder.

  11. Mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene: cloning, structure, and expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Brabant, M; McConlogue, L; van Daalen Wetters, T; Coffino, P

    1988-01-01

    We used molecular cloning to isolate a functional gene for mouse ornithine decarboxylase (OrnDCase; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) from a cell line in which that gene had been selectively amplified. The position of the 5' terminus of the mRNA was identified, and the coding sequence was shown to be preceded by a 312- or 313-nucleotide (nt) untranslated leader. The latter is highly G + C rich, particularly in its 5'-most portion. The leader can be anticipated to have extensive and stab...

  12. Sense-antisense gene pairs: sequence, transcription, and structure are not conserved between human and mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Emily J.; Chin-Inmanu, Kwanrutai; Jia, Hui; Lipovich, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Previous efforts to characterize conservation between the human and mouse genomes focused largely on sequence comparisons. These studies are inherently limited because they don't account for gene structure differences, which may exist despite genomic sequence conservation. Recent high-throughput transcriptome studies have revealed widespread and extensive overlaps between genes, and transcripts, encoded on both strands of the genomic sequence. This overlapping gene organization, which produce...

  13. The Lack of Correlation between the Increased Frequency of Allele IL-1RN*2 of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Gene in Czech Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and the Markers of Cartilage Degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžičková, Šárka; Šenolt, L.; Gatterová, J.; Vencovský, J.; Pavelka, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2008), s. 115-120. ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : knee osteoarthritis * IL-1RN gene * VNTR polymorphism Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2008

  14. Lack of specific alleles for the bovine chemokine (C-X-C) receptor type 4 (CXCR4) gene in West African cattle questions its role as a candidate for trypanotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Isabel; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Traoré, Amadou; Fernández, Iván; Goyache, Félix

    2016-08-01

    A panel of 81 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) was analysed for the whole sequence of the CXCR4 gene (3844bp), a strong candidate for cattle trypanotolerance. Thirty-one polymorphic sites identified gave 31 different haplotypes. Neutrality tests rejected the hypothesis of either positive or purifying selection. Bayesian phylogenetic tree showed differentiation of haplotypes into two clades gathering genetic variability predating domestication. Related with clades definition, linkage disequilibrium analyses suggested the existence of one only linkage block on the CXCR4 gene. Two tag SNPs identified on exon 2 captured 50% of variability. Whatever the analysis carried out, no clear separation between cattle groups was identified. Most haplotypes identified in West African taurine cattle were also found in European cattle and in Asian and West African zebu. West African taurine samples did not carry unique variants on the CXCR4 gene sequence. The current analysis failed in identifying a causal mutation on the CXCR4 gene underlying a previously reported QTL for cattle trypanotolerance on BTA2. PMID:27117936

  15. Gene Structures, Classification, and Expression Models of the DREB Transcription Factor Subfamily in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified 75 dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB protein genes in Populus trichocarpa. We analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplications, genome localizations, and expression profiles. The phylogenic construction suggests that the PtrDREB gene subfamily can be classified broadly into six subtypes (DREB A-1 to A-6 in Populus. The chromosomal localizations of the PtrDREB genes indicated 18 segmental duplication events involving 36 genes and six redundant PtrDREB genes were involved in tandem duplication events. There were fewer introns in the PtrDREB subfamily. The motif composition of PtrDREB was highly conserved in the same subtype. We investigated expression profiles of this gene subfamily from different tissues and/or developmental stages. Sixteen genes present in the digital expression analysis had high levels of transcript accumulation. The microarray results suggest that 18 genes were upregulated. We further examined the stress responsiveness of 15 genes by qRT-PCR. A digital northern analysis showed that the PtrDREB17, 18, and 32 genes were highly induced in leaves under cold stress, and the same expression trends were shown by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analyses to unravel the biological roles of Populus’ DREB genes.

  16. Corrective recombination of mouse immunoglobulin kappa alleles in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, R M; Van Ness, B G

    1990-01-01

    Previous characterization of mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene rearrangement products cloned from murine plasmacytomas has indicated that two recombination events can take place on a single kappa allele (R. M. Feddersen and B. G. Van Ness, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:4792-4797, 1985; M. A. Shapiro and M. Weigert, J. Immunol. 139:3834-3839, 1987). To determine whether multiple recombinations on a single kappa allele can contribute to the formation of productive V-J genes through corrective rec...

  17. Structural relationships between highly conserved elements and genes in vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    Full Text Available Large numbers of sequence elements have been identified to be highly conserved among vertebrate genomes. These highly conserved elements (HCEs are often located in or around genes that are involved in transcription regulation and early development. They have been shown to be involved in cis-regulatory activities through both in vivo and additional computational studies. We have investigated the structural relationships between such elements and genes in six vertebrate genomes human, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish and tetraodon and detected several thousand cases of conserved HCE-gene associations, and also cases of HCEs with no common target genes. A few examples underscore the potential significance of our findings about several individual genes. We found that the conserved association between HCE/HCEs and gene/genes are not restricted to elements by their absolute distance on the genome. Notably, long-range associations were identified and the molecular functions of the associated genes do not show any particular overrepresentation of the functional categories previously reported. HCEs in close proximity are found to be linked with different set of gene/genes. The results reflect the highly complex correlation between HCEs and their putative target genes.

  18. The IQD gene family in soybean: structure, phylogeny, evolution and expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa, systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67 was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development.

  19. Structure, characterization, and expression of the rat oxytocin receptor gene.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The multiple hormonal and neurotransmitter functions of the nonapeptide oxytocin are mediated by specific oxytocin receptors (OTRs). In most target tissues, the number of OTRs is strongly regulated. Specifically, in the uterus, a dramatic OTR upregulation precedes the onset of parturition. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying OTR regulation, we have isolated and characterized recombinant bacteriophage lambda EMBL3 genomic clones containing the rat OTR gene, using sequence information ...

  20. Allelic Variation of Cytochrome P450s Drives Resistance to Bednet Insecticides in a Major Malaria Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman S Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scale up of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs has massively contributed to reduce malaria mortality across Africa. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors threatens its continued effectiveness. Deciphering the detailed molecular basis of such resistance and designing diagnostic tools is critical to implement suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we demonstrated that allelic variation in two cytochrome P450 genes is the most important driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus and detected key mutations controlling this resistance. An Africa-wide polymorphism analysis of the duplicated genes CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b revealed that both genes are directionally selected with alleles segregating according to resistance phenotypes. Modelling and docking simulations predicted that resistant alleles were better metabolizers of pyrethroids than susceptible alleles. Metabolism assays performed with recombinant enzymes of various alleles confirmed that alleles from resistant mosquitoes had significantly higher activities toward pyrethroids. Additionally, transgenic expression in Drosophila showed that flies expressing resistant alleles of both genes were significantly more resistant to pyrethroids compared with those expressing the susceptible alleles, indicating that allelic variation is the key resistance mechanism. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses demonstrated that three amino acid changes (Val109Ile, Asp335Glu and Asn384Ser from the resistant allele of CYP6P9b were key pyrethroid resistance mutations inducing high metabolic efficiency. The detection of these first DNA markers of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids allows the design of DNA-based diagnostic tools to detect and track resistance associated with bednets scale up, which will improve the design of evidence-based resistance management strategies.

  1. Allelic Variation of Cytochrome P450s Drives Resistance to Bednet Insecticides in a Major Malaria Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Irving, Helen; Yunta, Cristina; Paine, Mark J I; Wondji, Charles S

    2015-10-01

    Scale up of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) has massively contributed to reduce malaria mortality across Africa. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors threatens its continued effectiveness. Deciphering the detailed molecular basis of such resistance and designing diagnostic tools is critical to implement suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we demonstrated that allelic variation in two cytochrome P450 genes is the most important driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus and detected key mutations controlling this resistance. An Africa-wide polymorphism analysis of the duplicated genes CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b revealed that both genes are directionally selected with alleles segregating according to resistance phenotypes. Modelling and docking simulations predicted that resistant alleles were better metabolizers of pyrethroids than susceptible alleles. Metabolism assays performed with recombinant enzymes of various alleles confirmed that alleles from resistant mosquitoes had significantly higher activities toward pyrethroids. Additionally, transgenic expression in Drosophila showed that flies expressing resistant alleles of both genes were significantly more resistant to pyrethroids compared with those expressing the susceptible alleles, indicating that allelic variation is the key resistance mechanism. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses demonstrated that three amino acid changes (Val109Ile, Asp335Glu and Asn384Ser) from the resistant allele of CYP6P9b were key pyrethroid resistance mutations inducing high metabolic efficiency. The detection of these first DNA markers of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids allows the design of DNA-based diagnostic tools to detect and track resistance associated with bednets scale up, which will improve the design of evidence-based resistance management strategies. PMID:26517127

  2. Spontaneous gene flow and population structure in wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Felber, F.; Flavell, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous gene flow between wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L., may have implications for the genetic structure and evolution of populations and varieties. One aspect of this crop-wild gene flow is the dispersal of transgenes from genetically modified varieties, e.g. gene flow from...... GM chicory to natural chicory could have unwanted consequences. With the purpose to identify and quantify crop-wild gene flow in chicory, we analysed introgression in 19 wild chicory populations and 16 accessions of chicory varieties and landraces distributed across Northern, Central and...

  3. Structure and expression of the human MDR (P-glycoprotein) gene family.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, J E; Soffir, R; Noonan, K E; Choi, K.; Roninson, I B

    1989-01-01

    The human MDR (P-glycoprotein) gene family is known to include two members, MDR1 and MDR2. The product of the MDR1 gene, which is responsible for resistance to different cytotoxic drugs (multidrug resistance), appears to serve as an energy-dependent efflux pump for various lipophilic compounds. The function of the MDR2 gene remains unknown. We have examined the structure of the human MDR gene family by Southern hybridization of DNA from different multidrug-resistant cell lines with subfragmen...

  4. A homologous repetitive block structure underlies the heterogeneity of heavy and light chain zein genes

    OpenAIRE

    Spena, A.; Viotti, A.; Pirrotta, V.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy and light chain zein genes from maize, affected by different regulatory loci, are related in sequence and structure. The two kinds of genes code for a signal peptide, a head region of 67 amino acids, six and a half to eight repetitive blocks of ˜20 amino acids each and a short tail piece. This block structure would allow inter or intragenic recombination giving rise to heterogeneous zein genes. Length variation in zein polypeptides is also due to the occurrence of termination mutations ...

  5. Structure and chromosome assignment of the murine p36 (calpactin I heavy chain) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiquel, P; Kristensen, Torsten; D'Eustachio, P; Wetsel, R A; Saris, C J; Hunter, T; Chaplin, D D; Tack, B F

    1990-01-01

    determined from analysis of cloned cDNA. The protein contains 338 amino acids, has an approximate molecular weight of 39,000, and is comprised of several distinct domains, including four 75 amino acid repeats. From two overlapping cosmid clones isolated from different mouse genomic liver libraries, the...... complete intron/exon structure of the p36 gene was determined and the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the gene were analyzed. The coding and 3' untranslated region of the p36 gene contains 12 exons which range in size from 48 to 322 base pairs (bp) with an average size of 107 bp. The repeat structures found...... range in size from 600 to 3600 bp with an average size of 1650 bp. The p36 gene is at least 22 kb in length and has a coding sequence of approximately 1 kb, representing only 4.5% of the gene...

  6. Association ofkiller cell immunoglobulin - like receptors gene and HLA - A、 B alleles in patients with acute lymphocyitic Leukemia%KIR及HLA -A、B基因多态性与急性淋巴细胞白血病的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺立新; 郭晓明; 云宇光; 刘小玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the HLA - A, - B alleles, the kir genes and susceptibility to Acute Lymphocyte leukemia in Inner Mongolin. Methods: HLA - A, B alleles polymorphism in ALL patient of 48 were examined with flow cytometry - sequence specific oligonucleotide probes ( HOW - SSOP) methods, and the KIR genotype by PCR - SSP approach. 2516 normal subjects in Northern China as control. ResultsL (1) The frequencies of allele HLA -A*11XX, *31XX, * 6901 were increased ( P < 0.05); while the frequencies of allele HLA - A * 33 XXwere decreased in patients with Leukemia ( P < 0. 05). (2) The frequencies of allele HLA-B* *59XX were increase ( P < 0.05); ( 3) the KIR frequencies differences between the disease and the control groups were tested by statistical analysis. 18KIR gene were identified, the most frequent genotype being KIR3DP1, 2DP1, 2DL1, 2DL3, 3DL1, 2DL5, 2DS4and3DSl, 3DL1 were decreased in patients with Leukemia. Conclusion: HLA-A"31XX, A* 6901, B *59XX, KIR3DL1和 2DS4alleles may be correlated with ALL Leukemia, These results suggested that positive association may exist between certain HLA, KIR genes and leukemias.%目的 探讨急性淋巴细胞白血病患者的杀伤细胞免疫球蛋白样受体(killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptors,KIR)和人类白细胞抗原(human leukocyte antigen,HLA)HLA -A、B等位基因多态性.方法 采用Luminex流式技术-序列特异性寡核苷酸探针反向杂交(flow cytometry - sequence specific oligonucleotide probe,FLOW - SSOP)方法 对内蒙地区48例急性淋巴细胞白血病患者HLA -A、B等位基因多态性进行分析,PCR - SSP技术进行KIR抑制基因的低分辨率检测.以北方地区健康群体资料作为正常对照.结果 (1)在急性淋巴细胞白血病中HLA- A* 31XX,A*6901等位基因频率高于对照组( 1.955%,0.071%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A*33XX等位基因频率低于对照组(5.825%),差异有统计意义(P<0.05);(2)在HLA -B等位

  7. Structural, phylogenetic and docking studies of D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA, a candidate schizophrenia gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs worldwide and can be difficult to diagnose. It is the foremost neurological disorder leading to suicide among patients in both developed and underdeveloped countries. D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA, also known as G72, is directly implicated in the glutamateric hypothesis of schizophrenia. It activates D-amino acid oxidase, which oxidizes D-serine, leading to modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Methods MODELLER (9v10 was utilized to generate three dimensional structures of the DAOA candidate gene. The HOPE server was used for mutational analysis. The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA5 tool was utilized to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the candidate gene DAOA. AutoDock was used for protein-ligand docking and Gramm-X and PatchDock for protein-protein docking. Results A suitable template (1ZCA was selected by employing BLASTp on the basis of 33% query coverage, 27% identity and E-value 4.9. The Rampage evaluation tool showed 91.1% favored region, 4.9% allowed region and 4.1% outlier region in DAOA. ERRAT demonstrated that the predicted model had a 50.909% quality factor. Mutational analysis of DAOA revealed significant effects on hydrogen bonding and correct folding of the DAOA protein, which in turn affect protein conformation. Ciona was inferred as the outgroup. Tetrapods were in their appropriate clusters with bifurcations. Human amino acid sequences are conserved, with chimpanzee and gorilla showing more than 80% homology and bootstrap value based on 1000 replications. Molecular docking analysis was employed to elucidate the binding mode of the reported ligand complex for DAOA. The docking experiment demonstrated that DAOA is involved in major amino acid interactions: the residues that interact most strongly with the ligand C28H28N3O5PS2 are polar but uncharged (Gln36, Asn38, Thr 122 and non-polar hydrophobic (Ile119, Ser171

  8. Characterisation of SNP haplotype structure in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes using CEPH pedigrees and statistical estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Vanessa J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokine signals and their cell-surface receptors are important modulators of HIV-1 disease and cancer. To aid future case/control association studies, aim to further characterise the haplotype structure of variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes. To perform haplotype analysis in a population-based association study, haplotypes must be determined by estimation, in the absence of family information or laboratory methods to establish phase. Here, test the accuracy of estimates of haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium by comparing estimated haplotypes generated with the expectation maximisation (EM algorithm to haplotypes determined from Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH pedigree data. To do this, they have characterised haplotypes comprising alleles at 11 biallelic loci in four chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2, which span 150 kb on chromosome 3p21, and haplotyes of nine biallelic loci in six chemokine genes [MCP-1(CCL2, Eotaxin(CCL11, RANTES(CCL5, MPIF-1(CCL23, PARC(CCL18 and MIP-1α(CCL3 ] on chromosome 17q11-12. Forty multi-generation CEPH families, totalling 489 individuals, were genotyped by the TaqMan 5'-nuclease assay. Phased haplotypes and haplotypes estimated from unphased genotypes were compared in 103 grandparents who were assumed to have mated at random. For the 3p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data, haplotypes determined by pedigree analysis and haplotypes generated by the EM algorithm were nearly identical. Linkage disequilibrium, measured by the D' statistic, was nearly maximal across the 150 kb region, with complete disequilibrium maintained at the extremes between CCR3-Y17Y and CCRL2-1243V. D'-values calculated from estimated haplotypes on 3p21 had high concordance with pairwise comparisons between pedigree-phased chromosomes. Conversely, there was less agreement between analyses of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium using estimated haplotypes when

  9. The vertebrate RCAN gene family: novel insights into evolution, structure and regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Serrano-Candelas

    Full Text Available Recently there has been much interest in the Regulators of Calcineurin (RCAN proteins which are important endogenous modulators of the calcineurin-NFATc signalling pathway. They have been shown to have a crucial role in cellular programmes such as the immune response, muscle fibre remodelling and memory, but also in pathological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and neurodegenerative diseases. In vertebrates, the RCAN family form a functional subfamily of three members RCAN1, RCAN2 and RCAN3 whereas only one RCAN is present in the rest of Eukarya. In addition, RCAN genes have been shown to collocate with RUNX and CLIC genes in ACD clusters (ACD21, ACD6 and ACD1. How the RCAN genes and their clustering in ACDs evolved is still unknown. After analysing RCAN gene family evolution using bioinformatic tools, we propose that the three RCAN vertebrate genes within the ACD clusters, which evolved from single copy genes present in invertebrates and lower eukaryotes, are the result of two rounds of whole genome duplication, followed by a segmental duplication. This evolutionary scenario involves the loss or gain of some RCAN genes during evolution. In addition, we have analysed RCAN gene structure and identified the existence of several characteristic features that can be involved in RCAN evolution and gene expression regulation. These included: several transposable elements, CpG islands in the 5' region of the genes, the existence of antisense transcripts (NAT associated with the three human genes, and considerable evidence for bidirectional promoters that regulate RCAN gene expression. Furthermore, we show that the CpG island associated with the RCAN3 gene promoter is unmethylated and transcriptionally active. All these results provide timely new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying RCAN function and a more in depth knowledge of this gene family whose members are obvious candidates for the development of future therapies.

  10. In plants, expression breadth and expression level distinctly and non-linearly correlate with gene structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hangxing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compactness of highly/broadly expressed genes in human has been explained as selection for efficiency, regional mutation biases or genomic design. However, highly expressed genes in flowering plants were shown to be less compact than lowly expressed ones. On the other hand, opposite facts have also been documented that pollen-expressed Arabidopsis genes tend to contain shorter introns and highly expressed moss genes are compact. This issue is important because it provides a chance to compare the selectionism and the neutralism views about genome evolution. Furthermore, this issue also helps to understand the fates of introns, from the angle of gene expression. Results In this study, I used expression data covering more tissues and employ new analytical methods to reexamine the correlations between gene expression and gene structure for two flowering plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. It is shown that, different aspects of expression pattern correlate with different parts of gene sequences in distinct ways. In detail, expression level is significantly negatively correlated with gene size, especially the size of non-coding regions, whereas expression breadth correlates with non-coding structural parameters positively and with coding region parameters negatively. Furthermore, the relationships between expression level and structural parameters seem to be non-linear, with the extremes of structural parameters possibly scale as power-laws or logrithmic functions of expression levels. Conclusion In plants, highly expressed genes are compact, especially in the non-coding regions. Broadly expressed genes tend to contain longer non-coding sequences, which may be necessary for complex regulations. In combination with previous studies about other plants and about animals, some common scenarios about the correlation between gene expression and gene structure begin to emerge. Based on the functional relationships between

  11. Mobile genes in the human microbiome are structured from global to individual scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, I L; Yilmaz, S; Huang, K; Xu, L; Jupiter, S D; Jenkins, A P; Naisilisili, W; Tamminen, M; Smillie, C S; Wortman, J R; Birren, B W; Xavier, R J; Blainey, P C; Singh, A K; Gevers, D; Alm, E J

    2016-07-21

    Recent work has underscored the importance of the microbiome in human health, and has largely attributed differences in phenotype to differences in the species present among individuals. However, mobile genes can confer profoundly different phenotypes on different strains of the same species. Little is known about the function and distribution of mobile genes in the human microbiome, and in particular whether the gene pool is globally homogenous or constrained by human population structure. Here, we investigate this question by comparing the mobile genes found in the microbiomes of 81 metropolitan North Americans with those of 172 agrarian Fiji islanders using a combination of single-cell genomics and metagenomics. We find large differences in mobile gene content between the Fijian and North American microbiomes, with functional variation that mirrors known dietary differences such as the excess of plant-based starch degradation genes found in Fijian individuals. Notably, we also observed differences between the mobile gene pools of neighbouring Fijian villages, even though microbiome composition across villages is similar. Finally, we observe high rates of recombination leading to individual-specific mobile elements, suggesting that the abundance of some genes may reflect environmental selection rather than dispersal limitation. Together, these data support the hypothesis that human activities and behaviours provide selective pressures that shape mobile gene pools, and that acquisition of mobile genes is important for colonizing specific human populations. PMID:27409808

  12. Myostatin gene (MSTN) polymorphism with a negative effect on meat productivity in Dzhalginsky Merino sheep breed

    OpenAIRE

    VLADIMIR TRUKHACHEV; VALERY BELYAEV; ANDREY KVOCHKO; ALEXANDER KULICHENKO; DMITRY KOVALEV; SERGEY PISARENKO; ANNA VOLYNKINA; MARINA SELIONOVA; MAGOMET AYBAZOV; SVETLANA SHUMAENKO; ARSLAN OMAROV; TATYANA MAMONTOVA; NATALIA GOLOVANOVA; OLESYA YATSYK; ALEXANDER KRIVORUCHKO

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important negative regulator of muscle grow in mammalians is myostatin. Some mutations in myostatin gene (MSTN) can decrease the effect of protein and play role in meat quality of sheep. Therefore, in genome selection, knowledge of MSTN gene structure is very important. We investigated the polymorphism of the MSTN gene and its influence on body parameters in Russian sheep breed Dzhalginsky Merino. To detect alleles, we use NimbleGen sequencing technolog). In this breed, we fou...

  13. Rapid, efficient and precise allele replacement in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Kan, Fengling; Wagnon, Jacy L.; Storey, Aaron J.; Protacio, Reine M.; Davidson, Mari K.; Wahls, Wayne P.

    2013-01-01

    Gene targeting provides a powerful tool to modify endogenous loci to contain specific mutations, insertions and deletions. Precise allele replacement, with no other chromosomal changes (e.g., insertion of selectable markers or heterologous promoters), maintains physiologically relevant context. Established methods for precise allele replacement in fission yeast employ two successive rounds of transformation and homologous recombination and require genotyping at each step. The relative efficiency of homologous recombination is low and a high rate of false positives during the second round of gene targeting further complicates matters. We report that pop-in, pop-out allele replacement circumvents these problems. We present data for 39 different allele replacements, involving simple and complex modifications at seven different target loci, that illustrate the power and utility of the approach. We also developed and validated a rapid, efficient process for precise allele replacement that requires only one round each of transformation and genotyping. We show that this process can be applied in population scale to an individual target locus, without genotyping, to identify clones with an altered phenotype (targeted forward genetics). It is therefore suitable for saturating, in situ, locus-specific mutation screens (e.g., of essential or non-essential genes and regulatory DNA elements) within normal chromosomal context. PMID:24026504

  14. Association of a common allelic polymorphism (C677T) in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene with a reduced risk of osteoporotic fractures. A case control study in Danish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H L; Madsen, J S; Madsen, B; Saleh, M M A; Abrahamsen, B; Fenger, Mogens; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    Twin studies indicate a substantial genetic component in the development of osteoporosis. One of the latest studied candidate genes is the one coding for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) in which a point mutation gives rise to a thermolabile variant of MTHFR. The aim of this...... study was to investigate the influence of this mutation on peripheral measures of bone density and on the odds ratios (OR) for hip and lower forearm fracture in a case control study of Danish postmenopausal women. A total of 74 women with lower forearm fracture, 41 women with hip fracture, and 207 age......-matched controls were included. All had broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured at the heel as well as bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry at the distal forearm. The MTHFR (C677T) genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction restriction...

  15. A homozygous mutation in keratin 5 is a fully dominant allele responsible for epidermolysis bullosa simplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, K.; Smith, L.; Ehrlich, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Molecular, ultrastructural, and clinical analysis of a large family with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) and multiple consanguineous marriages has identified one affected individual who inherited defective keratin 5 genes from both of her affected parents. EBS are skin blistering disorders caused by abnormal keratin filament assembly or function due to a mutation in either of the two structural proteins keratin 5 or keratin 14. Linkage analysis with DNA markers near each keratin gene demonstrated that the defect in this family mapped near keratin 5 (K5) with a LOD score of 7.60, {theta}=0.0 for the proximal marker D12S14. Sequencing of the K5 gene identified an Asn substitution of a highly conserved Lys at codon 173 in the 5{prime} end of the central rod domain. The mutation was found in 33 affected family members but not in 5 unaffected members or 25 unrelated, unaffected individuals. Both linkage and sequence analysis verified that one affected individual was homozygous for the K5 mutation. In this family, clinical examination and analysis of epidermal ultrastructure by electron microscopy were consistent with the Koebner subtype of EBS. Despite the absence of any normal K5 protein in the skin, the clinical and ultrastructural phenotypes of the homozygous individual did not differ significantly from those of affected heteozygous relatives. This K5 mutation is a fully dominant allele.

  16. Structure and evolution of the mouse pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (Psg gene locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Katsuzumi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (Psg genes encode proteins of unknown function, and are members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (Cea gene family, which is a member of the immunoglobulin gene (Ig superfamily. In rodents and primates, but not in artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates / hoofed mammals, there have been independent expansions of the Psg gene family, with all members expressed exclusively in placental trophoblast cells. For the mouse Psg genes, we sought to determine the genomic organisation of the locus, the expression profiles of the various family members, and the evolution of exon structure, to attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this locus, and to determine whether expansion of the gene family has been driven by selection for increased gene dosage, or diversification of function. Results We collated the mouse Psg gene sequences currently in the public genome and expressed-sequence tag (EST databases and used systematic BLAST searches to generate complete sequences for all known mouse Psg genes. We identified a novel family member, Psg31, which is similar to Psg30 but, uniquely amongst mouse Psg genes, has a duplicated N1 domain. We also identified a novel splice variant of Psg16 (bCEA. We show that Psg24 and Psg30 / Psg31 have independently undergone expansion of N-domain number. By mapping BAC, YAC and cosmid clones we described two clusters of Psg genes, which we linked and oriented using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH. Comparison of our Psg locus map with the public mouse genome database indicates good agreement in overall structure and further elucidates gene order. Expression levels of Psg genes in placentas of different developmental stages revealed dramatic differences in the developmental expression profile of individual family members. Conclusion We have combined existing information, and provide new information concerning the evolution of mouse Psg exon organization, the mouse

  17. Differential accumulation of nif structural gene mRNA in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W

    2011-09-01

    Northern analysis was employed to investigate mRNA produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding regions. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth. PMID:21725008

  18. COMPLEMENTATION OF THE AMYLOSE-FREE STARCH MUTANT OF POTATO (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM) BY THE GENE ENCODING GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERLEIJ, FR; VISSER, RGF; OOSTERHAVEN, K; VANDERKOP, DAM; JACOBSEN, E; FEENSTRA, WJ

    1991-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated introduction of the wild-type allele of the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) into the amylose-free starch mutant amf of potato leads to restoration of GBSS activity and amylose synthesis, which demonstrates that Amf is the structural gene for GBSS.

  19. Evolution of the Structure and Chromosomal Distribution of Histidine Biosynthetic Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, Renato; Mori, Elena; Tamburini, Elena; Lazcano, Antonio

    1998-10-01

    A database of more than 100 histidine biosynthetic genes from different organisms belonging to the three primary domains has been analyzed, including those found in the now completely sequenced genomes of Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Synechocystis sp., Methanococcus jannaschii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ubiquity of his genes suggests that it is a highly conserved pathway that was probably already present in the last common ancestor of all extant life. The chromosomal distribution of the his genes shows that the enterobacterial histidine operon structure is not the only possible organization, and that there is a diversity of gene arrays for the his pathway. Analysis of the available sequences shows that gene fusions (like those involved in the origin of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium hisIE and hisB gene structures) are not universal. In contrast, the elongation event that led to the extant hisA gene from two homologous ancestral modules, as well as the subsequent paralogous duplication that originated hisF, appear to be irreversible and are conserved in all known organisms. The available evidence supports the hypothesis that histidine biosynthesis was assembled by a gene recruitment process.

  20. Whole brain expression of bipolar disorder associated genes: structural and genetic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McCarthy

    Full Text Available Studies of bipolar disorder (BD suggest a genetic basis of the illness that alters brain function and morphology. In recent years, a number of genetic variants associated with BD have been identified. However, little is known about the associated genes, or brain circuits that rely upon their function. Using an anatomically comprehensive survey of the human transcriptome (The Allen Brain Atlas, we mapped the expression of 58 genes with suspected involvement in BD based upon their relationship to SNPs identified in genome wide association studies (GWAS. We then conducted a meta-analysis of structural MRI studies to identify brain regions that are abnormal in BD. Of 58 BD associated genes, 22 had anatomically distinct expression patterns that could be categorized into one of three clusters (C1-C3. Brain regions with the highest and lowest expression of these genes did not overlap strongly with anatomical sites identified as abnormal by structural MRI except in the parahippocampal gyrus, the inferior/superior temporal gyrus and the cerebellar vermis, regions where overlap was significant. Using the 22 genes in C1-C3 as reference points, additional genes with correlated expression patterns were identified and organized into sets based on similarity. Further analysis revealed that five of these gene sets were significantly associated with BD, suggesting that anatomical expression profile is correlated with genetic susceptibility to BD, particularly for genes in C2. Our data suggest that expression profiles of BD-associated genes do not explain the majority of structural abnormalities observed in BD, but may be useful in identifying new candidate genes. Our results highlight the complex neuroanatomical basis of BD, and reinforce illness models that emphasize impaired brain connectivity.

  1. Automating gene library synthesis by structure-based combinatorial protein engineering: examples from plant sesquiterpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokarry, Melissa; Laurendon, Caroline; O'Maille, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based combinatorial protein engineering (SCOPE) is a homology-independent recombination method to create multiple crossover gene libraries by assembling defined combinations of structural elements ranging from single mutations to domains of protein structure. SCOPE was originally inspired by DNA shuffling, which mimics recombination during meiosis, where mutations from parental genes are "shuffled" to create novel combinations in the resulting progeny. DNA shuffling utilizes sequence identity between parental genes to mediate template-switching events (the annealing and extension of one parental gene fragment on another) in PCR reassembly reactions to generate crossovers and hence recombination between parental genes. In light of the conservation of protein structure and degeneracy of sequence, SCOPE was developed to enable the "shuffling" of distantly related genes with no requirement for sequence identity. The central principle involves the use of oligonucleotides to encode for crossover regions to choreograph template-switching events during PCR assembly of gene fragments to create chimeric genes. This approach was initially developed to create libraries of hybrid DNA polymerases from distantly related parents, and later developed to create a combinatorial mutant library of sesquiterpene synthases to explore the catalytic landscapes underlying the functional divergence of related enzymes. This chapter presents a simplified protocol of SCOPE that can be integrated with different mutagenesis techniques and is suitable for automation by liquid-handling robots. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of SCOPE to create gene libraries using plant sesquiterpene synthases as the model system. In the first example, we outline how to create an active-site library as a series of complex mixtures of diverse mutants. In the second example, we outline how to create a focused library as an array of individual clones to distil minimal combinations of

  2. Human von Willebrand factor gene and pseudogene: Structural analysis and differentiation by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural analysis of the von Willebrand factor gene located on chromosome 12 is complicated by the presence of a partial unprocessed pseudogene on chromosome 22q11-13. The structures of the von Willebrand factor pseudogene and corresponding segment of the gene were determined, and methods were developed for the rapid differentiation of von Willebrand factor gene and pseudogene sequences. The pseudogene is 21-29 kilobases in length and corresponds to 12 exons (exons 23-34) of the von Willebrand factor gene. Approximately 21 kilobases of the gene and pseudogene were sequenced, including the 5' boundary of the pseudogene. The 3' boundary of the pseudogene lies within an 8-kb region corresponding to intron 34 of the gene. The presence of splice site and nonsense mutations suggests that the pseudogene cannot yield functional transcripts. The pseudogene has diverged ∼3.1% in nucleotide sequence from the gene. This suggests a recent evolutionary origin ∼19-29 million years ago, near the time of divergence of humans and apes from monkeys. Several repetitive sequences were identified, including 4 Alu, one Line-1, and several short simple sequence repeats. Several of these simple repeats differ in length between the gene and pseudogene and provide useful markers for distinguishing these loci. Sequence differences between the gene and pseudogene were exploited to design oligonucleotide primers for use in the polymerase chain reaction to selectivity amplify sequences corresponding to exons 23-34 from either the von Willebrand factor gene or the pseudogene. This method is useful for the analysis of gene defects in patients with von Willebrand disease, without interference from homologous sequences in the pseudogene

  3. Cationized bovine serum albumin as gene carrier: Influence of specific secondary structure on DNA complexibility and gene transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianwei; Li, Bangbang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Youxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this research, BSA, one of the natural rigid globular proteins with ca. 51% of α-helix secondary structure, was utilized to prepare cationized BSA (cBSA) as gene carrier. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) or polyethylenimine (PEI1800) was grafted to BSA with different grafting levels. Based on the circular dichoism (CD) spectra, all cBSA remained α-helical structure to some degree. This was exciting to endow cBSA with quite different DNA complexibility and cellular biology behavior from the random coiled and flexible polycations such as PEI and poly-l-lysine (PLL). Strangely, the DNA condensability decreased with the increment of TEPA or PEI1800 grafting level. Also, the cBSA could condense DNA effectively to form irregular nanoparticles around 50-200nm above N/P ratio of 10. On account of the excellent hydration of BSA, the cBSA/DNA complexes revealed good colloidal stability under physiological salt condition. Cell culture experiments indicated this BSA-based gene carrier possessed good cellular compatibility. Surprisingly, cBSA/DNA complexes could be uptaken excellently by up to 90% cells. This might be owing to the agitation effect of α-helical structure and the positive potential of these complexes. BSA-PEI1800/DNA complexes with quick endosome escape even had transfection efficiency as high as PEI25k/DNA complexes. Overall, this paper provided us the potential of cBSA as gene carrier and might have some instructions in the design of protein-based gene delivery system. PMID:26998865

  4. Allelic association at the D14S43 locus in early onset Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, A.; Tardieu, S.; Campion, D.; Martinez, M. [and others

    1995-04-24

    The D14S43 marker is closely linked to the major gene for early onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer`s disease on chromosome 14. Allelic frequencies at the D14S43 locus were compared in 113 familial and isolated cases of early onset Alzheimer`s disease (<60 years of age at onset) (EOAD) and 109 unaffected individuals of the same geographic origin. Allele 7 was significantly (P = 0.033) more frequent in type 1 EOAD patients (13.2%), defined by the presence of at least another first degree relative with EOAD, than in controls (4.1%). Since an autosomal dominant gene is probably responsible for type 1 patients, allelic association may reflect linkage disequilibrium at the D14S43 locus. This would mean that some patients share a common ancestral mutation. However, since multiple tests were carried out, this result must be interpreted with caution, and needs confirmation in an independent sample. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. A highly conserved gene island of three genes on chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat: diverse gene function and genomic structure maintained in a tightly linked block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wujun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of the wheat genome has resulted from waves of retrotransposable element insertions. Gene deletions and disruptions generated by the fast replacement of repetitive elements in wheat have resulted in disruption of colinearity at a micro (sub-megabase level among the cereals. In view of genomic changes that are possible within a given time span, conservation of genes between species tends to imply an important functional or regional constraint that does not permit a change in genomic structure. The ctg1034 contig completed in this paper was initially studied because it was assigned to the Sr2 resistance locus region, but detailed mapping studies subsequently assigned it to the long arm of 3B and revealed its unusual features. Results BAC shotgun sequencing of the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring genome has been used to assemble a group of 15 wheat BACs from the chromosome 3B physical map FPC contig ctg1034 into a 783,553 bp genomic sequence. This ctg1034 sequence was annotated for biological features such as genes and transposable elements. A three-gene island was identified among >80% repetitive DNA sequence. Using bioinformatics analysis there were no observable similarity in their gene functions. The ctg1034 gene island also displayed complete conservation of gene order and orientation with syntenic gene islands found in publicly available genome sequences of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays, even though the intergenic space and introns were divergent. Conclusion We propose that ctg1034 is located within the heterochromatic C-band region of deletion bin 3BL7 based on the identification of heterochromatic tandem repeats and presence of significant matches to chromodomain-containing gypsy LTR retrotransposable elements. We also speculate that this location, among other highly repetitive sequences, may account for the relative stability in gene order and

  6. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome type IV: a multi-exon deletion in one of the two COL3A1 alleles affecting structure, stability, and processing of type III procollagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Superti-Furga, A.; Gugler, E.; Gitzelmann, R.; Steinmann, B.

    1988-05-05

    The authors have studied a patient with severe, dominantly inherited Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. The results indicate that this patient carries a deletion of 3.3 kilobase pairs in the triple helical coding domain of one of the two alleles for the pro-..cap alpha..-chains of type III collagen (COL3A1). His cultured skin fibroblasts contain equal amounts of normal length mRNA and of mRNA shortened by approximately 600 bases, and synthesize both normal and shortened pro-..cap alpha..1(III)-chains. In procollagen molecules containing one or more shortened chains, a triple helix is formed with a length of only about 780 amino acids. The mutant procollagen molecules have decreased thermal stability, are less efficiently secreted, and are not processed as their normal counterpart. The deletion in this family is the first mutation to be described in COL3A1.

  7. Mutational analysis of the HLA-DQ3.2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, W W; Lotshaw, C; Milner, E C; Knitter-Jack, N; Nepom, G T

    1989-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex includes approximately 14 class II HLA genes within the HLA-D region, most of which exist in multiple allelic forms. One of these genes, the DQ3.2 beta gene, accounts for the well-documented association of HLA-DR4 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and is the single allele most highly correlated with this disease. We analyzed the amino acid substitutions that lead to the structural differences distinguishing DQ3.2 beta from its nondiabetogenic, but closely related allele, DQ3.1 beta. Site-directed mutagenesis of the DQ3.2 beta gene was used to convert key nucleotides into DQ3.1 beta codons. Subsequent expression studies of these mutated DQ3.2 beta clones using retroviral vectors defined amino acid 45 as critical for generating serologic epitopes characterizing the DQw3.1 beta and DQw3.2 beta molecules. Images PMID:2783780

  8. Form follows function - the three-dimensional structure of antigen receptor gene loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2014-04-01

    Antigen receptor genes are assembled during lymphocyte development from individual gene segments by a somatic gene rearrangement process named V(D)J recombination. This process is tightly regulated to ensure the generation of an unbiased broad primary repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, and to prevent aberrant recombination products that could initiate lymphomagenesis. One important mode of regulation that has recently been discovered for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus is the adoption of distinct three-dimensional structures of the locus. Changes in the spatial conformation are thought to ensure the appropriate access of the V(D)J recombinase machinery at each developmental stage, and the formation of extensive chromosome loops has been implicated in allowing equal access to widely dispersed gene elements. PMID:24549092

  9. Dosage effects of Waxy gene on the structures and properties of corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Blanco, Michael; Gardner, Candice; Li, Xuehong; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2016-09-20

    The objective of this study was to understand dosage effects of the Waxy gene on the structures of amylose and amylopectin and on the properties of corn starch. Reciprocal crossing of isogenic normal and waxy corn lines was conducted to develop hybrids with different dosages (0, 1, 2, 3) of Waxy gene in the endosperm. The amylose content of starch and proportions of branch chains of DP 17-30 and extra-long branch chains (DP>100) of amylopectin were positively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage. Proportions of short (DPstarch were negatively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage, indicating that amylose facilitated dissociation of the surrounding crystalline regions. These results helped us understand the function of granule-bound starch synthase I in the biosynthesis of amylose and amylopectin and impacts of Waxy-gene dosages on the properties of corn starch. PMID:27261752

  10. Gene silencing and Polycomb group proteins: an overview of their structure, mechanisms and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2013-06-01

    DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin configuration are crucially important in the regulation of gene expression. Among these epigenetic mechanisms, silencing the expression of certain genes depending on developmental stage and tissue specificity is a key repressive system in genome programming. Polycomb (Pc) proteins play roles in gene silencing through different mechanisms. These proteins act in complexes and govern the histone methylation profiles of a large number of genes that regulate various cellular pathways. This review focuses on two main Pc complexes, Pc repressive complexes 1 and 2, and their phylogenetic relationship, structures, and function. The dynamic roles of these complexes in silencing will be discussed herein, with a focus on the recruitment of Pc complexes to target genes and the key factors involved in their recruitment. PMID:23692361

  11. Selective visualization of gene structure with ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Becker, M.M.

    1988-02-01

    The ability of the ultraviolet (UV) footprinting technique to detect chromatin has been investigated in vitro. Two basic types of chromatin, a phased nucleosome and a phased nucleosome containing a phased H1 protein, have been reconstituted onto a cloned 5S ribosomal RNA gene from sea urchin. The histone-DNA interactions in each complex have been probed with exonuclease III, DNase I, dimethyl sulfate, and UV light. Whereas DNase I and exonuclease III readily detect interactions between histones and DNA, UV light and dimethyl sulfate do not. In contrast to histone-DNA interactions, we demonstrate that intimate sequence-specific contacts between the same sea urchin 5S DNA and the Xenopus laevis transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) are readily detected with UV light. Since the sensitivity of UV light for TFIIIA contacts is similar to its sensitivity for other regulatory protein-DNA contacts, these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using UV light to selectively visualize regulatory protein-DNA interactions in vivo with little or no interference from histone-DNA interactions.

  12. Functional loss of E-cadherin and cadherin-11 alleles on chromosome 16q22 in colonic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart, E; Schumacher, C; Hartmann, E; Nekarda, H; Becker, K F; Höfler, H; Atkinson, M J

    1999-04-01

    Proteins of the cadherin family regulate cellular adhesion and motility and are believed to act as tumour suppressors. Previous studies have identified frequent mutation and allelic inactivation of the E-cadherin (cadherin-1) locus in diffuse gastric cancer. At least two other cadherin genes, P-cadherin (cadherin-3) and OB-cadherin (cadherin-11), have been mapped close to the E-cadherin gene on chromosome 16q22. As this region of the genome is frequently deleted in malignancy, multiple cadherin loci may be affected by losses of chromosome 16q22. The expression of mRNA transcripts from polymorphic alleles of the E-cadherin and cadherin-11 genes was examined in 30 cases of colonic, gastric, and renal carcinoma. In gastric cancer, loss of expression of one allele was restricted to the E-cadherin locus, whilst in renal carcinoma neither locus was affected. In colonic cancers, loss of expression of one E-cadherin allele was detected in 5 of 22 cases, whilst loss of a cadherin-11 allele was seen in 5 of 23 cases. This functional loss of cadherin gene expression may be due to gene deletion, inactivation or recombination. As no evidence of cadherin gene mutation was observed in the remaining transcripts, we can conclude that these two genes are only indirectly involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. PMID:10398117

  13. Yeast structural gene (APN1) for the major apurinic endonuclease: homology to Escherichia coli endonuclease IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Popoff, S C; Spira, A I; Johnson, A. W.; Demple, B

    1990-01-01

    DNA damage generated by oxygen radicals includes base-free apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and strand breaks that bear deoxyribose fragments. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae repairs such DNA lesions by using a single major enzyme. We have cloned the yeast structural gene (APN1) encoding this AP endonuclease/3'-repair diesterase by immunological screening of a yeast genomic DNA expression library in lambda gt11. Gene disruption experiments confirm that the Apn1 protein accounts for greater...

  14. SNPs in stress-responsive rice genes: validation, genotyping, functional relevance and population structure

    OpenAIRE

    Parida Swarup K; Mukerji Mitali; Singh Ashok K; Singh Nagendra K; Mohapatra Trilochan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) validation and large-scale genotyping are required to maximize the use of DNA sequence variation and determine the functional relevance of candidate genes for complex stress tolerance traits through genetic association in rice. We used the bead array platform-based Illumina GoldenGate assay to validate and genotype SNPs in a select set of stress-responsive genes to understand their functional relevance and study the population structure...

  15. The Structure of a Gene Co-Expression Network Reveals Biological Functions Underlying eQTLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Liaubet, Laurence; Laurent, Thibault; Cherel, Pierre; Gamot, Adrien; SanCristobal, Magali

    2013-01-01

    What are the commonalities between genes, whose expression level is partially controlled by eQTL, especially with regard to biological functions? Moreover, how are these genes related to a phenotype of interest? These issues are particularly difficult to address when the genome annotation is incomplete, as is the case for mammalian species. Moreover, the direct link between gene expression and a phenotype of interest may be weak, and thus difficult to handle. In this framework, the use of a co-expression network has proven useful: it is a robust approach for modeling a complex system of genetic regulations, and to infer knowledge for yet unknown genes. In this article, a case study was conducted with a mammalian species. It showed that the use of a co-expression network based on partial correlation, combined with a relevant clustering of nodes, leads to an enrichment of biological functions of around 83%. Moreover, the use of a spatial statistics approach allowed us to superimpose additional information related to a phenotype; this lead to highlighting specific genes or gene clusters that are related to the network structure and the phenotype. Three main results are worth noting: first, key genes were highlighted as a potential focus for forthcoming biological experiments; second, a set of biological functions, which support a list of genes under partial eQTL control, was set up by an overview of the global structure of the gene expression network; third, pH was found correlated with gene clusters, and then with related biological functions, as a result of a spatial analysis of the network topology. PMID:23577081

  16. Evolutionary Relationship and Structural Characterization of the EPF/EPFL Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Takata, Naoki; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Ohki, Shinya; Mori, Masashi; Taniguchi, Toru; Kurita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    EPF1-EPF2 and EPFL9/Stomagen act antagonistically in regulating leaf stomatal density. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary functional divergence of EPF/EPFL family genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like genes are conserved only in vascular plants and are closely related to AtEPF1/EPF2-like genes. Modeling showed that EPF/EPFL peptides share a common 3D structure that is constituted of a scaffold and loop. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that...

  17. In silico analysis of regulatory and structural motifs of the ovine HSP90AA1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen; Salces-Ortiz, Judit; Calvo, Jorge H; Serrano, M Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    Gene promoters are essential regions of DNA where the transcriptional molecular machinery to produce RNA molecules is recruited. In this process, DNA epigenetic modifications can acquire a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression. Recently, in a previous work of our group, functional features and DNA methylation involved in the ovine HSP90AA1 gene expression regulation have been observed. In this work, we report a combination of methylation analysis by bisulfite sequencing in several tissues and at different developmental stages together with in silico bioinformatic analysis of putative regulating factors in order to identify regulative mechanisms both at the promoter and gene body. Our results show a "hybrid structure" (TATA box + CpG island) of the ovine HSP90AA1 gene promoter both in somatic and non-differentiated germ tissues, revealing the ability of the HSP90AA1 gene to be regulated both in an inducible and constitutive fashion. In addition, in silico analysis showed that several putative alternative spliced regulatory motifs, exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), and G-quadruplex secondary structures were somehow related to the DNA methylation pattern found. The results obtained here could help explain the differences in cell-type transcripts, tissue expression rate, and transcription silencing mechanisms found in this gene. PMID:26810179

  18. [Cloning of structural genes involved in riboflavin synthesis of the yeast Candida famata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytruk, K V; Abbas, C A; Voronovsky, A Y; Kshanovska, B V; Sybirna, K A; Sybirny, A A

    2004-01-01

    The riboflavin overproducing mutants of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata isolated by conventional selection methods are used for the industrial production of vitamin B2. Recently, a transformation system was developed for C. famata using the leu2 mutant as a recipient strain and Saccharomyces cerevislae LEU2 gene as a selective marker. In this paper the cloning of C. famata genes for riboflavin synthesis on the basis of developed transformation system for this yeast species is described. Riboflavin autotrophic mutants were isolated from a previously selected C. famata leu2 strain. C. famata genomic DNA library was constructed and used for cloning of the corresponding structural genes for riboflavin synthesis by complementation of the growth defects on a medium without leucine and riboflavin. As a result, the DNA fragments harboring genes RIB1, RIB2, RIB5, RIB6 and RIB7 encoding GTP cyclohydrolase, reductase, dimethylribityllumazine synthase, dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase and riboflavin synthase, were isolated and subsequently subcloned to the smallest possible fragments. The plasmids with these genes successfully complemented riboflavin auxotrophies of the corresponding mutants of another flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii. This suggested that C. famata structural genes for riboflavin synthesis and not some of the supressor genes were cloned. PMID:15909421

  19. A framework for scalable parameter estimation of gene circuit models using structural information

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-21

    Motivation: Systematic and scalable parameter estimation is a key to construct complex gene regulatory models and to ultimately facilitate an integrative systems biology approach to quantitatively understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning gene regulation. Results: Here, we report a novel framework for efficient and scalable parameter estimation that focuses specifically on modeling of gene circuits. Exploiting the structure commonly found in gene circuit models, this framework decomposes a system of coupled rate equations into individual ones and efficiently integrates them separately to reconstruct the mean time evolution of the gene products. The accuracy of the parameter estimates is refined by iteratively increasing the accuracy of numerical integration using the model structure. As a case study, we applied our framework to four gene circuit models with complex dynamics based on three synthetic datasets and one time series microarray data set. We compared our framework to three state-of-the-art parameter estimation methods and found that our approach consistently generated higher quality parameter solutions efficiently. Although many general-purpose parameter estimation methods have been applied for modeling of gene circuits, our results suggest that the use of more tailored approaches to use domain-specific information may be a key to reverse engineering of complex biological systems. The Author 2013.

  20. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested. PMID:26681450

  1. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3Al) allele produces ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGookey Milewicz, D.; Witz, A.M.; Byers, P.H. (Univ of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Smith, A.C.M.; Manchester, D.K.; Waldstein, G. (Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutation in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). The authors studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for the same deletion in somatic and germ cells. In fibroblasts from the father, approximately two-fifths of the COL3A1 alleles carried the deletion, but only 10% of the COL3A1 alleles in white blood cells were of the mutant species. The deletion in the mutant allele extended from intron 7 into intron 11. There was a 12-bp direct repeat in intron 7 and intron 11, the latter about 60 bp 5' to the junction. At the breakpoint there was a duplication of 10 bp from intron 11 separated by an insertion of 4 bp contained within the duplicated sequence. The father was mosaic for the deletion so that the gene rearrangement occurred during his early embryonic development prior to lineage allocation. These findings suggest that at least some of the deletions seen in human genes may occur during replication, rather than as a consequence of meiotic crossing-over, and that they thus have a risk for recurrence when observed de novo. 71 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    OpenAIRE

    Linnéa Asplund; Göran Bergkvist; Leino, Matti W.; Anna Westerbergh; Martin Weih

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of th...

  3. Bacterial pathogen gene regulation: a DNA-structure-centred view of a protein-dominated domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Charles J; Colgan, Aoife; Dorman, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms used by bacterial pathogens to regulate the expression of their genes, especially their virulence genes, have been the subject of intense investigation for several decades. Whole genome sequencing projects, together with more targeted studies, have identified hundreds of DNA-binding proteins that contribute to the patterns of gene expression observed during infection as well as providing important insights into the nature of the gene products whose expression is being controlled by these proteins. Themes that have emerged include the importance of horizontal gene transfer to the evolution of pathogens, the need to impose regulatory discipline upon these imported genes and the important roles played by factors normally associated with the organization of genome architecture as regulatory principles in the control of virulence gene expression. Among these architectural elements is the structure of DNA itself, its variable nature at a topological rather than just at a base-sequence level and its ability to play an active (as well as a passive) part in the gene regulation process. PMID:27252403

  4. Coding exon-structure aware realigner (CESAR) utilizes genome alignments for accurate comparative gene annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virag; Elghafari, Anas; Hiller, Michael

    2016-06-20

    Identifying coding genes is an essential step in genome annotation. Here, we utilize existing whole genome alignments to detect conserved coding exons and then map gene annotations from one genome to many aligned genomes. We show that genome alignments contain thousands of spurious frameshifts and splice site mutations in exons that are truly conserved. To overcome these limitations, we have developed CESAR (Coding Exon-Structure Aware Realigner) that realigns coding exons, while considering reading frame and splice sites of each exon. CESAR effectively avoids spurious frameshifts in conserved genes and detects 91% of shifted splice sites. This results in the identification of thousands of additional conserved exons and 99% of the exons that lack inactivating mutations match real exons. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of using CESAR for comparative gene annotation, we applied it to 188 788 exons of 19 865 human genes to annotate human genes in 99 other vertebrates. These comparative gene annotations are available as a resource (http://bds.mpi-cbg.de/hillerlab/CESAR/). CESAR (https://github.com/hillerlab/CESAR/) can readily be applied to other alignments to accurately annotate coding genes in many other vertebrate and invertebrate genomes. PMID:27016733

  5. Gene structure and molecular phylogeny of the linker chains from the giant annelid hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, Christine; Bailly, Xavier; Sanchez, Sophie; Rousselot, Morgane; Zal, Franck

    2006-09-01

    Giant extracellular hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb), found only in annelids, is an approximately 3500-kDa heteropolymeric structure involved in oxygen transport. The HBL-Hbs are comprised of globin and linker chains, the latter being required for the assembly of the quaternary structure. The linker chains, varying in size from 225 to 283 amino acids, have a conserved cysteine-rich domain within their N-terminal moiety that is homologous to the cysteine-rich modules constituting the ligand binding domain of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein family found in many metazoans. We have investigated the gene structure of linkers from Arenicola marina, Alvinella pompejana, Nereis diversicolor, Lumbricus terrestris, and Riftia pachyptila. We found, contrary to the results obtained earlier with linker genes from N. diversicolor and L. terrestris, that in all of the foregoing cases, the linker LDL-A module is flanked by two phase 1 introns, as in the human LDLR gene, with two more introns in the 3' side whose positions varied with the species. In addition, we obtained 13 linker cDNAs that have been determined experimentally or found in the EST database LumbriBASE. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the linker primary sequences demonstrated that they cluster into two distinct families of linker proteins. We propose that the common gene ancestor to annelid linker genes exhibited a four-intron and five-exon structure and gave rise to the two families subsequent to a duplication event. PMID:16838215

  6. Analysis of FBN1 allele expression by dermal fibroblasts from Marfan syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, E.A.; Cao, S.N.; Milewicz, D.M. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Screening for mutations in the FBN1 cDNA from Marfan patient cell strains has detected mutations in only 10-15% of patients. In an attempt to explain this poor detection rate, we examined FBN1 allele expression and fibrillin synthesis by 26 cell strains from Marfan patients. DNA from the patients and 10 controls was assessed for the presence of a polymorphic Rsa I restriction site in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the FBN1 gene. Twelve of 26 patient and 5 of 10 control DNAs were heterozygous. Fibroblast RNA from the heterozygous cell strains was reverse-transcribed and subsequently PCR amplified using a [{sup 32}P]-labelled primer, digested with Rsa I and analyzed. Although 3 samples showed no transcript from one allele by ethidium bromide staining, a Betagen scanner detected low levels (10-15%) of that allele. In addition, there was unequal expression of the two alleles in three other patients; for example, only 30% expression from one allele. The remaining patients and the controls had equal expression of each allele. Fibrillin protein synthesis by fibroblasts from these heterozygous patients was also examined. After a 30 minute pulse with [{sup 35}S]-cysteine, cell lysates were collected and proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The amount of fibrillin produced relative to a reference protein was determined using a Betagen scanner. Fibrillin protein synthesis was reduced in 2 of the 3 patients with very low RNA production from one of the FBN1 alleles. All other Marfan and control cell strains showed normal amounts of fibrillin synthesized. The low expression levels from one allele may contribute to, but not fully account for, the low detection rate of FBN1 mutations. Interestingly, protein synthesis levels were not affected in 4 of 6 cell strains demonstrating low levels of RNA expression.

  7. Sarco(endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase-2 Gene: Structure and Transcriptional Regulation of the Human Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Zarain-Herzberg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sarco(endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs belong to a family of active calcium transport enzymes encoded by the SERCA1, 2, and 3 genes. In this study, we describe the complete structure of the human SERCA2 gene and its 5’ -regulatory region. The hSERCA2 gene is located in chromosome 12 position q24.1 in Contig NT_009770.8, spans 70 kb, and is organized in 21 exons intervened by 20 introns. The last two exons of the pre-mRNA produce by alternatively splicing the cardiac/slow-twitch muscle-specific SERCA2a isoform and the ubiquitous SERCA2b isoform. The sequence of the proximal 225-bp regulatory region of the SERCA2 genes is 80% G+C-rich and is conserved among human, rabbit, rat, and mouse species. It contains a TATA-like-box, an E-box/USF sequence, a CAAT-box, four Sp1 binding sites, and a thyroid hormone responsive element (TRE. There are two other conserved regulatory regions located between positions -410 to -661 bp and from -919 to -1410 bp. Among the DNA cis-elements present in these two regulatory regions there are potential binding sites for: GATA-4, -5, -6, Nkx-2.5/Csx, OTF-1, USF, MEF-2, SRF, PPAR/RXR, AP-2, and TREs. Upstream from position -1.5 kb, there is no significant homology among the SERCA2 genes cloned. In addition, the human gene has several repeated sequences mainly of the Alu and L2 type located upstream from position -1.7 kb, spanning in a continuous fashion for more than 40 kb. In this study, we report the cloning of 2.4 kb of 5’-regulatory region and demonstrate that the proximal promoter region is sufficient for expression in cardiac myocytes, and the region from -225 to -1232 bp contains regulatory DNA elements which down-regulate the expression of the SERCA2 gene in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

  8. HLA-DRB1 alleles genotyping in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of HLA-DRB1 genes in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the correlations between HLA-DR alleles and clinical manifestations of patients with RA. Methods: 86 patients and 106 race matched controls in whom HLADR typing was performed by the method of DNA amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP)

  9. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele inhibits the senescence of carnation flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Angenent, G.C.; Dons, H.J.M.; Altvorst, van A.

    1999-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana etr1-1 allele, capable of conferring ethylene insensitivity in a heterologous host, was introduced into transgenic carnation plants. This gene was expressed under control of either its own promoter, the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the flower-specific petunia FBP1 promo

  10. Felsenstein's“one-allele model”of speciation: The role of philopatry in the initial stages of host plant mediated reproductive isolation in Enchenopa binotata

    OpenAIRE

    Frank W. STEARNS, Kelley J. TILMON, Thomas K. WOOD

    2013-01-01

    The study of speciation genetics is primarily concerned with identifying the genetic traits that allow divergent selection to overcome the homogenizing effects of gene flow. Felsenstein reviewed this race between gene flow and selection, concluding that speciation with gene flow was unlikely under a “two-allele model” (where two traits were necessary for reproductive isolation) but that divergence could occur quite easily under a “one-allele model.” Despite this finding, much of the sympatric...

  11. Allelic differences within and among sister spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum suggest segregation at sporulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boon

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are root-inhabiting fungi that form mutualistic symbioses with their host plants. AMF are made up of coenocytic networks of hyphae through which nuclei and organelles can freely migrate. In this study, we investigated the possibility of a genetic bottleneck and segregation of allelic variation at sporulation for a low-copy Polymerase1-like gene, PLS. Specifically, our objectives were (1 to estimate what allelic diversity is passed on to a single spore (2 to determine whether this diversity is less than the total amount of variation found in all spores (3 to investigate whether there is any differential segregation of allelic variation. We inoculated three tomato plants with a single spore of Glomus etunicatum each and after six months sampled between two and three daughter spores per tomato plant. Pyrosequencing PLS amplicons in eight spores revealed high levels of allelic diversity; between 43 and 152 alleles per spore. We corroborated the spore pyrosequencing results with Sanger- and pyrosequenced allele distributions from the original parent isolate. Both sequencing methods retrieved the most abundant alleles from the offspring spore allele distributions. Our results indicate that individual spores contain only a subset of the total allelic variation from the pooled spores and parent isolate. Patterns of allele diversity between spores suggest the possibility for segregation of PLS alleles among spores. We conclude that a genetic bottleneck could potentially occur during sporulation in AMF, with resulting differences in genetic variation among sister spores. We suggest that the effects of this bottleneck may be countered by anastomosis (hyphal fusion between related hyphae.

  12. Allelic expression analysis of the osteoarthritis susceptibility locus that maps to MICAL3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Madhushika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide association scan with subsequent replication study that involved over 67,000 individuals of European ancestry has produced evidence of association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs2277831 to primary osteoarthritis (OA with a P-value of 2.9 × 10-5. rs2277831, an A/G transition, is located in an intron of MICAL3. This gene is located on chromosome 22q11.21 and the association signal encompasses two additional genes, BCL2L13 and BID. It is becoming increasingly apparent that many common complex traits are mediated by cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms that influence, in a tissue-specific manner, gene expression or transcript stability. Methods We used total and allelic expression analysis to assess whether the OA association to rs2277831 is mediated by an influence on MICAL3, BCL2L13 or BID expression. Using RNA extracted from joint tissues of 60 patients who had undergone elective joint replacement surgery, we assessed whether rs2277831 correlated with allelic expression of either of the three genes by: 1 measuring the expression of each gene by quantitative PCR and then stratifying the data by genotype at rs2277831 and 2 accurately discriminating and quantifying the mRNA synthesised from the alleles of OA patients using allelic-quantitative PCR. Results We found no evidence for a correlation between gene expression and genotype at rs2277831, with P-values of 0.09 for BCL2L13, 0.07 for BID and 0.33 for MICAL3. In the allelic expression analysis we observed several examples of significant (p BCL2L13 (P = 0.004, 2.09 at BID (P = 0.001 and the most extreme case being at MICAL3, with an allelic expression ratio of 5.47 (P = 0.001. However, there was no correlation observed between the pattern of allelic expression and the genotype at rs2277831. Conclusions In the tissues that we have studied, our data do not support our hypothesis that the association between rs2277831 and OA is due to the effect this SNP has on

  13. Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: Allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachse, C.; Brockmoeller, J.; Bauer, S.; Roots, I. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes many important drugs. CYP2D6 activity ranges from complete deficiency to ultrafast metabolism, depending on at least 16 different known alleles. Their frequencies were determined in 589 unrelated German volunteers and correlated with enzyme activity measured by phenotyping with dextromethorphan or debrisoquine. For genotyping, nested PCR-RFLP tests from a PCR amplificate of the entire CYP2D6 gene were developed. The frequency of the CYP2D6*1 allele coding for extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotype was .364. The alleles coding for slightly (CYP2D6*2) or moderately (*9 and *10) reduced activity (intermediate metabolizer phenotype [IM]) showed frequencies of .324, .018, and .015, respectively. By use of novel PCR tests for discrimination, CYP2D6 gene duplication alleles were found with frequencies of.005 (*1 x 2), .013 (* 2 x 2), and .001 (*4 x 2). Frequencies of alleles with complete deficiency (poor metabolizer phenotype [PM]) were .207 (*4), .020 (*3 and *5), .009 (*6), and .001 (*7, *15, and *16). The defective CYP2D6 alleles *8, *11, *12, *13, and *14 were not found. All 41 PMs (7.0%) in this sample were explained by five mutations detected by four PCR-RFLP tests, which may suffice, together with the gene duplication test, for clinical prediction of CYP2D6 capacity. Three novel variants of known CYP2D6 alleles were discovered: *1C (T{sub 1957}C), *2B (additional C{sub 2558}T), and *4E (additional C{sub 2938}T). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in enzymatic activity measured by the dextromethorphan metabolic ratio (MR) between carriers of EN/PM (mean MR = .006) and IM/PM (mean MR = .014) alleles and between carriers of one (mean MR = .009) and two (mean MR = .003) functional alleles. The results of this study provide a solid basis for prediction of CYP2D6 capacity, as required in drug research and routine drug treatment. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  15. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  16. Specific Silencing of L392V PSEN1 Mutant Allele by RNA Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata Sierant; Alina Paduszynska; Julia Kazmierczak-Baranska; Benedetta Nacmias; Sandro Sorbi; Silvia Bagnoli; Elzbieta Sochacka; Barbara Nawrot

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology provides a powerful molecular tool to reduce an expression of selected genes in eukaryotic cells. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the effector molecules that trigger RNAi. Here, we describe siRNAs that discriminate between the wild type and mutant (1174 C→G) alleles of human Presenilin1 gene (PSEN1). This mutation, resulting in L392V PSEN1 variant, contributes to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Using the dual fluorescence assay, flow cytometry ...

  17. HaploSNPer: a web-based allele and SNP detection tool

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips Roeland E; Leunissen Jack AM; Tang Jifeng; van der Linden C Gerard; Vosman Ben

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions or deletions (indels) are the most common type of polymorphisms and are frequently used for molecular marker development. Such markers have become very popular for all kinds of genetic analysis, including haplotype reconstruction. Haplotypes can be reconstructed for whole chromosomes but also for specific genes, based on the SNPs present. Haplotypes in the latter context represent the different alleles of a gene. ...

  18. Association of ERAP1 Allelic Variants with Risk of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zvyagin, I.; Dorodnykh, V.; Mamedov, I.; Staroverov, D.; Bochkova, A.; Rebrikov, D.; Lebedev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) belongs to a group of autoimmune diseases affecting the axial skeleton. Beside the hla-b*27 allele, several other human genes that control the variety processes of immune homeostasis are considered to be associated with AS manifestation in different human populations. Among strong associated non-MHC genes erap 1 encoding the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 isoform was recently identified by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) meta analysis. In our study w...

  19. [Characteristics of the structural organization of the DIP1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2007-01-01

    Molecular cloning of the DIP1 gene located in the 20A4-5 region has been performed from the following strains with the flamenco phenotype: flamSS (SS) and flamMS (MS) characterized by a high transposition rate of retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4), flampy + (P) carrying the insertion of a construction based on the P element into the region of the flamenco gene, and flamenco+. The results of restriction analysis and sequencing cloned DNA fragments has shown that strains flamSS, flamMS, flampy +(P), and flamenco+ considerably differ from one another in the structure of DIP1. Strains flamss and flamMS have no Dral restriction site at position 1765 in the coding region of the gene, specifically, in the domain determining the signal of the nuclear localization of the DIP1 protein. This mutation has been found to consist in a nucleotide substitution in the recognition site of DraI restriction endonuclease, which is transformed from TTTAAA into TTTAAG and, hence, is not recognized by the enzyme. This substitution changes codon AAA into AAG and is translationally insignificant, because both triplets encode the same amino acid, lysine. The Dral gene of strainsflamSS andflamMS has been found to contain a 182-bp insertion denoted IdSS (insertion in DIP1 strain SS); it is located in the second intron of the gene. The IdSS sequence is part of the open reading frame encoding the putative transposase of the mobile genetic element HB1 belonging to the Tcl/mariner family. This insertion is presumed to disturb the conformations of DNA and the chromosome, in particular, by forming loops, which alters the expression of DIPI and, probably, neighboring genes. In strains flamenco+ and flampy + (P), the IdSS insertion within the HB1 sequence is deleted. The deletion encompasses five C-terminal amino acid residues of the conserved domain and the entire C-terminal region of the putative HB1 transposase. The obtained data suggest that DIP1 is involved in the control of gypsy transpositions either

  20. Structure and function of gene regulatory networks associated with worker sterility in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Julia A; Daley, Mark; Chandrasekaran, Sriram; Rubin, Benjamin D; Thompson, Graham J

    2016-03-01

    A characteristic of eusocial bees is a reproductive division of labor in which one or a few queens monopolize reproduction, while her worker daughters take on reproductively altruistic roles within the colony. The evolution of worker reproductive altruism involves indirect selection for the coordinated expression of genes that regulate personal reproduction, but evidence for this type of selection remains elusive. In this study, we tested whether genes coexpressed under queen-induced worker sterility show evidence of adaptive organization within a model brain transcriptional regulatory network (TRN). If so, this structured pattern would imply that indirect selection on nonreproductive workers has influenced the functional organization of genes within the network, specifically to regulate the expression of sterility. We found that literature-curated sets of candidate genes for sterility, ranging in size from 18 to 267, show strong evidence of clustering within the three-dimensional space of the TRN. This finding suggests that our candidate sets of genes for sterility form functional modules within the living bee brain's TRN. Moreover, these same gene sets colocate to a single, albeit large, region of the TRN's topology. This spatially organized and convergent pattern contrasts with a null expectation for functionally unrelated genes to be haphazardly distributed throughout the network. Our meta-genomic analysis therefore provides first evidence for a truly "social transcriptome" that may regulate the conditional expression of honeybee worker sterility. PMID:26925214