WorldWideScience

Sample records for allantoin

  1. Metabolism of allantoin in soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, R.G.; Polacco, J.C.; Blevins, D.G.; Randall, D.D.

    1986-04-01

    The metabolism of (2-7 /sup 14/C) and (4-5 /sup 14/C) allantoin has been studied in intact leaf tissue to elucidate the pathway of allantoin catabolism and its regulation. 1.3 mM (2-7 /sup 14/C) and 1.3 mM (4-5 /sup 14/C) DL allantoin release /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from intact leaf discs at 0.9 and 0.08 ..mu..moles.hr/sup -1/.g fresh wt/sup -1/ respectively. The most potent urease inhibitor known, phenyl phosphordiamidate (PPD), inhibited urease in intact tissue at concentrations from 0.1 mM to 10 mM. In contrast /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ release from (2-7 /sup 14/C) and (4-5 /sup 14/C) allantoin was not inhibited by 1 mM PPD in 0.5 h and 1 h assays. These data are consistent with allantoate amido-hydrolase action. Intact tissue discs were incubated with (4-5 /sup 14/C) allantoin and analyzed for catabolites by ion exclusion HPLC. Allantoate, ureidoglycolate, and glyoxylate were identified by their retention time. Two /sup 14/C labelled peaks did not migrate with known standards. They are being characterized to identify their structure. These data are consistent with a pathway of catabolism including allantoate, ureidoglycolate and glyoxylate, NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/.

  2. Allantoin catabolism influences the production of antibiotics in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Laura; Casati, Paula; Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtémoc; Marcellin, Esteban; Nielsen, Lars K; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Gramajo, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Purines are a primary source of carbon and nitrogen in soil; however, their metabolism is poorly understood in Streptomyces. Using a combination of proteomics, metabolomics, and metabolic engineering, we characterized the allantoin pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor. When cells grew in glucose minimal medium with allantoin as the sole nitrogen source, quantitative proteomics identified 38 enzymes upregulated and 28 downregulated. This allowed identifying six new functional enzymes involved in allantoin metabolism in S. coelicolor. From those, using a combination of biochemical and genetic engineering tools, it was found that allantoinase (EC 3.5.2.5) and allantoicase (EC 3.5.3.4) are essential for allantoin metabolism in S. coelicolor. Metabolomics showed that under these growth conditions, there is a significant intracellular accumulation of urea and amino acids, which eventually results in urea and ammonium release into the culture medium. Antibiotic production of a urease mutant strain showed that the catabolism of allantoin, and the subsequent release of ammonium, inhibits antibiotic production. These observations link the antibiotic production impairment with an imbalance in nitrogen metabolism and provide the first evidence of an interaction between purine metabolism and antibiotic biosynthesis.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of medicated lipstick of allantoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Saba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics are incredible in demand since historical time till day. Lipstick formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and to add glamor′s touch to the makeup. It is difficult to apply lipsticks to the dried, chafed, chapped, cracked lips with sores and lesions. In such cases, one can use medicated lipsticks for the purpose of curing topical infections and beautification of lips. With this aim and objectives, an attempt was made to formulate medicated lipstick by using cow ghee and honey as natural excipients that substituted synthetic ingredients like isopropyl myristate, lanolin, cetyl alcohol, and castor oil. Allantoin was selected a model drug for the local action on lips. In vitro evaluation was done on bovine lip membrane, and the data suggested that the drug remained on the membrane only and did not diffuse through the membrane in diffusion studies for 8 h. After 8 h, 0.16% drug release was observed till 12 h. Thus, allantoin can remain topically on lips for 8 h without showing any systemic effects. The lipsticks were evaluated for their organoleptic properties such as spreading, covering property, hardness, shine, and gloss and found to be satisfactory product to give attractive beauty with therapeutic effect on the diseased lips. Thus, the medicated lipsticks with the natural ingredients like cow ghee and honey can serve as economical and effective cosmoseutical product.

  4. Decrease of Obesity by Allantoin via Imidazoline I1-Receptor Activation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of the imidazoline I1-receptor (I1R is known to regulate appetite. Allantoin, an active ingredient in the yam, has been reported to improve lipid metabolism in high fat diet- (HFD-fed mice. However, the effect of allantoin on obesity remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of allantoin on HFD-induced obesity. The chronic administration of allantoin to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks significantly decreased their body weight, and this effect was reversed by efaroxan at a dose sufficient to block I1R. The epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT cell size and weight in HFD-fed mice were also decreased by allantoin via the activation of I1R. In addition, allantoin significantly decreased the energy intake of HFD-fed mice, and this reduction was associated with a decrease in the NPY levels in the brain. However, no inhibitory effect of allantoin on energy intake was observed in db/db mice. Moreover, allantoin lowered HFD-induced hyperleptinemia, and this activity was abolished by I1R blockade with efaroxan. Taken together, these data suggest that allantoin can ameliorate energy intake and eWAT accumulation by activating I1R to improve HFD-induced obesity.

  5. Allantoin ameliorates chemically-induced pancreatic β-cell damage through activation of the imidazoline I3 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Amitani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Allantoin is the primary active compound in yams (Dioscorea spp.. Recently, allantoin has been demonstrated to activate imidazoline 3 (I3 receptors located in pancreatic tissues. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the role of allantoin in the effect to improve damage induced in pancreatic β-cells by streptozotocin (STZ via the I3 receptors.Research Design and Methods. The effect of allantoin on STZ-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells was examined using the ApoTox-Glo triplex assay, live/dead cell double staining assay, flow cytometric analysis, and Western blottings. The potential mechanism was investigated using KU14R: an I3 receptor antagonist, and U73122: a phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor. The effects of allantoin on serum glucose and insulin secretion were measured in STZ-treated rats.Results. Allantoin attenuated apoptosis and cytotoxicity and increased the viability of STZ-induced β-cells in a dose-dependent manner; this effect was suppressed by KU14R and U73112. Allantoin decreased the level of caspase-3 and increased the level of phosphorylated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 expression detected by Western blotting. The improvement in β-cells viability was confirmed using flow cytometry analysis. Daily injection of allantoin for 8 days in STZ-treated rats significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin levels. This action was inhibited by treatment with KU14R.Conclusion. Allantoin ameliorates the damage of β-cells induced by STZ. The blockade by pharmacological inhibitors indicated that allantoin can activate the I3 receptors through a PLC-related pathway to decrease this damage. Therefore, allantoin and related analogs may be effective in the therapy for β-cell damage.

  6. Urinary Allantoin Is Elevated in Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Preterm Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiaba, Ijeoma; Angeles, Danilyn M; Holden, Megan S; Tan, John B C; Asmerom, Yayesh; Gollin, Gerald; Boskovic, Danilo S

    2016-04-01

    Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is the most common type of intracranial hemorrhage observed in preterm neonates. It is a precursor of poor neurocognitive development, cerebral palsy, and death. The pathophysiology is not well defined, but damage to the fragile germinal matrix vasculature may be due to free radicals generated during inflammation and as a consequence of ischemia followed by reperfusion. Assessment of the oxidative stress status in these infants is therefore important. Urinary allantoin concentration was measured in preterm neonates as a marker of oxidative stress associated with IVH. Urine was collected from 44 preterm neonates at four time points between 24 and 72 hours of life (HOL), and the allantoin content was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Records were retrospectively reviewed, and the incidence and severity of IVH was categorized as follows: no IVH (n = 24), mild (grade 1-2) IVH (n = 13), and severe (grade 3-4) IVH (n = 7). Neonates with severe IVH showed significantly elevated allantoin levels vs subjects with no IVH from 36 HOL (0.098 ± 0.013 μmol and 0.043 ± 0.007 μmol, respectively, p = 0.002). The allantoin concentration remained elevated even at 72 HOL (0.079 ± 0.014 μmol and 0.033 ± 0.008 μmol, respectively, p = 0.021). There were no significant differences in allantoin levels in the no IVH and mild IVH groups. IVH was diagnosed by head imaging on average at about 11th postnatal day. Urinary allantoin levels were significantly elevated during the first 3 days of life in the neonates subsequently diagnosed with severe IVH, suggesting that oxidative stress might be a crucial factor in IVH pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of urinary allantoin in early identification of preterm infants at risk for or with severe IVH and monitoring of the response to interventions designed to prevent or treat it.

  7. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichny, G; Külkamp-Guerreiro, I C; Cunha, S L; Silva, F E K; Bueno, K; Pohlmann, A R; Fuentefria, A M; Guterres, S S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing copaiba oil with and without allantoin (NCOA, NCO, respectively) and to evaluate their antifungal activity. Nanoparticle suspensions were prepared using a high homogenisation technique and characterised by dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, multiple light scattering analysis, high-pressure liquid chromatography, pH and rheology. The antifungal activities of the formulations were tested in vitro against the emergent yeasts Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, and the fungal pathogens of human skin Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The dynamic light scattering analysis showed z-average diameters (intensity) between 118.63 ± 8.89 nm for the nanoparticles with both copaiba oil and allantoin and 126.06 ± 9.84nm for the nanoparticles with just copaiba oil. The D[4,3] determined by laser diffraction showed similar results of 123 ± 1.73 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin and 130 ± 3.6 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil alone. Nanoparticle tracking analysis demonstrated that both suspensions had monomodal profiles and consequently, the nanoparticle populations were homogeneous. This analysis also corroborated the results of dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction, exhibiting a smaller mean diameter for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin (143 nm) than for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil (204 nm). The physicochemical properties indicated that the dispersions were stable overtime. Rheology evidenced Newtonian behaviour for both suspensions. Antifungal susceptibility showed a MIC90 of 125 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 7.8 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against C. parapsilosis. The nanoparticles with copaiba oil and the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin presented a MIC90 of 500 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively, against C. krusei. The MIC90

  8. The relationship between uric acid and its oxidative product allantoin: a potential indicator for the evaluation of oxidative stress in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsahar, Ella; Arad, Zeev; Izhaki, Ido; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2006-09-01

    Uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste product in birds but it is also known to be a potent antioxidant. Hominoid primates and birds lack the enzyme urate oxidase, which oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. Consequently, the presence of allantoin in their plasma results from non-enzymatic oxidation. In humans, the allantoin to uric acid ratio in plasma increases during oxidative stress, thus this ratio has been suggested to be an in vivo marker for oxidative stress in humans. We measured the concentrations of uric acid and allantoin in the plasma and ureteral urine of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) at rest, immediately after 30 min of exercise in a hop/hover wheel, and after 1 h of recovery. The plasma allantoin concentration and the allantoin to uric acid ratio did not increase during exercise but we found a positive relationship between the concentrations of uric acid and allantoin in the plasma and in the ureteral urine in the three activity phases. In the plasma, the slope of the regression describing the above positive relationships was significantly higher immediately after activity. We suggest that the slope indicates the rate of uric acid oxidation and that during activity this rate increases as a result of higher production of free radicals. The present study demonstrates that allantoin is present in the plasma and in the ureteral urine of white-crowned sparrows and therefore might be useful as an indicator of oxidative stress in birds.

  9. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Kyu Go

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas powder (PY, water extract of yam (EY, and allantoin (the active constituent of yam in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (STZ, and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin. After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001 compared to STZ (100%: 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001 in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%, total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%, and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%. There were also significant increases (p < 0.001 in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%, GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%, and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%. The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85% together with increases (p < 0.01 in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145% and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%. The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels.

  10. Combination of argan oil and phospholipids for the development of an effective liposome-like formulation able to improve skin hydration and allantoin dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Maria Letizia; Matricardi, Pietro; Cencetti, Claudia; Peris, Josè Esteban; Melis, Virginia; Carbone, Claudia; Escribano, Elvira; Zaru, Marco; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2016-05-30

    Allantoin is traditionally employed in the treatment of skin ulcers and hypertrophic scars. In the present work, to improve its local deposition in the skin and deeper tissues, allantoin was incorporated in conventional liposomes and in new argan oil enriched liposomes. In both cases, obtained vesicles were unilamellar, as confirmed by cryo-TEM observation, but the addition of argan oil allowed a slight increase of the mean diameter (∼130nm versus ∼85nm). The formulations, especially those containing argan oil, favoured the allantoin accumulation in the skin, in particular in the dermis (∼8.7μg/cm(2)), and its permeation through the skin (∼33μg/cm(2)). The performances of vesicles as skin delivery systems were compared with those obtained by water dispersion of allantoin and the commercial gel, Sameplast(®). Moreover, in this work, for the first time, the elastic and viscous moduli of the skin were measured, underlining the different hydrating/moisturizing effects of the formulations. The application of ARG liposomes seems to provide a softening and relaxing effect on the skin, thus facilitating the drug accumulation and passage into and trough it.

  11. Determination of Allantoin in Corn Silk by HPLC%HPLC 法测定玉米须中尿囊素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁全平; 侯冬岩; 回瑞华; 孙红

    2013-01-01

      对辽宁产玉米须中尿囊素的含量进行测定.采用热回流提取法对玉米须中的尿囊素进行提取,高效液相色谱法测定其含量.结果表明,80%乙醇溶液为提取溶剂,按照1∶25的料液比提取2 h,提取效果最好.样品世宾28和吉农大501中尿囊素含量分别为5.195 mg/g 和5.240 mg/g.%The content of allantoin in corn silk from Liaoning province is determined .Allantoin is extracted from corn silk by hot reflux extraction and is determined by HPLC .The results show that the optimum extraction technology is 80% ethanol as the extraction solvent,2 h once and the material-liquid of 1 ∶25.The content of allantoin in Shibin-28 and Jinongda-501 is 5.195 mg /g and 5.240 mg/g.

  12. The effects of a topical gel containing chitosan, 0,2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and despanthenol on the wound healing process subsequent to impacted lower third molar extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrazo-Jiménez, Marta; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Serrera-Figallo, María-Ángeles; Garrido-Serrano, Roberto; Gutiérrez-Corrales, Aida; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite efforts to prevent postoperative discomfort, there are still many immediate side effects associated with the surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. Cicatrization is a physiological process through which the loss of integrity of oral mucosa is recovered and damaged tissues are repaired. Bexident Post (ISDIN, Spain) is a topical gel that contains chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol. While this gel has many clinical indications, there are no published clinical trials evaluating its use in impacted mandibular third molar surgery. This study aims to clinically evaluate the efficacy of a gel containing chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol on wound healing and reduction of postoperative side effects and complications after extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar. Material and Methods A split-mouth design study was carried out on a total of 50 bilaterally and symmetrically impacted third molar extractions, which were randomly placed into either a control group (CG=25) or an experimental group (EG=25). Patients were all informed of the purpose of the study and provided written consent. All procedures were carried out by the same dental practitioner, in accordance with standard surgical protocol. A different dental practitioner, unaware of which treatment had been applied, provided follow-up care. The EG applied 10 ml of topical gel composed of chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol to the surgical wound three times a day for 10 days, patients in the CG did not apply any gel. Results The groups were homogeneous insofar as potentially confounding variables. No significant findings were found regarding postoperative swelling and pain. Neither of the groups displayed poor healing or infectious complications of the wound during the postoperative period. In all the recorded follow-ups (Day 7 p=0.001, and Day 14 p=0.01), the wound’s aesthetic appearance was better in the EG

  13. Profile of wound healing process induced by allantoin Perfil do processo de cicatrização induzido pela alantoína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ulhôa Araújo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate and characterize the wound healing process profile induced by allantoin incorporated in soft lotion oil/water emulsion using the planimetric and histological methods. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n=60 were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: (C control group-without treatment; (E group treated with soft lotion O/W emulsion excipients; (EA group treated with soft lotion O/W emulsion containing allantoin 5%. The emulsions either containing or not allantoin were topically administered for 14 days and the wound area was evaluated by planimetry and by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of open wound model. RESULTS: The data which were obtained and analyzed innovate by demonstrating, qualitatively and quantitatively, by histological analysis, the profile of healing process induced by allantoin. The results suggest that the wound healing mechanism induced by allantoin occurs via the regulation of inflammatory response and stimulus to fibroblastic proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. CONCLUSION: This work show, for the first time, the histological wound healing profile induced by allantoin in rats and demonstrated that it is able to ameliorate and fasten the reestablishment of the normal skin.OBJETIVO: Avaliar e caracterizar o perfil cicatricial induzido pela alantoína incorporada em uma emulsão óleo/água, sob os aspectos planimétrico e histológico. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar fêmeas (n=60 foram agrupados aleatoriamente em três grupos experimentais grupo controle - sem tratamento (C; grupo tratado com emulsão pura (E; grupo tratado com emulsão contendo 5% de alantoína (EA. As emulsões contendo ou não alantoína foram administradas topicamente durante 14 dias e a área da ferida foi avaliada por planimetria e por análise histológica qualitativa e quantitativa em modelo de ferida aberta. RESULTADOS: Na análise planimétrica não foi observado diferenças significativas entre os grupos

  14. Simultaneous determination of allantoin and glycolic acid in snail mucus and cosmetic creams with high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mubarak, Mohamed Ahmed S; Lamari, Fotini N; Kontoyannis, Christos

    2013-12-27

    A new methodology for simultaneous quantitative analysis of allantoin and glycolic acid in snail mucus and cosmetic creams was developed. HPLC separation was achieved a Synergi-Hydro RP column within 7min using isocratic elution with potassium phosphate (pH 2.7; 10mM) at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min at 30°C. Sample pretreatment was performed by dilution of mucus or cosmetic cream in the elution buffer, heating at 60°C for 20min, adjusting the pH to 2.9 and purification with hexane extraction. Linearity was determined with spiked samples and the LLOQ values of 0.0125 and 0.2500mg/mL were determined for allantoin and glycolic acid, respectively. Accuracy and intra- and inter-day repeatability were studied at three levels of concentrations (0.04, 0.08 and 0.16mg/mL for allantoin and 0.1, 1.5 and 4.0mg/mL for glycolic acid) using spiked mucus and cream base samples; mean values of recovery were in the range of 96.81-102.42% in all matrices tested, whereas the respective RSDs (%Relative Standard Deviation) were less than 3.04% in all cases. Spiked mucus and cream samples were stable (RSD<4.16 and relative error<4.34%) at room temperature and at 4°C for 1 week and at -18°C for 6 months; samples were also stable after three freeze-thaw cycles. The method was applied to the analysis of different lots of snail mucus, and of three commercial creams containing snail mucus.

  15. The effect of light and nitrogen availability on the caffeine, theophylline and allantoin contents in the leaves of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo F. Pompelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most abundant and important purine alkaloid derived from several important crop, such as coffee, tea, cocoa, guarana, and other plants. In tea and coffee plants, caffeine is predominantly produced in the young buds of leaves and in immature fruits. The effect of light-stimulating caffeine biosynthesis is uncertain, but our results clearly show that light, independent of N-availability, increases caffeine (26%, allantoin (47%, and theophylline (8% content in plants compared with those grown in a shaded (50% solar irradiation environment. Caffeine is the major low-molecular-weight nitrogenous compound in coffee plants, and at times, it functions as a chemical defense for new bud leaves. Therefore, the primary question that remains is whether caffeine can serve as a nitrogen source for other metabolic pathways. If so, plants grown under a low nitrogen concentration should promote caffeine degradation, with the consequent use of nitrogen atoms (e.g., in NH3 for the construction of other nitrogen compounds that are used for the plant’s metabolism. Our results provide strong evidence that caffeine is degraded into allantoin at low rates in N-deficient plants but not in N-enriched ones. By contrast, this degradation may represent a significant N-source in N-deficient plants.

  16. 复方肝素钠尿囊素外用凝胶的处方及制备工艺研究%Prescription and Preparation of Compound Heparin Sodium and Allantoin Topical Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 丁平田; 牛华英

    2016-01-01

    目的:研制一种含有肝素钠和尿囊素的复方凝胶外用制剂。方法对原料肝素钠和尿囊素进行了系统性的溶解试验研究,同时进行了辅料卡波姆、防腐剂、增溶剂等的选择及其用量的筛选试验研究。结果确定了复方肝素钠尿囊素外用凝胶剂的优选处方和制备工艺。结论该制剂处方合理、制备工艺重复性良好,易于操作,有进一步开发研究的价值。%Objective To prepare a topical gel of Heparin Sodium and Allantoin. Methods Detailed researching the solubility of API's (Heparin Sodium and Allantoin) and ongoing the selection of excipients of carbomer,preservatives and solubilizers etc. and various quantity researching of all inactive ingredients. Results Established the optimized prescription and suitable manufacturing procedure of Compound Heparin Sodium and Allantoin topical gel. Conclusion The prescription of Compound Heparin Sodium and Allantoin topical gel was reasonable,manufacturing procedure has a good reproducibility,it's easy to prepare,and value to be further developed.

  17. Natural Oil-Based Emulsion Containing Allantoin Versus Aqueous Cream for Managing Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions in Patients With Cancer: A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Raymond Javan, E-mail: email.rchan@gmail.com [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Mann, Jennifer; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Keogh, Samantha [National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Nursing, Centre for Health Practice Innovation–Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Nathan (Australia); Poole, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Walsh, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for preventing and managing radiation-induced skin reactions. Methods and Materials: A total of 174 patients were randomized and participated in the study. Patients received either cream 1 (the natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin) or cream 2 (aqueous cream). Skin toxicity, pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life scores were collected for up to 4 weeks after radiation treatment. Results: Patients who received cream 1 had a significantly lower average level of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events at week 3 (P<.05) but had statistically higher average levels of skin toxicity at weeks 7, 8, and 9 (all P<.001). Similar results were observed when skin toxicity was analyzed by grades. With regards to pain, patients in the cream 2 group had a significantly higher average level of worst pain (P<.05) and itching (P=.046) compared with the cream 1 group at week 3; however, these differences were not observed at other weeks. In addition, there was a strong trend for cream 2 to reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more skin toxicity in comparison with cream 1 (P=.056). Overall, more participants in the cream 1 group were required to use another topical treatment at weeks 8 (P=.049) and 9 (P=.01). Conclusion: The natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin seems to have similar effects for managing skin toxicity compared with aqueous cream up to week 5; however, it becomes significantly less effective at later weeks into the radiation treatment and beyond treatment completion (week 6 and beyond). There were no major differences in pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life. In light of these results, clinicians and patients can base their decision on costs and preferences. Overall, aqueous cream seems to be a more preferred option.

  18. Facile synthesis of platinum-gold alloyed string-bead nanochain networks with the assistance of allantoin and their enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Li; Zheng, Jie-Ning; Song, Pei; Zhong, Shu-Xian; Wang, Ai-Jun; Chen, Zhaojiang; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a facile one-pot wet-chemical method is developed for preparation of bimetallic platinum-gold (Pt-Au) alloyed string-bead nanochain networks, using allantoin as a structure-directing agent, without any template, surfactant, or seed. The characterization experiments are mainly performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The as-prepared Pt-Au nanocrystals show enhanced electrocatalytic performance toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mainly predominated by a four-electron pathway, and display improved catalytic activity and high stability for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) over commercial Pt black and Pt-Ru black.

  19. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream® containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. Methods/Designs This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Discussion Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. Trial registration ACTRN 12612000568819

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Three Active Ingredients in Compound Allantoin VitaminB6-E and Aminoethylsulfonic Acid Eye Drops by HPLC-DAD%HPLC-DAD同时测定复方尿维氨滴眼液中3种活性成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鹏飞; 吴学军; 邹定; 马捷; 姜文清; 郭郁

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of chondroitin sulfate sodium, allantoin and vitamin B_6 in Compound Allantoin VitaminB_6-E and Aminoethylsulfonic Acid Eye Drops. METHODS An Alltima C_(18) column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm particle size) was used for the separation at room temperature, with 25 mmol-L~(-1) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 0.01% heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt)-acetonitrile (95:5) as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.5 mL·min~(-1). The detection wavelengthes for chondroitin sulfate sodium, allantoin and vitamin B_6 were 195, 215 and 291 ran, respectively. RESULTS The method showed good linearity for chondroitin sulfate sodium, allantoin and vitamin B_6, with all correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.999 6. The specificity study showed satisfactory resolutions between chondroitin sulfate sodium, allantoin, vitamin B_6 other ingredients and forced degradation products. The precisions and stability were satisfactory with all relative standard deviations (RSD) of peak areas lower than 2.0%, and the spiked recovery of three ingredients ranged from 99.01% to 101.92%. CONCLUSION This method is an accurate, fast and simple method for the simultaneous determination of chondroitin sulfate sodium, allantoin and vitamin B6 in Compound Allantoin VitaminB_6-E and Aminoethylsulfonic Acid Eye Drops.%目的 应用高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器(HPLC-DAD),建立复方尿维氨滴眼液中硫酸软骨素钠,尿囊素和维生素B6含量的同时测定方法.方法 采用Alltima C_(18)色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),以25 mmol·L~(-1)磷酸二氢铵(含0.01%辛烷磺酸钠)-乙睛(95:5)为流动相,流速0.5 mL·min~(-1),室温测定,硫酸软骨素钠,尿囊素和维生素B6的检测波长分别为195,215和291mm.结果 硫酸软骨素钠,尿囊素和维生素B6的线性关系良好,线性相关系数(r)都大于0.999 6;专属性强,3

  1. The utility of onion extract gel containing topical allantoin and heparin after surgical treatment of upper extremity burn scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ihsan Okur

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Although no significant difference was obtained with Contractubex gel treatment in this study, cosmetic and functional success can be achieved through excision of the scar and use of medium thickness skin graft in patients with upper extremity hypertrophic burn scarring that is resistant to conservative treatments. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(3.000: 74-79

  2. Excessive ammonia inhibited transcription of MsU2 gene and furthermore affected accumulation distribution of allantoin and amino acids in alfalfa Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; JIANG Lin-lin; Nomura Mika; Tajima Shigeyuki; CHENG Xian-guo

    2015-01-01

    In legume plants, uricase gene (Nodulin-35) plays a positive role in metabolism of ureide and amide compounds in symbiotic nitrogen-ifxing in the nodules. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of ammonium application on the transcription of MsU2 gene and distribution of major nitrogen compounds in alfalfa Medicago sativa. Data showed that alfalfa plant has a signiifcant difference in contents of nitrogen compounds in xylem saps compared with soybean plant, and belongs to typical amide type legume plants with little ureide accumulation, and the accumulation of asparagines and ureide in the tissues of alfalfa is mainly gathered in the nodules. Northern blotting showed that excessive ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the nodules and roots, and mRNA accumulation of MsU2 gene in the plants exposed to excessive ammonium decreased gradual y with culture time extension, indicating that application of ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the alfalfa plants. Although the application of exces-sive ammonium increased the contents of amino acids in various tissues of alfalfa, the accumulation of al antoin relfecting the strength of uricase activity is remarkably reduced in the xylem saps, stems and nodules when alfalfa plants exposed to excessive ammonium, suggesting that application of excessive ammonium generated a negative effect on symbiosis ifxing-nitrogen system due to inhibition of ammonium ion on uricase activity in the nodules of alfalfa. This result seems to imply that application of excessive ammonium in legume plants should not be proposed to avoid affecting the ability of ifxing nitrogen in the nodules of legume plants, and reasonable dose of ammonium should be recommended to effectively utilize the ifxed N from atmosphere in legume plant production.

  3. Environ: E00779 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00779 Comfrey Medicinal herb Allantoin [CPD:C01551] [DR:D00121], Ethymidine, Tanni...Boraginaceae Comfrey root or leaves Major component: Allantoin [CPD:C01551] [DR:D00121] Medicinal herbs [BR:

  4. Sequence Classification: 890551 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|6322218|ref|NP_012293.1| Allantoinase, converts allan...toin to allantoate in the first step of allantoin degradation; expression sensitive to

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1528 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1528 ref|NP_459517.1| putative allantoin transport protein [Salmonella... typhimurium LT2] gb|AAL19476.1| putative NCS1 family, allantoin transport protein [Salmonella typhimurium LT2] NP_459517.1 2.0 23% ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106879 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106879 002-118-E09 At5g03555.1 permease, cytosine/purines, uracil, thiamine, allan...toin family protein contains Pfam PF02133: permease, cytosine/purines, uracil, thiamine, allantoin family 1e-161 ...

  7. Determination of allantoin and pyridoxine hydrochloride in eye charm V eye drops by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定中新滴眼液中尿囊素与维生素B6 的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁蔚阳

    2002-01-01

    目的建立同时测定中新滴眼液中尿囊素与维生素B6含量的高效液相色谱法.方法采用Nova-Pak C18柱,流动相为甲醇-0.03 mol/L磷酸二氢钠溶液(10∶90),流速1.0 ml/min,检测波长230 nm,外标法计算.结果线性范围分别是:尿囊素0.205 4~4.108 mg/ml;维生素B6 0.010 1~0.202 0 mg/ml.回收率:尿囊素99.4%(RSD0.37%,n=5);维生素B6 99.5%(RSD 0.64%,n=5).结论此法分离效果好,辅料无干扰,快速、简便,适用于该制剂两组分的同时测定.

  8. The ygeW encoded protein from Escherichia coli is a knotted ancestral catabolic transcarbamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongdong; Jin, Zhongmin; Yu, Xiaolin; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)

    2012-06-28

    Purine degradation plays an essential role in nitrogen metabolism in most organisms. Uric acid is the final product of purine catabolism in humans, anthropoid apes, birds, uricotelic reptiles, and almost all insects. Elevated levels of uric acid in blood (hyperuricemia) cause human diseases such as gout, kidney stones, and renal failure. Although no enzyme has been identified that further degrades uric acid in humans, it can be oxidized to produce allantoin by free-radical attack. Indeed, elevated levels of allantoin are found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic lung disease, bacterial meningitis, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In other mammals, some insects and gastropods, uric acid is enzymatically degraded to the more soluble allantoin through the sequential action of three enzymes: urate oxidase, 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) hydrolase and 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) decarboxylase. Therefore, an elective treatment for acute hyperuricemia is the administration of urate oxidase. Many organisms, including plants, some fungi and several bacteria, are able to catabolize allantoin to release nitrogen, carbon, and energy. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Eschrichia coli, S-allantoin has recently been shown to be degraded to glycolate and urea by four enzymes: allantoinase, allantoate amidohydrolase, ureidoglycine aminohydrolase, and ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase.

  9. Quantitative and qualitative determination of Liuwei Dihuang tablets by HPLC-UV-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Wang, Yue; Sun, Yuqing

    2007-09-01

    A method is developed for the analysis of allantoin, gallic acid, dihydromelittoside, loganin, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, and paeonol in Liuwei Dihuang tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV-mass spectrometry (MS)-MS. Gradient elution with methanol-acetonitrile-water-formic acid solvent system is employed in the HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS study. The positive-ion ESI mode is suitable for these compounds. The peaks of gallic acid, loganin, dihydromelittoside, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, and paeonol are identified by their mass spectra and the fragments of their MS-MS spectra. Allantoin, gallic acid, loganin, paeoniflorin, and paeonol are simultaneously determined by UV detection at 210 nm for quantitative purposes.

  10. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Ureidoglycine Aminotransferase in the Klebsiella pneumoniae Uric Acid Catabolic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-09-03

    Many plants, fungi, and bacteria catabolize allantoin as a mechanism for nitrogen assimilation. Recent reports have shown that in plants and some bacteria the product of hydrolysis of allantoin by allantoinase is the unstable intermediate ureidoglycine. While this molecule can spontaneously decay, genetic analysis of some bacterial genomes indicates that an aminotransferase may be present in the pathway. Here we present evidence that Klebsiella pneumoniae HpxJ is an aminotransferase that preferentially converts ureidoglycine and an {alpha}-keto acid into oxalurate and the corresponding amino acid. We determined the crystal structure of HpxJ, allowing us to present an explanation for substrate specificity.

  11. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologicallt resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of th

  12. Environ: E00067 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00067 Pueraria root (JP16) Crude drug Starch [CPD:C00369], Daidzin [CPD:C10216], D...in, Formononetin [CPD:C00858], Kakkonein, Puerarol, Miroesterol, Allantoin [CPD:C01551], D-(+)-pinitol Pueraria... lobata [TAX:3893] Same as: D06693 Fabaceae (pea family) Pueraria root Major component: Puerarin [CPD:C10524] ...

  13. The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

    2014-04-10

    Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin.

  14. Oxidation of urate in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Tullson, P. C.; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether high metabolic stress to skeletal muscle, induced by intensive exercise, would lead to an oxidation of urate to allantoin in the exercised muscle. Seven healthy male subjects performed short term (4.39 +/- 0.04 [+/-SE] min) exhaustive cy...

  15. Potential mechanisms for low uric acid in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Radhika; Young, Sarah; Rosen, Ami; Bernhard, Douglas; Millington, David; Factor, Stewart; Jinnah, H A

    2016-04-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have described an association between low serum uric acid (UA) and Parkinson disease (PD). Uric acid is a known antioxidant, and one proposed mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD is oxidative damage of dopamine neurons. However, other complex metabolic pathways may contribute. The purpose of this study is to elucidate potential mechanisms of low serum UA in PD. Subjects who met diagnostic criteria for definite or probable PD (n = 20) and controls (n = 20) aged 55-80 years were recruited. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from all participants, and both uric acid and allantoin were measured and corrected for body mass index (BMI). Urinary metabolites were compared using a twoway ANOVA with diagnosis and sex as the explanatory variables. There were no significant differences between PD and controls for total UA (p = 0.60), UA corrected for BMI (p = 0.37), or in the interaction of diagnosis and sex on UA (p = 0.24). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PD and controls for allantoin (p = 0.47), allantoin corrected for BMI (p = 0.57), or in the interaction of diagnosis and sex on allantoin (p = 0.78). Allantoin/UA ratios also did not significantly differ by diagnosis (p = 0.99). Our results imply that low serum UA in PD may be due to an intrinsic mechanism that alters the homeostatic set point for serum UA in PD, and may contribute to relatively lower protection against oxidative damage. These findings provide indirect support for neuroprotection trials aimed at raising serum UA.

  16. Carbon assimilation and extracellular antigens of some yeast-like fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; De Hoog, G S; Notermans, S

    1989-01-01

    Many yeast-like fungi assimilated n-hexadecane, butylamine and putrescine as sole carbon sources. Methanol was not assimilated. This points to a physiological similarity to endomycetous, hydrocarbon-utilizing yeasts. Stephanoascus ciferrii assimilated uric acid, adenine and allantoin as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. All strains of Geotrichum candidum and many other yeast-like fungi assimilated acetoin and butan-2,3-diol. Assimilation tests for adenine, uric acid, allantoin, acetoin and butan-2,3-diol were found to be suitable for taxonomic purposes. Extracellular antigens immunologically related to those produced by Geotrichum candidum were detected in the cell-free culture liquids of several yeast-like fungi. The extracellular antigen excreted by Stephanoascus ciferrii was species-specific.

  17. Phyto chemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao alelopatica de Memora peregrina - 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae, uma especie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Rafaela Ferreira [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Silva, Walciane da; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Butera, Ana Paola; Tulli, Elayne de Oliveira; Saffran, Francis Paes; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia-Bioquamica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2005-04-01

    Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae) is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts), the iridoid 6{beta}-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, {beta}-sitosterol, {alpha}-amirin and {beta}-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species. (author)

  18. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação alelopática de Memora peregrina - "ciganinha" - Bignoniaceae, uma espécie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul Phytochemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ferreira Grassi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts, the iridoid 6beta-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amirin and beta-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species.

  19. Today’s oxidative stress markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Czerska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress represents a situation where there is an imbalance between the reactive oxygen species (ROS and the availability and the activity of antioxidants. This balance is disturbed by increased generation of free radicals or decreased antioxidant activity. It is very important to develop methods and find appropriate biomarkers that may be used to assess oxidative stress in vivo. It is significant because appropriate measurement of such stress is necessary in identifying its role in lifestyle-related diseases. Previously used markers of oxidative stress, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS or malondialdehyde (MDA, are progressively being supplemented by new ones, such as isoprostanes (IsoPs and their metabolites or allantoin. This paper is focusing on the presentation of new ones, promising markers of oxidative stress (IsoPs, their metabolites and allantoin, taking into account the advantage of those markers over markers used previously. Med Pr 2015;66(3:393–405

  20. Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Glucose and Uric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhya, P.C.; Shen, Y.C.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    We report the use ofterahertz time-domain spectroscopy for thestudy of two therapeutic bio-molecules:glucose and uric acid. Terahertztransmission spectra of crystalline samplesof both molecules were measured between 0.1–3.0 THz using an evacuated spectroscopysystem. We propose that the stereo-isomersof glucose show spectral featuresoriginating from intermolecular vibrationalmodes, as do uric acid and its derivativemolecule, allantoin. In addition, wepresent a full temperature dependence ofthe...

  1. Characterization of Imidazoline Receptors in Blood Vessels for the Development of Antihypertensive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Fen Chen; Jo-Ting Tsai; Li-Jen Chen; Tung-Pi Wu; Jia-Jang Yang; Li-Te Yin; Yu-lin Yang; Tai-An Chiang; Han-Lin Lu; Ming-Chang Wu

    2014-01-01

    It has been indicated that activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor (I-2R) may reduce the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Also, guanidinium derivatives show the ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the I-2R using guanidinium derivatives in blood vessels for development of antihypertensive agent(s). Six guanidinium derivatives including agmatine, amiloride, aminoguanidine, allantoin, canavanine, and metform...

  2. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologicallt resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of the D1D2 region of the large subunit (26S) and of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA showed relationship to the Bulleromyces clade of the genus Cryptococcus (order Tremellales) with some Tremella spp. a...

  3. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Onosmakaheirei Teppner (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Maria Orfanou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA 3΄-O-acetylechinatine N-oxide (7, along with two more known PAs (5, 6, two known flavonoids (3, 4, one known alkannin (1, two known triterpenoids, one known sterol, and allantoin (2 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onosma kaheirei. In addition, the retention indeces of the reduced PAs 6 and 7 were determined in a DB-5 WCOT column, to aid their detection by GC/MS in the future.

  4. Environ: E00035 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :C08745], Lithospermoside [CPD:C17771], Allantoin [CPD:C01551], Shikonin [CPD:C17412], Acetylshikonin [CPD:C17413], Isobutylshikon...in [CPD:C17414], beta,beta-Dimethylacrylshikonin [CPD:C17415], Rosmarinate [CPD:C01850...], Polysaccharide, beta-Hydroxyisovalerylshikonin, Isovalerylshikonin, alpha-Methyl-n-butylshikon...in, Deoxyshikonin, Teracrylshikonin, Androalkannin Lithospermum erythrorhizon [TAX:34254], M...acrotomia euchroma, Macrotomia [TAX:554534] Same as: D04705 Boraginaceae (borage family) Lithospermum root Major component: Shikon

  5. Amide-mediated hydrogen bonding at organic crystal/water interfaces enables selective endotoxin binding with picomolar affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagenende, Vincent; Ching, Tim-Jang; Chua, Rui-Jing; Thirumoorthi, Navanita; Gagnon, Pete

    2013-05-22

    Since the discovery of endotoxins as the primary toxic component of Gram-negative bacteria, researchers have pursued the quest for molecules that detect, neutralize, and remove endotoxins. Selective removal of endotoxins is particularly challenging for protein solutions and, to this day, no general method is available. Here, we report that crystals of the purine-derived compound allantoin selectively adsorb endotoxins with picomolar affinity through amide-mediated hydrogen bonding in aqueous solutions. Atom force microscopy and chemical inhibition experiments indicate that endotoxin adsorption is largely independent from hydrophobic and ionic interactions with allantoin crystals and is mediated by hydrogen bonding with amide groups at flat crystal surfaces. The small size (500 nm) and large specific surface area of allantoin crystals results in a very high endotoxin-binding capacity (3 × 10(7) EU/g) which compares favorably with known endotoxin-binding materials. These results provide a proof-of-concept for hydrogen bond-based molecular recognition processes in aqueous solutions and establish a practical method for removing endotoxins from protein solutions.

  6. Curative effect comparison of two kinds of external use medicine for treating superficial scar%两种外用药物治疗浅表性瘢痕疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂雪松; 彭友林; 胡友红

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observation of curative effect comparison of Compound Heparin Sodium and Allantoin Gel and MPS for treating superficial scar. Methods 44 superficial scar patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The treatment group(A) of 22 cases were used Compound Heparin Sodium and Allantoin Gel. The control group(B) of 22 cases were used MPS cream.Then observed the curative effect of the two groups after 3 months. Results A group's total efficiency was 86.3%,and B was 63.6%.There were significant differences between two groups. Conclusion It has more effective to treat superficial scar with Compound Heparin Sodium and Allantoin Gel.%目的:观察比较复方肝素钠尿囊素凝胶和多磺酸粘多糖乳膏两种外用药物治疗浅表性瘢痕的疗效。方法:将44例浅表性瘢痕患者随机分为两组,治疗组(A组):22例,外用复方肝素钠尿囊素凝胶;对照组(B组):22例,外用多磺酸粘多糖乳膏。疗程均为3个月,疗程结束后观察疗效。结果:A组总效率86.3%,B组总效率63.6%,两组间总有效率比较有统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论:复方肝素钠尿囊素凝胶治疗浅表性瘢痕疗效更肯定。

  7. Drug: D06735 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06735 Crude, Drug Dioscorea rhizome (JP16); Powdered dioscorea rhizome (JP16); Dios...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06735 Dioscorea rhizome (JP16); Powdered dioscorea rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06735 Dioscorea rhizome; Powdered dios...370], Glycan [CPD:C00420], Choline [CPD:C00114], Allantoin [CPD:C01551], Mannan [CPD:C00464], Diastase [DR:D03329], Dios...genin [CPD:C08898], beta-Sitosterol [CPD:C01753] Dioscorea japonica [TAX:4673], Dios

  8. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Uricase Production by the Screened Wild/Natural Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Harinath Dwivedi; Kusum Agrawal; Saraf, Shubhini A.

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disorder due to the deposition of uric acid crystals within articular or periarticular tissues. Uricase (urate oxidase) catalyzes the oxidation of less water soluble uric acid (7 mg/dl) to a compound allantoin which is more water soluble(11g/L at 40°C) resulting into the ease of excretion of uric acid. The objective of the work was to develop a new method for screening of microbes for uricase production and estimation of uricase thereof. This was achieved by utilizing the ...

  9. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study.

  10. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  11. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  12. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  13. Advance chromatin extraction improves capture performance of protein A affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Lihan; Lee, Jeremy; Bi, Xeuzhi; Yang, Yuansheng; Gan, Hui Theng; Gagnon, Pete

    2016-01-29

    Practical effects of advance chromatin removal on performance of protein A affinity chromatography were evaluated using a caprylic acid-allantoin-based extraction method. Lacking this treatment, the practice of increasing loading residence time to increase capacity was shown to increase host protein contamination of the eluted IgG. Advance chromatin extraction suspended that compromise. Protein A ligand leakage from columns loaded with chromatin-extracted harvest was half the level observed on protein A columns loaded with non-extracted harvest. Columns loaded with chromatin-extracted harvest were cleaned more effectively by 50-100mM NaOH than columns loaded with non-extracted harvest that were cleaned with 250-500mM NaOH. Two protein A media with IgG capacities in excess of 50g/L were loaded with chromatin-extracted harvest, washed with 2.0M NaCl before elution, and the eluted IgG fraction titrated to pH 5.5 before microfiltration. Host protein contamination in the filtrate was reduced to protein A leakage to 0.5ppm, and aggregates to 1.0%. Caprylic acid and allantoin were both reduced below 5ppm. Step recovery of IgG was 99.4%. Addition of a single polishing step reduced residual protein A beneath the level of detection and aggregates to <0.1%. Overall process recovery including chromatin extraction was 90%.

  14. Structural and Mechanistic Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae 2-Oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-11-12

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.

  15. Magnetized water induces changes in the antioxidant properties of some medicinal plants extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S.M Al-Nimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetized water or clustered water is an effective solvent and has the ability to dissolve the nutrients easier and faster than purified water. The objective was to explore the effect of magnet on the constituents of aqueous medicinal plants extracts. Aqueous extracts (infusion or overnight; 1% w/v of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon bark, Salvia officinalis (sage leaves, Zingiber officinale Rosc (ginger tuberous and Symphytum officinale (comfrey seeds were prepared and then divided into two parts, one part was exposed to magnetic disc (0.15 Tesla for 1 hour. The UV-visible spectra of each extract were obtained and the total flavonoids, allantoin and the reducing power were determined. The UV-visible spectra showed changes in the magnitude of the absorbance peak, appearance of new peaks and shifted peaks in the magnetized aqueous extract compared with non-magnetized extracts. The changes in the total flavonoids, allantoin and the reducing power in the magnetized extract did not follow specific pattern. The magnet induces changes in the constituents of medicinal plants via its effect on the electrical properties of water.

  16. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangmang; Xiao, Liang; Fang, Tingting; Cai, Yimin; Jia, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF) and wheat bran fiber (WF) supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  17. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake. PMID:27965732

  18. NITROGEN BALANCE AND RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN GOATS FED DIETS CONTAINING SOAKED AND ROASTED MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna Pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. MBEWE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soaking and roasting velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens on nitrogen utilization and rumen microbial protein synthesis in goats was investigated. Sixteen goats were randomly assigned to four diets in a completely randomized design. Goats were fed a basal diet of Cynodon dactylon hay plus 30% soaked (treatment 1, 30% roasted (treatment 2 and 30% untreated velvet bean (treatment 3. The control diet had 100% hay (treatment 4. Animals were given experimental diets over 14 days following a 7-day adjustment period. Feed, refusals, urine and faecal samples were collected daily from individual goats for determination of nitrogen, nitrogen intake, utilization and allantoin in faeces and urine. Microbial protein yield was estimated from the allantoin. Data were analysed using PROC General Linear Model of Statistical Analysis Software. Goats fed a diet with soaked beans had significantly higher (P0.05 from that of goats fed untreated beans. Microbial protein synthesis was highest for diets with soaked beans although this was non-significantly different (P>0.05 from diets with roasted and untreated beans. All diets containing velvet beans, processed or not, contributed to significantly higher (P<0.05 microbial protein yield than diets with hay only. In terms of nitrogen balance, soaking can be recommended as an appropriate processing method for velvet beans for goat feeding. However, for microbial protein yield, processing method was not statistically important and the bean could be used untreated producing the same results.

  19. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  20. O/W microemulsion as a vehicle for sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, M Eugenia; Gallarate, Marina; Rossatto, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, transparent dispersions or diluted milks have been used as sunscreens. These products contain water-soluble sunscreen agents, and quite frequently are washed away from the skin. However, O/W microemulsions are now being prepared as transparent vehicles for sunscreens. They are waterproof, nonsticky, and easily spreadable. The microemulsions are prepared by using pseudoternary diagrams, by combining lipids with surfactant blends and a polar phase. Soya lecithin and decylpolyglucose produce transparent systems with the lowest percentage of surfactants. These microemulsions contain 4-methylbenzilidene camphor or octylmethoxycinnamate as sunscreen agents. Cyclomethicone, menthol, and allantoin give products a good skin feel, and stearyl methicone gives the waterproof effect. These systems show a Newtonian flux. Little permeation of the sunscreens' trough lipophilic and hydrophilic membrane is evidenced.

  1. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologically resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J

    2005-02-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of the D1D2 region of the large subunit (26S) and of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA showed relationship to the Bulleromyces clade of the genus Cryptococcus (order Tremellales) with some Tremella spp. as the closest relatives. A traditional morphological and physiological description of the strain is given. Data on the assimilation of some C2 compounds and polysaccharides are provided and compared with those of other type strains of novel species of the C. laurentii complex.

  2. NMR-based metabolomics of urine for the atherosclerotic mouse model using apolipoprotein-E deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Gregory C; Darrow, Andrew L

    2009-12-01

    NMR-based metabolomics of mouse urine was used in conjunction with the traditional staining and imaging of aortas for the characterization of disease advancement, that is, plaque formation in untreated and drug-treated apolipoprotein-E (apoE) knockout mice. The metabolomics approach with multivariate analysis was able to differentiate the captopril-treated from the untreated mice in general agreement with the staining results. Principal component analysis showed a pattern shift in both the drug-treated and untreated samples as a function of time that could possibly be explained as the effect of aging. Allantoin, a marker attributed to captopril treatment was elevated in the drug-treated mice. From partial least squares-discriminant analysis, xanthine and ascorbate were elevated in the untreated mice and were possible markers of plaque formation in the apoE knockout mice. Several additional peaks in the spectra characterizing the study endpoint were found but their respective metabolite identities were unknown.

  3. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2011-07-19

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  4. Enhancement of a novel extracellular uricase production by media optimization and partial purification by aqueous three-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Senthoor K; Raval, Keyur; JagadeeshBabu, P E

    2015-01-01

    Uricase (urate: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.7.3.3), an enzyme belonging to the class of oxidoreductases, catalyzes the enzymatic oxidation of uric acid to allantoin and finds a wide variety of application as therapeutic and clinical reagent. In this study, uricase production ability of the bacterial strains isolated from deep litter poultry soil is investigated. The strain with maximum extracellular uricase production capability was identified as Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on uricase productivity was investigated. The uricase production for this strain was optimized using statistically based experimental designs and resulted in uricase activity of 306 U/L, which is 2 times higher than initial uricase activity. Two-step purification, such as ammonium sulfate precipitation and aqueous two-phase system, was carried out and a twofold increase in yield and specific activity was observed.

  5. Coordination polymer core/shell structures: Preparation and up/down-conversion luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingmei; Xu, Hualan; Xiao, Chen; Shuai, Min; Chen, Weimin; Zhong, Shengliang

    2016-10-01

    Coordination polymer (CP) core-shell nanoparticles with Gd-based CP (GdCP) as core and Eu-based CP (EuCP) as shell have been successfully prepared. Allantoin was employed as the organic building block without the assistance of any template. The composition, size and structure of the core-shell nanospheres were well characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG). Results show that the resultant cores are uniform nanospheres with diameter of approximately 45nm, while the diameters of the core-shell nanospheres are increased to approximately 60nm. The core-shell products show enhanced luminescence efficiency than the core under 980nm laser excitation and decreased down-conversion luminescence when excited at 394nm.

  6. Green tea and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  7. 野葛藤茎化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李石生; 邓京振; 刘欣; 赵守训

    1999-01-01

    从野葛Pueraria lobata藤茎中分离得到9个化合物.经理化常数和波谱分析,分别鉴定为:尿囊素( allantoin, Ⅰ),二十四酸-α-甘油酯(tetracosanoid acid-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, Ⅱ), β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol, Ⅲ),6,7-二甲氧基-3',4'-次甲二氧基异黄酮(6,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyisoflavone, Ⅳ), 芒柄花异黄酮(formononetin, V), 大豆苷元(daidzein, Ⅳ),大豆苷(daidzin,Ⅶ),葛根素(puerarin, Ⅷ)和胡萝卜苷(daucosterol, Ⅸ).其中化合物Ⅱ和Ⅳ为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  8. Effect of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (yam) supplementation on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Lee, S Y; Palanivel, G; Kwak, H S

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt made by supplementing powdered yam Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (YPT) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%, wt/vol) into milk, which was pasteurized and then fermented at 43°C for 6 h and stored for 16 d. The pH values of all samples decreased, whereas viscosity values and mean microbial counts increased during storage. The L* and a* color values (indicators of lightness and redness, respectively) of yogurt samples were not remarkably influenced by adding YPT, whereas the b* values (indicating yellowness) significantly increased with the addition of YPT at all concentrations at 0 d of storage, probably due to the original yellow color of yam powder. In functional component analyses, when the concentration of YPT increased, the amount of allantoin and diosgenin proportionally increased. The content of allantoin was 3.22 and diosgenin 4.69 μg/mL when 0.2% (wt/vol) YPT was supplemented and did not change quantitatively during the storage period (16 d). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability scores of YPT-supplemented yogurt samples (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) were quite similar to those of the control throughout the storage period of 16 d. Based on the data obtained from the present study, it was concluded that the concentrations (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) of YPT could be used to produce YPT-supplemented yogurt without significant adverse effects on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties, and enhance functional components from the supplementation.

  9. Changes in the metabolome of rats after exposure to arginine and N-carbamylglutamate in combination with diquat, a compound that causes oxidative stress, assessed by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangmang; Xiao, Liang; Cao, Wei; Fang, Tingting; Jia, Gang; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Caimei; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Numerous factors can induce oxidative stress in animal production and lead to growth retardation, disease, and even death. Arginine and N-carbamylglutamate can alleviate the effects of oxidative stress. However, the systematic changes in metabolic biochemistry linked to oxidative stress and arginine and N-carbamylglutamate treatment remain largely unknown. This study aims to examine the effects of arginine and N-carbamylglutamate on rat metabolism under oxidative stress. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10 each). The rats were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 1% arginine, or 0.1% N-carbamylglutamate for 30 days. On day 28, the rats in each treatment were intraperitoneally injected with diquat at 12 mg per kg body weight or sterile solution. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by metabolomics. Compared with the diquat group, the arginine + diquat group had significantly lower levels of acetamide, alanine, lysine, pyruvate, tyrosine, α-glucose, and β-glucose in plasma; N-carbamylglutamate + diquat had higher levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-methylhistidine, acetone, allantoin, asparagine, citrate, phenylalanine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and tyrosine, and lower levels of low density lipoprotein, lipid, lysine, threonine, unsaturated lipid, urea, and very low density lipoprotein (P carbamylglutamate + diquat group had significantly higher levels of allantoin, citrate, homogentisate, phenylacetylglycine, α-ketoglutarate, and β-glucose while lower levels of acetamide, acetate, acetone, benzoate, citrulline, ethanol, hippurate, lactate, N-acetylglutamate, nicotinamide, ornithine, and trigonelline (P carbamylglutamate can alter the metabolome associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbiota metabolism under oxidative stress.

  10. Milk production efficiency improvement in buffaloes through the use of slow ammonia release and protected protein supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Scott

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of feeding Slow Ammonia Release and Protected Protein supplement (SARPP on blood urea nitrogen (BUN and urinary levels of allantoins as well as on quantity and quality of milk, a feeding trial was conducted on 24 lactating buffaloes. Animals were divided into three similar groups, fed on standard basal ration. Animals in group-I were fed 1.0 kg untreated rapeseed meal containing 50 g untreated urea, animals in group II were fed 1.0 kg treated rapeseed meal containing 50 g untreated urea and animals in group III were fed 1.0 kg treated rapeseed meal containing 50 g treated urea (SARPP supplement, in place of one kg compound cattle feed. Levels of BUN and allantoins in urine were 10.33, 10.48 & 9.64 (P<0.05 mg/dl and 2.35, 3.03 & 5.23 (P<0.01 mmol/litre in groups I, II and III, respectively. Daily average milk yield was 6.46, 7.42 (P<0.05 and 7.70 (P<0.01 kg in groups I, II and III, respectively. Average fat and protein % were 6.64 & 3.41, 6.81 (P<0.05 & 3.53 and 6.95 (P<0.05 & 3.57 in groups I, II and III, respectively. On feeding SARPP supplement, crop residues and dietary proteins could be utilized in a more efficient manner in buffaloes.

  11. Uric acid and thiocyanate as competing substrates of lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Antonia; Parker, Heather; Turner, Rufus; Dickerhof, Nina; Khalilova, Irada S; Wilbanks, Sigurd M; Kettle, Anthony J; Jameson, Guy N L

    2014-08-01

    The physiological function of urate is poorly understood. It may act as a danger signal, an antioxidant, or a substrate for heme peroxidases. Whether it reacts sufficiently rapidly with lactoperoxidase (LPO) to act as a physiological substrate remains unknown. LPO is a mammalian peroxidase that plays a key role in the innate immune defense by oxidizing thiocyanate to the bactericidal and fungicidal agent hypothiocyanite. We now demonstrate that urate is a good substrate for bovine LPO. Urate was oxidized by LPO to produce the electrophilic intermediates dehydrourate and 5-hydroxyisourate, which decayed to allantoin. In the presence of superoxide, high yields of hydroperoxides were formed by LPO and urate. Using stopped-flow spectroscopy, we determined rate constants for the reaction of urate with compound I (k1 = 1.1 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)) and compound II (k2 = 8.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). During urate oxidation, LPO was diverted from its peroxidase cycle because hydrogen peroxide reacted with compound II to give compound III. At physiologically relevant concentrations, urate competed effectively with thiocyanate, the main substrate of LPO for oxidation, and inhibited production of hypothiocyanite. Similarly, hypothiocyanite-dependent killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inhibited by urate. Allantoin was present in human saliva and associated with the concentration of LPO. When hydrogen peroxide was added to saliva, oxidation of urate was dependent on its concentration and peroxidase activity. Our findings establish urate as a likely physiological substrate for LPO that will influence host defense and give rise to reactive electrophilic metabolites.

  12. Isolation and Identification of the Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22 from Ginkgo biloba%银杏内生菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22次生代谢产物分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建春; 白莉; 李晓明; 张雅梅; 高锦明; Hartmut laatsch

    2009-01-01

    Six metabolites cerebroside B (1),cerebroside C (2),allantoin (3),9(11)-dehyoergosterol peroxide (4) and ergosta-4,6,8,22-tetraen-3-one (5),chaetoglobosin A (6) were isolated by column chromatography from the extract of cultural mycelium of fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22,an endophyte in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba.Structures of them were established by spectroscopic methods.Among of them,cerebroside B,cerebroside C,allantoin were firstly obtained from endophytic fungus;The result of brine shrimp bioassay showed the mortality rates of them to Artemia salina are 1.6%,4.2%,7.4%,16.9%,12.8% and 83.6% respectively at the concentration of 10 μg/mL,chaetoglobosin A showed significant toxic effect on brine shrimp.%采用柱层析方法从银杏叶内生真菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22的培养菌丝体提取物中分离得到脑苷脂B(1)、脑苷脂C(2)、尿囊素(3)、9(11)-去氢麦角甾醇过氧化物(4)以及4,6,8,22-四烯-3-酮-麦角甾烷(5)和球毛壳甲素(6)共6个次生代谢物;经波谱分析确定了6个化合物的结构,其中脑苷脂B、脑苷脂C和尿囊素是首次从内生真菌中得到;海虾致死试验结果显示,化合物1~6在10 μg/mL浓度下对丰年虾的致死率分别为1.6%、4.2%、7.4%、16.9%、12.8%、83.6%、表明球毛壳甲素对海虾表现出很强的毒性作用.

  13. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  14. The use of formaldehyde protected palm kernel meal and its effects on animal performance, nitrogen utilization and unsaturated fatty acid composition in Priangan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G Wiryawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of formaldehyde-treated Palm Kernel Cake (BIS in male Priangan sheep diet and its effect on animal performance, N utilization, and unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal. The experiment was designed based on completly randomized design with four treatments and nine replications. The treatments consisted of four levels of formaldehyde treated BIS: R1 (0%, R2 (15%, R3 (30% and R4 (45%. Results indicated that formaldehyde treated BIS up to 45% in diet did not negatively affect consumption, dry matter digestibility and daily live weight gain. Formaldehyde protection especially in R4 could significantly reduce ruminal N-NH3 concentration, increased protein digestibility and nitrogen retention, but did not influence allantoin urine concentration. Unsaturated fatty acid composition of musculus longisimus dorsal was not affected by formaldehyde treated BIS in diet. It is concluded that the inclusion of 45% formaldehyde treated BIS in diet did not negatively affect animal performance, and R4 is the most effective in improving nitrogen utilization in male Priangan sheep, but unable to alter the unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal.

  15. Characterization of Imidazoline Receptors in Blood Vessels for the Development of Antihypertensive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor (I-2R may reduce the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Also, guanidinium derivatives show the ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the I-2R using guanidinium derivatives in blood vessels for development of antihypertensive agent(s. Six guanidinium derivatives including agmatine, amiloride, aminoguanidine, allantoin, canavanine, and metformin were applied in this study. Western blot analysis was used for detecting the expression of imidazoline receptor in tissues of Wistar rats. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male rats was also estimated. The expression of imidazoline receptor on rat aorta was identified. However, guanidinium derivatives for detection of aortic relaxation were not observed except agmatine and amiloride which induced a marked relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. Both relaxations induced by agmatine and amiloride were attenuated by glibenclamide at concentration enough to block ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels. Meanwhile, only agmatine-induced relaxation was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Taken together, we suggest that agmatine can induce vascular relaxation through activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor to open KATP channels. Thus, agmatine-like compound has the potential to develop as a new therapeutic agent for hypertension in the future.

  16. Characterization of imidazoline receptors in blood vessels for the development of antihypertensive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fen; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Chen, Li-Jen; Wu, Tung-Pi; Yang, Jia-Jang; Yin, Li-Te; Yang, Yu-Lin; Chiang, Tai-An; Lu, Han-Lin; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2014-01-01

    It has been indicated that activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor (I-2R) may reduce the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Also, guanidinium derivatives show the ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the I-2R using guanidinium derivatives in blood vessels for development of antihypertensive agent(s). Six guanidinium derivatives including agmatine, amiloride, aminoguanidine, allantoin, canavanine, and metformin were applied in this study. Western blot analysis was used for detecting the expression of imidazoline receptor in tissues of Wistar rats. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male rats was also estimated. The expression of imidazoline receptor on rat aorta was identified. However, guanidinium derivatives for detection of aortic relaxation were not observed except agmatine and amiloride which induced a marked relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. Both relaxations induced by agmatine and amiloride were attenuated by glibenclamide at concentration enough to block ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Meanwhile, only agmatine-induced relaxation was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Taken together, we suggest that agmatine can induce vascular relaxation through activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor to open KATP channels. Thus, agmatine-like compound has the potential to develop as a new therapeutic agent for hypertension in the future.

  17. N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment.

  18. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  19. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  20. Hydrogels Containing Nanocapsules and Nanoemulsions of Tea Tree Oil Provide Antiedematogenic Effect and Improved Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fernanda C; De Lima, Julia A; Da Silva, Cássia R; Benvegnú, Dalila; Ferreira, Juliano; Burger, Marilise E; Beck, Ruy C R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Rocha, Maria Isabel U M; Da Veiga, Marcelo L; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2015-01-01

    In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing.

  1. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  2. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Metabonomic analysis of potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in diabetic nephropathy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tingting; Zhao, Liangcai; Jia, Jianmin; Xia, Huanhuan; Du, Yao; Lin, Qiuting; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2015-07-07

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the lethal manifestations of diabetic systemic microvascular disease. Elucidation of characteristic metabolic alterations during diabetic progression is critical to understand its pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in the disease. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to study the characteristic metabolites, as well as the related pathways in urine and kidney samples of db/db diabetic mice, compared with age-matched wildtype mice. The time trajectory plot of db/db mice revealed alterations, in an age-dependent manner, in urinary metabolic profiles along with progression of renal damage and dysfunction. Age-dependent and correlated metabolite analysis identified that cis-aconitate and allantoin could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of DN. Further correlative analysis revealed that the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) were involved in dimethylamine metabolism, ketogenesis and GTP metabolism pathways, respectively, and could be potential therapeutic targets for DN. Our results highlight that metabonomic analysis can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of diseases.

  4. PARAMETERS OF PROTEIN METABOLISM IN GOATS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT PORTION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ariyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Jawarandu male goats were used to study the effect of different portion of sugarcanebagasse in diets on some parameters of protein metabolism. Goats had average of body weight of 18 kgand aged at 18 months. Animals were housed in metabolic cages and were alloted to a completelyrandomized design receiving three experimental diets with sugarcane bagasse portions of 15, 25, and35% (dry matter basis, respectively. After eight weeks of adjustment period to experimental diets andenvironment, each group of treatment was subjected to ten days of digestion trial, and followed bycollection of rumen liquid samples. Parameters observed were feed digestibility, nitrogen retention,ruminal feed fermentation, and excretion of urinary allantoin to estimate microbial protein synthesis.Data were tested using one way analysis of variance, and followed by Duncan’s mulitiple range test. Drymatter and protein intakes lowered (P<0.05 as the increasing of sugarcane bagasse in diets. Proteindigestibility and retention were unaffected by the treatment of bagasse portion. The dietary treatment didnot change ruminal ammonia, total VFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations. Microbialnitrogen synthesis and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were unaffected by the dietarytreatment.

  5. Rasburicase represents a new tool for hyperuricemia in tumor lysis syndrome and in gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Cammalleri, Mariano Malaguarnera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is a feature of several pathologies and requires an appropriate and often early treatment, owing to the severe consequences that it may cause. A rapid and massive raise of uric acid, during tumor lysis syndrome (TLS, and also a lower and chronic hyperuricemia, as in gout, mainly damage the kidney. To prevent or treat these consequences, a new therapeutic option is represented by rasburicase, a recombinant form of an enzyme, urate oxidase. This enzyme converts hypoxanthine and xanthine into allantoin, a more soluble molecule, easily cleared by kidney. The several types of urate oxidase have followed each other, with progressive reduction of adverse reactions. The most important among them are allergenicity and the development of antibodies which compromise their effectiveness. Nevertheless, a limit of rasburicase's use remains its cost, which obliges to a judicious choice to prevent TLS in high risk patients with cancer and in case of allergy or impossibility to take allopurinol orally both in TLS and in gout. A large body of evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of rasburicase, even in comparison to the standard drugs used in the aforementioned pathologies.

  6. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Uricase Production by the Screened Wild/Natural Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinath Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disorder due to the deposition of uric acid crystals within articular or periarticular tissues. Uricase (urate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of less water soluble uric acid (7 mg/dl to a compound allantoin which is more water soluble(11g/L at 40°C resulting into the ease of excretion of uric acid. The objective of the work was to develop a new method for screening of microbes for uricase production and estimation of uricase thereof. This was achieved by utilizing the fact that uric acid dissolves on being acted upon by uricase. The proposed method is a novel, inexpensive, simple and sensitive technique for screening and estimation of uricase. Biomass and uricase production at different stages of microbial growth curve for the uricase producing microbe was studied. Effects of different medium components affecting uricase production by microbes were studied using Placket Burman statistical design. Addition of uric acid in the nutrient medium was found to be effective in increasing the uricase production by microbes growing in the medium.

  7. Simultaneous determination of purine metabolites, creatinine and pseudouridine in ruminant urine by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingfield, K J; Offer, N W

    1999-02-19

    Determination of purine metabolites, pseudouridine and creatinine in both bovine and ovine urine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. Following dilution and filtration, urine samples were analysed directly. Separation and quantification was achieved using a Spherisorb ODS II C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D.) under isocratic conditions. The mobile phase contained 7.5 mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 10 mM sodium 1-heptane sulphonic acid and 1.0 mM triethylamine at pH 3.0. Chromatography was achieved at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min and monitoring column effluent at 218 nm. Total analysis time was 60 min. Recovery of all compound standards added to urine was above 96%. In all cases, close spectral matches of compound standards and corresponding identified peaks in ovine and bovine urine were obtained. Lowest detectable concentrations of allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, creatinine and pseudouridine were 1.1, 1.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 0.4 micromol/l, respectively. Advantages of simultaneous determination of purine metabolites, creatinine and pseudouridine in ruminant urine collected from both sheep and cattle exist over current methods.

  8. Acmella oleracea and Achyrocline satureioides as Sources of Natural Products in Topical Wound Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Lais Thiemi; de Paula, Eneida; Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; de Freitas-Blanco, Verônica Santana; Junior, Ílio Montanari; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Anholeto, Luís Adriano; de Oliveira, Patricia Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian forests have one of the world's biggest biodiversities. Achyrocline satureioides (macela) and Acmella oleracea (jambu) are native species from Brazil with a huge therapeutic potential, with proved anti-inflammatory and anesthetic action, respectively. The jambu's crude extract after depigmentation with activated charcoal and macela's essential oil were incorporated in a film made with hydroxyethyl cellulose. Those films were evaluated by mechanical test using a texturometer and anti-inflammatory and anesthetic activities by in vivo tests: wound healing and antinociceptive. The film containing the highest concentration of depigmented jambu's extract and macela's essential oil obtained an anesthesia time of 83.6 (±28.5) min longer when compared with the positive control EMLA®; the same occurred with the wound healing test; the film containing the highest concentration had a higher wound contraction (62.0% ± 12.1) compared to the positive control allantoin and the histopathological analysis demonstrated that it increases collagen synthesis and epidermal thickening. The results demonstrate that the films have a potential use in skin wounds, pressure sore, and infected surgical wounds treatment. PMID:27777596

  9. Effect of cholesterol lowering treatment on plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Mangoni, Arduino A; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Ena, Sara; Satta, Andrea E; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-09-10

    The elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is linked with endothelial dysfunction secondary to the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state typical of this pathology. In consideration of the well-known pleiotropic effect of statins, we investigated the effect of cholesterol lowering treatment on endothelial dysfunction markers (MED), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), vascular cell (VCAM) and intercellular (ICAM) adhesion molecule. Plasma MED concentrations, inflammation and oxidative stress indices [Kynurenine/Tryptophan (Kyn/Trp) ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) and allantoin/uric acid (All/UA) ratio] were measured in 30 CKD patients randomized to three cholesterol lowering regimens for 12 months (simvastatin 40mg/day, ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20mg/day, or ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40mg/day). Treatment significantly reduced ADMA concentrations in all patients [0.694μmol/L (0.606-0.761) at baseline vs. 0.622μmol/L (0.563-0.681) after treatment, p<0.001]. ADMA reduction was paralleled by a significant decrease of MDA, All/AU ratio and Kyn/Trp ratio, but not VCAM and ICAM plasma concentrations. Cholesterol lowering treatment was associated with a significant reduction in plasma ADMA concentrations in CKD patients. This might be mediated by reduced oxidative stress and inflammation.

  10. Economic analysis of uricase production under uncertainty: Contrast of chromatographic purification and aqueous two-phase extraction (with and without PEG recycle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Acosta, Mario A; Aguilar-Yáñez, José M; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Uricase is the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of uric acid, the key molecule leading to gout in humans, into allantoin, but it is absent in humans. It has been produced as a PEGylated pharmaceutical where the purification is performed through three sequential chromatographic columns. More recently an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was reported that could recover Uricase with high yield and purity. Although the use of ATPS can decrease cost and time, it also generates a large amount of waste. The ability, therefore, to recycle key components of ATPS is of interest. Economic modelling is a powerful tool that allows the bioprocess engineer to compare possible outcomes and find areas where further research or optimization might be required without recourse to extensive experiments and time. This research provides an economic analysis using the commercial software BioSolve of the strategies for Uricase production: chromatographic and ATPS, and includes a third bioprocess that uses material recycling. The key parameters that affect the process the most were located via a sensitivity analysis and evaluated with a Monte Carlo analysis. Results show that ATPS is far less expensive than chromatography, but that there is an area where the cost of production of both bioprocesses overlap. Furthermore, recycling does not impact the cost of production. This study serves to provide a framework for the economic analysis of Uricase production using alternative techniques.

  11. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): in vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). 2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy of activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin. 3. The concentration of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined. 4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  12. Chemical constituents of the underground stem bark of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Denise B. da; Tulli, Elaine C.O.; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Garcez, Walmir S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Evandro A. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    In the present investigation the underground parts of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae) were used to conduct a phytochemical study that included the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. The substances (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide, (-)-duguetine, dicentrinone, (-)-Nmethyltetrahydropalmatine, and (+)-N-methylglaucine were isolated from the alkaloid extract of the bark of the underground stem, and the ureide allantoin was also isolated by precipitation from the ethanol extract of the wood of the underground stem. A fresh volatile oil and a nonpolar extract were also obtained from the underground stem bark. The substances 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-gurjunene, aromadendrene, bicyclogermacrene, (E)-methylisoeugenol, and {alpha}-asarone were isolated from the fresh volatile oil and polycarpol, {beta}-caryophyllene oxide, 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-asarone, and asaraldehyde were obtained from the petroleum ether extract. The present study describes for the first time the alkaloid (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide and the occurrence of (-)-N-methyltetrahydropalmatine and (+)-N-methylglaucine in the family Annonaceae. All extracts were active in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. (author)

  13. Metabolomic profiling of urinary changes in mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelantová, Helena; Bártová, Simona; Anýž, Jiří; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, Daniel; Lacinová, Zdena; Šulc, Miroslav; Haluzík, Martin; Kuzma, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity with related complications represents a widespread health problem. The etiopathogenesis of obesity is often studied using numerous rodent models. The mouse model of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity was exploited as a model of obesity combined with insulin resistance. The aim of this work was to characterize the metabolic status of MSG mice by NMR-based metabolomics in combination with relevant biochemical and hormonal parameters. NMR analysis of urine at 2, 6, and 9 months revealed altered metabolism of nicotinamide and polyamines, attenuated excretion of major urinary proteins, increased levels of phenylacetylglycine and allantoin, and decreased concentrations of methylamine in urine of MSG-treated mice. Altered levels of creatine, citrate, succinate, and acetate were observed at 2 months of age and approached the values of control mice with aging. The development of obesity and insulin resistance in 6-month-old MSG mice was also accompanied by decreased mRNA expressions of adiponectin, lipogenetic and lipolytic enzymes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in fat while mRNA expressions of lipogenetic enzymes in the liver were enhanced. At the age of 9 months, biochemical parameters of MSG mice were normalized to the values of the controls. This fact pointed to a limited predictive value of biochemical data up to age of 6 months as NMR metabolomics confirmed altered urine metabolic composition even at 9 months.

  14. A Metabolomic Approach to Clarifying the Effect of AST-120 on 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats by Capillary Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Abe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral adsorbent AST-120 is composed of spherical carbon particles and has an adsorption ability for certain small-molecular-weight compounds that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. So far, very few compounds are known to be adsorbed by AST-120 in vivo. To examine the effect of AST-120 in vivo, we comprehensively evaluated the plasma concentrations of 146 compounds (61 anions and 85 cations in CKD model rats, with or without four weeks of treatment with AST-120. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we identified 6 anions and 17 cations that were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. In contrast, we also identified 2 cations that were significantly increased by AST-120. Among them, 4 anions, apart from indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, and 19 cations were newly identified in this study. The plasma levels of N-acetyl-neuraminate, 4-pyridoxate, 4-oxopentanoate, glycine, γ-guanidinobutyrate, N-γ-ethylglutamine, allantoin, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine and imidazole-4-acetate were significantly increased in the CKD model compared with the sham-operated group, and were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. Therefore, these 10 compounds could be added as uremic compounds that indicate the effect of AST-120 treatment. This study provides useful information not only for identifying the indicators of AST-120, but also for clarifying changes in the metabolic profile by AST-120 treatment in the clinical setting.

  15. A metabolomic approach to clarifying the effect of AST-120 on 5/6 nephrectomized rats by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CE-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Koichi; Mishima, Eikan; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Chitose; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2012-11-14

    The oral adsorbent AST-120 is composed of spherical carbon particles and has an adsorption ability for certain small-molecular-weight compounds that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). So far, very few compounds are known to be adsorbed by AST-120 in vivo. To examine the effect of AST-120 in vivo, we comprehensively evaluated the plasma concentrations of 146 compounds (61 anions and 85 cations) in CKD model rats, with or without four weeks of treatment with AST-120. By capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, we identified 6 anions and 17 cations that were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. In contrast, we also identified 2 cations that were significantly increased by AST-120. Among them, 4 anions, apart from indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, and 19 cations were newly identified in this study. The plasma levels of N-acetyl-neuraminate, 4-pyridoxate, 4-oxopentanoate, glycine, γ-guanidinobutyrate, N-γ-ethylglutamine, allantoin, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine and imidazole-4-acetate were significantly increased in the CKD model compared with the sham-operated group, and were significantly decreased by AST-120 treatment. Therefore, these 10 compounds could be added as uremic compounds that indicate the effect of AST-120 treatment. This study provides useful information not only for identifying the indicators of AST-120, but also for clarifying changes in the metabolic profile by AST-120 treatment in the clinical setting.

  16. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E., E-mail: see3@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The crystal structure of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from K. pneumoniae and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the native enzyme as well as several mutants provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and the possible roles of the active-site residues. The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  17. Diurnal rhythms in the human urine metabolome during sleep and total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giskeødegård, Guro F; Davies, Sarah K; Revell, Victoria L; Keun, Hector; Skene, Debra J

    2015-10-09

    Understanding how metabolite levels change over the 24 hour day is of crucial importance for clinical and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the association between sleep deprivation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity requires investigation into the links between sleep and metabolism. Here, we characterise time-of-day variation and the effects of sleep deprivation on urinary metabolite profiles. Healthy male participants (n = 15) completed an in-laboratory study comprising one 24 h sleep/wake cycle prior to 24 h of continual wakefulness under highly controlled environmental conditions. Urine samples were collected over set 2-8 h intervals and analysed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed with respect to both time of day and sleep deprivation. Of 32 identified metabolites, 7 (22%) exhibited cosine rhythmicity over at least one 24 h period; 5 exhibiting a cosine rhythm on both days. Eight metabolites significantly increased during sleep deprivation compared with sleep (taurine, formate, citrate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, carnitine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, TMAO and acetate) and 8 significantly decreased (dimethylamine, 4-DTA, creatinine, ascorbate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, allantoin, 4-DEA, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate). These data indicate that sampling time, the presence or absence of sleep and the response to sleep deprivation are highly relevant when identifying biomarkers in urinary metabolic profiling studies.

  18. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  19. Critical appraisal of the role of pegloticase in the management of gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea HK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hang-Korng Ea,1,2 Pascal Richette1,21Hôpital Lariboisière, Rheumatology Department, Paris, France; 2University of Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, FranceAbstract: Gout is a debilitating disease secondary to chronic hyperuricemia, and the subsequent deposition of monosodium urate crystals is responsible for acute flare, gout arthropathies, tophi and renal lithiasis. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans because the gene encoding uricase was lost during hominoid evolution. Pegloticase is a recombinant mammalian uricase conjugated to polyethylene glycol that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid into allantoin, a more soluble end product. The use of this drug as urate-lowering therapy is a new approach in treating severe gout refractory to conventional therapy with xanthine oxidase inhibitors and uricosuric agents. Intravenous pegloticase has potent and long-lasting urate-lowering capacity with rapid efficacy on tophi resolution. However, pegloticase treatment is associated with infusion-related reactions despite prevention therapy with high-dose corticosteroids. Exacerbation of pre-existing cardiovascular diseases is another concern. The mechanisms of these events are unknown. Caution with long-term use of pegloticase is warranted, especially for patients with cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: gout, urate-lowering therapy, pegloticase, uricase, urate oxidase, immunogenicity

  20. Characterizing diversity based on nutritional and bioactive compositions of yam germplasm (Dioscorea spp. commonly cultivated in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. are widely cultivated as edible resources and medical materials in China. Characterizing chemical compositions in yam germplasm is crucial to determine their diversity and suitability for food and medicine applications. In this study, a core germplasm containing 25 yam landraces was used to create an effective classification of usage by characterizing their nutritive and medicinal compositions. All studied landraces exhibited high contents of starch from 60.7% to 80.6% dry weight (DW, protein (6.3–12.2% DW, minerals (especially Mg 326.8–544.7 mg/kg DW, and essential amino acids. Allantoin and dioscin varied considerably, with values of 0.62–1.49% DW and 0.032–0.092% DW, respectively. The quality variability of 25 yam landraces was clearly separated in light of UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA. Using an eigenvalue ≥1 as the cutoff, the first three principal components accounted for most of the total variability (62.33%. Classification was achieved based on the results of the measured parameters and principal component analysis scores. The results are of great help in determining appropriate application strategies for yam germplasm in China.

  1. Quantitative metabolomics by H-NMR and LC-MS/MS confirms altered metabolic pathways in diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Lanza

    Full Text Available Insulin is as a major postprandial hormone with profound effects on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In the absence of exogenous insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes exhibit a variety of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, glycosurea, accelerated ketogenesis, and muscle wasting due to increased proteolysis. We analyzed plasma from type 1 diabetic (T1D humans during insulin treatment (I+ and acute insulin deprivation (I- and non-diabetic participants (ND by (1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aim was to determine if this combination of analytical methods could provide information on metabolic pathways known to be altered by insulin deficiency. Multivariate statistics differentiated proton spectra from I- and I+ based on several derived plasma metabolites that were elevated during insulin deprivation (lactate, acetate, allantoin, ketones. Mass spectrometry revealed significant perturbations in levels of plasma amino acids and amino acid metabolites during insulin deprivation. Further analysis of metabolite levels measured by the two analytical techniques indicates several known metabolic pathways that are perturbed in T1D (I- (protein synthesis and breakdown, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, amino acid oxidation, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and oxidative stress. This work demonstrates the promise of combining multiple analytical methods with advanced statistical methods in quantitative metabolomics research, which we have applied to the clinical situation of acute insulin deprivation in T1D to reflect the numerous metabolic pathways known to be affected by insulin deficiency.

  2. Biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation of theobromine in developing Theobroma cacao fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Koyama, Yoko; Nagai, Chifumi; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in Theobroma cacao fruits at differing growth stages: Stage A (young small fruit, fresh weight, ca. 2 g); stage B (medium size fruit, fresh weight, ca. 100 g) and stage C (large size, fresh weight, ca. 500 g). The major purine alkaloid in stage A fruits (mainly pericarp) was theobromine (0.7 micromol g(-1) fresh weight), followed by caffeine (0.09 micromol g(-1) fresh weight). The theobromine content of the pericarp decreased sharply with tissue age, and the caffeine content decreased gradually. A large amount of theobromine (22 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) had accumulated in seeds (mainly cotyledons) of stage C fruits. Theobromine was found also in the seed coat and placenta. Tracer experiments with [8-(14)C]adenine show that the major sites of theobromine synthesis are the young pericarp and cotyledons of T. cacao fruits. Limited amounts of purine alkaloids may be transported from the pericarp to seed tissue, but most purine alkaloids that accumulated in seeds appeared to be synthesised in cotyledons. Degradation of [8-(14)C]theobromine and [8-(14)C]caffeine to CO2 via 3-methylxanthine and ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid) was detected only in the pericarp of stage C fruits.

  3. Suppressive effect of viscous dietary fiber on elevations of uric acid in serum and urine induced by dietary RNA in rats is associated with strength of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hisao; Koguchi, Hiromi; Wada, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Innami, Satoshi; Maekawa, Akio; Tadokoro, Tadahiro

    2003-10-01

    This study was performed to clarify how dietary fiber (DF) with different viscosities would be associated with dietary RNA metabolism. Male Wistar strain rats, four weeks old, were fed diets containing a 3% (w/w) yeast RNA and a 5% (w/w) viscous DF for five days. Viscosity of DF samples used, in order of strength, were xanthan gum (XG) > guar gum (GG) > locust bean gum (LBG) > karaya gum (KG) > pectin (PE) = arabic gum (AG) > CM-cellulose (CMC) = inulin (IN). The serum uric acid concentration in the viscous DF groups significantly decreased as compared with that in the cellulose (CL) group. The urinary excretions of uric acid and allantoin in the respective groups given AG, GG, IN, KG, PE, and XG were significantly suppressed as compared with those in the CL group. The fecal RNA excretion was markedly increased in the IN, KG, PE, and XG groups in comparison to the CL group. The DF with high viscosity significantly suppressed RNA digestion by RNase A and decreased uptakes of 14C-labeled adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) in rat jejunum. The results reveal that the suppressive effect of DF on elevation of serum uric acid concentration induced by dietary RNA in rats is associated with the strength of DF viscosity. The mechanism by which this is accomplished is suggested to be attributed to the inhibitions of digestion for dietary RNA and/or absorption of the hydrolyzed compounds.

  4. Changes in urinary metabolic profile after oral administration of curcuma extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Stocchero, Matteo; Clauser, Maria; Boschiero, Irene; Ndoum, Emmanuel; Schiavon, Mariano; Mammi, Stefano; Schievano, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    The diffusion of phytochemicals in health promoting products is growing, but studies related to their effects on healthy subjects are still lacking despite the large consumption of natural products as nutraceuticals or food supplements. In many cases, research supports the in vitro antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, but the health claims attributed to the final marketed nutraceutical products have dubious scientific foundation. Also, studies focussed on the definition of their biological targets and mechanisms of action can be useful to assess their efficacy and safety. In this study, the effect of oral administration of 80mg/kg of Curcuma longa Linn. extract to 12 healthy rats over 25 days was evaluated by monitoring the changes of urinary composition. 24-h urine was collected during the animal experiment and the composition was analyzed by (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS. The two datasets were studied individually through a metabolomic approach and the multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the control and the treated group. Curcumin levels were also measured in 24-h urine samples by HPLC-MS. Both the (1)H NMR and the HPLC-MS dataset showed that the administration of 80mg/kg of Curcuma longa extract to healthy animals induces changes in urinary composition. Decreased allantoin urinary levels can be considered a partial demonstration of the in vivo effect of curcumin on oxidative stress in a healthy animal model.

  5. Acmella oleracea and Achyrocline satureioides as Sources of Natural Products in Topical Wound Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Thiemi Yamane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian forests have one of the world’s biggest biodiversities. Achyrocline satureioides (macela and Acmella oleracea (jambu are native species from Brazil with a huge therapeutic potential, with proved anti-inflammatory and anesthetic action, respectively. The jambu’s crude extract after depigmentation with activated charcoal and macela’s essential oil were incorporated in a film made with hydroxyethyl cellulose. Those films were evaluated by mechanical test using a texturometer and anti-inflammatory and anesthetic activities by in vivo tests: wound healing and antinociceptive. The film containing the highest concentration of depigmented jambu’s extract and macela’s essential oil obtained an anesthesia time of 83.6 (±28.5 min longer when compared with the positive control EMLA®; the same occurred with the wound healing test; the film containing the highest concentration had a higher wound contraction (62.0%±12.1 compared to the positive control allantoin and the histopathological analysis demonstrated that it increases collagen synthesis and epidermal thickening. The results demonstrate that the films have a potential use in skin wounds, pressure sore, and infected surgical wounds treatment.

  6. In vitro antioxidant activities of antioxidant-enriched toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, M; Ferreiro, M S; Armeni, T; Politi, A; Bompadre, S; Massoli, A; Bullon, P

    2005-03-01

    Several forms of periodontal diseases (PD) are often associated with modified phagocytosing leukocytes and contemporary free radical production. Host antioxidant defenses could benefit from toothpastes used as adjuncts to counteract plaque-associated bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine possible antioxidant activity (AA) of 12 differently antioxidant-enriched toothpastes, regardless of their efficacy as antimicrobial agents. Toothpastes were enriched alternatively with sodium ascorbyl phosphate, alpha-tocopherol acetate, pycnogenol, allantoin and methyl salycilate or a mixture of these. AA was tested in a cell-free system with a ABTS-decolorization assay improved by means of a flow injection analysis device. Comet assay, using NCTC 2544 keratinocytes, was performed to test if it was possible to identify any protection against in vitro DNA fragmentation provoked by a challenge with H(2)O(2) in cultures pre-incubated with toothpaste extracts. Only toothpastes containing sodium ascorbyl phosphate displayed clear AA with I(50) values ranging between 50 and 80 mg of toothpaste/ml water. COMET analysis of cells challenged with H(2)O(2) in presence of toothpaste extracts revealed a limited protection exerted by sodium ascorbyl phosphate. The results described herein indicate that toothpastes containing sodium ascorbyl phosphate possess AA. All the data were obtained in systems in vitro and the demonstration of in vivo AA is desirable. These findings could be useful in the treatment and maintenance of some forms of PD and should be considered when arranging new toothpaste formulations.

  7. RutR is the uracil/thymine-sensing master regulator of a set of genes for synthesis and degradation of pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Hirao, Kiyo; Kori, Ayako; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2007-11-01

    Using the genomic SELEX, a total of six Escherichia coli DNA fragments have been identified, which formed complexes with transcription factor RutR. The RutR regulon was found to include a large number of genes encoding components for not only degradation of pyrimidines but also transport of glutamate, synthesis of glutamine, synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and arginine, and degradation of purines. DNase I footprinting indicated that RutR recognizes a palindromic sequence of TTGACCAnnTGGTCAA. The RutR box in P1 promoter of carAB encoding carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, a key enzyme of pyrimidine synthesis, overlaps with the PepA (CarP) repressor binding site, implying competition between RutR and PepA. Adding either uracil or thymine abolished RutR binding in vitro to the carAB P1 promoter. Accordingly, in the rutR-deletion mutant or in the presence of uracil, the activation in vivo of carAB P1 promoter was markedly reduced. Northern blot analysis of the RutR target genes indicated that RutR represses the Gad system genes involved in glutamate-dependent acid resistance and allantoin degradation. Altogether we propose that RutR is the pyrimidine sensor and the master regulator for a large set of the genes involved in the synthesis and degradation of pyrimidines.

  8. Balanço de nitrogênio em fêmeas leiteiras em confinamento alimentadas com concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Nitrogen use efficiency of growing dairy heifers fed concentrate rations based on soybean or cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-05-01

    did not change the levels of ureic nitrogen in the plasma. Levels of concentrate and protein sources did not affect concentrations of total purine and allantoin in the urine, the percentage of allantoin regarded to total purine, the levels of uric acid in the urine, microbial nitrogen neither the microbial efficiency. The supply of 1 or 2 kg of concentrate ration for growing dairy heifers, using soybean meal or cottonseed meal as protein sources does not affect microbial efficiency, although the supply of 2 kg of concentrate ration causes N waste in feces.

  9. Casca de café em dietas para vacas em lactação: balanço de compostos nitrogenados e síntese de proteína microbiana Coffee hulls in diet of lactating dairy cows: nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lima de Souza

    2006-08-01

    .8 g/day and milk N (114.7 g/day. However, feeding coffee hulls to lactating dairy cows increased fecal N excretion resulting in negative N balance. The increased dietary levels of coffee hulls did not affect excretions of milk allantoin (294.6 mmol/day, urinary allantoin (21.3 mmol/day, uric acid (42.3 mmol/day, and purine derivatives (358.2 mmol/day. Microbial protein synthesis estimated by urinary excretion of purine derivatives averaged 266.3 g/day and did not differ across diets. In addition, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis averaged 136.8 g of microbial N per kg/TDN and also did not differ among diets.

  10. Síntese de proteína microbiana e concentrações de uréia em vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de palma forrageira e diferentes volumosos Microbial protein synthesis and urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cows fed spineless cactus and different forages based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco vacas da raça Holandesa foram distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 × 5 com o objetivo de estimar a produção de proteína microbiana utilizando-se a excreção total de derivados de purinas (DP, por meio de coletas spot de urina, e as concentrações de nitrogênio (N-uréia no plasma, no leite e na urina. As cinco dietas foram formuladas com diversos volumosos (bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; feno de capim-tifton; feno de capim-elefante; silagem de sorgo; e uma mistura de silagem de sorgo + bagaço de cana associados à palma forrageira. As concentrações de uréia (10,98 mg/dL e N-uréia (5,11 mg/dL no leite não foram afetadas pelos volumosos, assim como as concentrações plasmáticas de uréia (28,10 mg/dL e N-uréia (13,09 mg/dL. As excreções urinárias de uréia, N-uréia, alantoína e derivados de purina, purinas absorvidas, a síntese de N-microbiano e as concentrações de alantoína no leite não foram alteradas. Os volumosos utilizados podem ser associados a palma forrageira na alimentação de vacas Holandesas, pois não alteram a produção de proteína microbiana.Five Holstein cows were allotted to a 5 × 5 Latin square design with the objective of evaluating the microbial protein production, using the total excretion of purine derivatives (PD, obtained from spot urine collection, plasma and milk urea and nitrogen (N-urea. The five treatments contained different forage sources: sugar cane bagasse (CB, tifton hay (TH, elephant grass hay (EH, sorghum silage (SS and a mixture of sugar cane bagasse + sorghum silage (CBSS. The milk urea (10.98 mg/dL and N-urea (5.11 mg/dL concentrations were not influenced by the forage sources, such as plasma urea (28.10 mg/dL and N-urea (13.09 mg/dL concentrations. The urinary urea, N-urea, allantoin and PD excretions, the absorbed purine, N-microbial synthesis and milk allantoin concentration remained unchanged. The different forage sources in association with forage cactus did not change

  11. Pegloticase: in treatment-refractory chronic gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2011-11-12

    Intravenous pegloticase offers a novel approach to treating chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy. Pegloticase is a recombinant polyethylene glycol-conjugated form of uricase (a uric acid-specific enzyme lacking in humans) that catalyses the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin. In randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 6-month, phase III trials, intravenous pegloticase 8 mg every 2 or 4 weeks provided sustained reductions in plasma uric acid levels to less than the therapeutic target of 6 mg/dL in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic gout who were refractory to, or intolerant of, conventional urate-lowering therapy. Pegloticase 8 mg every 2 weeks was associated with disease-modifying benefits relative to placebo, as shown by significant improvements from baseline in tophi resolution, frequency of gout flares and tender joint count, and clinically relevant and statistically significant improvements from baseline in health-related quality-of-life parameters related to disability, pain and physical function. Pegloticase 8 mg every 4 weeks was also significantly more effective than placebo with regard to most, but not all, of these endpoints. Preliminary data from an open-label extension of the phase III trials indicate that long-term treatment with pegloticase 8 mg every 2 or 4 weeks may maintain plasma uric acid normalization in patients who experienced a sustained uric acid response during the phase III trials. The most common serious adverse events associated with pegloticase are gout flares, infusion reactions and anaphylaxis. In addition, exacerbation of pre-existing congestive heart failure was reported in 2% of patients receiving pegloticase 8 mg every 2 weeks in the phase III trials.

  12. Inhibition of a Putative Dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Flavonoids and Substrates of Cyclic Amidohydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available Dihydropyrimidinase is a member of the cyclic amidohydrolase family, which also includes allantoinase, dihydroorotase, hydantoinase, and imidase. These metalloenzymes possess very similar active sites and may use a similar mechanism for catalysis. However, whether the substrates and inhibitors of other cyclic amidohydrolases can inhibit dihydropyrimidinase remains unclear. This study investigated the inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids and substrates of other cyclic amidohydrolases. Allantoin, dihydroorotate, 5-hydantoin acetic acid, acetohydroxamate, orotic acid, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole could slightly inhibit dihydropyrimidinase, and the IC50 values of these compounds were within the millimolar range. The inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids, such as myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, galangin, dihydromyricetin, and myricitrin, was also investigated. Some of these compounds are known as inhibitors of allantoinase and dihydroorotase. Although the inhibitory effects of these flavonoids on dihydropyrimidinase were substrate-dependent, dihydromyricetin significantly inhibited dihydropyrimidinase with IC50 values of 48 and 40 μM for the substrates dihydrouracil and 5-propyl-hydantoin, respectively. The results from the Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that dihydromyricetin was a competitive inhibitor. Results from fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that dihydromyricetin could form a stable complex with dihydropyrimidinase with the K(d value of 22.6 μM. A structural study using PatchDock showed that dihydromyricetin was docked in the active site pocket of dihydropyrimidinase, which was consistent with the findings from kinetic and fluorescence studies. This study was the first to demonstrate that naturally occurring product dihydromyricetin inhibited dihydropyrimidinase, even more than the substrate analogs (>3 orders of magnitude. These flavonols, particularly myricetin, may serve as drug leads and dirty drugs (for

  13. Systems rebalancing of metabolism in response to sulfur deprivation, as revealed by metabolome analysis of Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, Victoria J; Kopka, Joachim; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Fiehn, Oliver; Hopkins, Laura; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Hesse, Holger; Hoefgen, Rainer

    2005-05-01

    Sulfur is an essential macro-element in plant and animal nutrition. Plants assimilate inorganic sulfate into two sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Low supply of sulfate leads to decreased sulfur pools within plant tissues. As sulfur-related metabolites represent an integral part of plant metabolism with multiple interactions, sulfur deficiency stress induces a number of adaptive responses, which must be coordinated. To reveal the coordinating network of adaptations to sulfur deficiency, metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis has been undertaken. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques revealed the response patterns of 6,023 peaks of nonredundant ion traces and relative concentration levels of 134 nonredundant compounds of known chemical structure. Here, we provide a catalogue of the detected metabolic changes and reconstruct the coordinating network of their mutual influences. The observed decrease in biomass, as well as in levels of proteins, chlorophylls, and total RNA, gives evidence for a general reduction of metabolic activity under conditions of depleted sulfur supply. This is achieved by a systemic adjustment of metabolism involving the major metabolic pathways. Sulfur/carbon/nitrogen are partitioned by accumulation of metabolites along the pathway O-acetylserine to serine to glycine, and are further channeled together with the nitrogen-rich compound glutamine into allantoin. Mutual influences between sulfur assimilation, nitrogen imbalance, lipid breakdown, purine metabolism, and enhanced photorespiration associated with sulfur-deficiency stress are revealed in this study. These responses may be assembled into a global scheme of metabolic regulation induced by sulfur nutritional stress, which optimizes resources for seed production.

  14. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-03

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods.

  15. Chemical composition of alfalfa silage with waste date and its feeding effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, R; Tahmasbi, R; Dayani, O; Khezri, A

    2016-09-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. Eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. For ensiling, fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with different levels of waste date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were mixed together and ensiled in 100-l containers for 45 days. Chemical composition of silages such as dry matter (DM), crude protein, NH3 -N, organic matter, NDF, ADF and pH were determined. Then, it was used as 30% (DM basis) in diets. The experimental diets were as follows: (i) control (diet containing alfalfa silage without waste date), (ii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 5 g waste date/95 g DM, (iii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 10 g waste date/90 g DM, and (iv) diet containing alfalfa silage with 15 g waste date/85 g DM. The results of this experiment showed that adding waste date to alfalfa during ensiling, improved silage quality, DM and energy level. Total protozoa population and all of holotrich, cellulolytic and entodinia in rumen fluid were increased linearly by increasing the level of waste date. Nitrogen (N) intake, urinary N excretion and nitrogen retention were affected by dietary treatments. Also, allantoin, uric acid, total purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, cholesterol level and blood urea nitrogen were significantly different. In conclusion, direct ensilage of alfalfa can be attained by mixing 15 g waste date/85 g DM and positive associative effects such as increased metabolizable energy (ME) and silage quality occurred.

  16. Early signaling, synthesis, transport and metabolism of ureides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Bikash; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa

    2016-04-01

    The symbiosis between α nitrogen (N2)-fixing Proteobacteria (family Rhizobiaceae) and legumes belonging to the Fabaceae (a single phylogenetic group comprising three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae) results in the formation of a novel root structure called a nodule, where atmospheric N2 is fixed into NH3(+). In the determinate type of nodules harbored by Rhizobium-nodulated Fabaceae species, newly synthesized NH3(+) is finally converted into allantoin (C4H6N4O3) and allantoic acid (C4H8N4O4) (ureides) through complex pathways involving at least 20 different enzymes that act synchronously in two types of nodule cells with contrasting ultrastructure, including the tree nodule cell organelles. Newly synthesized ureides are loaded into the network of nodule-root xylem vessels and transported to aerial organs by the transpirational water current. Once inside the leaves, ureides undergo an enzymatically driven reverse process to yield NH4(+) that is used for growth. This supports the role of ureides as key nitrogen (N)-compounds for the growth and yield of legumes nodulated by Rhizobium that grow in soils with a low N content. Thus, a concrete understanding of the mechanisms underlying ureide biogenesis and catabolism in legumes may help agrobiologists to achieve greater agricultural discoveries. In this review we focus on the transmembranal and transorganellar symplastic and apoplastic movement of N-precursors within the nodules, as well as on the occurrence, localization and properties of enzymes and genes involved in the biogenesis and catabolism of ureides. The synthesis and transport of ureides are not unique events in Rhizobium-nodulated N2-fixing legumes. Thus, a brief description of the synthesis and catabolism of ureides in non-legumes was included for comparison. The establishment of the symbiosis, nodule organogenesis and the plant's control of nodule number, synthesis and translocation of ureides via feed-back inhibition

  17. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metablome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P. E.; Sreedasyam, A.; Trivedi, G; Podila, G. K.; Cseke, L. J.; Collart, F. R. (Biosciences Division); (On Assignment, Scientific Staffing); (Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville)

    2011-05-13

    Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides) roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

  18. Metabonomics analysis of urine and plasma from rats given long-term and low-dose dimethoate by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhijing; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Jindan; Hao, Dongfang; Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2012-09-30

    This study assessed the effects of long-term, low-dose dimethoate administration to rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Dimethoate (0.04, 0.12, and 0.36 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered daily to male Wistar rats through their drinking water for 24 weeks. Significant changes in serum clinical chemistry were observed in the middle- and high-dose groups. UPLC-MS revealed evident separate clustering among the different dose groups using global metabolic profiling by supervised partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Metabonomic analysis showed alterations in a number of metabolites (12 from urine and 13 from plasma), such as L-tyrosine, dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), citric acid, uric acid, suberic acid, glycylproline, allantoin, isovalerylglutamic acid and kinds of lipids. The results suggest that long-term, low-dose exposure to dimethoate can cause disturbances in liver function, antioxidant and nervous systems, as well as the metabolisms of lipids, glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and collagen in rats. DMTP and DMDTP, which had the most significant changes among all other studied biomarkers, were considered as early, sensitive biomarkers of exposure to dimethoate. The other aforementioned proposed toxicity biomarkers in metabonomic analysis may be useful in the risk assessment of the toxic effects of dimethoate. Metabonomics as a systems toxicology approach was able to provide comprehensive information on the dynamic process of dimethoate induced toxicity. In addition, the results indicate that metabonomic approach could detect systemic toxic effects at an earlier stage compared to clinical chemistry. The combination of metabonomics and clinical chemistry made the toxicity of dimethoate on rats more comprehensive.

  19. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Department of Physics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu Huili; Zhang Limin [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) 138667 (Singapore); Lu Lehui, E-mail: jianghua.feng@hotmail.com, E-mail: jianghua.feng@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary {alpha}-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary {alpha}-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies ({beta}-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of

  20. A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking catabolic NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Growth characteristics of the mutant and regulation of enzyme synthesis in the wild-type strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; van Eijk, J; van Renesse, R; Blijham, J M

    1978-01-01

    NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-B) was induced in a wild-type strain derived of alpha-sigma 1278b by alpha-amino acids, the nitrogen of which according to known degradative pathways is transferred to 2-oxoglutarate. A recessive mutant (gdhB) devoid of GDH-B activity grew more slowly than the wild type if one of these amino acids was the sole source of nitrogen. Addition of ammonium chloride, glutamine, asparagine or serine to growth media with inducing alpha-amino acids as the main nitrogen source increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant to the wild-type level and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the wild type. Arginine, urea and allantoin similarly increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the presence of glutamate, but not in the presence of aspartate, alanine or proline as the main nitrogen source. These observations are consistent with the view that GDH-B in vivo deaminates glutamate. Ammonium ions are required for the biosynthesis of glutamine, asparagine, arginine, histidine and purine and pyrimidine bases. Aspartate and alanine apparently are more potent inducers of GDH-B than glutamate. Anabolic NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-A) can not fulfil the function of GDH-B in the gdhB mutant. This is concluded from the equal growth rates in glutamate, aspartate and proline media as observed with a gdhB mutant and with a gdhA, gdhB double mutant in which both glutamate dehydrogenases area lacking. The double mutant showed an anomalous growth behaviour, growth rates on several nitrogen sources being unexpectedly low.

  1. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced adverse effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, So Young; Park, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myeon Woo; Choi, Ki Hwan; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2016-09-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are globally prescribed, exhibit mainly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects but also can cause adverse effects including gastrointestinal erosions, ulceration, bleeding, and perforation. The purpose of this study was to investigate surrogate biomarkers associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) damage caused by NSAID treatment using pattern recognition analysis of (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra of rat urine. Urine was collected for 5h after oral administration of the following NSAIDs at low or high doses: acetylsalicylic acid (10 or 200mgkg(-1)), diclofenac (0.5 or 15mgkg(-1)), piroxicam (1 or 10mgkg(-1)), indomethacin (1 or 25mgkg(-1)), or ibuprofen (10, or 150mgkg(-1)) as nonselective COX inhibitors and celecoxib (10 or 100mgkg(-1)) as a COX-2 selective inhibitor. The urine was analyzed using 500MHz (1)H NMR for spectral binning and targeted profiling and the level of gastric damage was examined. The nonselective COX inhibitors caused severe gastric damage while no lesions were observed in the celecoxib-treated rats. The (1)H NMR urine spectra were divided into spectral bins (0.04ppm) for global profiling, and a total of 44 endogenous metabolites were assigned for targeted profiling. Multivariate data analyses were performed to recognize the spectral pattern of endogenous metabolites related to NSAIDs using partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). The (1)H NMR spectra clustered differently according to gastric damage score in global profiling. In targeted profiling, the endogenous metabolites of citrate, allantoin, 2-oxoglutarate, acetate, benzoate, glycine, and trimethylamine N-oxide were selected as putative biomarkers for gastric damage caused by NSAIDs. These putative biomarkers might be useful for predicting the risk of adverse effects caused by NSAIDs in the early stage of drug development process.

  2. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cseke Leland J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Results We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. Conclusions The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

  3. Study on the chemical constituents of Peristrophe roxburghiana%山蓝化学成分的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    分离鉴定爵床科观音草属植物山蓝的化学成分。采用硅胶柱色谱、重结晶方法对山蓝乙醇提取物进行分离纯化,利用红外、质谱、核磁共振技术进行结构鉴定,得到15个化合物,分别为二十八醇(1),硬脂酸(2),β-谷甾醇(3),豆甾醇(4),棕榈酸(5),月桂酸(6),尿囊素(7),棕榈醇(8),芝麻素(9),齐墩果酸(10),β-胡萝卜苷(11),尿嘧啶(12),腺嘌呤(13),十八烷基葡萄糖苷(14),柠檬酸(15)。除β-谷甾醇,豆甾醇和β-胡萝卜苷外,其余12个化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到。%Chemical investigation on ethanol extract of Peristrophe roxburghiana yielded 15 compounds by column chromatography and recrystallization.Their structures were elucidated by IR,MS and NMR techniques as Octaco-sanol(1),Stearic acid(2),β-Sitosterol(3),Stigmasterol(4),Palmic acid(5),Lauric acid(6),Allantoin(7),Hexade-canol(8),Sesamin(9),Oleanolic acid(10),β-Daucosterol(11),Uracil(12),Adenine(13),Octadecyl-glucoside(14)and Citric acid(15),respectively.And all the compounds except 3,4 and 11 were obtained and reported from P .rox-burghiana for the first time.

  4. New findings on the in vivo antioxidant activity of Curcuma longa extract by an integrated (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Stocchero, Matteo; Boschiero, Irene; Schiavon, Mariano; Golob, Samuel; Uddin, Jalal; Voinovich, Dario; Mammi, Stefano; Schievano, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    Curcuminoids possess powerful antioxidant activity as demonstrated in many chemical in vitro tests and in several in vivo trials. Nevertheless, the mechanism of this activity is not completely elucidated and studies on the in vivo antioxidant effects are still needed. Metabolomics may be used as an attractive approach for such studies and in this paper, we describe the effects of oral administration of a Curcuma longa L. extract (150 mg/kg of total curcuminoids) to 12 healthy rats with particular attention to urinary markers of oxidative stress. The experiment was carried out over 33 days and changes in the 24-h urine samples metabolome were evaluated by (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS. Both techniques produced similar representations for the collected samples confirming our previous study. Modifications of the urinary metabolome lead to the observation of different variables proving the complementarity of (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS for metabolomic purposes. The urinary levels of allantoin, m-tyrosine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and nitrotyrosine were decreased in the treated group thus supporting an in vivo antioxidant effect of the oral administration of Curcuma extract to healthy rats. On the other hand, urinary TMAO levels were higher in the treated compared to the control group suggesting a role of curcumin supplementation on microbiota or on TMAO urinary excretion. Furthermore, the urinary levels of the sulphur containing compounds taurine and cystine were also changed suggesting a role for such constituents in the biochemical pathways involved in Curcuma extract bioactivity and indicating the need for further investigation on the complex role of antioxidant curcumin effects.

  5. Diet-induced hyperinsulinemia differentially affects glucose and protein metabolism: a high-throughput metabolomic approach in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, U; de la Garza, A L; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2013-09-01

    Metabolomics is a high-throughput tool that quantifies and identifies the complete set of biofluid metabolites. This "omics" science is playing an increasing role in understanding the mechanisms involved in disease progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether a nontargeted metabolomic approach could be applied to investigate metabolic differences between obese rats fed a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 9 weeks and control diet-fed rats. Animals fed with the HFS diet became obese, hyperleptinemic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and resistant to insulin. Serum samples of overnight-fasted animals were analyzed by (1)H NMR technique, and 49 metabolites were identified and quantified. The biochemical changes observed suggest that major metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism, β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, Kennedy pathway, and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism were altered in obese rats. The circulating levels of most amino acids were lower in obese animals. Serum levels of docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, unsaturated n-6 fatty acids, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids also decreased in HFS-fed rats. The circulating levels of urea, six water-soluble metabolites (creatine, creatinine, choline, acetyl carnitine, formate, and allantoin), and two lipid compounds (phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelin) were also significantly reduced by the HFS diet intake. This study offers further insight of the possible mechanisms implicated in the development of diet-induced obesity. It suggests that the HFS diet-induced hyperinsulinemia is responsible for the decrease in the circulating levels of urea, creatinine, and many amino acids, despite an increase in serum glucose levels.

  6. Influence of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) on bacterial virulence and transcriptional regulation of allS by CRP in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Tan, Bin; Yang, Shiya; Luo, Mei; Xia, Huiming; Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Xipeng; Yang, Xianxian; Yang, Ruifu; Li, Yingli; Qiu, Jingfu

    2016-11-15

    cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is one of the most important transcriptional regulators, which can regulate large quantities of operons in different bacteria. The gene allS was well-known as allantoin-utilizing capability and involving in bacterial virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The specific DNA recognition motif of transcription regulator CRP was found in allS promoter region. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the function of CRP on virulence and its transcriptional regulation mechanism to gene allS in K. pneumoniae. The wild-type (WT) K. pneumoniae NTUH-2044, crp knockout (Kp-Δcrp) and the complemented knockout (KpC-Δcrp) strains were used to determine the function of crp gene. The lacZ fusion, qRT-PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays were performed to study the transcriptional regulation of CRP on allS. The result showed a decreased virulence in crp knockout strain. Complement through supplementing crp fragment in expression plasmid partially restore virulence of knockout bacteria. The CRP could bind to the allS promoter-proximal region and the binding site was further refined to be located from 60bp to 94bp upstream of the allS promoter. Based on these results, we proposed that CRP is an essential virulence regulator and knock out of crp gene will result in reduced virulence in K. pneumoniae. In the meantime, the transcription of gene allS is positively regulated by CRP via directly binding to upstream of allS promoter.

  7. Global metabolomic profiling of acute myocarditis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Gironès

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, being cardiomyopathy the more frequent manifestation. New chemotherapeutic drugs are needed but there are no good biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. There is growing evidence linking immune response and metabolism in inflammatory processes and specifically in Chagas disease. Thus, some metabolites are able to enhance and/or inhibit the immune response. Metabolite levels found in the host during an ongoing infection could provide valuable information on the pathogenesis and/or identify deregulated metabolic pathway that can be potential candidates for treatment and being potential specific biomarkers of the disease. To gain more insight into those aspects in Chagas disease, we performed an unprecedented metabolomic analysis in heart and plasma of mice infected with T. cruzi. Many metabolic pathways were profoundly affected by T. cruzi infection, such as glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis that were increased in heart tissue but decreased in plasma. Tricarboxylic acid cycle was decreased in heart tissue and plasma whereas reactive oxygen species production and uric acid formation were also deeply increased in infected hearts suggesting a stressful condition in the heart. While specific metabolites allantoin, kynurenine and p-cresol sulfate, resulting from nucleotide, tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism, respectively, were increased in heart tissue and also in plasma. These results provide new valuable information on the pathogenesis of acute Chagas disease, unravel several new metabolic pathways susceptible of clinical management and identify metabolites useful as potential specific biomarkers for monitoring treatment and clinical severity in patients.

  8. 不同比例香根草日粮对沼泽性水牛尿嘌呤衍生物排出量的影响%Effect of different proportion of vetiver grass (Vetiveria nemoralis A.Camus) in roughage on urinary purine derivatives excretion in swamp buffalo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 龙瑞军; J. B.Liang; T. Jetana

    2007-01-01

    试验采用4×4拉丁方设计,利用4头18月龄,体质量为(262±17.9)kg处于生长期的泰国沼泽性水牛,通过饲喂粗料中4种不同比例香根草的日粮,观察每单位可消化有机物质尿嘌呤衍生物排泄量(PD/DOMI)的变化,来研究不同日粮对水牛尿嘌呤衍生物 (PD)排出量的影响.结果表明,随着香根草在粗料中比例的增大,尿囊素 (Allantoin)、尿酸 (Uric acid)及总嘌呤衍生物(total PD)的排出量都增加,且日粮间差异显著(P<0.05),而黄嘌呤和次黄嘌呤(Xanthine+hypoxanthine)的排出量在各个日粮间差异不显著(P>0.05); PD/DOMI随着日粮中香根草含量的增加,在日粮间差异不显著(P>0.05).研究说明香根草占粗料50%时,对水牛尿嘌呤衍生物(PD)的排泄量影响最大(PD的排出量:17.5mmol/d,PD/DOMI:6.11mmol/kg).

  9. Effect of tempe waste on excreation of purine derivatives and microbial–N supply in lactating Etawah crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A Astuti

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate excretion of purine derivatives and microbial–N supply in lactating Etawah crossbred goats fed with fermented soybean waste. Sixteen first lactating goats were randomly allotted into four dietary treatment groups that received 50% king grass plus R1: 50% concentrate, R2: 25% concentrate and 25% fresh tempe waste, R3: 25% concentrate and 25% fermented tempe waste, and R4: 25% concentrate and 25% gelatinizing of liquid tempe waste. Fermented tempe waste was made by fermentation of tempe waste (seed content of soybean using Aspergillus niger, while for the gellatinizing of liquid tempe waste was made by gelatinized with maize flour. Protein balance studies were conducted during two week trial and at the end of the research. Urinary protein and purine derivatives were collected for analysis. Microbial–N supply was calculated from purine derivatives excretion. Results showed that nitrogen consumptions were significantly different between R4 and three other treatments and apparent digestible nitrogen in R3 were higher than that of R4 (P<0.05. The nitrogen retention in R1 and R3 were higher than that of R2 and R4. Urinary purine derivatives in this study showed that allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine in R3 were higher than that of R4, while R1 and R2 were the same and the highest uric acid excretion and total purine derivatives were observed in R3. Microbial–N supply were significantly different between all treatments where R3 was the highest. This research concluded that fermented soybean waste had the highest total purine derivatives excretion and microbial–N supply to the lactating Etawah crossbred goats.

  10. 峨嵋葛根的化学成分研究(Ⅱ)%Studies on chemical constituents from root of Pueraria omeiensis Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑已曙; 史海明; 闵知大

    2002-01-01

    目的研究峨嵋葛根Pueraria omeiensis的化学成分.方法采用反复硅胶柱层析、Sephadex LH-20柱层析以及制备性HPLC分离纯化,通过理化和光谱分析鉴定其化学结构.结果从峨嵋葛根乙酸乙酯提取部位进一步鉴定了一个化合物:槐香豆素A(sophoracoumestan A,I).从正丁醇提取部位分离和鉴定了15个化合物,芒柄花苷(ononin,Ⅱ),大豆苷元7,4'-二葡萄糖苷(daidzein 7,4'-diglucoside,Ⅲ),大豆苷元4'-葡萄糖苷(daidzein 7,4'-glucoside.Ⅳ),3'-甲氧基葛根素(3'-methoxy puerarin,PG-3,Ⅴ),3'-羟基葛根素(3'-hydroxy puerarin,PG-1,Ⅵ),葛根素芹菜糖苷(mirificin,Ⅶ),8-甲基雷杜辛-7-O-葡萄糖苷(8-methyl retusin 7-O-glucoside,Ⅷ),大豆苷元(daidzein,Ⅸ),大豆苷(daidzin,Ⅹ),染料木苷(genistin,Ⅺ),葛根素(puerarin,Ⅻ),二十八烷酸(octacosanoic,ⅫⅠ),尿囊素(allantoin,ⅩⅣ),二十五烷酸甘油酯(glycerol 1-monopentacosanoate,ⅩⅤ),β-胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,ⅩⅥ).结论除化合物Ⅸ~Ⅻ,ⅩⅥ已从乙酸乙酯部分分得外,其他化合物均为首次从峨嵋葛根中分离得到,化合物Ⅰ、Ⅳ、Ⅷ为葛属首次发现.

  11. The CanOE strategy: integrating genomic and metabolic contexts across multiple prokaryote genomes to find candidate genes for orphan enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alexander Thil Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all biochemically characterized metabolic reactions formalized by the IUBMB, over one out of four have yet to be associated with a nucleic or protein sequence, i.e. are sequence-orphan enzymatic activities. Few bioinformatics annotation tools are able to propose candidate genes for such activities by exploiting context-dependent rather than sequence-dependent data, and none are readily accessible and propose result integration across multiple genomes. Here, we present CanOE (Candidate genes for Orphan Enzymes, a four-step bioinformatics strategy that proposes ranked candidate genes for sequence-orphan enzymatic activities (or orphan enzymes for short. The first step locates "genomic metabolons", i.e. groups of co-localized genes coding proteins catalyzing reactions linked by shared metabolites, in one genome at a time. These metabolons can be particularly helpful for aiding bioanalysts to visualize relevant metabolic data. In the second step, they are used to generate candidate associations between un-annotated genes and gene-less reactions. The third step integrates these gene-reaction associations over several genomes using gene families, and summarizes the strength of family-reaction associations by several scores. In the final step, these scores are used to rank members of gene families which are proposed for metabolic reactions. These associations are of particular interest when the metabolic reaction is a sequence-orphan enzymatic activity. Our strategy found over 60,000 genomic metabolons in more than 1,000 prokaryote organisms from the MicroScope platform, generating candidate genes for many metabolic reactions, of which more than 70 distinct orphan reactions. A computational validation of the approach is discussed. Finally, we present a case study on the anaerobic allantoin degradation pathway in Escherichia coli K-12.

  12. Substituição do milho e do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira. Produção de proteína microbiana e excreção de uréia e de derivados de purina em vacas lactantes Effects of replacing of corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on microbial protein synthesis and efficiency and N metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. Diets contained (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, or 51.0% of forage cactus. Five Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 17 days with 10 days for diet adaptation and seven days for data and sample collection. Urinary volume was estimated based on creatinine excretion in spot urine samples obtained four hours after feeding. Urinary volume (27.62 L, urinary excretion of uric acid (35.78 mmol/day and allantoin (288.42 mmol/day, allantoin in milk (18.11 mmol/day, total allantoin (306.54 mmol/day, total excretion of purine derivatives (342.33 mmol/day, absorbed purines (350.03 mmol/day, microbial protein synthesis (1376.07g/day and efficiency (115.38 g/kgNDT were not affected by increasing the levels of forage cactus in the diet. The urinary excretion of urea (mg/kg BW and the concentrations of urea and urea-N in plasma (mg/dL decreased linearly while the concentrations of urea and urea-N in milk were not affected when the levels of forage cactus were increased in the diet. Corn can be completely replaced with forage cactus because microbial protein synthesis was not changed and urinary excretion of urea decreased linearly. However, Tifton hay was necessary in the diet to maintain microbial production.

  13. Metabolomic Profiling in Selaginella lepidophylla at Various Hydration States Provides New Insights into the Mechanistic Basis of Desiccation Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abou Yobi; Bernard W.M.Wone; Wenxin Xu; Danny C.Alexander; Lining Guo; John A.Ryals; Melvin J.Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Selaginella lepidophylla is one of only a few species of spike mosses (Selaginellaceae) that have evolved desiccation tolerance (DT) or the ability to 'resurrect' from an air-dried state.In order to understand the metabolic basis of DT,S.lepidophylla was subjected to a five-stage,rehydration/dehydration cycle,then analyzed using non-biased,global metabolomics profiling technology based on GC/MS and UHLC/MS/MS2 platforms.A total of 251 metabolites including 167 named (66.5%) and 84 (33.4%) unnamed compounds were characterized.Only 42 (16.7%) and 74 (29.5%) of compounds showed significantly increased or decreased abundance,respectively,indicating that most compounds were produced constitutively,including highly abundant trehalose,sucrose,and glucose.Several glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates showed increased abundance at 100% relative water content (RWC) and 50% RWC.Vanillate,a potent antioxidant,was also more abundant in the hydrated state.Many different sugar alcohols and sugar acids were more abundant in the hydrated state.These polyols likely decelerate the rate of water loss during the drying process as well as slow water absorption during rehydration,stabilize proteins,and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS).In contrast,nitrogen-rich and γ-glutamyl amino acids,citrulline,and nucleotide catabolism products (e.g.allantoin) were more abundant in the dry states,suggesting that these compounds might play important roles in nitrogen remobilization during rehydration or in ROS scavenging.UV-protective compounds such as 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate,apigenin,and naringenin,were more abundant in the dry states.Most lipids were produced constitutively,with the exception of choline phosphate,which was more abundant in dry states and likely plays a role in membrane hydration and stabilization.In contrast,several polyunsaturated fatty acids were more abundant in the hydrated states,suggesting that these compounds

  14. [Nitrogen metabolism and its control mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, H

    1989-01-01

    N intake in the form of protein has neither got an upper nor a lower limit for agricultural working animals within a diet and there is no control mechanism for it. A high surplus of certain amino acids results in a reduction of feed intake. N excretion in faeces depends on 1) the excretion of N containing indigestible feedstuffs, 2) bacterial nitrogen synthesis in the large intestine and 3) the excretion of true endogenous N containing substances (digestion enzymes, intestinal epithelium, N containing endogenous secretion). There are no other control mechanisms for N excretion in faeces. N excretion in urine mainly comprises the nitrogen from the degeneration of amino acids and nucleic acids. The interrelations between urea, NH3, allantoin, creatine and creatinine, uric acid and hippuric acid depend on the species (monogastric or ruminants), on the nitrogen and N amount consumed and on the recycling ratio of the amino acids. The absolute amount of N excretion is not subject to any control mechanism, it depends on the intake of protein and NPN substances, the interim stages, however, which lead to the formation of excretory products, are intermediately controlled. The most important interim stage is protein biosynthesis, which is a fixed, intermediately controlled value in maintenance level. Under growth conditions only, the protein synthesis quota can exceed the protein degradation quota of the total organism (positive N balance). The control mechanisms of protein biosynthesis have, according to current knowledge, the following structure: Stimulation: 1) growth hormone (STH) stimulates protein synthesis by means of somatomedins; 2) hormones of the thyroid gland (T4 and T3) are controlled by the hormone stimulating the thyroid gland (TSH); 3) insulin. Inhibition: 1) somatostatin inhibits STH, TSH and insulin; 2) cortisol directly inhibits protein synthesis and stimulates protein degradation. The control mechanisms of protein turnover in addition to genetic coding

  15. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  16. [The hyperiricosuria as an indicator of derangement of biologic functions of endoecology and adaptation, biologic reactions of excretion, inflammation and arterial tension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Oshchepkova, E V; Dmitriev, V A; Gushchina, O V; Shiriaeva, Iu K; Iashin, A Ia

    2012-04-01

    During millions years in all animals allantoine (oxidized by uricase uric acid) was catabolite of purines and ascorbic acid was an acceptor of active forms of oxygen. The proximal tubules of nephron reabsorbed the trace amounts of uric acid Then during phylogenesis the primates had a mutation of ascorbic acid gen minus. Later on occurred a second spontaneous mutation and uricase gen minus and uric acid became catabolites of purines. In absence of ascorbic acid synthesis ions of urates became a major capturers of active forms of oxygen and all uric acid as before underwent the reabsorption. Later the carriers were formed which began in epithelium of proximal tubules to secrete all uric acid into urine. At every incident of "littering" of intercellular medium with endogenic flogogens (impairment of biologic function of endoecology) under compensatory development of biologic reaction of inflammation the need in inactivation of active forms of oxygen increases. Hence later on in phylogenesis one more stage was formed--post secretory reabsorption of uric acid In the biologic reaction of inflammation epithelium of proximal tubules initiates retentional hyperiricosuria. The general antioxidant activity of human blood plasma in 60% is presented by urates' ions. The excretion of uric acid includes 4 stages: filtration, full reabsorption, secretion and post secretory reabsorption. In phylogenesis these stages formed in sequence. The mild hyperiricosuria is most frequently considered as a non-specific indicator of activation of biologic reaction of inflammation. The productive hyperiricosuria develops more infrequently under surplus of meat food and cytolysis syndrome (intensification of cell loss in vivo). Under concentration of uric acid more than 400 mkmol/l part of urates circulates in intercellular medium in the form of crystals. The microcrystals of uric acid (biologic "litter") initiate the syndrome of systemic inflammatory response as an endogenic flogogen

  17. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  18. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen use, and ruminal fermentation in sheep and goats fed diets of different quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, M D; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Ranilla, M J; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare N balance, microbial N flow (MNF) estimated from purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion, and its variation when estimated using purine bases:N ratios in liquid associated bacteria (LAB) from models reported in the literature (MNF - response models) or measured ratios in liquid and solid-associated bacterial (SAB) pellets (MNF-LAB+SAB), diet digestibility, and rumen fermentation variables in sheep and goats fed 3 different practical, quality diets to study interspecies differences concerning N use as accurately as possible. Four mature female Merino sheep and 4 mature female Granadina goats, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design with an extra animal. Two experimental diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 (DM basis) with alfalfa hay (ALC) or grass hay (GRC) as forage, and the third diet contained 70% concentrate and 30% alfalfa hay (CAL). All animals were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P = 0.16 to 0.88) in the 2 species, but some animal species × diet interactions (P = 0.01 to 0.04) were detected. There were small differences between the fermentation patterns of both animal species. Goats showed decreased VFA concentrations (P = 0.005) and butyrate proportions (P = 0.04), and greater acetate proportions (P = 0.02) compared with sheep, whereas N intake and percentage of N intake excreted in feces were similar in both species (P = 0.58 and 0.15, respectively), the percentage excreted via the urine was greater in goats compared with sheep (P goats (averaged across diets, 32.6% and 16.1% of N intake, respectively). There were no differences (P = 0.95) between animal species in total PD excretion, but goats showed a greater excretion of allantoin (P = 0.01) and decreased excretion of xanthine (P = 0.008) and hypoxanthine (P = 0.007) compared with sheep. In general, differences between sheep

  19. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  20. Metabolomic profiling in Selaginella lepidophylla at various hydration states provides new insights into the mechanistic basis of desiccation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobi, Abou; Wone, Bernard W M; Xu, Wenxin; Alexander, Danny C; Guo, Lining; Ryals, John A; Oliver, Melvin J; Cushman, John C

    2013-03-01

    Selaginella lepidophylla is one of only a few species of spike mosses (Selaginellaceae) that have evolved desiccation tolerance (DT) or the ability to 'resurrect' from an air-dried state. In order to understand the metabolic basis of DT, S. lepidophylla was subjected to a five-stage, rehydration/dehydration cycle, then analyzed using non-biased, global metabolomics profiling technology based on GC/MS and UHLC/MS/MS(2) platforms. A total of 251 metabolites including 167 named (66.5%) and 84 (33.4%) unnamed compounds were characterized. Only 42 (16.7%) and 74 (29.5%) of compounds showed significantly increased or decreased abundance, respectively, indicating that most compounds were produced constitutively, including highly abundant trehalose, sucrose, and glucose. Several glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates showed increased abundance at 100% relative water content (RWC) and 50% RWC. Vanillate, a potent antioxidant, was also more abundant in the hydrated state. Many different sugar alcohols and sugar acids were more abundant in the hydrated state. These polyols likely decelerate the rate of water loss during the drying process as well as slow water absorption during rehydration, stabilize proteins, and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, nitrogen-rich and γ-glutamyl amino acids, citrulline, and nucleotide catabolism products (e.g. allantoin) were more abundant in the dry states, suggesting that these compounds might play important roles in nitrogen remobilization during rehydration or in ROS scavenging. UV-protective compounds such as 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, apigenin, and naringenin, were more abundant in the dry states. Most lipids were produced constitutively, with the exception of choline phosphate, which was more abundant in dry states and likely plays a role in membrane hydration and stabilization. In contrast, several polyunsaturated fatty acids were more abundant in the hydrated states

  1. Farelo da vagem de algaroba em dietas para cabras lactantes: parâmetros ruminais e síntese de proteína microbiana Mesquite pod meal in diets of lactating goats: ruminal parameters and microbial efficiency synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane da Silva Argôlo

    2010-03-01

    /100 mL. The acetate and propionate concentrations ranged from 9.47 to 10.54 and 4.79 to 6.58 mM, respectively. The excretion (mmol/day of allantoin, uric acid and xanthine-hypoxanthine, the quantity of absorbed purines, the nitrogen microbial intestinal flow (g/day, microbial nitrogen synthesis (g/day and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis efficiency, expressed in g of microbial crude protein/kg of the total digestible nutrients, presented linear negative response to corn replacement with mesquite pod meal. Microbial synthesis in goats must be estimated by the purine derivatives excretion using equations obtained from goats.

  2. Wilson病铜过量负荷大鼠肝损伤的代谢组学研究%Research on metabolomics of liver injury rats with Wilson’ s disease due to copper overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋怀周; 王键; 许晶晶; 董继扬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of small molecules in liver tissues of rats with copper overload and the influences of cop-per overload on metabolism of small molecules in liver tissues. Methods Sixteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal con-trol group and model group. Copper overload method was used to establish the model rats. 1 H-NMR was used to acquire the metabolic profile of rat liver tissues, and PLS-DA was used to analyze the changes of metabolites in rat liver tissues after copper poisoning. Re-sults Compared with normal control group, the contents of allantoin, taurine, myoinositol, lysine, nicotinamide, ethanolamine, ace-tate, glutamate, tyrosine, uridine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, valine, lactate, leucine, phenylalanine, N-acetylaspartate, fumarate, and adenosine/inosine were increased(P<0. 05), while the contents of creatine, asparagine, aspartate, phosphorylcholine and mannitol were decreased in model group(P<0. 05). Conclusion Copper damage in rat liver tissues may be involved in the metabolism of ornithine and Krebs cycles, lecithin, amino acid, energy, nucleotides and glucose.%目的:利用代谢组学技术研究铜负荷大鼠肝组织的小分子变化,探讨铜过量对肝脏小分子代谢的影响。方法16只Wistar大鼠随机分为正常组和模型组,以铜负荷法造模,通过核磁共振氢谱技术采集大鼠肝组织的代谢轮廓,以PLS-DA方法分析铜中毒后,大鼠肝组织代谢物的变化。结果与正常组对比,模型组大鼠肝组织中尿素囊、牛磺酸、肌醇、赖氨酸、尼克酰胺、乙醇胺、乙酸、谷氨酸、酪氨酸、尿苷、甲硫氨酸、苏氨酸、异亮氨酸、3-羟基丁酸、缬氨酸、乳酸、亮氨酸、苯丙氨酸、N-乙酰天冬氨酸、延胡索酸和腺苷/肌苷的含量升高(P<0.05),肌酸、天冬酰胺、天冬氨酸、磷酸胆碱和甘露醇的含量降低(P<0.05)。结论铜对大鼠肝组织的损伤可能涉

  3. Difficult-to-treat gouty arthritis: a disease warranting better management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2011-07-30

    -to-treat disease. The development of difficult-to-treat disease reflects the short-comings of current standard treatments in a growing number of gouty arthritis patients. This has been recognized by the pharmaceutical industry and has promoted the development of innovative therapies. An appreciation of the key role of IL-1β in inflammation in gouty arthritis has led to the development of a new class of anti-inflammatory agents that block IL-1β signal transduction. The current IL-1β blockers in trials are rilonacept and canakinumab. Canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody, has been shown to produce rapid and sustained pain relief from acute flares in patients with difficult-to-treat disease, and both rilonacept and canakinumab have been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent flares. Promising new therapies for reducing serum urate levels are also being developed. These include the recently approved therapies pegloticase (a pegylated form of the enzyme uricase that converts urate to allantoin), inhibitors of renal urate transporter proteins, and inhibitors of purine nucleotide phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. Further studies are warranted to establish the value and role of these new therapies in the management of gouty arthritis. These new options should help reduce the growing human burden associated with gouty arthritis, lowering the tophaceous burden, minimizing the risk of flares, and enabling patients to achieve rapid and effective pain relief when flares do occur.

  4. Variações diárias nas excreções de creatinina e derivados de purinas em novilhas Daily variation in the urinary excretion of creatinine and purine derivatives in heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Lázaro Leal

    2007-08-01

    microbial protein synthesis is affected by the number of urinary sampling days. Eleven dairy Holstein heifers averaging 287 ± 49 kg of body weight (BW in the beginning of the trial were used. Samples of urine were collected during six consecutive days using N. 22 or 26 Folley catheters. Number of sampling days was compared by analysis of variance. The model included animal as random and sampling day as fixed effects. Animals were fed corn silage "ad libitum" plus 2 kg of concentrate. Urinary excretions of creatinine, urea, allantoin, uric acid, and total purine derivatives and estimation of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by the number of urinary sampling days. Excretion of creatinine in urine averaged 30.5 mg/kg BW, 124.84 mg/kg0.75 or 1.1 mmol/kg0.75. It can be concluded that no more than 24 h (one sampling day of urine collection was required to accurate determine excretion of nitrogenous compounds, which has important practical applications due to labor and costs reductions.

  5. 黄花紫玉盘枝、叶化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Uvaria kurzii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕子明; 黄龙江; 陈若芸; 于德泉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究黄花紫玉盘Uvaria kurzii枝、叶的化学成分.方法:硅胶色谱柱和Sephadex LH-20分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据鉴定结构.结果:分离鉴定了19个化合物,分别为β-谷甾醇十六烷酸酯(1),豆甾醇十六烷酸酯(2),β-乙酰谷甾醇(3),β-乙酰豆甾醇(4),三十四烷醇(5),三十二烷酸(6),β-谷甾醇(7),豆甾醇(8),5α-豆甾-3,6-二酮(9),5α-豆甾-22-烯-3,6-二酮(10),香草酸(11),原儿茶酸(12),N-(对-反式-香豆酰)酪胺(13),山柰酚-3-Oβ-D.(6"-O-对-香豆酰)半乳吡喃糖苷(14),山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(15),芦丁(16),胡萝卜苷(17),L-白雀木醇(18),尿囊素(19).结论:化合物1~6,9,10,13,18,19为本科中首次分到;14~16为本属中首次分到;7,8,11,12,17为本种植物中首次分到.%Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the branches and leaves of Uvaria kurzii. Method: Compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Result: Nineteen compounds were isolated and identified as:β-sitosterol hexadecanoate ( 1 ) , stigmasterol hexadecanoate (2) ,β-acetylsitosterol (3) ,β-acetylstigmasterol (4) , tetratriacontanol (5) , dotriacontanoic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7), stigmasterol (8), 5α-stigmast-3,6-dione (9), 5α-stigmast-22-ene-3,6-dione (10), vanillic acid ( 11 ), protocatechuic acid ( 12 ), N-( p-trans-coumaroyl ) tyramine ( 13 ) , kaempferol-3-O-β-D-( 6"-O-p-coumaryoyl ) galactopyrannoside (14) , kaempferol-3-O-rutinoide (15) , rutin (16) , daucosterol ( 17 ) , L-quebrachitol( 18 ) , allantoin ( 19 ) , respectively.Conclusion: Compounds 1-6, 9, 10, 13, 18, 19 were isolated from Annonaceae plants; Compounds 14-16 were obtained from the genus Uvaria; and 7, 8, 11, 12, 17 were separated from this plant respectively for the first time.

  6. 快速估测反刍动物瘤胃微生物蛋白在小肠流量的方法%A Simple Method for Estimating Microbial Protein Flow to the Small Intestine of Ruminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠军; 卢天凤

    2012-01-01

    Four pre-rumen lambs and four fawns were used to study nucleic acid metabolism.Nucleic acids dissolved in milk were fed to the animals at 5 levels.Total purine derivative excretion(including allantoin,uric acid,hypoxanthine and xanthine)(Y,mmol/d) in the urine increased with increasing exogenous purine inputs(X,mmol/d) by lambs,its linear equation was: Y=0.752+0.662X(r=0.995,P〈0.001).Total purine derivative excretion(Y,mmol/d) in the urine by fawns increased with increasing exogenous purine inputs(X,mmol/d),its linear equation was: Y=0.559+0.326X(r=0.990,P〈0.01).Uric acid equivalents(Y,mmol/d) determined by using spectrophotometer in the urine of lambs was closely related with exogenous purine inputs(r=0.994,P〈0.01).The predicted equation for the estimation of microbial nitrogen flow(Y,g/d) in the duodenum of sheep using uric acid equivalents was: microbial nitrogen flow Y=0.417+0.396X.Similarly,the predicted equation for the estimation of microbial nitrogen flow(Y,g/d) in the duodenum of deer using the uric acid equivalents was: microbial nitrogen flow Y=-4.137+1.245 X.The X(mmol/d) in the above two equations was the uric acid equivalents in the urine of lamb or fawns.%选用瘤胃尚未发育的初生小尾寒羊羔羊及梅花仔鹿各4只,人工哺乳,随牛奶分别饲喂给羔羊和仔鹿5个水平的核酸。羔羊尿中嘌呤衍生物的总量(Y,mmol/d)随着摄入嘌呤量(X,mmol/d)的增加而增加。其线性方程为:Y=0.752+0.662X(r=0.995,P〈0.001)。仔鹿尿中嘌呤衍生物的总量(Y,mmol/d)随着摄入嘌呤量(X,mmol/d)的增加也明显增加,线性方程为:Y=0.559+0.326X(r=0.990,P=0.001)。利用紫外分光光度计测定的羔羊尿中尿酸当量值与嘌呤摄入量呈强正相关(r=0.994,P〈0.01)。由此推算出利用尿中尿酸当量值来估测羊小肠微生物氮流量(Y,g/d)的方程为:Y=0.417+0.396X;推

  7. Catabolism of caffeine and purification of a xanthine oxidade responsible for methyluric acids production in Pseudomonas putida L Catabolismo de cafeína e purificação de xantina oxidase responsável pela produção de ácidos metilúricos em Pseudomonas putida L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Mithico Yamaoka-Yano

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine catabolism and a xanthine oxidase involved in the alkaloid breakdown were studied in Pseudomonas putida L, a strain displaying high ability to grow on this substrate. Cells cultured with unlabelled caffeine and 14C labeled caffeine and xanthine showed that this alkaloid was broken-down via theobromine/paraxanthine -> 7-methylxanthine -> xanthine -> uric acid -> allantoin -> allantoic acid. Methyluric acids were formed from the oxidation of theobromine, paraxanthine and 7-methylxanthine, although no bacterial growth was observed on these compounds, indicating that this might be due to a wide substrate specificity of xanthine oxidase. This was confirmed by activity staining in PAGE where activity was observed with theophylline and 3-methylxanthine, which are not involved in the alkaloid breakdown. A single band of activity was detected without addition of NAD+, showing an oxidase form of the enzyme. The enzyme optimum temperature and pH were 30oC and 7.0, respectively. The determined Km was 169 µM, and the pI 3.1 - 4.0. The molecular weight determined by side by side comparison of activity staining of the enzyme in PAGE and PAGE of BSA was 192 kDa, which was coincident with the sum (198.4 kDa of three subunits (71, 65.6 and 61.8 kDa of the purified protein.O catabolismo de cafeína e a enzima xantina oxidase, envolvida na sua degradação, foram estudados em Pseudomonas putida L, uma linhagem com alta capacidade para utilizar este substrato como fonte de energia. Células crescidas na presença de cafeína e xantina marcadas com 14C, e cafeína não marcada, mostraram que este alcalóide foi degradado via teobromina/paraxantina -> 7-metilxantina -> xantina -> ácido úrico -> alantoína -> ácido alantóico. Ácidos metilúricos foram formados a partir de teobromina, paraxantina e 7-metilxantina, embora nenhum crescimento bacteriano ter sido observado quando estes compostos foram usados como substratos, indicando que a xantina oxidase

  8. Balanço de nitrogênio, concentrações de ureia e síntese de proteína microbiana em caprinos alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio Nitrogen balance, urea concentrations and microbial protein synthesis in goats fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    were composed of 70% sugar cane (treated with 0; 0.75; 1.5 or 2.25% of calcium oxide in natural matter basis and corrected with 1% urea and 30% of concentrate given ad libitum to animals. Sugar cane with calcium oxide was chopped in a stationary chopper, weighted and stored in 50-L plastic buckets and treated with calcium oxide to be given to the animals after 24 hours of storage. Nitrogen balance, urine and plasma urea concentrations and urine urea excretion were not affected by sugar cane +calcium oxide treatment. Concetration of allantoin (% total purine was higher and the uric acid concentration was lower in diets with sugar cane hidrolised with calcium oxide in relation to in natura sugar cane. The microbial production and efficiency are not affected by addition of calcium oxide to sugar cane in diets for growing goats.

  9. Sunflower cake in the ration of dairy cows: microbial production, production, composition and fatty acid profile of milk - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11327 Torta de girassol em rações de vacas em lactação: produção microbiana, produção, composição e perfil de ácidos graxos do leite - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11327

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial production, production, composition and fatty acids profile of milk from dairy cows fed rations with growing levels of sunflower cake. Eight Girolando cows were used, averaging 515 kg of body weight. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square, in duplicate, where the factors consisted of the rates of sunflower cake inclusion in the concentrate portion (0, 7, 14 and 21%. A decreasing linear effect was observed for protein and fat production in milk and N urea content. Allantoin rates (mmol day-1 were influenced by the levels of sunflower cake inclusion, with quadratic effect (p 0.05 by the levels of sunflower cake inclusion. A decreasing linear effect was observed with the levels of sunflower cake inclusion for palmitic acid (C16:0; no statistical differences were observed (p > 0.05 for the other fatty acids. The use of sunflower cake may represent an alternative feed for dairy cows, but does not alter the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and fatty acids profile of milk.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção microbiana, produção, composição e perfil de ácidos graxos do leite de vacas alimentadas com rações contendo níveis crescentes de torta de girassol (TG. Foram utilizadas oito vacas da raça Girolando com peso médio de 515 kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi quadrado latino 4 x 4 duplo, em que os fatores foram níveis de inclusão de TG na ração concentrada (0; 7; 14 e 21%. Observou-se efeito linear decrescente para os teores de proteína, gordura do leite e N-ureico. Os teores de alantoína (mmol dia-1 foram influenciados pelos níveis de inclusão da TG, apresentando comportamento quadrático (p 0,05 pelos níveis de inclusão de TG. Foi observado efeito linear decrescente com a adição dos níveis de torta de girassol para o ácido palmítico (C16:0, para os demais ácidos graxos não foram observadas diferenças (p > 0,05. A utiliza

  10. Final report of the key comparison CCQM-K106: Pb, As and Hg measurements in cosmetic (cream)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Qian; Yamani, Randa Nasr Ahmed; Shehata, Adel B.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Pavlin, Majda; Horvat, Milena; Tsoi, Y. P.; Tsang, C. K.; Shin, Richard; Chailap, Benjamat; Yafa, Charun; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; de Almeida, Marcelo; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Konopelko, Leonid; Ari, Betül; Tokman, Nilgün; Rienitz, Olaf; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Pape, Carola

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are used in practically all walks of life as a means of improving skin and beautifying complexion. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the cosmetic safety. In response to the cosmetic safety issue, the accurate measurement of the heavy metals in cosmetics is, therefore, particularly important. NMIs from different countries should establish their chemical metrology traceability system in this area, which includes both measurement methods research and certain CRMs development. It should be noted that because the matrix of many cosmetics is complex and the contents of the heavy metals are relatively low, it still is a challenging task to measure the analytes with high accuracy and precision. CCQM-K106 followed up CCQM pilot study 'CCQM-P128: Pb, As measurements in cosmetic (cream)' coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM) in 2009. The cream was selected as the testing material, which is widely used as a daily skin care worldwide. This is the first CCQM key comparison regarding the measurement of toxic metal elements with the cosmetic matrix, which includes pure water, liquid paraffin, silicone oil, synthetic squalane, hyaluronic acid, glycerin, propylene glycol, allantoin, preservative and so on. The aim of the CCQM-K106 is to demonstrate the capability of participating NMIs and designated institutes in measuring the contents of poisonous elements, including lead, arsenic and mercury in a cosmetic sample (cream), and support CMC claims relating to inorganic elements in cosmetic materials and similar chemical industry products. The cream matrix sample was prepared under the guidance of professional technicians. The formula of the cream was carefully chosen to match with a real cosmetic. The homogeneity and stability level of Pb, As and Hg in the cream sample were fit for the objective of the comparison. Each participant received two numbered bottles containing about 5g samples in each bottle. The instruction

  11. Effects of Dietary Hainanmycin and Monensin on Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Balance in Dairy Cows%饲粮添加海南霉素和莫能菌素对奶牛瘤胃发酵特性和氮平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志博; 姜万富; 辛杭书; 段春宇; 李富国; 姚庆; 刘震; 张永根

    2012-01-01

    control group, propionate content of hainanmycin and monensin groups was increased by 16. 26% and 15. 79% , respectively (P <0. 01). Dietary hainanmycin and monensin significantly reduced allantoin extraction, urinary purine derivatives extraction and microbial nitrogen yield (P <0.05). Dietary hainanmycin and monensin significantly reduced fecal nitrogen and urinary nitrogen (P < 0. 05) , and significantly increased nitrogen retention (P < 0. 01). Compared with the control group, apparent nitrogen digestibility of hainanmycin and monensin groups was increased by 5. 61% and 7. 05% , respectively (P =0.03). In conclusion, similarly to monensin, dietary hainanmycin tends to change rumen fermentation into propionate-type fermentation, and can improve efficiency of nitrogen utilization.