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Sample records for alkylbenzene sulfonates application

  1. Application of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate biosensor to river water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Y; Ikebukuro, K; Yokoyama, K; Takeuchi, T; Arikawa, Y; Ohno, S; Karube, I

    1998-10-15

    A novel whole cell biosensor was constructed for the detection of anionic surfactants in aquatic environments. The analysis was rapid, convenient and did not require organic reagents. In this report, the application of this sensor to river water samples was investigated when applied to environmental samples; other organic substances present in river water may affect the measurement of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. In order to deal with this problem, a correction system was developed using whole cells of Trichosporon cutaneum. This system was applied to in situ 24 h continuous monitoring in the Saka river.

  2. Trace Determination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates: Application in Artificially Polluted Soil—Carrots System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Treilhou, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used in household and industrial products. The risk of incorporation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from biosolids, wastewater, and fertilizers land application to the food chain is being assessed at present by the European Union. In the present work, a complete analytical method for LAS trace determination has been developed and successfully applied to LAS (C10–C13) uptake in carrot plants used as model. These carrots were grown in soil with the trace organics compounds added directly into the plant containers in pure substances form. LAS trace determination (μg kg−1 dry matter) in carrots samples was achieved by Soxtec apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The methodology developed provides LAS determination at low detection limits (5 μg kg−1 dry matter) for carrot sample (2 g dry matter) with good recoveries rate (>90%). Transfer of LAS has been followed into the various parts of the carrot plant. LAS are generally found in the carrot leaves and percentage transfer remains very low (0.02%). PMID:20107562

  3. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld;

    2001-01-01

    -standing 10 mu m thick film is prepared electrochemically at a constant current from an aqueous solution of pyrrole and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and the reversible linear elongation between the oxidised and reduced states...... are measured. Alkylbenzene sulfonates with alkyl chain lengths between 1 and 22 carbon atoms are used as dopant anion. The films made with the different anions have highly different properties and are here compared to outline the influence of the size of the anion. A maximum in linear elongation is found for p...

  4. Colonized beads as inoculum for marine biodegradability assessment: application to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauffret, Aourell; Rottiers, André; Federle, Thomas; Gillan, David C; Hampel, Miriam; Blasco, Julian; Temara, Ali

    2009-08-01

    An innovative biodegradation test system was developed in order to fill the current gap for cost effective and environmentally relevant tools to assess marine biodegradability. Glass beads were colonized by a biofilm in an open flow-through system of seawater with continuous pre-exposure to Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) (20 microg/L). Thereafter, such colonized beads were added as inoculum in different test systems. [(14)C]-LAS (5-100 microg/L) was added and primary and ultimate biodegradation were assessed. The bacterial density collected on the beads (10(9) bact./mL beads) was ca. 3 orders of magnitude higher than the typical seawater content. The LAS mineralization lag phase duration decreased from 55 to <1 days and the mineralization extent increased from 53 to 90% as the colonized beads volume increased from 10 to 275 mL. This is the first demonstration of marine bacteria's ability to mineralize LAS. On the opposite, less than 13% LAS was mineralized in seawater only. The colonized beads possibly enhanced the probability to encounter the full degraders' consortium in a low volume of seawater (100 mL).

  5. Photolytic treatment of aqueous linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, Sarah Hatfield; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of a model detergent compound, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), using photolytic processes was studied. In the photolytic degradation of LAS, both ultraviolet (UV) light at 254 nm wavelength and its combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated. Based on first-order rate constants, it was shown that 5000 mg/L of H2O2 for degradation of a 100-mg/L solution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate was optimum. Addition of H2O2 at different illumination times with UV light at 254 nm did not improve first-order rate constants compared with the addition of H2O2 at the start of illumination. Degradation rates of the model compound (LAS) with three detergents were compared.

  6. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld; Mazur, Tanja; Joergensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Helle D.

    2001-07-01

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) doped with large anionic detergents have high stability in aqueous systems. PPy can be reversibly oxidised and reduced electrochemically. The redox change of PPy is accompanied by a change in volume of the polymer. This is partly ascribed to take-up of ions and solvent molecules. This volume change can be used as a polymer actuator (artificial muscle) working in a narrow voltage range (less than 1 V). The properties of the PPy polymer are largely determined by the dopant ions and also by the deposition conditions and the substrate. A free-standing 10 micrometers thick film is prepared electrochemically at a constant current from an aqueous solution of pyrrole and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and the reversible linear elongation between the oxidised and reduced states are measured. Alkylbenzene sulfonates with alkyl chain lengths between 1 and 22 carbon atoms are used as dopant anion. The films made with the different anions have highly different properties and are here compared to outline the influence of the size of the anion. A maximum in linear elongation is found for p-(n-octyl)benzene sulfonate and in conductivity for p-(n-butyl)benzene sulfonate.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Anders S; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-04-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12 LAS), which show that C12 LAS was biodegradable under methanogenic conditions. Sorption of C12 LAS on sewage sludge was described with a Freundlich isotherm. The C12 LAS sorption was determined with different concentrations of total solids (TS). In the semi-continuously stirred tank reactor, 18% of the added C12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation.

  8. Primary biodegradation of linear alkyltoluene and alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Satish, S

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the primary biodegradation of linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate, linear dodecyltoluene sulfonate, linear C(10-14) benzene sulfonate, linear C(10-14) toluene sulfonate, commercial samples of linear C(10-14) benzene sulfonate and branched dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DDBS) were carried out using a microbial culture developed from garden soil. Results show that linear alkyl toluene (LAT) is as degradable as linear alkylbenzene (LAB) in 7 days. However, a slower rate of degradation was noted with LAT. Various distributions of the positional isomers of the phenyl ring in the alkane chain of C(10-14) LAB showed no change in the pattern of primary biodegradation.

  9. Freely dissolved concentrations of anionic surfactants in seawater solutions: optimization of the non-depletive solid-phase microextraction method and application to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Rico, A.; Droge, S.T.J.; Widmer, D.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction method (SPME) has been optimized for the analysis of freely dissolved anionic surfactants, namely linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), in seawater. An effect of the thermal conditioning treatment on the polyacrylate fiber coating was demonstrated for both uptake kineti

  10. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... of the anaerobic digestion process should be seriously taken into consideration when wastewater from a surfactant producing industry is to be treated biologically or enter a municipal wastewater treatment plant that employs anaerobic technology. The upper allowable biomass specific LAS concentration should be 14...

  11. Response of weeping willows to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.

    2006-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is the most commonly used anionic surfactant in laundry detergents and cleaning agents. LAS compounds are found in surface waters and soils. The short-term acute toxicity of LAS to weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown...... effects of LAS on willow trees are not expected for normal environmental conditions. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in fluidized bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    An anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was used to assess the degradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The reactor was inoculated with sludge from an UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and was fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with LAS. Sand was used as support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was kept in a controlled temperature chamber (30±1 ºC) and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18 h. The LAS concentration was gradually...

  13. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  14. [Hygienic assessment of biologically rigid linear alkylbenzene sulfonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, V V; Ryzhkova, O A

    2010-01-01

    It has been found that there are both biologically rigid and biologically soft homologues in the homologous series of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LABS). It is shown that absorption of LABS molecules from aqueous to activated sludge phase may serve as a determinant that should be used to refer a homologue to as rigid or soft surfactants. The biodegradability, detergency, and toxicity of LABS were ascertained to be related to the size of molecular alkyl molecular substitute. It has established that the fractional compositions of linear alkobenzenes should be changed for the synthesis of LABS that have the maximum detergency, a high biodegradability rate, and a low toxicity.

  15. Photocatalytic treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvar, Mehrab; Venhuis, Sarah Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of aqueous linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was studied. Two different photocatalysts, Degussa P25 TiO2 and Hombikat UV 100 TiO2, were used to degrade aqueous linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in slurry batch photoreactors. For a 100 mg/L LAS solution based on first-order rate constants, the optimum photocatalyst loading for Degussa P25 TiO2 was 4.0 g/L, while for Hombikat UV 100 TiO2 it was 2.0 g/L. The photoactivity of Degussa P25 TiO2 it was higher than that of Hombikat UV 100 TiO2 for the treatment of LAS. A mixture of both photocatalysts did not improve the LAS degradation rates in batch experiments. Combination of Degussa P25 TiO2 and 600 mg/L H2O2 along with irradiation with UV light at either 254 or 365 nm did not improve the LAS degradation rates over the photocatalytic or photolytic processes individually.

  16. Preparation of Overbased Calcium Alkylbenzene Sulfonate for Formulating Complex Sulfonate Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yinong

    2015-01-01

    Six kinds of alkylbenzene sulfonic acids were selected to prepare the sulfonates S1—S6. Among them, the sul-fonates S3, S4, and S6 could be incorporated into lubricating grease with good performance in comparison with the grease produced from commercial sulfonates T106-1 and T106-2. The optimized conditions for synthesis of the sulfonates S3, S4, and S6were explored by using different mass ratios of methanol, water and the type of copromoters. It was found out that the appropriate conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S3 included a methanol to M (M is the total mass of alkylbenzene sulfonic acid and base oil) mass ratio of 16%, a water to M mass ratio of 4%, and a copromoter A to M mass ratio of 2%; the appropriate conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S4 included a methanol to M mass ratio of 24%, a water to M mass ratio of 2%, a copromoter B to M mass ratio of 2%; and the optimized conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S6 included a methanol/ M mass ratio of 8%, a water/M mass ratio of 4% and a copromoter B/M mass ratio of 2%. The new sulfonates S3, S4, and S6 produced under the optimized conditions exhibited higher TBN and better antiwear property in camparison with the previous products. Grease samples G9, G10, and G11 were prepared with new sulfonates S3, S4, and S6 successfully and exhibited improved water stability and high temperature performance.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was used to assess the degradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS. The reactor was inoculated with sludge from an UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and was fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with LAS. Sand was used as support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was kept in a controlled temperature chamber (30±1 ºC and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 18 h. The LAS concentration was gradually increased from 8.2±1.3 to 45.8±5.4 mg.L-1. The COD removal was 91%, on average, when the influent COD was 645±49 mg.L-1. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis showed that the reactor removed 93% of the LAS after 270 days of operation.

  18. Efficiency of conventional activated sludge in the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate from municipal sewage

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic detergent that is abundantly produced in different countries and discharged into natural environment through wastewater collection systems. Wastewater treatment systems play an important role in the removal of this contaminant. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of a conventional activated sludge system in removing linear alkylbenzene sulfonate from wastewater in Kermanshah. Methods: This cross-sectional d...

  19. Response of weeping willows to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua; Peng, Xiaoying; Cao, Xi

    2006-06-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is the most commonly used anionic surfactant in laundry detergents and cleaning agents. LAS compounds are found in surface waters and soils. The short-term acute toxicity of LAS to weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution spiked with LAS at 24.0+/-1 degrees C for 192 h. The normalized relative transpiration of plants was used to determine toxicity. Severe reduction of the transpiration was only found for high doses of LAS (240 mgl(-1)). Chlorophyll contents in leaves of treated plants varied with the dose of LAS, but there was no significant linear correlation. The activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were quantified at the end of experiments. At higher concentrations of LAS (240 mgl(-1)), the activities of SOD and CAT were decreased. The correlation between the dose of LAS and the POD activity in leaf cells was the highest of all enzyme assays (R(2)=0.5). EC(50) values for a 50% inhibition of the transpiration of the trees were estimated to 374 mgl(-1) (72 h) and 166 mgl(-1) (192 h). Results from this experiment indicated that phytotoxic effects of LAS on willow trees are not expected for normal environmental conditions.

  20. Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigoillot, J C; Nguyen, M H

    1992-01-01

    Anionic surfactants, especially alkylbenzene sulfonates, are discharged into marine areas in great quantities. Because of their poor biodegradability, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates accumulate in seawater and sediments. Bacterial communities that can degrade surfactants were selected from coastal seawater contaminated by urban sewage. All the isolated strains consisted of gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods or helical bacteria. Some of these, though isolated from coastal seawater, did not need sodium for growth and appeared to be related to the genera Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas. Complete surfactant biodegradation was achieved by three important steps: terminal oxidation of the alkyl chain, desulfonation, and aromatic-ring cleavage. Only a few strains were able to carry out the first two steps. The aromatic ring was then cleaved by other strains that possess very specific enzymatic activities. Finally, a number of strains grew on short acids that were end-of-metabolism products of the others. PMID:1599249

  1. Influence of plant growth on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, G K; Egsgaard, H; Ambus, P; Jensen, E S; Grøn, C

    2001-01-01

    Widespread application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils in Denmark has led to concern about the possible accumulation and effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the soil ecosystem. Therefore, we have studied the uptake and degradation of LAS in greenhouse pot experiments. Sewage sludge was incorporated into a sandy soil to give a range from very low to very high applications (0.4 to 90 Mg dry wt. ha(-1)). In addition, LAS was added as water solutions. The soil was transferred to pots and sown with barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex), rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Hyola 401), or carrot (Daucus carota L.). Also, plant-free controls were established. For all additions there was no plant uptake above the detection limit at 0.5 mg LAS kg(-1) d.w, but plant growth stimulated the degradation. With a growth period of 30 d, LAS concentrations in soil from pots with rape had dropped from 27 to 1.4 mg kg(-1) dry wt., but in plant-free pots the concentration decreased only to 2.4 mg kg(-1) dry wt. When LAS was added as a spike, the final concentration in soil from planted pots was 0.7 mg kg(-1) dry wt., but in pots without plants the final concentration was much higher (2.5 mg kg(-1) dry wt.). During degradation, the relative fraction of homologues C10, C11, and C12 decreased, while C13 increased.

  2. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Klapwijk, A.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg/l and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days<

  3. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åke Jönsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM. Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 µg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ~15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15–24 h (depending on sample volume. Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35–150 times enrichment below ~150 µg L−1 and 1850–4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L−1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds.

  4. Effect of additional carbon source on biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by las-utilizing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde I. Temitope Eniola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS by LAS-utilizing bacteria (LUB in the presence of other sources of carbon (glucose and soluble starch was examined. Biodegradation of LAS was monitored as primary degradation in terms of half-life (t½ of the surfactant. Biodegradation of LAS by the individual LUB was slower in the presence of Glucose. Biodegradation of the surfactant by the various consortia of LUB was slower in the presence of the carbon sources: t½ increased to 3 days. The rates of biodegradation by the consortia can be ranked as: four-membered (t½=9 days > three-membered (t½=9 to 13 days > two-membered consortia (t½=10 to 15 days. Generally, degradation in the presence of the carbon sources was faster with the consortia than the individual species. Degradation of the surfactant by the LUB was generally fastest in the absence of additional carbon sources. The possible role of additional carbon sources in persistence of surfactant in water bodies and the application of the observation in management of LAS-containing-effluent is suggested.

  5. Liquid phase micro-extraction of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate anionic surfactants in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Niklas; Otrembska, Paulina; Villar, Mercedes; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-10-13

    Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM). Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10-50 µg L-1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ~15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15-24 h (depending on sample volume). Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35-150 times enrichment below ~150 µg L-1 and 1850-4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L-1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds.

  6. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM). Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 μg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and ...

  7. Kinetics of low frequency sonodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hassan, Mohd A; Kim, Jung K; Metcalfe, Ian S; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2006-02-01

    The decomposition of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) in water by means of ultrasound irradiation at 20kHz was investigated. Experiments were conducted at surfactant concentrations of 175, 260 and 350 mg l(-1), liquid volumes of 120, 170 and 220 ml, temperatures of 20, 30 and 45 degrees C and applied power of 40, 80 and 125 W. The extent of degradation was followed monitoring substrate and organic carbon concentrations, while hydrogen peroxide concentration was also measured; the latter is a product of water sonolysis due to hydroxyl radical recombination. 80% SDBS conversion was achieved after 120 min of sonication at 125 W and 30 degrees C; nonetheless, SDBS and its degradation intermediates proved difficult to oxidise as only about 20-25% of the initial carbon content was transformed to carbon dioxide. At the initial stages of the reaction, degradation rate appears to be only weakly dependent on the substrate concentration with the rate increasing from 3.1 to 4 mg l(-1)min(-1) with increasing concentration from 175 to 350 mg l(-1). Degradation appears to occur at the bubble-liquid interface through hydroxyl radical-mediated reactions whose role was established by performing experiments in the presence of radical scavengers, namely potassium bromide and sodium benzoate. Degradation rates increased with increasing power and decreasing temperature and volume.

  8. Efficiency of conventional activated sludge in the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate from municipal sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Khamutian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS is an anionic detergent that is abundantly produced in different countries and discharged into natural environment through wastewater collection systems. Wastewater treatment systems play an important role in the removal of this contaminant. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of a conventional activated sludge system in removing linear alkylbenzene sulfonate from wastewater in Kermanshah. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on the wastewater in Kermanshah for 10 months. In order to determine the efficiency of the influent activated sludge process, 60 wastewater samples were taken after primary sedimentation and effluent of wastewater treatment system and LAS concentration was measured. All the sampling and testing methods were performed according to the standard method guidelines. Results: The results showed the means of LAS removal in the winter and warm seasons were 90.8% and 96.5%, respectively. The total mean of LAS removal in this system was 93.9 ±3.6. In addition, COD and TSS removal levels in winter were 88.3% and 72.3%; these values, however, in the summer were 86.9%, and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the conventional activated sludge process plays a pivotal role in the removal of LAS concentration. Moreover, the effluent concentration of LAS is less than the environmental standards for discharge into surface water in warm seasons.

  9. Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their degradation intermediates in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Víctor M; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2004-04-15

    A study has been made of the aerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (C12 and C11 homologues) and sulfophenylcarboxylic acids (C5 and C11 homologues) in seawater at concentrations of the same order as those detected ones in coastal waters influenced by wastewater effluents, at different temperatures, and both with and without the addition of an inoculum adapted to the presence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The biodegradation of C12LAS, C11LAS, C5SPC, and C11SPC exceeds 99% in all tests performed and can be satisfactorily fitted to a second-degree polynomial without an independent term. The kinetic of degradation of LAS presents a clear seasonal component, since the process is considerably inhibited at lower temperatures; it is also kinetically enhanced by the presence of the inoculum. The intermediates detected for all the cases are sulfophenylcarboxylic acids (SPCs), the most abundant being those intermediates produced by the omega- and beta-oxidations of the parent compound, although intermediates produced by the alpha-oxidation have also been detected. The kinetic of the SPCs generated can be described using a model composed of two terms that represent the formation and the degradation of these intermediates. The total disappearance of the SPCs in all cases indicates that the degradation of LAS in seawater at the tested concentrations in aerobic conditions is complete.

  10. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmink, H; Klapwijk, Bram

    2004-02-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg l(-1) and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days. Effluent and waste sludge concentrations varied between 5 and 10 microg l(-1) and between 37 and 69 microg g(-1) VSS, respectively. In the sludge samples only 2-8% was present as dissolved LAS-C12, whereas the remaining 92-98% was found to be adsorbed to the sludge. In spite of this high degree of sorption, more than 99% of the LAS-C12 load was removed by biodegradation, showing that not only the soluble fraction but also the adsorbed fraction of LAS-C12 is readily available for biodegradation. Sorption and biodegradation of LAS-C12 were also investigated separately. Sorption was an extremely fast and reversible process and could be described by a linear isotherm with a partition coefficient of 3.2 l g(-1) volatile suspended solids. From the results of biodegradation kinetic tests it was concluded that primary biodegradation of LAS-C12 cannot be described by a (growth) Monod model, but a secondary utilisation model should be used instead. The apparent affinity of the sludge to biodegrade LAS-C12 increased when the sludge was loaded with higher influent concentrations of LAS-C12.

  11. Formation of metabolites during biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor under thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was shown in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor under thermophilic conditions. The reactor was inoculated with granular biomass and fed with a synthetic medium and 3 mumol/L of a mixture of LAS with alkylchain length of 10 to 13 carbon...

  12. Mineralization of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate by a Four-Member Aerobic Bacterial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Luis; Breen, Alec; Thomas, Nikki; Federle, Thomas W.; Sayler, Gary S.

    1991-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. The consortium, designated KJB, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. Three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of Pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the Aeromonas spp. Cell suspensions were grown together in minimal medium with [14C]LAS as the only carbon source. After 13 days of incubation, more than 25% of the [14C]LAS was mineralized to 14CO2 by the consortium. Pure bacterial cultures and combinations lacking any one member of the KJB bacterial consortium did not mineralize LAS. Three isolates carried out primary biodegradation of the surfactant, and one did not. This study shows that the four bacteria complemented each other and synergistically mineralized LAS, indicating catabolic cooperation among the four consortium members. PMID:16348496

  13. Combined photochemical and biological processes for the treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvar, Mehrab; Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of photochemical pre-treatment (pilot-plant UV/H2O2 process) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on its subsequent biological treatment were examined. It was observed that the photochemical pre-treatment of the LAS solution did not increase its biodegradability. Moreover, the effects of acclimated microorganisms on the biodegradability of the LAS solution were also studied. It was observed that the acclimated activated sludge increased the biodegradation of the LAS solution. However, due to the presence of some intermediates in the effluent of the photoreactor, the biodegradability of this effluent was less than the biodegradability of the untreated LAS solution with the same concentration of the LAS in the effluent of the photoreactor.

  14. Atomistic simulation study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates at the water/air interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xibing; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Klein, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations with the CHARMM atomistic force field have been used to study monolayers of a series of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) at the water/air interface. Both the numbers of carbon atoms in the LAS alkyl tail (1 to 11), and the position of attachment of the benzene ring on the alkyl chain have been varied. Totally 36 LAS homologues and isomers have been investigated. The surface tensions of the systems and the average tilt angles of the LAS molecules are found to be related to both the length and the degree of branching of the alkyl tails, whereas the solubility and mobility are mostly determined by the tail length. PMID:20614916

  15. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on population growth of Daphnia galeata: a life table evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Nakanishi, J

    2001-01-01

    The chronic effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS12) on a daphnid species (Daphnia galeata) was examined by the life table experiment. The estimated responses in the intrinsic rate of population growth r were analyzed with two alternate concentration-response functions, i.e., the power function and the quadratic function. Based on the best-fit power function model with biases corrected by the jackknife procedure, the population-level EC50, which is defined as the concentration of chemicals that reduces the population growth rate (the intrinsic rate of natural increase) by 50%, was estimated as 2.5 mg/L. The 48-h acute immobility test yielded EC50 of 4.6 mg/L. The population-level effect of LAS12 on this test species is considerably more sensitive than the acute lethal effects to neonates.

  16. Ozone degradation of alkylbenzene sulfonate in aqueous solutions using a stirred tank reactor with recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Alameda, Encarnación; Vicaria, José M; Altmajer-Vaz, Deisi; Luzón, Germán; Jiménez-Pérez, José L; Moya-Ramírez, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in aqueous solutions by ozone has been investigated. The ozonation process was performed in a stirred tank reactor with recirculation which simulates the clean-in-place process used in many industrial facilities. The gas-liquid mass transfer of ozone in a buffer solution at different temperatures (25-55°C) was also studied in the same device, revealing that ozone decomposition can be considered negligible under the experimental conditions assayed. The effect of the initial LAS concentration, temperature, and ozone concentration on the concentration of homologues and total LAS were analysed as a function of time. Both concentrations diminished with time, this effect being more significant when higher temperatures were assayed. The relative proportion of homologues shows that the homologues of higher chain length are degraded in a greater proportion than are the homologues with shorter chain lengths.

  17. Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) wastewater by internal electrolysis--biological contact oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X Z; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant wastewater is usually difficult to treat due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. A separate physico-chemical or biochemical treatment method achieves a satisfactory effect with difficulty. In this study, treatment of the wastewater collected from a daily chemical plant by the combination processes of Fe/C internal electrolysis and biological contact oxidation was investigated. For the internal electrolysis process, the optimal conditions were: pH = 4-5, Fe/C = (10-15):1, air-water ratio = (10-20):1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT)= 2 h. For the biological contact oxidation process, the optimal conditions were: HRT = 12 h, DO = 4.0-5.0 mg/L. Treated by the above combined processes, the effluent could meet the I-grade criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The results provide valuable information for full-scale linear alkylbenzene sulfonate wastewater treatment.

  18. How adaptation and mass transfer control the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, B E; Tularak, P; Lee, K C; Federle, T W; Itrich, N R; Kaiser, S K; Shi, J; McAvoy, D C

    2001-01-01

    We use a nonsteady-state model to evaluate the effects of community adaptation and sorption kinetics on the fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in batch experiments conducted with activated sludge that was continuously fed different concentrations of LAS. We observed a sharp decrease in the biodegradation rate between 30 and 60 minutes and the presence of an LAS residual at the end of the batch experiments. The modeling analysis indicates that these phenomena were caused by relatively slow inter-phase mass transport of LAS. The modeling analyses also showed that the amount of LAS-degrading biomass increased when the continuous activated sludge was fed a higher LAS concentration. Although community adaptation to LAS involved accumulation of more LAS degraders, the increase was not proportional to the feed concentration of LAS, which supports the concept that LAS degraders also utilized portions of the general biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) fed to the continuous activated sludge systems.

  19. TOXIC EFFECTS OF LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE, ANTHRACENE AND THEIR MIXTURE ON GROWTH OF A MICROBIAL CONSORTIUM ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED SEDIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), anthracene and a LAS-anthracene mixture on the growth of a microbial consortium isolated from polluted sediment. The microbial consortium was grown in a sterile glass bottle with mineral medium containing 1 g/L of glucose. Microbial growth inhibition produced by LAS, anthracene and combinations of LAS and anthracene was determined by viable count in nutritive agar; inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was ...

  20. Surfactant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Effect on Soil Cd Fractions and Cd Distribution in Soybean Plants in a Pot Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; LIAO Bo-Han; ZENG Qing-Ru; ZENG Min; LEI Ming

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of an anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) application on cadmium (Cd) fractious in soils and Cd distribution in different tissues of soybean (Glyeine max) plants as well as soil pH.Soil samples were treated with three levels of Cd (0,5,and 10 mg kg-1) and five levels of LAS (0,5,15,50,and 100 mg L-1).Results indicated that compared to the control soils (no Cd and no LAS treatment),soil pH increased and available Cd decreased in the soil treated with external Cd and watered with LAS solutions.Meanwhile,soil exchangeable Cd and Cd bound to carbonates decreased;Cd bound to amorphous iron and manganese oxides and Cd bound to organic matter increased.In addition,LAS application could reduce enrichment of Cd in soybean plants,resulting in decreased Cd in the soybean plants.Thus,suitable LAS application could decrease bioavailability and mobility of soil Cd.

  1. Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelidaki, I.; Toraeng, L.; Waul, C.M.; Schmidt, J.E.

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stages reactor system consisting by a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the first step. Removal of LAS in the UASB reactors was approx. 80% where half was due to absorption and the other half was apparently due to biological removal as shown from the LAS mass balance. At the end of the experiment the reactors were spiked with {sup 14}C-LAS which resulted in 5.6% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the produced gas. Total mass balance of the radioactivity was however not achieved. In batch experiments it was found that LAS at concentrations higher than 50 mg/l is inhibitory for the most microbial groups of the anaerobic process. Therefore, low initial LAS concentration is a prerequisite for successful LAS degradation. The results from the present study suggest that anaerobic degradation of LAS is possible in UASB reactors when the concentration of LAS is low enough to avoid inhibition of microorganisms active in the anaerobic process. (author)

  2. Effects of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate on Aggregation Behaviors of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    In aqueous environment, organic matters may exert impacts on the aggregation behaviors of titanium dioxide nanoparticles ( TiO2⁃NPs). Owing to the deficiency of studies on the aggregation of TiO2⁃NPs in the presence of synthetic organic compound, this study used linear alkylbenzene sulfonate ( LAS) as a representative to evaluate the effects of TiO2⁃NPs concentration (1⁃10 mg/L), LAS concentration (0-1 mg/L), pH (4-8) and ionic strength ( NaCl, CaCl2; 5-20 mM ) during aggregation of TiO2⁃NPs suspensions based on the detection of hydrodynamic diameters and electrophoretic mobilities and the calculation of interaction energies. The results showed that the TiO2⁃NPs in the presence of LAS are more stable than that in the absence of LAS. With the increase of ionic strength, the hydrodynamic diameter of NPs decreases, and the existence of LAS changes the point of zero charge from 5�4 to a lower value and thus alteres the aggregation behaviors of TiO2⁃NPs. The present study suggests that the LAS has a significant impact to the transportation and transformation of nanoparticles in aqueous environment.

  3. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on aerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by consortia of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde I. Temitope Eniola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated detergent bearing wastes discharged into the environment are sources of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS. Detergent wastes usually do not contain nitrogen or contain very low amounts. Biostimulation by introducing limiting nutrient element can be useful in biotreatment of such waste. The effect of inorganic and organic nitrogen supplements on aerobic degradation of LAS by LAS-utilizing bacteria was examined. Phosphate-buffered LAS mineral media were prepared and supplemented with different nitrogen sources: NPK fertilizer (inorganic and urea fertilizer (organic. Individual and various consortia of pure cultures of Alcaligenes odorans, Citrobacter diversus, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas putida, previously isolated from a detergent effluent polluted stream, were used. Biodegradation of LAS was monitored in terms of half-life (t½ of the surfactant. The rates of biodegradation by the consortia can be ranked as: 4-membered (t½=8-12 days >3-membered (t½=8-13 days >2-membered consortia (t½=10-15 days >individuals (t½=9-16 days. The inorganic nitrogen source enhanced utilization of the surfactant, while organic nitrogen supplementation generally slowed degradation of the surfactant. In undertaking biotreatment of detergent bearing effluent, inorganic nitrogen should be used as biostimulant.

  4. Simultaneous removal of metal ions and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by combined electrochemical and photocatalytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, H D; Saidi, M

    2008-10-30

    Combined electrochemical removal of Zn(++) and Ni(++) and photo-oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by suspended TiO(2) particles was investigated. The effect of different process variables such as current density, pH and liquid flow rate on the sole electrochemical reduction of metal ions was also evaluated. At pH of 5.0, the removal of Zn(++) increased by 28% with increases in the liquid flux from 0.0021 to 0.0172 m(3)m(-2)s(-1) while the removal of Ni(++) was only enhanced marginally. Under optimum operating conditions used in the present study (liquid flux=0.0172 m(3) m(-2) s(-1), current density=0.166 mA cm(-2), pH 5.0 and in the presence of LAS), Zn(++) and Ni(++) were reduced by 86 and 56%, respectively, over 7h of the sole electrochemical treatment. For the sole photocatalytic treatment of LAS at pH of 5.0, a 60% LAS degradation was obtained. However, the liquid flow rate did not have any considerable effect on the LAS oxidation. Finally, in the combined photocatalytic-electrolytic process, the LAS degradation increased to 76%. Nonetheless, in the combined system the Zn(++) and Ni(++) removal remained at comparable levels to those obtained in the sole electrochemical system.

  5. Anaerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, José L; Culubret, Elayne; de Ferrer, Juan; Moreno, Alfonso; Berna, José L

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) was studied in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors (UASB). One reactor was fed with easily degradable substrates and commercial LAS solution during a period of 3 months (Reactor 1), meanwhile a second reactor was fed with a commercial LAS solution without co-substrate (Reactor 2) during 4 months. Both reactors were operated with an organic loading rate of 4-5 mg-LAS/l x day and a hydraulic retention time of one day. The LAS biodegradation was determined by full mass balance. LAS was analysed by HPLC in the liquid phase (influent and effluent streams of the reactors) as well as in the solid phase (granular sludge used as biomass). The results indicate a high level of removal (primary biodegradation: 64-85%). Biodegradation was higher in the absence of external co-substrates than in the presence of additional sources of carbon. This indicates that the surfactant can be partially used as carbon and energy source by anaerobic bacteria. Under the operating conditions used, inhibition of the methanogenic activity or any other negative effects on the biomass due to the presence of LAS were not observed. The methanogenic activity remained high and stable throughout the experiment.

  6. Fate of the Benzene Ring of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate in Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. J.; Payne, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The biodegradability of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was studied in water samples collected from a receiving stream at locations above and below the discharge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Rates of primary biodegradation were determined for a commercial LAS mixture by a modified methylene blue-active substance method. Rates of LAS ultimate degradation were determined by radiochemical methods, using a C12 LAS homolog uniformly labeled with 14C in the benzene ring. The C12 LAS was tested at low concentrations (50 and 500 μg/liter) comparable to those existing in the receiving stream. Loss of methylene blue-active substance response over time occurred rapidly in water samples containing sediment collected from below the treatment plant, with an estimated half-life for LAS of 0.23 days. Evolution of 14CO2 during mineralization of the benzene ring occurred rapidly in the same samples, with a half-life for the benzene ring of 0.73 day. Mineralization of the benezene ring was also observed in river water containing no sediments and in river water and sediment samples collected from above the treatment plant. However, the rate of degradation was reduced in these cases, with half-lives for ring carbon ranging from 1.4 to 14 days. Although LAS degradation was enhanced in the presence of sediments, adsorption of LAS to the clay-silt fraction of river sediments was low, and most of the radioactivity was bound to biomass. PMID:16345731

  7. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in agricultural soil columns during inflow of surfactant pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda-Botella, N.; León, V. M.; Cases, V.; Gomis, V.; Prats, D.

    2010-12-01

    The transport and reaction processes of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were characterised in columns of agricultural soil with a constant inflow of irrigation water. A pulse input of commercial LAS was performed with different mixtures of soil and sea sand (0/100%, 25/75% and 50/50%) and a continuous water flow of approximately 0.5 mL/min. LAS homologue retention was favoured at a higher soil rate, due mainly to higher clay and organic matter contents. C 10LAS and C 11LAS were less retained in soil columns, and were eluted faster and in higher proportion through soil columns than other homologues. C 12LAS and C 13LAS showed stronger interactions with soil due to their higher sorption capacity, and a lower proportion was eluted than the lightest homologues. In general, sorption of LAS was reversible and significant fractions were desorbed when the LAS input ceased and they were transported to deeper layers in the soil column, especially for short-chain homologues. Longer LAS homologues were eluted from soil columns, but required an elution of >10 pore-volumes. When there was biodegradation in the soil column, >25% of LAS could be removed, reducing percolation to deeper layers.

  8. Sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate to soil components and effects on microbial iron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Inge Broberg; de Jonge, Hubert; Nørnberg, Per; Mather-Christensen, Ole; Elsgaard, Lars

    2003-06-01

    When sewage sludge is applied to arable land, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is released into the environment. In soils, LAS has been shown to impede microbial processes, such as bacterial iron reduction. The aim of the present study was to quantify LAS adsorption and desorption to agricultural soils and iron oxides and relate this to the inhibition of microbial iron reduction. Two agricultural soils were used, namely, Askov (coarse sandy loam soil) and Lundgaard (coarse sandy soil). In both soils, LAS inhibited microbial iron reduction even at low LAS concentrations with 10% effect concentrations of 6 to 7 and 26 to 32 mg LAS/kg dry-weight soil for Lundgaard and Askov soil, respectively. The sorption isotherms showed that sorption of LAS to iron oxides was 10 to 100 times stronger than sorption to the agricultural soils. Also, it appeared that at low LAS concentrations (< 10 mg/kg dry-wt soil), Lundgaard soil adsorbed approximately 10 times more LAS than Askov soil. Thus, the inhibitory effect of LAS on microbial iron reduction was highest in the Lundgaard soil, which exhibited both the strongest sorption and the lowest desorption of the two soils. A possible hypothesis to explain this correlation was that LAS toxicity toward bacterial iron reduction was, at least partly, caused by LAS adsorbed to iron oxides, which could interfere with transfer of electrons between the bacteria and their respiratory electron acceptor.

  9. Influence of volatile fatty acid concentration stability on anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Dagoberto Y; Delforno, Tiago P; Esteves, Andressa S; Polizel, Juliana; Hirasawa, Julia S; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Varesche, Maria B A

    2013-10-15

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant used in cleaning products, which is usually found in wastewaters. Despite the greater LAS removal rate related to a lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA), the influence of different ranges of VFA on LAS degradation is not known. LAS degradation was evaluated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors at different ranges of VFA concentrations. The reactors were fed with a synthetic wastewater containing LAS (14 mg/L). A greater LAS removal rate (40-80%) was related to the lower and narrower range of acetic acid concentration (1-22 mg/L) in the EGSB reactor. In the UASB reactor, the acetic acid concentrations presented a wider range (2-45 mg/L), and some low LAS removal rates (around 20-25%) were observed even at low acetic acid concentrations (<10 mg/L). The high recirculation rate in the EGSB reactor improved substrate-biomass contact, which resulted in a narrower range of VFA and greater LAS removal rate.

  10. Joint toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and pyrene on Folsomia fimetaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Sverdrup, Line E

    2002-05-01

    Surfactants may enhance the biodegradation of hydrophobic substances in soils. This has partly been attributed to an increase in the bioavailability, brought about by the presence of surfactants. The aim of this study was to examine the ecotoxicological effects of the detergent linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene, alone and in combination, using the survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria as endpoints. The EC(50) and EC(10) were 803 and 161 mg kg(-1) for LAS, and 23 and 15 mg kg(-1) for pyrene. If LAS was able to increase the bioavailability of pyrene to springtails, it was expected that the combined effect of the two substances would exceed the effect found for each of the compounds tested separately. However, the results showed no effect of LAS on the toxicity of pyrene in the concentration range tested (1-750 mg LAS kg(-1) dry weight). Both the toxic unit concept and the isobologram method indicated that an additive approach would be the most useful when assessing the risk of these two compounds.

  11. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-02

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments.

  12. Growth and antioxidant response in Hydrocharis dubis (Bl.) Backer exposed to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhonghua; Yu, Dan; Li, Jinlin; Wu, Gongguo; Niu, Xiaona

    2010-04-01

    A two-week exposure experiment was designed to investigate the toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the aquatic plant Hydrocharis dubis (Bl.) Backer, focusing on growth, photosynthetic pigments and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. No significant differences were observed in the growth parameters of H. dubis when H. dubis was exposed to lower LAS doses (10 mg l(-1)) resulted in significant decreases in all growth parameters of H. dubis. No significant effect on pigment contents was observed at up to 50 mg l(-1) LAS, beyond which pigment contents declined gradually. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not show obvious differences when H. dubis plants were exposed to

  13. Growth kinetics and toxicity of Enterobacter cloacae grown on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate as sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khleifat, Khaled M; Tarawneh, Khaled A; Ali Wedyan, Mohammad; Al-Tarawneh, Amjad A; Al Sharafa, Khalid

    2008-10-01

    A successful attempt was made to isolate linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)-degrading bacteria from soil irrigated with wastewater. The isolated bacteria were able to use LAS as sole carbon and energy source. Maximum growth rates on LAS reached only 0.27 h(-1). 16S-rRNA sequencing and fatty-acid analysis placed the bacteria in the genus Enterobacter cloacae. The growth curves of E. cloacae both in the presence of and the absence of LAS were monitored using measurements of optical density at 600 nm in two different media, nutrient broth and M9 minimal medium, and were modeled mathematically. Growth in NB fit the Riccati and Voltera models, indicating that LAS is not toxic to E. cloacae cells. However, growth of E. cloacae in LAS-containing MM fit the Riccati and Voltera models, whereas growth in LAS-free MM fit the Riccati model only. Furthermore, the kinetic data shown were modeled by Monod's, Andrew's, and Tessier's specific growth rate equations, coupled with the rate of consumption of different concentrations of LAS as sole carbon and energy source, and we determined that Andrew's model best fit these data adequately as a result of the cell-inhibitory effect.

  14. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in anaerobic digestion: influence of exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösche, M; Meyer, U

    2002-07-01

    The inhibition of anaerobic digestion by the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate was studied. The development of bacterial activity during several weeks was monitored by performing batch degradation tests with acetate and propionate. In the first phase the decay of activity without surfactant addition was studied. After the addition of the surfactant an immediate inhibition was detected. Subsequently, the degradation activity continued to decrease with increasing exposure time. Both, the immediate inhibition and the rate of the subsequent decrease of activity were dependent on the surfactant concentration. A kinetic model is presented that describes this behavior. A surfactant concentration of 14 mg L(-1) causes a 50% immediate inhibition of acetate degradation (27 mg L(-1) in the case of propionate degradation). Additionally, each 12 mg L(-1) of surfactant increases the decay rate of acetate degradation activity by a factor 10 (23 mg L(-1) for propionate degradation). A deviation from this model occurs at low surfactant concentrations (<3 mg L(-1)), where a slight stimulation of bacterial activity was observed. The above-mentioned concentrations refer to measured surfactant concentrations. These were substantially lower than the nominal concentrations (added surfactant per volume). This discrepancy is explained by adsorption of the surfactant to the biomass. Finally, the importance of the presented kinetic model and the significance of surfactant toxicity for anaerobic digestion are discussed.

  15. Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in a horizontal anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, I C S; Oliveira, L L; Saavedra, N K; Fantinatti-Garboggini, F; Menezes, C B A; Oliveira, V M; Varesche, M B A

    2010-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant widely used to manufacture detergents and found in domestic and industrial wastewater. LAS removal was evaluated in a horizontal anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor. The system was filled with polyurethane foam and inoculated with sludge that was withdrawn from an up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that is used to treat swine wastewater. The reactor was fed with easily degradable substrates and a solution of commercial LAS for 313 days. The hydraulic retention time applied was 12h. The system was initially operated without detergent and resulted to 94% reduction of demand. The mass balance in the system indicated that the LAS removal efficiency was 45% after 18 0days. From the 109 th day to the 254 th day, a removal efficiency of 32% was observed. The removal of LAS was approximately 40% when 1500 mg of LAS were applied in the absence of co-substrates suggesting that the LAS molecules were used selectively. Microscopic analyses of the biofilm revealed diverse microbial morphologies and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling showed variations in the total bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria populations. 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that members of the order Clostridiales were the major components of the bacterial community in the last step of the reactor operation.

  16. Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in commercial laundry wastewater by an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Juliana K; Motteran, Fabrício; Macedo, Thaís Z; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Delforno, Tiago P; Okada, Dagoberto Y; Silva, Edson L; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A

    2015-01-01

    The biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) from commercial laundry wastewater was evaluated in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (FBR) fed with synthetic substrate (598 mg L(-1) to 723 mg L(-1) of organic matter) supplemented with 9.5±3.1 mg L(-1) to 27.9±9.6 mg L(-1) of LAS. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 89% and the biodegradation of LAS was 57% during the 489 days of anaerobic FBR. Higher levels of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were observed in the effluent at the stage with the best LAS removal performance. Increasing the surfactant concentration did not increase the VFA production in the effluent. The predominant VFAs after the addition of LAS were as follows: isovaleric acid and valeric acid, followed by propionic acid, caproic acid and formic acid. The similarities of 64% and 45% to Archaea and Bacteria domains were observed in the samples taken in the operating period of anaerobic FBR fed with 23.6±10 mg L(-1) and 27.9±10 mg L(-1) of LAS. During the operation stages in the reactor, Gemmatimonas, Desulfobulbus and Zoogloea were determined as the most abundant genera related to surfactant degradation using 454-Pyrosequencing.

  17. Physicochemical determinants of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) disposition in skin exposed to aqueous cutting fluid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Ronald E; Brooks, James D; Barlow, Beth M; Riviere, Jim E

    2002-06-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is added to cutting fluid formulations to enhance the performance of metal machining operations, but this surfactant can cause contact dermatitis in workers involved in these operations. The purpose of this study was to determine how cutting fluid additives influence dermal disposition of 14C-LAS in mineral oil- or polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG)-based mixtures when topically applied to silastic membranes and porcine skin in an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell system. 14C-LAS mixtures were formulated with three commonly used cutting fluid additives; 0 or 2% triazine (TRI), 0 or 5% triethanolamine (TEA), and 0 or 5% sulfurized ricinoleic acid (SRA). LAS absorption was limited to less than a 0.5% dose and the additives in various combinations influenced the physicochemical characteristics of the dosing mixture. LAS was more likely to partition into the stratum corneum (SC) in mineral oil mixtures, and LAS absorption was significantly greater in the complete mixture. TRI enhanced LAS transport, and the presence of SRA decreased LAS critical micelle concentration (CMC) which reduced LAS monomers available for transport. TEA increased mixture viscosity, and this may have negated the apparent enhancing properties of TRI in several mixtures. In summary, physicochemical interactions in these mixtures influenced availability of LAS for absorption and distribution in skin, and could ultimately influence toxicological responses in skin.

  18. Influence of soil moisture on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate-induced toxicity in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus B; Brandt, Kristian K; Jacobsen, Anne-Marie; Mortensen, Gerda K; Sørensen, Jan

    2004-02-01

    Moisture affects bioavailability and fate of pollutants in soil, but very little is known about moisture-induced effects on pollutant toxicity. We here report on a modifying effect of moisture on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) and on their toxicity towards ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in agricultural soil. In soil spiked with two LAS levels (250 or 1,000 mg/kg) and incubated at four different moisture levels (9-100% of water-holding capacity), degradation was strongly affected by both soil moisture and initial LAS concentration, resulting in degradation half-lives ranging from 13 to more than 160 d. Toxicity towards AOB assessed by a novel Nitrosomonas europaea luxAB-reporter assay was correlated to total LAS concentration, indicating that LAS remained bioavailable over time without accumulation of toxic intermediates. Toxicity towards indigenous AOB increased with increasing soil moisture. The results indicate that dry soil conditions inhibit LAS degradation and provide protection against toxicity within the indigenous AOB, thus allowing for a rapid recovery of this population when LAS degradation is resumed and completed after rewetting. We propose that the protection of microbial populations against toxicity in dry soil may be a general phenomenon caused primarily by limited diffusion and thus a low bioavailability of the toxicant.

  19. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on human intestinal Caco-2 cells at non cytotoxic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradai, Mohamed; Han, Junkyu; Omri, Abdelfatteh El; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2016-08-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a cytotoxic synthetic anionic surfactant widely present in the environment due to its large-scale production and intensive use in the detergency field. In this study, we investigated the effect of LAS (CAS No. 25155-30-0) at non cytotoxic concentrations on human intestinal Caco-2 cells using different in vitro bioassays. As results, LAS increased Caco-2 cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 ppm, more significantly for shorter exposure time (24 h), confirmed using flow cytometry and trypan blue exclusion methods. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed that this effect was associated with an over-expression of elongation factor 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 3, and a down-regulation of 14-3-3 protein theta, confirmed at mRNA level using real-time PCR. These findings suggest that LAS at non cytotoxic concentrations, similar to those observed at wastewater treatment plants outlets, increases the growth rate of colon cancer cells, raising thereby its tumor promotion effect potential.

  20. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils.

  1. Biodegradation kinetics of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in sludge-amended agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T E; Larson, R J

    1989-02-01

    The kinetics of ultimate biodegradation (mineralization to CO2) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were studied in sludge-amended agricultural soils for a series of pure chain length LAS homologs containing 10 to 14 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. Degradation rates were measured by following the production of 14CO2 from uniformly 14C-ring-labeled material. In general, degradation of LAS was rapid in soil over a broad concentration range (0.1 to 10 times the expected environmental concentration) and demonstrated little variation among different homologs. Half-lives for mineralization of the benzene ring ranged from 18 to 26 days and were not significantly different for any homolog over the range of alkyl chain lengths tested. Half-lives measured for LAS degradation in these studies were comparable to values reported in the literature and also to values obtained for naturally occurring materials (stearic acid, cellulose) typically present in soil environments. On the basis of the results of the present studies and those of other investigators, it is concluded that soil environments exposed to LAS in sewage sludges contain microbial communities which can actively metabolize this material. Rates of biodegradation of the benzene ring, the final step in the LAS biodegradation pathway prior to complete mineralization, are also sufficient to prevent LAS from accumulating in soil environments.

  2. The determination of the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate isomers in water samples by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Zaharie; Avram, Veronica; Marincas, Olivian; Petrov, Plamen; Ternes, Thomas

    2011-01-14

    A number of 20 compounds of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) family were identified by electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS) in water samples collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This paper presents the mass spectra of 20 compounds, the proposed mechanism of formation of the diagnostic ions obtained by EI-MS and the distribution of individual isomers in water samples collected from compartments of WWTP. The individual isomers from four homolog series C(10)-, C(11)-, C(12)- and C(13)-LAS were analyzed as methyl derivatives.

  3. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and boron monitoring in four catchments in the UK contribution to GREAT-ER #11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin S; Fox, Kay K; Daniel, Mic; Buckland, Harold

    2003-10-01

    A comprehensive monitoring programme was carried out in the Aire, Calder, Went and Rother catchments in the UK. A total of 804 effluent samples from 36 sewage treatment works (STWs) and 1100 water samples from 54 river sampling sites were analysed. Concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), boron and other water quality determinands in STW effluent and river waters over a 2-year period (August 1996-August 1998) are reported. The data illustrate the temporal and spatial variations in concentrations of LAS and boron in river waters and effluents. Concentrations of LAS in effluents reflect the biological treatment employed and the influence of tertiary treatment is clearly demonstrated.

  4. Ecological Behavior of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in Soil-Plant Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Liang-Qing; OU Zi-Qing; OUYANG Zhi-Yun

    2005-01-01

    More and more linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) has contaminated the water and soil via pollution discharge,making it important to identify the ecological behavior and toxicity of LAS so as to carry out measures that will reduce its negative effects on the ecosystem. The ecological behavior of LAS, including degradation, migration, and plant uptake,in both soil-paddy rice and soil-soybean systems was studied. Reduction of LAS in pot and field plots followed the first order reaction kinetics with degradation half-lives of 35-50 days with LAS decreasing to very low concentrations after a season of crop growth. Strong migration ability for LAS was found and the breakthrough time in a 1.5 m soil monolith was significantly shortened to 23 days by preferential flow. Leachate volumes of soil-paddy and soil-soybean systems at preferential breakthrough were much different, while the leachate volumes at equilibrium governed by soil adsorption/desorption processes were very similar. Significant uptake of LAS in both paddy rice and soybeans was observed in pot and field experiments (P < 0.05). In aquatic culture, 20 μg mL-1 and above of LAS significantly inhibited the growth of paddy seedlings (P < 0.05). The critical concentration for LAS in soil inhibiting the growth and yield of paddy was 160 μg g-1; when higher, there was a strong negative influence, with decreases in height, spike length,and production; when lower than 80 μg g-1, paddy growth was stimulated. There was little effect of LAS on soybeans.

  5. Applying moving bed biofilm reactor for removing linear alkylbenzene sulfonate using synthetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaleddin Mollaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detergents and problems of their attendance into water and wastewater cause varied difficulties such as producing foam, abnormality in the growth of algae, accumulation and dispersion in aqueous environments. One of the reactors was designated with 30% of the media with the similar conditions exactly same as the other which had filling rate about 10 %, in order to compare both of them together. A standard method methylene blue active substance was used to measure anionic surfactant. The concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate which examined were 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/l in HRT 72, 24 and 8 hrs. The removal percentage for both of reactors at the beginning of operating at50 mg/l concentration of pollutant had a bit difference and with gradually increasing the pollutant concentration and decreasing Hydraulic retention time, the variation between the removal percentage of both reactors became significant as the reactor that had the filling rate about 30 %, showed better condition than the other reactor with 10 % filling rate. Ideal condition in this experiment was caught at hydraulic retention time about 72 hrs and 200 mg/l pollutants concentration with 99.2% removal by the reactor with 30% filling rate. While the ideal condition for the reactor with 10% filling rate with the same hydraulic retention time and 100 mg/l pollutants concentrations was obtained about 99.4% removal. Regarding anionic surfactant standard in Iran which is 1.5 mg/l for surface water discharge, using this process is suitable for treating municipal wastewater and industrial wastewater which has a range of the pollutant between 100-200 mg/l. but for the industries that produce detergents products which make wastewater containing more than 200 mg/l surfactants, using secondary treatment process for achieving discharge standard is required.

  6. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  7. Factors affecting linear alkylbenzene sulfonates removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuming; LaTorre, Ana; Barceló, Damià; García, Joan; Aguirre, Paula; Mujeriego, Rafael; Bayona, Josep M

    2004-05-01

    The behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and sulfophenyl carboxylate (SPC) biointermediates in a pilot subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) is reported for the first time. The effects of wetland configuration and operation on their treatment efficiency were investigated. The pilot SFCW constituted by eight beds of 55 m2 with different aspect ratios (1 x 1; 1.5 x 1; 2 x 1; 2.5 x 1), two water depths (i.e., 0.47 and 0.27 cm) at 5 cm below surface and two medium sizes (i.e., D60 = 10 mm and 3.5 mm) planted with Phragmites sp. That SFCW pilottreats urban wastewater (i.e., 200 inhabitants) and was operated at four hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) (20, 27, 36, and 45 mm d(-1)). Influent and effluent sampling was carried out from May 2001 to January 2002 with a weekly pattern. Main results were as follows: (i) water depth has a major influence on the performance of SFCW for the LAS removal, and HLR shows significant effect on SPC evolution; (ii) water temperature has a significant effect on the LAS evolution; (iii) biodegradation of LAS and SPC can occur under sulfate-reducing environment and mixed conditions (i.e., sulfate-reducing and denitrification), but aerobic respiration cannot be excluded; and (iv) C13 LAS homologues were generally removed in higher extent than the shorter alkyl chain counterparts. In the most appropriate conditions, LAS and SPC can be biodegraded up to 71% and 11%, respectively, in the pilot SFCW evaluated.

  8. Biotransformation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: oxidation of alkyl side-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S; Lawrence, D L; Nuck, B A; Federle, T W; Reddy, C A

    2001-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which generally mineralizes substituted aromatics to CO2, transformed linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactants mainly at their alkyl side chain. Degradation of LAS was evidenced by a zone of clearing on LAS-containing agar plates and colorimetric analysis of liquid cultures. Disappearance of LAS was virtually complete within 10 days in low nitrogen (2.4 mM N), high nitrogen (24 mM N) and malt extract (ME) liquid media. After 5 days of incubation in ME medium, transformation of LAS was complete at concentrations < or = 4 mg l(-1), but decreased at higher concentrations. The LAS degradation was not dependent on lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs). Mineralization of 14C-ring-LAS to 14CO2 by P. chrysosporium was < 1% regardless of the culture conditions used. Thin layer chromatography and mass spectral analyses indicated that P. chrysosporium transformed LAS to sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs) through oxidative shortening of the alkyl side-chains. While LAS disappearance in the cultures was not dependent on LiPs and MnPs, transformation of the parent LAS moieties to SPCs was more extensive in low N medium that favors expression of these enzymes. The SPCs produced in LN cultures were shorter in chain- length than those produced in ME cultures. Also there was a notable shift in the relative abundance of odd and even chain length metabolites compared to the starting LAS particularly in the low N cultures suggesting the possible involvement of processes other than or in addition to beta-oxidation in the chain-shortening process.

  9. Enhanced bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in catfish with exposure to the waterborne surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaobing; Yim, Sun-Young; Uppu, Prasanna; Kleinow, Kevin M

    2010-08-15

    Fish bioaccumulate a variety of contaminants and act as an exposure portal to the human consumer. Surfactants, known pharmaceutically to alter membrane permeability, change drug bioavailability and attenuate transporter function are also found in contaminant mixtures in the aquatic environment. The overall objective of this study was to determine if the surfactant C-12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) at environmentally relevant concentrations, alters the disposition and enhances bioaccumulation of co-exposed dietary xenobiotics in the catfish. Included for study were the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), pharmaceutical, ivermectin (IVM), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho-123), each exhibiting different dispositional footprints. Rho-123 transport into bile and membrane fluidity was examined in isolated perfused livers from control and LAS exposed catfish. Mass balance residue assessments were performed on catfish following in vivo exposure for 12 days to LAS in water at 0, 100 or 300 microg/L with 6 days of (3)H-IVM or (3)H-BaP gavage treatments. LAS at 1, 5 and 20 microM in the perfused liver, significantly decreased the transport of Rho-123 (1 microM) into bile by 18.6, 38.1 and 66.7%, respectively. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements demonstrated a 29.7% increase in fluidity at the (1 microM, 348 microg/L) LAS concentration. In vivo mass balance studies indicated that waterborne LAS (100 and 300 microg/L) increased the dietary dose remaining in fish by 39% and 78% for (3)H-IVM and 50 and 157% for (3)H-BaP. LAS at environmentally relevant concentrations altered the bioavailability and disposition of dietary xenobiotics in the catfish. Co-exposure with LAS increases xenobiotic bioaccumulation, potential toxicity of mixture components to the fish and the potential for residue transfer from fish to the consumer.

  10. Microbial community-level toxicity testing of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in aquatic microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristian K; Jørgensen, Niels O G; Nielsen, Tommy H; Winding, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Complex microbial communities may serve as ideal and ecologically relevant toxicity indicators. We here report an assessment of frequently used methods in microbial ecology for their feasibility to detect toxic effects of the environmentally important surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on microbial communities in lake water and treated waste water. The two microbial communities were evaluated for changes in community structure and function over a period of 7 weeks in replicated aquatic microcosms amended with various levels of LAS (0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg l(-1)) and inorganic nutrients. In general, the two communities behaved similarly when challenged with LAS. Following lag periods of 1-3 weeks, LAS was degraded to non-toxic substances. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments and [3H]leucine incorporation were the most sensitive assays with effect levels of 0-1 and 1-10 mg LAS l(-1), respectively. Community-level physiological profiles and pollution-induced community tolerance determinations using Biolog microplates demonstrated less sensitivity with effect levels of 10-100 mg LAS l(-1). Total cell counts and net uptake of inorganic N and P were unaffected even at 100 mg LAS l(-1). Interestingly, different microbial communities developed in some replicate microcosms, indicating the importance of stochastic events for community succession. We conclude that microbial community-level toxicity testing holds great promise and suggest a polyphasic approach involving a range of independent methods targeting both the structure and function of the tested microbial communities.

  11. Degradation and mobility of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and nonylphenol in sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anne Marie; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2004-01-01

    Degradation and mobility of the surfactants linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and nonylphenol (NP) were investigated in a lysimeter study using a sandy loam soil and 45-cm soil columns. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge was incorporated in the top-15-cm soil layer to an initial content of 38 mg LAS and 0.56 mg NP kg(-1) dry wt., respectively. Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was sown onto the columns. The lysimeters were placed outdoors and therefore received natural precipitation, but were also irrigated to a total amount of water equivalent to 700 mm of precipitation. Leachate and soil samples from three soil layers were collected continuously during a growth period of 110 d. Leachate samples and soil extracts were concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations in the top-15-cm soil layer declined to 25 and 45% of the initial contents for LAS and NP, respectively, within the first 10 d of the study. At the end of the study, less than 1% LAS was left, while the NP content was below the detection limit. Assuming first-order degradation kinetics, half-lives of 20 and 37 d were estimated for LAS and NP, respectively. The surfactants were not measured in leachate samples in concentrations above the analytical detection limits of 4.0 and 0.5 microg L(-1) for LAS and NP, respectively. In addition, neither LAS nor NP were measured in concentrations above the detection limits of 150 and 50 microg kg(-1) dry wt., respectively, in soil layers below the 15 cm of sludge incorporation, indicating negligible downward transport of the surfactants in the lysimeters.

  12. Development of acute toxicity quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and their use in linear alkylbenzene sulfonate species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; Price, Brad B

    2016-07-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) is high tonnage and widely dispersed anionic surfactant used by the consumer products sector. A range of homologous structures are used in laundry applications that differ primarily on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain. This research summarizes the development of a set of acute toxicity QSARs (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and daphnids (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) using accepted test guideline approaches. A series of studies on pure chain length LAS from C10 to C14 were used to develop the QSARs and the robustness of the QSARs was tested by evaluation of two technical mixtures of differing compositions. All QSARs were high quality (R(2) were 0.965-0.997, p < 0.0001). Toxicity normalization employing QSARs is used to interpret a broader array of tests on LAS chain length materials to a diverse group of test organisms with the objective of developing Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) for various chain lengths of interest. Mixtures include environmental distributions measured from exposure monitoring surveys of wastewater effluents, various commercial mixtures, or specific chain lengths. SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentrations (HC5s) ranged from 0.129 to 0.254 mg/L for wastewater effluents containing an average of 11.26-12 alkyl carbons. The SSDs are considered highly robust given the breadth of species (n = 19), use of most sensitive endpoints from true chronic studies and the quality of the underlying statistical properties of the SSD itself. The data continue to indicate a low hazard to the environment relative to expected environmental concentrations.

  13. Effect of temperature and organic nutrients on the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) during the composting of anaerobically digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, E; Prats, D; Rodríguez, M; Camacho, A

    2006-01-01

    Limits on the application of biosolids (anaerobically processed sludges from wastewater treatment plants) as fertilizers for the amendment of soil are becoming greater because of the accumulation of recalcitrant substances, making necessary the use of techniques that bring the concentration of xenobiotics to lower concentrations than those permitted. In general, the biosolids composting process is sufficient to reduce the usual concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to low levels. In this work, an assessment is made on the effect of temperature in the capacity of enriched bacterial populations to biodegrade LAS, together with the influence that the available nutrients may have in the biodegradation of these compounds. The results show that the microbial metabolism of LAS was not observed in the thermophilic range. The optimum temperature for the biodegradation of LAS appears to be around 40 degrees C, this is, the lowest assayed here, and at this temperature the differences in the biodegradation of LAS among the nutritionally supplemented cultures are small.

  14. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems.

  15. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on Cu(2+) removal by Spirulina platensis strain (FACHB-834).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Zhao, Xiaokai; Fang, Fang; Dahlgren, Randy A; Li, Dong; Yin, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yuna; Wang, Xuedong

    2014-10-01

    The removal efficiency of Cu(2+) by Spirulina platensis (strain FACHB-834), in viable and heat-inactivated forms, was investigated in the presence and absence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). When the initial Cu(2+) concentration was in the range of 0.5-1.5 mg · L(-1) , a slight increase in growth rate of FACHB-834 was observed. In contrast, when Cu(2+) or LAS concentrations were at or higher than 2.0 or 6.0 mg · L(-1) , respectively, the growth of FACHB-834 was inhibited and displayed yellowing and fragmentation of filaments. The presence of LAS improved Cu(2+) removal by ~20%, and accelerated attainment of Cu(2+) retention equilibrium. For the 2- mg · L(-1) Cu(2+) treatments, retention equilibrium occurred within 2 d and showed maximum Cu(2+) removal of 1.83 mg · L(-1) . In the presence of LAS, the ratio of extracellular bound Cu(2+) to intracellular Cu(2+) taken up by the cells was lower (1.05-2.26) than corresponding ratios (2.46-7.85) in the absence of LAS. The percentages of extracellular bound Cu(2+) to total Cu(2+) removal (both bound and taken up by cells) in the presence of LAS ranged from 51.2% to 69.3%, which was lower than their corresponding percentages (71.1%-88.7%) in the absence of LAS. LAS promoted biologically active transport of the extracellular bound form of Cu(2+) into the cell. In contrast, the addition of LAS did not increase the maximum removal efficiency of Cu(2+) (61.4% ± 5.6%) by heat-inactivated cells compared to that of living cells (59.6% ± 6.0%). These results provide a theoretical foundation for designing bioremediation strategies using FACHB-834 for use in surface waters contaminated by both heavy metals and LAS.

  16. Identification of alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants leaching from an acrylonitrile butadiene rubber as novel inhibitors of calcineurin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Noboru; Shibuguchi, Nao; Ishikawa, Ryoki; Tanaka, Susumu; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Hosaka, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase and plays important role in several cellular functions in both higher and lower eukaryotes. Here we report inhibition of CN by linear alkylbenzene sulfonate. The clue to the finding was obtained while identifying the inhibitory material leaching from acrylonitrile butadiene rubber used for packing. Using standard dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12-LAS), we obtained strong inhibition of CN with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.3 µM, whereas analogs such as p-octylbenzene sulfonate and SDS hardly or only slightly affected CN activity. Three alkaline phosphatases, derived from shrimp, bacteria, and calf-intestine, which exhibit similar enzymatic activities to CN, were not inhibited by C12-LAS at concentrations of up to 100 µM. Furthermore, C12-LAS did not inhibit Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase activity when tested at concentrations of up to 36 µM. The results indicate that C12-LAS is a potent selective inhibitor of CN activity.

  17. Investigating the potential of using acoustic frequency on the degradation of linear alkylbenzen sulfonates from aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of using acoustical (sonochemical) reactor for degradation of linear alkylbenzen sulfonate (LAS) from aqueous solution was investigated. LASs are anionic surfactants, found in relatively high amounts in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, experiments on LAS solution were performed using methylene blue active substances (MBAS) method.The effectiveness of acoustical processor reactor for LAS degradation is evaluated with emphasis on the effect of treatment time and initial LAS concentration. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L, acoustic frequency of 130 kHz, applied power of 500 W and temperature of 18 ℃~20 ℃. At the conditions involved, LAS degradation was found to increase with increasing sonochemical time. In addition, as the concentration increased, the LAS degradation rate decreased in the acoustical processor reactor.

  18. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp.

  19. Bioconcentration of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the marine shrimp Palaemonetes varians: a radiotracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Florent; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Temara, Ali; Rouleau, Claude; Metian, Marc

    2014-08-15

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved [(14)C]C₁₂-6-linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were determined in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians using environmentally relevant exposure concentration. The shrimp concentrated LAS from seawater with a mean BCF value of 120 L kg(-1) after a 7-day exposure. Uptake biokinetics were best described by a saturation model, with an estimated BCFss, of 159 ± 34 L kg(-1), reached after 11.5 days. Shrimp weight influenced significantly BCF value with smaller individuals presenting higher affinity to LAS. To the light of a whole body autoradiography, major accumulation of LAS occurred in the cephalothorax circulatory system (gills, heart, hepatopancreas) and ocular peduncle, but not in the flesh, limiting potential transfer to human consumers. LAS depuration rate constant value of the shrimp was 1.18 ± 0.08 d(-1) leading to less than 1% of remaining LAS in its tissues after 8 days of depuration.

  20. Evaluation of the microbial diversity in sequencing batch reactor treating linear alkylbenzene sulfonate under denitrifying and mesophilic conditions using swine sludge as inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) under denitrifying conditions using swine sludge as inoculum. The reactor was operated for 104 days with synthetic substrate containing nitrate, and LAS was added later (22 mg/L). Considering the added mass of the LAS, the adsorbed mass in the sludge and discarded along with the effluent, degradation of the surfactant at the end of operation was 87%, ...

  1. Paramaterization of a coarse-grained model for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants and molecular dynamics studies of their self-assembly in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xibing; Shinoda, Wataru; DeVane, Russell; Anderson, Kelly L.; Klein, Michael L.

    2010-02-01

    A coarse-grained (CG) forcefield for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was systematically parameterized. Thermodynamic data from experiments and structural data obtained from all-atom molecular dynamics were used as targets to parameterize CG potentials for the bonded and non-bonded interactions. The added computational efficiency permits one to employ computer simulation to probe the self-assembly of LAS aqueous solutions into different morphologies starting from a random configuration. The present CG model is shown to accurately reproduce the phase behavior of solutions of pure isomers of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, despite the fact that phase behavior was not directly taken into account in the forcefield parameterization.

  2. Bioremediation of surface water co-contaminated with zinc (II) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huijuan; Xia, Yunfeng; Chen, Hong

    Potential remediation of surface water contaminated with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and zinc (Zn (II)) by sorption on Spirulina platensis was studied using batch techniques. Results show that LAS can be biodegraded by Spirulina platensis, and its biodegradation rate after 5 days was 87%, 80%, and 70.5% when its initial concentration was 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L, respectively. The maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis was found to be 30.96 mg/g. LAS may enhance the maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis, which can be attributed to an increase in bioavailability due to the presence of LAS. The biodegradation rates of LAS by Spirulina platensis increased with Zn (II) and reached the maximum when Zn (II) was 4 mg/L. The joint toxicity test showed that the combined effect of LAS and Zn (II) was Synergistic. LAS can enhance the biosorption of Zn (II), and reciprocally, Zn (II) can enhance LAS biodegradation.

  3. New sample treatment for determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soils by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimer, M; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; López, I; Berna, J L; Vílchez, J L

    2007-03-01

    A new sample-treatment procedure has been developed for determination of total linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), i.e. homologues and isomers, in agricultural soil. The procedure involves two steps, ultrasound-assisted extraction of LAS from the samples with methanol then clean-up of the methanolic extracts and preconcentration of the LAS by solid-phase extraction on two adsorbent cartridges (SAX and C18). The ultrasound-assisted procedure reduces extraction time (10 min in contrast with 6-12 h for conventional Soxhlet extraction) and requires only small volumes of organic solvent. The effect of different variables interacting in the ultrasound-assisted extraction process was studied. Finally, separation and quantification of the homologues and isomers of LAS was performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD). 2-Octylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Na-2ØC8-LAS) was used as internal standard. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for determination of LAS in agricultural soil samples from the fertile plain of Granada (Spain).

  4. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on the growth and toxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Lake Dianchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Junqian; Song, Lirong; Li, Enhua; Wang, Xuelei; Xiao, Bangding

    2015-04-01

    The exogenous organic pollutant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) pollution and Microcystis bloom are two common phenomena in eutrophic lakes, but the effects of LAS alone on Microcystis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LAS on the growth, photochemical efficiency, and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa in the laboratory. Results showed that low LAS (≤10 mg/L) concentrations improved the growth of M. aeruginosa (12 days of exposure). High LAS (20 mg/L) concentrations inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa on the first 8 days of exposure; afterward, growth progressed. After 12 days of exposure, the concentrations of chlorophyll a in algal cells were not significantly affected by any of LAS concentrations (0.05 to 20 mg/L) in the present study; by contrast, carotenoid and protein concentrations were significantly inhibited when LAS concentrations reached as high as 20 mg/L. After 6 and 12 days of exposure, low LAS (≤10 mg/L) concentrations enhanced the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) of M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, LAS increased the microcystin production of M. aeruginosa. Extracellular and intracellular microcystin contents were significantly increased after M. aeruginosa was exposed to high LAS concentrations. Our results indicated that LAS in eutrophic lakes may increase the risk of Microcystis bloom and microcystin production.

  5. Removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate from a small Yorkshire stream: contribution to GREAT-ER project #7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K; Holt, M; Daniel, M; Buckland, H; Guymer, I

    2000-05-05

    An in-stream removal experiment has been carried out in Red Beck, a small stream which receives effluent from Shibden Head Sewage Treatment Works. This trickling filter works serves a purely domestic population of 9408 but is scheduled to be closed, and the flows diverted to another works, as part of Yorkshire Water's continuing capital investment programme. An anionic detergent, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), boron, and standard water quality parameters have been measured at seven sites downstream of the effluent discharge point. Time of travel has been measured by detection of a fluorescent dye added to the effluent sampling chamber, and the increase in flow as the river proceeds through the catchment has been determined from current flow measurements, and from boron dilution data. Assuming a first order removal mechanism, the overall half-life for LAS removal is just over 2 h (2 h 14 min). Faster removal takes place in the upper portion of the stream, and removal over the last five sampling points is somewhat slower, with a half-life of 2 h 40 min. This removal may comprise both primary biodegradation and the deposition of suspended matter to which the surfactant has been adsorbed. There was no significant difference in the removal half-lives of the individual alkyl chain length homologues.

  6. Toxic effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on metabolic activity, growth rate, and microcolony formation of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, K K; Hesselsøe, M; Roslev, P; Henriksen, K; Sørensen, J

    2001-06-01

    Strong inhibitory effects of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on four strains of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are reported. Two Nitrosospira strains were considerably more sensitive to LAS than two Nitrosomonas strains were. Interestingly, the two Nitrosospira strains showed a weak capacity to remove LAS from the medium. This could not be attributed to adsorption or any other known physical or chemical process, suggesting that biodegradation of LAS took place. In each strain, the metabolic activity (50% effective concentration [EC(50)], 6 to 38 mg liter(-1)) was affected much less by LAS than the growth rate and viability (EC(50), 3 to 14 mg liter(-1)) were. However, at LAS levels that inhibited growth, metabolic activity took place only for 1 to 5 days, after which metabolic activity also ceased. The potential for adaptation to LAS exposure was investigated with Nitrosomonas europaea grown at a sublethal LAS level (10 mg liter(-1)); compared to control cells, preexposed cells showed severely affected cell functions (cessation of growth, loss of viability, and reduced NH(4)(+) oxidation activity), demonstrating that long-term incubation at sublethal LAS levels was also detrimental. Our data strongly suggest that AOB are more sensitive to LAS than most heterotrophic bacteria are, and we hypothesize that thermodynamic constraints make AOB more susceptible to surfactant-induced stress than heterotrophic bacteria are. We further suggest that AOB may comprise a sensitive indicator group which can be used to determine the impact of LAS on microbial communities.

  7. The degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the presence of light and natural biofilms: the important role of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiuyi; Li, Ming; Su, Yulong; Dong, Deming; Guo, Zhiyong; Liang, Dapeng

    2012-08-30

    Photosynthesis of algae usually changes the chemical conditions of microenvironment in natural waters. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the effects of diurnal variation and photosynthesis on behavior of organic pollutants in aquatic environments. In this study, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was selected as a representative of non-persistent organic pollutants to investigate the degradation of this type of pollutants in the presence of light and natural biofilms by laboratory batch experiments, with special emphasis on the effect of photosynthesis of the biofilms. The maximum decrease of LAS was observed in the coexistence of both illumination and fully active biofilms, and about 75% of the LAS were removed after a 36-h degradation experiment. The removal of LAS was found to be dominated by photosynthesis of the biofilms, with lesser roles attributed to biodegradation and adsorption by the biofilms, and the role of direct photolysis was negligible. The production of some reactive oxygen species might account for the role of photosynthesis in decomposing the LAS. The study confirms the important roles of algae biofilms and their photosynthesis in determining the fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments.

  8. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in water of Lake Dianchi--spatial and seasonal variation, and kinetics of biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Wu, Xingqiang; Tu, Xinhai; Wang, Yingcai; Sun, Xiaolei; Song, Lirong

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the environmental characteristics of anion surfactants [linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)] in the water of Lake Dianchi, a sampling investigation in the field from October 2006 to July 2007 and a batch of biodegradation experiments in the laboratory were carried out. The results showed that concentrations of LAS ranged from 18.6 to 260.1 μg L(-1), and the average concentration was 52.6 μg L(-1) in Lake Dianchi. The highest concentrations of LAS were found in the Northwest region, and the distribution of LAS varied through seasons, with much lower concentrations in fall than in any other seasons. LAS can be primarily biodegraded by microorganisms in the lake water, and the percentage of degradation was >97% after 28 days. Biodegradation of LAS was well-fitted with the kinetic model presented in this paper, and the half-lives ranged from 3.2 to 16.3 days. Temperature, pH, and initial concentrations could affect the biodegradation of LAS, among which temperature was the major factor influencing on biodegradation of LAS in water of Lake Dianchi.

  9. Cytotoxic effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on human intestinal Caco-2 cells: associated biomarkers for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradai, Mohamed; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2014-09-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a synthetic anionic surfactant widely present in the environment due to its intensive production and use in the detergency field. Admitting that current procedure of risk assessment has limits in providing realistic risk assessment data and predicting the cumulative effect of the toxicant mixtures, the incorporation of information regarding the mode of action and cell response mechanism seems to be a potential solution to overcome these limits. In this regard, we investigated in this study the LAS cytotoxicity on human intestinal Caco-2 cells, trying to unveil the protein actors implicated in the cell response using proteomics approach in order to give a better understanding of the toxicological effect and allow the identification of appropriate biomarkers reflecting the mode of action associated with LAS. As results, we demonstrated that LAS induces a time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells accompanied by an induction of oxidative stress followed by an excessive increase of intracellular calcium level. Proteomics approach helped in discovering three informative biomarkers of effect associated with LAS cytotoxic effect, reported for the first time: calreticulin, thioredoxin, and heat shock cognate 71 (HSP7C), confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. These biomarkers could serve for more reliable future risk assessment studies that consider the toxicants mode of action in order to help in the prediction of potential cumulative effects of environmentally coexisting contaminants.

  10. Formation of metabolites during biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor under thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, A S; Ahring, B K

    2002-03-05

    Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was shown in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor under thermophilic conditions. The reactor was inoculated with granular biomass and fed with a synthetic medium and 3 micromol/L of a mixture of LAS with alkylchain length of 10 to 13 carbon atoms. The reactor was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 12 h with effluent recirculation in an effluent to influent ratio of 5 to 1. A sterile reactor operated in parallel revealed that sorption to sludge particles initially accounted for a major LAS removal. After 8 days of reactor operation, the removal of LAS in the reactor inoculated with active granular biomass exceeded the removal in the sterile reactor inoculated with sterile granular biomass. The effect of sorption ceased after 185 to 555 h depending on the LAS homologs. 40% of the LAS was biodegraded, and the removal rate was 0.5 x 10(-6) mol/h/mL granular biomass. Acidified effluent from the reactor was subjected to dichloromethane extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzenesulfonic acid and benzaldehyde were detected in the reactor effluent from the reactor with active granular biomass but not in the sterile and unamended reactor effluent. Benzenesulfonic acid and benzaldehyde are the first identified degradation products in the anaerobic degradation of LAS.

  11. Investigation of an onsite wastewater treatment system in sandy soil: sorption and biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Jon; Marks, Kay H; DeCarvalho, Alvaro J; McAvoy, Drew C; Nielsen, Allen M; Kravetz, Louis; Cano, Manuel L

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the sorptive and biodegradable characteristics of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in a soil below a Florida, USA, septic system drainfield. Three distinct soil samples were collected from the septic system drainfield study site. These soils were used in laboratory sorption and biodegradation studies. Different concentrations of LAS were added, in radiolabeled and unlabeled forms, to a series of test vessels that contained upgradient groundwater and the soils collected from the study site. The sorption test was designed to determine the partitioning of LAS between groundwater and soil in each sample. Results indicated that the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd) decreased from 4.02 to 0.43 L/kg and that the rate of ultimate biodegradation (first-order rate constant, k1) decreased from 2.17 to 0.08/d with increasing distance (0.7-1.2 m vertically below ground surface [BGS] and 0 to 6.1 m horizontally) from the drainfield. The three soils showed 49.8 to 83.4% LAS mineralization (percentage of theoretical CO2) over 45- or 59-d test periods. These results demonstrate that subsurface soils in this system have the potential to sorb and biodegrade LAS.

  12. Sorption-desorption kinetics and toxic cell concentration in marine phytoplankton microalgae exposed to Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Florent; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Miramand, Pierre; Temara, Ali; Warnau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are ubiquitous surfactants. Traces can be found in coastal environments. Sorption and toxicity of C(12)-LAS congeners were studied in controlled conditions (2-3500 μg C(12)LAS/L) in five marine phytoplanktonic species, using standardized methods. IC(50) values ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg LAS/L. Sorption of (14)C(12)-6 LAS isomer was measured at environmentally relevant trace levels (4μg/L) using liquid scintillation counting. Steady-state sorption on algae was reached within 5h in the order dinoflagellate>diatoms>green algae. The sorption data, fitted a L-type Freundlich isotherm, indicating saturation. Desorption was rapid but a low LAS fraction was still sorbed after 24h. Toxic cell concentration was 0.38±0.09 mg/g for the studied species. LAS toxicity results from sorption on biological membranes leading to non-specific disturbance of algal growth. Results indicate that LAS concentrations in coastal environments do not represent a risk for these organisms.

  13. Effects of microcystin-LR, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Song, Lirong; Wu, Xingqiang; Zhang, Junqian; Wang, Chunbo

    2011-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) are present widely in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but their combined ecotoxicological risk is unknown. This study investigated the toxic effects of MCLR, LAS and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and evaluated MCLR accumulation level in lettuce with or without LAS. The changes in seed germination and shoot/root growth, responses of the antioxidative defense system, and the accumulation of MCLR in lettuce were tested to evaluate the single and combined toxic effect of MCLR and LAS in well-controlled conditions. The results showed that seedling growth (except for root elongation and leaf weight) was more sensitive to toxicant exposure than seed germination. For seedling leaves, lipid peroxidation was not observed when the antioxidative defense system (including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) was activated to relieve the adverse effects of oxidative stress via different pathways. Our results also confirmed that the interaction between MCLR and LAS was synergistic. Both toxicants in combination not only significantly inhibited seedling growth, but also increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as the contents of glutathione. Furthermore, LAS dramatically enhanced the accumulation of MCLR in the plant, thus leading to a reduction in quality and yield and posing greater potential risk to humans via consumption of these edible plants.

  14. Wide-range and accurate modeling of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, rigorous data and adequate models about linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) adsorption/desorption on agricultural soil are presented, contributing with a substantial improvement over available adsorption works. The kinetics of the adsorption/desorption phenomenon and the adsorption/desorption equilibrium isotherms were determined through batch studies for total LAS amount and also for each homologue series: C10, C11, C12 and C13. The proposed multiple pseudo-first order kinetic model provides the best fit to the kinetic data, indicating the presence of two adsorption/desorption processes in the general phenomenon. Equilibrium adsorption and desorption data have been properly fitted by a model consisting of a Langmuir plus quadratic term, which provides a good integrated description of the experimental data over a wide range of concentrations. At low concentrations, the Langmuir term explains the adsorption of LAS on soil sites which are highly selective of the n-alkyl groups and cover a very small fraction of the soil surface area, whereas the quadratic term describes adsorption on the much larger part of the soil surface and on LAS retained at moderate to high concentrations. Since adsorption/desorption phenomenon plays a major role in the LAS behavior in soils, relevant conclusions can be drawn from the obtained results.

  15. [A new species of the genus Phenylobacterium for the degradation of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Na; Xiao, Changsong; Ying, Qifeng; Ji, Shulan

    2003-02-01

    A strain GZ6 that can biodegrade LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) is identified. It is aerobic gram-negative rod or short-rod (0.5 to 0.8 by 1.0 to 2.0 Mm). It is mobile with a single polar flagellum. Optimum growth occurred at 30 degrees C and pH7.0. It is catalase positive, urease positive, and arginine decarboxylase positive. All the other physiological and biochemical tests performed were negative. It utilizes the xenobiotic compounds chloridazon, antipyrin and LAS as sole carbon sources. Most sugars, alcohols, and carboxylic acids are not utilized. It has Q-10 as the major quinone. The main cell fatty acids are Sum7, C16:0 and Sum4. The DNA G + C mol % content is 70.10. A phylogenic tree was constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences. It showed that the previously known member of the genus Phenylobacterium, Phenylobacterium mobile DSM1986T, is the nearest neighbor to strain GZ6. The level of binary sequence similarity between them is 97.49%. And the DNA-DNA relatedness is 40%. These genetic analysis and their morphological difference show that they are different species of Phenylobacterium. A new species, Phenylobacterium mobile sp. nov., has been proposed.

  16. Decreases in surface activities and aquatic toxicities of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and alcohol ethoxylates during biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Masaru; Hisano, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    We discussed the relation between aquatic toxicity and interfacial activity during biodegradation with using LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) and AE (Alcohol Ethoxylate). The change of death rate of Daphnia magna, surface tension, concentration of surfactant, and biodegradation by oxygen demand during biodegradation were measured. As a result, a rapid decrease in toxicity and rapid increase in surface tension were observed within the time before biodegradation based on oxygen demand started to increase. These rapid changes in toxicity and surface tension occurred due to the structural change of surfactant molecules in the primary biodegradation process, which was confirmed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. We also performed re-addition test to study the effects of acclimatization since it takes an important role on boidegradation, and found that the acclimatization significantly accelerated the primary biodegradation, which were indicated by increase in surface tension and decrease in aquatic toxicity. These results show that the environmental risk of surfactants should be considered not only with the biodegradation based on oxygen demand but also with the decrease of interfacial activity through the primary biodegradation process.

  17. Effects of pilot-plant photochemical pre-treatment (UV/H2O2) on the biodegradability of aqueous linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the photochemical pre-treatment by using a pilot-plant UV/H2O2 process on the biodegradability of aqueous linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were studied. It was observed that the photochemical pre-treatment of the LAS solutions by UV-254/H2O2 increased the biodegradability of LAS solutions. Aqueous solutions with higher concentrations of LAS (> 100 mg/L) were non-biodegradable. The ratio of BOD5/COD of the pre-treated LAS solutions was increased, indicating that the ...

  18. Monitoring the primary biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their coproducts in anoxic sediments using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo; Köchling, Thorsten; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2007-05-15

    An accompanying article has demonstrated the anaerobic degradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in microcosms filled with marine sediments through the generation of sulfophenylcarboxylic acids (SPCs). A detailed study shows that this process was uniform in the blanks (non-spiked natural sediments) for every LAS homologue during the complete course of the experiment. However, when sediments were spiked with commercial LAS and, therefore, enriched with short-chain homologues, degradation was enhanced for these homologues until their percentages were close to those for non-spiked sediments. The reason is that short-chain homologues are more bioavailable due to their higher solubility and lower sorption capacity. Thus, sorption on sediments was found to be increased with the length of the alkyl chain for LAS homologues, following a linear Freundlich isotherm, whereas the metabolites generated were predominant in solution due to their much higher polarity. Intermediate-chain SPC homologues (C7-C9 SPCs) were the most abundant during the experiment, but a significant increase in the concentration of shorter-chain SPC homologues (C4-C6 SPCs) was detected toward the end. In the case of isomers, the steric effect of the aromatic group implies that LAS primary degradation took place preferentially over external isomers. Therefore, the generation of external isomers of SPCs was predominant during the complete experiment although internal isomers of SPCs became more evident when the degradation process had advanced and external isomers of LAS became scarce. The identity of both types of SPC isomer was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. With respect to LAS coproducts, the relative percentage of iso-LAS increased during the complete experiment and removal percentages for dialkyl tetralinsulfonates (<30%) were typically lower that those for LAS (66-79%), although a similar behavior was observed for their homologues in both cases.

  19. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenol polyethoxylate degradation products and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants in urban ground water: Barcelona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; González, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; López de Alda, María J.; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis study investigates the fate of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) degradation products (DPs) and the occurrence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactants in urban ground water at field scale. The occurrence of APEOs DPs in ground water was studied in connection with: (1) sources of recharge or/and pollution containing these substances, (2) ground water redox conditions, (3) occurrence of LAS, which are currently the domestic surfactants more used in the study area and (4) other common contaminants in urban ground water in the city of Barcelona. The APEOs DPs analyzed included two nonylphenol carboxylates (NP2EC, NP1EC), two octylphenol carboxylates (OP2EC, OP1EC), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP). The highest groundwater concentrations of APEOs DPs were detected in aquifers whose major source of recharge is a river receiving large amounts of effluents from secondary waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In fact, APEOs DPs concentrations were above those in the river. NP2EC was the compound detected at highest concentrations. These increase with ammonium in samples with low dissolved oxygen. These degradation products were virtually absent in oxidizing aquifers whose main source of recharge is not the river. In this case, only the ultimate degradation product (NP) was detected, which suggests that parent compounds have degraded. These results indicate that APEOs are persistent or less degraded in reducing conditions, whereas they are degraded when oxidizing conditions prevail. By contrast, LAS concentrations were more than one order of magnitude lower than expected based on recharge sources in all (oxidizing and reducing) aquifers.

  20. Evaluation of the microbial diversity in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor treating linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, I C S; Oliveira, L L; Saavedra, N K D; Fantinatti-Garboggini, F; Oliveira, V M; Varesche, M B A

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam where the sludge from a sanitary sewage treatment was immobilized. The hydraulic detention time (HDT) used in the experiments was of 12 h. The reactor was fed with synthetic substrate (410 mg l(-1) of meat extract, 115 mg l(-1) of starch, 80 mg l(-1) of saccharose, 320 mg l(-1) of sodium bicarbonate and 5 ml l(-1) of salt solution) in the following stages of operation: SI-synthetic substrate, SII-synthetic substrate with 7 mg l(-1) of LAS, SIII-synthetic substrate with 14 mg l(-1) of LAS and SIV-synthetic substrate containing yeast extract (substituting meat extract) and 14 mg l(-1) of LAS, without starch. At the end of the experiment (313 days) a degradation of approximately 35% of LAS was achieved. The higher the concentration of LAS, the greater the amount of foam for its adsorption. This is necessary because the isotherm of LAS adsorption in the foam is linear for the studied concentrations (2 to 50 mg l(-1)). Microscopic analyses of the biofilm revealed diverse microbial morphologies, while Denaturing Gradient Gel Eletrophoresis (DGGE) profiling showed variations in the population of total bacteria and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the members of the order Clostridiales were the major components of the bacterial community in the last reactor operation step.

  1. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola, Kehinde I T; Olayemi, Albert B

    2008-12-01

    The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alklcylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r = 0.9124) was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0) and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g) in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (VHB: 2.9 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g) and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) cfu/g) had a direct relationship (r = 0.9500). An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r(VHB/LAS) = -0.9303 and r(LTB/LAS) = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcusfaecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v). The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste.

  2. Incomplete degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants in Brazilian surface waters and pursuit of their polar metabolites in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Peter; Rodrigues, Silvana V; Baumann, Wolfram; Knepper, Thomas P

    2002-02-04

    In Brazil more than 90% of the population are not connected to municipal wastewater treatment plants. As a consequence, surface waters receive continuously considerable amounts of untreated domestic sewage containing surfactants as a major constituent. Such polluted waters gave rise to special interest if they are used as a source for the production of drinking water. In this work, the river Rio Macacu (State Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was monitored for the occurrence of the most widely used anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) together with its main degradative product, sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPC). In order to pursue the fate of both compounds after emission into the river, samples were collected at several locations along the river bank, and analyzed applying liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after enrichment by solid-phase extraction. The LAS concentrations ranged between 14 and 155 microg l(-1) and the levels of their metabolic intermediates were found from 1.2 to 14 microg l(-1). The self-purification capacity of the water was impressively demonstrated in the upper course of the river downstream of a town considered as one major discharge point, whereas in the lower course the relative constant concentrations of both analytes were detected which was explained with an overall increasing level of pollution. Furthermore, a series of drinking water samples from Niterói and São Gonçalo, supplied by the same waterworks treating surface waters from the Rio Macacu, were taken during two sampling periods and examined for the presence of the strongly polar SPC which is suspected of by-passing the purification processes. The levels detected in the drinking water ranged between 1.6 and 3.3 microg l(-1). For the analyses of drinking and surface waters the peak pattern of a selected SPC homologue composed by several positional isomers served as an indicator to describe the progression of SPC degradation occurred in the river and could be used to

  3. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on ion transport and intracellular calcium in kidney distal epithelial cells (A6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, H F; Staermose, S; Vang, J

    2001-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is found in near-shore environments receiving wastewater from urban treatment plants in a concentration reported to have physiological and toxic effect on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect LAS on ion transport and homeostasis in epithelia cells. A6 cells form a polarised epithelium when grown on permeable supports, actively absorb sodium and secrete chloride. Only the addition of LAS (100 microM) to the apical solution of A6 epithelia resulted in an increase in the active ion transport measured as short circuit current (SCC) and transepithelial conductance (G(t)). This increase could not be affected by the sodium channel inhibitor amiloride (100 microM), indicating that LAS stimulated the chloride secretion. Change in the intracellular calcium concentration (Ca(2+))(i) was measured in fura-2 loaded A6 cells, since it known that increase in (Ca(2+))(i) stimulate chloride secretion. LAS induced a concentration-dependent increase in (Ca(2+))(i) from 5 to 200 microM, where the half-maximal stimulating concentration on 100 mM resulted in an increase in (Ca(2+))(i) from 108+/-15 to 570+/-26 nM (n=4; P<0.01). The increase in (Ca(2+))(i) could be blocked by the calcium chelator ethylenebis(5-oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EGTA), showing that the effect of LAS was due to influx of extracellular calcium. Furthermore, it was shown that the calcium channel inhibitor verapamil (0.2 mM) abolished the LAS induced increase in (Ca(2+))(i) and Gt when applied to the apical solution. However, verapamil has no inhibitory effect on these parameters when the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 (100 microM) was added to A6 cells. These results indicate that LAS induced a specific activation of calcium channels in the apical membrane of A6 epithelia, leading to increase in (Ca(2+))(i) and thereby increased chloride secretion as a result of stimulation of calcium-dependent chloride channels in the apical membrane

  4. Evaluation of the microbial diversity in sequencing batch reactor treating linear alkylbenzene sulfonate under denitrifying and mesophilic conditions using swine sludge as inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Cristina Silveira Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR under denitrifying conditions using swine sludge as inoculum. The reactor was operated for 104 days with synthetic substrate containing nitrate, and LAS was added later (22 mg/L. Considering the added mass of the LAS, the adsorbed mass in the sludge and discarded along with the effluent, degradation of the surfactant at the end of operation was 87%, removal of chemical oxygen demand was 86% and nitrate was 98%. The bacterial community was evaluated by cutting the bands and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The sequences obtained were related to the phylum Proteobacteria and the alpha-and beta-proteobacteria classes, these bacteria were probably involved in the degradation of LAS. The efficiently degraded LAS in the reactor was operated in batch sequences in denitrifying conditions.

  5. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and one long-chain degradation intermediate, sulfophenyl carboxylic acid on early life-stages of seabream (sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, M; Blasco, J

    2002-01-01

    Seabream embryos (Sparus aurata) were exposed to various concentrations (0.05 to 10.0 mg L-1) of different homologues (C10 to C14) and a commercial mixture of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), as well as one long-chain degradation intermediate, sulfophenyl carboxylic acid (SPC C11), to study the acute toxicity of these compounds. LAS homologues of higher chain length (C13 and C14) were proved to be more toxic than shorter species (C10, C11, and C12). LAS C13 and C14 provoked 100% lethality at concentrations of 0.1-0.25 mg L-1. On the other hand, shorter LAS homologues (chain length) did not produce any lethal effect at concentrations up to 5 mg L-1. In this work, results on the toxicity of a long-chain degradation intermediate of LAS, SPC C11, are presented. This compound did not produce any mortality at all the concentration ranges chosen.

  6. Research Progress in Determination Methods of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate%直链烷基苯磺酸钠测定方法的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华

    2012-01-01

    对几种常用的测定直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)方法如高效液相色谱法、荧光光度分析法、分光光度法、气相色谱法、电化学发光分析法等的研究进展进行了介绍.归纳出不同的测定方法所存在的问题及优势.%Research progress in determination methods of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate was introduced, such as high performance liquid chromatography, fluorescence spectrophotometry, spectrophotometric, gas chromatography, electrogenerated chemiluminescenc and so on. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods were discussed.

  7. γ-H2AX induced by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates is due to deoxyribonuclease-1 translocation to the nucleus via actin disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Kubota, Toru; Yang, Guang; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Non-genotoxic linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) generated γ-H2AX. • The γ-H2AX was not induced through direct LAS-induced DNA damage. • LAS weakened interactions between actin and DNase I. • Released DNase I translocated to nucleus and broke DNA strands, generating γ-H2AX. • This is a novel pathway for chemically induced γ-H2AX. - Abstract: Phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) occurs following formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Other types of DNA damage also generate DSBs through DNA replication and repair, leading to the production of γ-H2AX. In the present study, we demonstrated that linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), the most widely used and non-genotoxic anionic surfactants, could generate γ-H2AX via a novel pathway. Breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells were treated with five kinds of LAS with alkyl chains ranging from 10 to 14 carbon units (C{sub 10}–C{sub 14}LAS). The generation of DSBs and subsequent production of γ-H2AX increased in a manner that depended on the number of carbon units in LAS. γ-H2AX could also be generated with non-cytotoxic doses of LAS and was independent of the cell cycle, indicating the non-apoptotic and DNA replication-independent formation of DSBs. The generation of γ-H2AX could be attenuated by EGTA and ZnCl{sub 2}, deoxyribonuclease-1 (DNase I) inhibitors, as well as by the knockdown of DNase I. LAS weakened the interaction between DNase I and actin, and the enhanced release of DNase I was dependent on the number of carbon units in LAS. DNase I released by the LAS treatment translocated to the nucleus, in which DNase I attacked DNA and generated γ-H2AX. These results suggested that the LAS-induced generation of γ-H2AX could be attributed to the translocation of DNase I to the nucleus through the disruption of actin, and not to LAS-induced DNA damage.

  8. The influence of a surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, on the estrogenic response to a mixture of (xeno)estrogens in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine A; Brian, Jayne V; Pojana, Giulio; Lamoree, Marja; Booy, Petra; Marcomini, Antonio; Sumpter, John P

    2009-01-18

    The effect of the presence of a surfactant on the activity of a mixture of environmental estrogens was assessed. In their natural habitat, fish are subject not only to exposure to mixtures of estrogenic compounds, as has been addressed in previous publications, but also to other confounding factors (chemical, physical and biological), which may, in theory, affect their responses to such compounds. To assess the potential for such interference, the commonly occurring surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), was applied to the yeast estrogen screen at various concentrations, independently and together with a mixture of estrogens at constant concentrations. LAS enhanced the estrogenic activity of the mixture, an effect which became less pronounced over the course of time. This information was used to design an in vivo study to assess induction of vitellogenin in fathead minnows exposed to the same mixture of estrogens plus LAS. A similar trend was observed, that is, the response was enhanced, but the effect became less pronounced as the study progressed. However, the enhanced response in vivo occurred only at the highest concentration of LAS tested (362microg/L), and was transient because it was no longer apparent by the end of the study. Although LAS is a significant contaminant in terms of both concentration and frequency of detection in the aquatic environment, these data do not suggest that it will have a significant impact on the response of fish to environmental estrogens.

  9. Anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea, Poland) and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Miriam; Mauffret, Aourell; Pazdro, Ksenia; Blasco, Julian

    2012-10-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a group of anionic surfactants employed in the formulation of laundry and cleaning products, with a global production rate of 4 million metric tons. Sediments from the Polish coast of the southern Baltic Sea were collected at ten stations. Total LAS concentrations, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were between 0.04 and 0.72 mg LAS·kg(-1) dry weight. Highest LAS concentrations were found in suspended matter collected from the Vistula River, sediment collected close to the Vistula River mouth and from the Gdańsk Deep, known as the depositional area. With the obtained environmental LAS concentrations, a risk assessment for this surfactant has been carried out, based on publicly available acute and chronic toxicity data in target organisms. The results indicated that LAS could pose a low risk for the existing benthic community applying worst case scenario assessment. This is the first time that levels of LAS have been measured in environmental samples of the southern Baltic Sea.

  10. Activity and population dynamics of heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil surrounding sludge bands spiked with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Krogh, Paul Henning; Sørensen, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Recent research has documented soil microorganisms to be rather sensitive to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), which may enter the soil environment in considerable quantities following sewage sludge disposal. We here report field effects of LAS on selected microbial populations present in a sandy soil surrounding well-defined sludge bands spiked with high but realistic LAS levels (7.1 or 31.3 g/kg). Surprisingly, LAS had no effect on heterotrophic respiration in the sludge compartment per se but stimulated activity and metabolic quotient (microbial activity per unit of biomass) in the surrounding soil. By contrast, autotrophic ammonia oxidation was initially inhibited in the LAS-spiked sludge. This led to dramatic transient increases of NH4+ availability in the sludge and surrounding soil, subsequently stimulating soil ammonia oxidizers. As judged from a Nitrosomonas europaea bioluminescence toxicity assay, however, LAS or other sludge components never accumulated to toxic levels in the soil compartments and the LAS tolerance of the indigenous microbes further remained unchanged following LAS exposure. LAS effects on the investigated microbial populations largely occurred during the first two months and were confined to soil closer than 30 mm from LAS-spiked sludge. Our results strongly suggest that disposal of LAS-contaminated sludge does not pose a major risk to the function of the soil microbial community under field conditions.

  11. Analysis of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate homologues in environmental water samples by mixed admicelle-based extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunar, Loreto; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

    2006-07-01

    Hemimicelles and admicelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), adsorbed onto silica, were tested as sorbents for the solid phase extraction (SPE) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) homologues from environmental water samples. LASs were quantitatively retained on both surfactants due to high hydrophobic and ionic interactions, which led to the formation of analyte-extractant mixed aggregates. Parameters affecting the SPE of LASs were optimised. Recoveries of analytes from wastewater influent and effluent and river water samples ranged between 86 and 110%. Combination of SPE with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry provided detection limits for the different LAS homologues of about 4 ng L(-1). The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged from 5 to 9%. The method was applied to the analysis of LASs in wastewater and river samples using sample volumes between 10 and 25 mL. The LAS concentrations found ranged from 9 to 503 microg L(-1). No cleaning step was required to get accurate results.

  12. Assessment of the hemolysis and endothelial cell cytotoxicity induced by residual linear alkylbenzene sulfonates on pharmaceutical rubber stoppers based on HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianghui; Qiu, Lu; Li, Yueyue; Chen, Xiaofei; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method for quantitative determination of residual surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) compounds on pharmaceutical rubber stoppers. An HPLC-ESI-MS method was developed for separation and determination of five LAS homologs (C10-C14) under gradient conditions using methanol and ammonium acetate as mobile phases. Hemolysis activity of residual LAS compounds was analyzed by spectrophotometry. Expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after LAS compound treatment was examined by enzyme-linked sorbent assay. LAS compounds were well separated and determined by the established gradient conditions. The linear range was 0.05-8 µg/mL with correlation coefficients ≥0.997. Recoveries were from 73 to 134% and the relative standard deviation was <13.7%. There was a correlation between hemolysis rate and LAS compounds concentration when it was ≥0.8 µg/cm(2). LAS compounds decreased the viability of HUVECs and promoted the production of IL-6 and TNF-α. The developed analytical method was successful for quantitative determination of residual LAS compounds on pharmaceutical rubber stoppers and it is important to monitor and control the amount of LAS compounds on rubber stoppers.

  13. Optimization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) degradation in UASB reactors by varying bioavailability of LAS, hydraulic retention time and specific organic load rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Dagoberto Y; Delforno, Tiago P; Esteves, Andressa S; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Varesche, Maria B A

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in UASB reactors was optimized by varying the bioavailability of LAS based on the concentration of biomass in the system (1.3-16 g TS/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT), which was operated at 6, 35 or 80 h, and the concentration of co-substrates as specific organic loading rates (SOLR) ranging from 0.03-0.18 g COD/g TVS.d. The highest degradation rate of LAS (76%) was related to the lowest SOLR (0.03 g COD/g TVS.d). Variation of the HRT between 6 and 80 h resulted in degradation rates of LAS ranging from 18% to 55%. Variation in the bioavailability of LAS resulted in discrete changes in the degradation rates (ranging from 37-53%). According to the DGGE profiles, the archaeal communities exhibited greater changes than the bacterial communities, especially in biomass samples that were obtained from the phase separator. The parameters that exhibited more influence on LAS degradation were the SOLR followed by the HRT.

  14. Effect of laundry activities on in-stream concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in a small rural South African river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A K; Muller, W J; Gysman, N; Marshall, S J; Sparham, C J; O'Connor, S M; Whelan, M J

    2009-07-15

    In many parts of the world clothes are washed near to or in rivers and streams. Little information is available on resulting concentrations of detergent ingredients or on any potential effects caused. In this study, the fate of a commonly used anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) was investigated in a reach of the Balfour River (Eastern Cape Province, South Africa) which was regularly used as a site for laundry activity. Samples of river water were collected upstream of the main washing site and at a number of locations downstream on several occasions in winter and summer. Sediment samples were also collected and analysed. In addition, a household survey was conducted to ascertain the amount of detergent used and the distribution of washing practices. The results of the survey suggested that the use of riverside locations for laundry activities was seasonal. Most washing tended to be done at home during the winter with riverside sites used more frequently during the summer months. The monitoring data showed that LAS concentrations in water were very variable. They were occasionally high in the immediate vicinity of the laundry site (up to 342 microg L(-1)) but were generally very low (effects are expected from LAS emissions at this site.

  15. Large decrease in acute aquatic toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in hard water and seawater by adding adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Masaru; Takemoto, Yuka; Ishikawa, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) shows relatively high aquatic toxicity in hard freshwater or seawater. In this paper, we studied the effect of adsorbent on the aquatic toxicity of LAS in hard freshwater and seawater. Daphnia magna and Artemia salina were used for acute aquatic toxicity test in freshwater and seawater, respectively. Kaolin was used as a model adsorbent and toxic surface tension (gamma(tox)) was used as an indicator of toxic condition. Results showed that the values of gamma(tox) of LAS to D. magna and A. salina were about 45-55 mN/m and 35-40 mN/m, respectively. Surface tension of LAS solution decreased and its aquatic toxicity increased with increasing the water hardness or the salinity. By adding adsorbent into the solutions, the surface activity and the aquatic toxicity were decreased greatly, and the effect of water hardness or salinity on surface tension and aquatic toxicity were removed. That is to say, the surface tension curve of soft freshwater corresponds with that of hard freshwater containing adsorbent and the surface tension curve at low salinity corresponds with that obtained for high salinity solutions containing the adsorbent. Therefore, our experimental data leads to the conclusion that the relatively high aquatic toxicity of LAS in concentrated solution of inorganic salts disappears in the presence of adsorbents. This is an important viewpoint in conducting environmental risk assessment of surfactants.

  16. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  17. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  18. The scale epithelium as a novel, non-invasive tool for environmental assessment in fish: Testing exposure to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R M S; Pereira, B F; Ribeiro, R G L G; Pitol, D L; Ciamarro, C M; Valim, J R T; Caetano, F H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing pollution levels have turned our attention to assessing lethal and sublethal effects of toxic agents using the most informative techniques possible. We must seek non-invasive or non-lethal sampling methods that represent an attractive alternative to traditional techniques of environmental assessment in fish. Detergents are amongst the most common contaminants of water bodies, and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate) is one of the most used anionic surfactant on the market. Our study analyzed morphological alterations (histological and histochemical) of the scale epithelium of Prochilodus lineatus under exposure to two concentrations of LAS, 3.6mg/L and 0.36mg/L, for a period of 30 days and evaluated at 14, 21 and 30 days. In order to establish morphological analysis of the scale epithelium as a new non-lethal environmental assessment tool that is reliable and comparable to classic methods, the relative sensibility of this technique was compared to a commonly used method of environmental assessment in fish, the estimation of the effects of pollutants upon branchial morphology. Two experiments were carried out, testing animals in tanks, and in individual aquariums. Results of analyses on gill tissue show that exposure to 3.6mg/L of surfactant caused severe damage, including hyperplasia, hypertrophy and fusion at 14 days, with aneurisms at 21 and 30 days; while exposure to 0.36mg/L had lighter effects on the organ, mainly lower incidence of fusion and hyperplasia. Aditionally, scale morphology was altered severely in response to 3.6mg/L of LAS, consistently showing increased mucous and club cell production. Epithelial thickness was the most variable parameter measured. Scale epithelium sensibility has the potential to be a reliable environmental marker for fish species since it has the advantage of being less invasive when compared to traditional methods. However, more studies are required to increase the robustness of the technique before it can be

  19. Solid-phase contact assay that uses a lux-marked Nitrosomonas europaea reporter strain to estimate toxicity of bioavailable linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristian K; Pedersen, Anders; Sørensen, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Information about in situ toxicity of the bioavailable pools of adsorptive soil pollutants is a prerequisite for proper ecological risk assessment in contaminated soils. Such toxicity data may be obtained by assays allowing for direct exposure of introduced test microorganisms to the toxicants, as they appear in solid solution equilibria in the natural soil. We describe a novel sensitive solid-phase contact assay for in situ toxicity testing of soil pollutants based on a recombinant bioluminescent reporter strain of Nitrosomonas europaea. A slurry of the reporter strain and soil sample was shaken for 1 h, after which bioluminescence was measured either directly (soil slurry protocol) or in the supernatant obtained after centrifugation (soil extract protocol). The assay was validated for both protocols by using linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) as a toxic and adsorptive model compound in the soil samples. Interestingly, LAS showed the same toxicity to the reporter strain with either soil incubation (both protocols) or pure culture, suggesting that adsorbed LAS pools contributed to the observed toxicity. The solid-phase contact assay that used the reporter strain of lux-marked N. europaea was slightly more sensitive for the detection of LAS toxicity in soil than activity-based assays targeting indigenous nitrifiers and much more sensitive than assays targeting indigenous heterotrophic microbes. We conclude that the new solid-phase contact assay, which is based on direct interaction of the test microorganisms with bioavailable pools of the toxicants in soil, provides a most sensitive and relevant method for evaluating the in situ toxicity and assessing the risks of soil contaminants.

  20. The stability of non-ionic surfactants and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in a water matrix and on solid-phase extraction cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, M; Barceló, D

    2000-12-01

    The stability of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO), alcohol ethoxylates (AEO), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in a water matrix and preconcentrated on SPE cartridges was studied. A stability study was carried out in a water matrix (spiked ground water and real-world waste water) comparing different pretreatment procedures (addition of sulfuric acid to pH = 3, preservation with 1% and 3% of formaldehyde). When stored in a water matrix serious qualitative and quantitative changes occurred in waste water during the period of time studied (30 days). The losses of C12-C14 alcohol ethoxylates ranged from 72% to 88% when the sample was preserved with acid and from 17% to 86% when the sample was preserved with formaldehyde (3%). Simultaneously, an enrichment of the shorter alkyl chain homologues (C7EO and C10EO) was observed. The losses of NPEO were from 45% (sample preserved by acidification or by addition of 3% of formaldehyde) to 85% (sample preserved with 1% of formaldehyde). Additionally, an increase in concentration of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and formation of different acidic forms, such as monocarboxylated (MCPEGs) and dicarboxylated polyethylene glycols (DCPEGs) were observed. The stability of surfactants preconcentrated on SPE cartridges was studied as a function of storage time and storage conditions (room temperature, 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C). The results indicate that disposable SPE cartridges can be recommended for the stabilization of non-ionic surfactants and LAS. Storage at -20 degrees C is feasible for long periods (up to 3 months for ground water and up to 2 months for waste water), while storage at 4 C can be recommended for a maximum of 1 month. When cartridges were kept at -20 degrees C the losses of AEOs (n = 12, 13 and 14), preconcentrated from waste water, ranged from 17 to 29% (after 60 days) and other compounds suffered small losses (maximum of 14% for C13LAS). At room temperature, after 7 days, the

  1. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in fluidized bed reactor by microbial consortia in different support materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lorena Lima; Costa, Rachel Biancalana; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Vich, Daniele Vital; Duarte, Iolanda Cristina Silveira; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2010-07-01

    Four anaerobic fluidized bed reactors filled with activated carbon (R1), expanded clay (R2), glass beads (R3) and sand (R4) were tested for anaerobic degradation of LAS. All reactors were inoculated with sludge from a UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and were fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with approximately 20 mg l(-1) of LAS, on average. To 560 mg l(-1) COD influent, the maximum COD and LAS removal efficiencies were mean values of 97+/-2% and 99+/-2%, respectively, to all reactors demonstrating the potential applicability of this reactor configuration for treating LAS. The reactors were kept at 30 degrees C and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h. The use of glass beads and sand appear attractive because they favor the development of biofilms capable of supporting LAS degradation. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of samples from reactors R3 and R4 revealed that these reactors gave rise to broad microbial diversity, with microorganisms belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, indicating the role of microbial consortia in degrading the surfactant LAS.

  2. Determination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定线性烷基苯磺酸钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海燕; 张洁; 郭萍; 黄玉明

    2011-01-01

    A fast and efficient high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the separation and analysis of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates) by separation on Symmetry C8 column and UV detection at 224 nm. The effects of methanol to water ratio in the mobile phase, salts and their concentrations and flow rate on LAS separation were tested and the optimal separation conditions were obtained as follows: methanol to water ratio of 77:23 (v/v), 0. 5 mmol/L CH3COONa and a flow rate of 0. 5 mL/min. The linear range for LAS homologues was 0. 20-23. 00 mg/L with RSD of less than 5%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of LAS in natural water and wastewater with satisfactory results.%建立了高效快速的液相色谱法对线性烷基苯磺酸钠(linear alkylbenzene sulfonates,LAS)的分离测定方法.采用Symmetry C8柱分离,检测波长为224 nm.探讨了流动相中甲醇和盐的种类等对LAS分离效果的影响;优化后的LAS分离条件为:流动相中V(甲醇)∶ V(水)=77∶23且含有0.5 mmol/L无水CH3 COONa,流速为0.5 mL/min,LAS同系物的线性范围为0.20~23.00 mg/L,其相对标准偏差均小于5%.将该方法用于实际水样中LAS的分析,结果满意.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s for fuel cell proton exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Jang, H.H.; Lim, Y.D.; Seo, D.W.; Kim, W.G. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.H.; Hong, Y.T. [Energy Material Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.M. [Material Engineering and Science, Hongik Univ, Jochiwon-eup, Yeongi-gun, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (SPPA-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation (DS) were prepared by post-sulfonation of synthesized phenolphthalein anilide (PPA; N-phenyl-3,3'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-isobenzopyrolidone) poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PPA-PES) by using concentrated sulfuric acid. PPA-PES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of PPA with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol. The DS was varied with different mole ratios of PPA (24, 30, 40, 50 mol.%) in the polymer. The structure of the resulting SPPA-PES copolymers and the different contents of the sulfonated unit were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of SPPA-PES were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting SPPA-PES membranes was in the range of 20-72%, compared with 28% for Nafion 211 registered. The SPPA-PES membranes showed proton conductivities of 23-82 mS cm{sup -1}, compared with 194 mS cm{sup -1} for Nafion 211 registered, under 100% relative humidity (RH) at 80 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Hydroquinone based sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer as proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kiran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer by direct copolymerization of 4,4'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid, benzene 1,4-diol and synthesized sulfonated 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone and its characterization by using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic techniques have been performed. The copolymer was subsequently cross-linked with 4, 4!(hexafluoroisopropylidenediphenol epoxy resin by thermal curing reaction to synthesize crosslinked membranes. The evaluation of properties showed reduction in water and methanol uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity with simultaneous enhancement in oxidative stability of the crosslinked membranes as compared to pristine membrane. The performance of the membranes has also been evaluated in terms of thermal stability, morphology, mechanical strength and methanol permeability by using Thermo gravimetric analyzer, Differential scanning calorimetery, Atomic force microscopy, XPERT-PRO diffractometer, universal testing machine and diffusion cell, respectively. The results demonstrated that the crosslinked membranes exhibited high thermal stability with phase separation, restrained crystallinity, acceptable mechanical properties and methanol permeability. Therefore, these can serve as promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications.

  5. LAS 共代谢降解菌的降解动力学研究%Study on degradation kinetics of co-metabolic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季瑞武; 周利; 冉治霖; 朱佳

    2016-01-01

    研究2株直链烷基苯磺酸钠( LAS)共代谢降解菌的降解动力学.分别对2株直链烷基苯磺酸钠共代谢降解菌克雷伯氏菌属(Klebsiella sp.)和肠杆菌属(Enterobacter sp.)进行研究,通过正交实验考察了其最佳降解条件,并进行降解动力学研究.当温度为30℃,pH值为7.5,装液量为50 mL时,最适合两株细菌降解LAS.其中菌株L-2在生长基质葡萄糖质量浓度为500 mg/L时,对50 mg/LLAS降解率为94.2%;菌株L-15在生长基质葡萄糖质量浓度为1000 mg/L时,对50 mg/LLAS降解率为92.2%;当LAS质量浓度在25~100 mg/L范围内,2菌株降解反应符合一级动力学特征.本研究可为全基质生活污水处理LAS废水提供一定的理论依据.%The degradation kinetics of co -metabolic biodegradation of two linear alkyl-benzene sulfonate ( LAS) strains was studied .Two bacterial strains which could degrade lin-ear alkylbenzene sulfonate by co -metabolism mechanism , named as L-2 and L-15 were determined to Klebsiella sp .and Enterobacter sp .The optimal degradation conditions of L -2 and L-15 were investigated by the orthogonal experiment .The results suggested that the degradation rate of LAS (50 mg/L) by L-2 was up to 94.2%when glucose was chosen as growth substrate under the conditions as:30 ℃, pH 7.5, glucose concentration 500mg/L, while the degradation rate of LAS (50 mg/L) by L-15 was up to 92.2%under the condi-tions as:30 ℃, pH=7.5, glucose concentration 1 000 mg/L.The degradation reactions fitted first order kinetics when the concentration of LAS ranged from 25 mg/L to 100 mg/L. Certain theoretical basis of the treatment of LAS wastewater was provided by this study .

  6. ESI- MS and CAD- MS- MS Characterization of Alkylbenzene Sulfonates%烷基苯磺酸盐的电喷雾离子化质谱和碰撞活化解离质谱-质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰珍; 王瑛; 吕强; 李培基; 朱善农

    2001-01-01

    The alkylbenzene sulfonates (ABS) have been identified by positive, negative ions electrospray ionization(ESI) coupled with collision activated dissociation(CAD) MS methods. Fragment ion peaks for the sample can hardly be found in either positive or negative ESI-MS spectra, comparing with FAB-MS. Free from complicating fragments it makes the interpretation of the ESI-MS spectra easy. The detection sensitivity of branch ABS by positive ESI-MS is significantly lower than by negative ESI-MS. CAD spectra of selected ions were used to confirm ESI-MS spectra identification. The content ratio of linear ABS to branched ABS can be determined from negation ion ESI-MS spectrum. Negative ion ESI-MS is a rapid, effective and reliable for the analysis of ABS.%用正、负电喷雾电离( ESI)并结合碰撞活化解离( CAD)质谱法对烷基苯磺酸盐 (ABS)进行鉴定。无论正、负离子化过程中均不出现快原子轰击质谱常见的碎片峰,由于没有复杂碎片峰的干扰, ESI- MS对分析 ABS试样大为有利。正离子 ESI- MS对支化 ABS鉴定的灵敏度远低于负离子 ESI- MS。用 CAD- MS- MS对 ESI- MS谱各主要峰进行了归属。线型与支化 ABS相对含量可以用负离子 ESI- MS求出。负离子化 ESI- MS是快速、有效和可靠的鉴定 ABS的方法。

  7. Investigating the Efficiency of UV/H2O2 Process for Removal of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nabizadeh Nodehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objective: Surfactants are one of the largest pollutants which exist in urban and industrial wastewaters. Large quantities of surfactants have entered to the environment since last decade due to increased use of synthetic detergent in industrial and home consumptions.In this study, the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process in removal of linear alkylbenzane sulfonate (LAS from aqueous solutions was investigated."nMaterials and Methods: In this study methylene blue active substane(MBASmethod and spectrometery were used to determine anion and residual surfactant respectively. In this study important variables were H2O2 concentration, initial concentration of surfactant, pH and duration of UV radiation. The effect of UV/H2O2 process on the degradation of LAS was analyzed statistically by using Multiple Linear Regression test."nResults: The resulted showed that after 20 minute, ultraviolet radiation solely removed 38.44 percent of Anionic detergent, Hydrogen peroxide showed no significant removal of detergent solution in the time course study. The efficiency of UV/H2O2 process in 10, 20 and 30 minute were to 86.2, 90 and 96.5 %, respectively."nConclusion: The results showed that the efficiency of ultraviolet radiation and hydrogen peroxide process in anionic detergent was not significant thoogh it was considerable in combination process (UV/H2O2.

  8. In vitro biotransformation of surfactants in fish. Part I: linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C12-LAS) and alcohol ethoxylate (C13EO8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Scott D; Bernhard, Mary Jo; Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Perdu-Durand, Elisabeth; Demmerle, Susanne; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Developing regulatory activities (e.g., REACh, [DGEE. 2003. Directorates General Enterprise and Environment. The new EU chemicals legislation REACH. DG Enterprise, Brussels, Belgium. (http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/reach/index_en.htm)]) will require bioaccumulation to be assessed for thousands of chemicals. Further, there is increasing pressure to reduce, refine or replace animal tests. Given this scenario, there is an urgent need to evaluate the feasibility of in vitro systems to supply data useful for bioaccumulation estimation. Subcellular and cellular hepatic systems were tested to determine the biotransformation of two surfactants: C12-2-LAS (2-phenyl dodecane p-sulfonate) and an alcohol ethoxylate C13EO8 (Octaethylene glycol monotridecyl ether). The subcellular systems tested were liver homogenates and microsomes from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Cellular systems consisted of primary hepatocytes from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and PLHC-1 cells, hepatocarcinoma cells from the desert topminnow (Poeciliopsis lucida). All in vitro systems were exposed to radiolabeled test compounds and assayed for biotransformation using liquid scintillation and thin layer chromatographic methods. First-order kinetics were used to estimate rates of biotransformation. Bioconcentration of test materials in fish were predicted using an in vitro to in vivo metabolic rate extrapolation model linked to a mass-balance model commonly used to predict bioaccumulation in fish. Subcellular biotransformation rates for each of the surfactants were greatest with microsomes. Cellular loss rates exceeded subcellular rates, leading to lower predicted BCF values. Predicted BCFs corresponded closely to measured values in several fish species, verifying the utility of in vitro systems in refining Kow-only-based BCFs via the inclusion of biotransformation rates.

  9. Removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)in subsurface wastewater infiltration system%地下渗滤系统对直链烷基苯磺酸盐(LAS)的去除研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晶; 宋思雨; 袁方; 费鹤馨; 李修月; 孙亦飞

    2015-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)is a kind of organic pollutants that is most familiar and representative as to its environmental behavior and effect.The removal of LAS was studied in the subsurface wastewater infiltration system.The results showed that subsurface wastewater infiltration system had strong purifying function to LAS and its removal rate more than 90% when LAS concentration was between 0.56 and 40 mg/L.The removal rate of LAS increases with the increase of the concentration of LAS.The removal rate of COD,TP and IP decreased with the increase of concentration of LAS,meanwhile,the removal rate of NH+4 N had few change.The amount of bacteria,fungi and actinomyces decreased with the increase of concentration of LAS.LAS had no influence on the amount of nitrifying bacteria.The amount of denitrifying bacteria increased firstly and decreased finally.%直链烷基苯磺酸盐的广泛运用,使其成为环境中最常见的具有代表性的一类有机污染物,其环境行为与环境效应也受到普遍的关注。以生活污水中直链烷基苯磺酸盐为对象,研究了地下渗滤系统对其去除效果以及对其他污染物去除和基质微生物量的影响。结果表明:污水中直链烷基苯磺酸盐浓度在0.56~40 mg/L,地下渗滤系统对直链烷基苯磺酸盐的去除率达到90%以上;直链烷基苯磺酸盐去除率随着其浓度的增加而增加。随着直链烷基苯磺酸盐浓度的升高, COD、TN、TP和 IP的去除率下降,而 NH+4

  10. 直链烷基苯磺酸钠对中国林蛙抗菌肽基因表达的影响%The Effects of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate on Antimicrobial Peptide Genes Expression in Rana chensinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晖; 孙燕; 李治; 宋婧

    2011-01-01

    近年来由于生境丧失及环境污染等原因,中国林蛙野生种群急剧减少.为深入研究水体中普遍存在的阴离子表面活性剂直链烷基苯磺酸钠(linear alkylbenzene sulfonate,LAS)对中国林蛙生存的影响,通过急毒实验确定LAS对分别处于发育阶段26、32、42、46期的中国林蛙的半致死浓度.同时利用1、4、8 mg/L LAS处理不同发育阶段中国林蛙,研究LAS对中国林蛙存活率、发育状态的影响,并利用real-time PCR技术检测中国林蛙抗菌肽基因表达水平变化.结果表明,当处理时间为96 h,LAS浓度达到12.33 mg/L以上时会对不同发育阶段中国林蛙产生较为严重的致死效应.1~8 mg/L浓度范围的LAS虽然对中国林蛙存活和发育没有明显影响,但是改变了其抗菌肽基因表达模式.特别是中国林蛙胚后发育后期(32期)和变态期(42期),4~8 mg/L LAS会在不同程度上抑制prepropalustrin-2CE3 、preprobrevinin-2CE1和preprotemporin-1 CEd1抗菌肽基因表达.总体而言,高浓度LAS对中国林蛙免疫系统造成一定影响,可能使该物种更易受到致病菌的侵袭.研究结果为化学污染物对中国林蛙免疫系统影响积累了实验数据,同时为研究中国林蛙抗菌肽基因表达的调控通路提供一定的理论依据.%Rana chensinensis has been suffered from a dramatic reduction in recent years due to the losing of habitat, environmental pollution and so on. To understand the influence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), which is one of the most important pollutants in water environment, on the survival of Rana chensinensis, the median lethal concentration of LAS had been calculated by explosion of the frogs at stage 26, 32, 42, 46 in different concentrations of LAS. The effects of 1, 4, 8 mg/L LAS on the survival and development of Rana chensinensis at different stages were also investigated. Also, the expressions of antimicrobial peptide genes were detected by real-time PCR. The

  11. 直链烷基苯磺酸钠对雄性小鼠生精功能亚慢性毒性作用研究%Subchronic toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates to spermatogenic function in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 任春娥; 乔鹏云; 姜俊怡; 韩海艳; 王桂丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)对雄性小鼠生精功能的亚慢性毒性作用及毒性遗留作用. 方法 NIH种雄性小鼠给予LAS(630 mg/kg,315 mg/kg)灌胃,每日1次,连续经口染毒2个月,同时设对照组.在第4、8周及停止染毒后4周进行精子形态学观察,光镜观察睾丸组织形态学变化,透射电镜观察睾丸超微结构变化. 结果 实验组与对照组相比,染毒4周后精子畸形率上升,畸形主要表现在颈部,精子中部胞浆小滴增多.染毒8周精子畸形率升高更显著.组织学检查实验组小鼠染毒4周时精细小管内各级精母细胞和精子细胞数减少,生精细胞排列紊乱,随实验时间延长及染毒浓度的增加此异常改变更显著;超微结构观察显示睾丸生精上皮内支持细胞、间质细胞、精原细胞线粒体广泛异常改变,呈时间及浓度依赖性.上述异常改变在停止染毒后4周无明显恢复. 结论 LAS对雄性小鼠生精功能亚慢性毒性作用及毒性遗留作用表现为:使生精上皮内支持细胞、间质细胞及精原细胞出现广泛线粒体空泡样变,精子胞浆小滴出现率升高.%Objectives: To investigate the subchronic toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to spermatogenic function in mice. Methods: NIH mice were treated with 630 mg/kg and 315 mg/kg (1/2, 1/4 LD50)of LAS per day for two months. The control mice were treated with normal sodium. Sperm morphology, testicular histomorphology and super-micro structure under electron transmission microscopy were assayed four and eight weeks after treatment. All the indexes were examined again after terminating the treatment of LAS for 4 weeks. Results: Compared to the control group, the percentages of deformed sperm and sperm cytoplasmic droplets significantly increased four weeks after treatment (F<0. 001) , and the increase was more obvious after eight weeks. The changes of testicular histomorphology under the microscope and

  12. 一株高效降解直链烷基苯磺酸钠降解菌的分离鉴定及特性研究%Isolation and characterization of a bacteria strain with high efficiency to degrade linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德坤; 赵海泉

    2011-01-01

    从合肥市王小郢污水处理厂的污泥中分离得到一株能高效降解直链烷基苯磺酸钠(linear alkylbenzene sulfonates,LAS)的菌株S1.通过对其形态特征、生理生化性质以及16s rDNA序列分析,鉴定菌株S1为人苍白杆菌(Ochrobactrum anthropi).对菌株S1降解LAS进行了研究,结果表明,菌株S1利用LAS生长的最适温度为30℃,最适pH值为7.0;菌株S1在LAS的浓度低于1 000mg·L-1的环境中,对LAS的降解率在80%以上;菌株S1在LAS浓度达到3 500mg·L-1环境中仍能生长.%A bacterial strain, S1, which is able to degrade linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) with high efficiency, was isolated from the sewage of Wangxiaoying wastewater treatment plant. According to its morpho logical and physiological properties and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the bacteria strain was identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi. The optimum growth conditions for strain S1 were at 30℃ and pH 7.0, using LAS as sole carbon source. The degradation rate of strain S1 was higher than 80% when growing with LAS below 1 000 mg·L-1, and strain S1 could still grow with LAS above 3 500 mg·L-1.

  13. 在线萃取流动注射分光光度法测定消毒食(饮)具烷基苯磺酸钠残留量%Determination of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate residues in disinfected tableware by on-line extraction FI-spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝莉鹏; 闵巍; 李宏亮

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立在线萃取流动注射分光光度法测定食(饮)具烷基苯磺酸钠残留量的方法.方法:100 ml蒸馏水冲洗消毒后食(饮)具制成样液,用在线萃取流动注射分光光度法进行测定.结果:方法检出限1.7 μg/100 cm2,烷基苯磺酸钠的浓度在0 mg/L ~1.00 mg/L有良好的线性(相关系数0.9995),实际样品的加标回收率为92% ~104%,相对标准偏差为3% ~8.5%.结论:本方法操作简便,准确度、精密度好,对操作人员的危害小,适用于消毒食(饮)具中烷基苯磺酸钠残留量的批量检测.%Objective: To establish on - line extraction FI - spectrophotometry for the determination of sodium al-kylbenzene sulfonate residues in disinfected tableware. Methods: The disinfected tableware was rinsed by 100 ml distilled water to obtain the sample solution. Then the sample solution was determined by on - line extraction FI -spectrophotometry. Results: The detection limit was 1. 7 μg/100 cm with linear range of 0 mg/L ~ 1. 00 mg/L ( r = 0.9995). The recoveries were 92% ~ 104% , RSD=3% -8.5%. Conclusion: This method is simple, sensitive, accurate and safe for the determination of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate residues in disinfected tableware.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polymer blends of sulfonated polyethersulfone and sulfonated polyethersulfone octylsulfonamide for PEMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrouk, W. [ERAS Labo, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris, 75003 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1092 Tunis (Tunisia); Ogier, L.; Vidal, S. [ERAS Labo, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Sollogoub, C.; Fauvarque, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris, 75003 Paris (France); Matoussi, F.; Dachraoui, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2012-04-15

    Our goal in the present work was to synthesize a new proton exchange membrane that could be used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), based on a blend of sulfonated polyethersulfone (S-PES) and sulfonated polyethersulfone octylsulfonamide (S-PESOS). Five blends, using S-PESOS with different grafting ratios of sulfonamide groups, have been elaborated, characterized, and tested in a PEMFC. The similar chemical structure between these two polymers favored their compatibility. The synthesized membranes showed a high water swelling capacity and an ionic conductivity equivalent to that of Nafion registered (0.1 S cm{sup -1}) in the same conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  16. Development and application of environmental friendly experimental sulfonation apparatus%环保型实验磺化装置的开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广良; 杨效益; 郭朝华

    2011-01-01

    An environmental friendly experimental sulfonation apparatus was developed with liquid sulfur trioxide as raw material. This apparatus was used to sulfate linear alkylbenzene and alpha-olefin, and the neutralization value, colour, the content of active matter and unsulfated matter of products were determined by national standard, and the results were compared with physical-chemical indexes of nation standard industrial linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (GB/T 8447-2008) and sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate (GB/T 20200-2006 ), respectively. The results show that all indexes achieve the national standard except for the colour of alpha-olefin sulfonate, thus it is proved that this apparatus can be successfully used to synthesize new products and improve sulfonation process.%开发了以液体SO3为原料的环保型实验磺化装置,应用该装置对直链烷基苯和α-烯烃进行磺化,采用国标方法对磺化产物的中和值、色泽、有效物及未磺化物含量进行测定,并将测定结果分别与工业直链烷基苯磺酸( GB/T 8447-2008)和α-烯基磺酸钠( GB/T 20200-2006)产品的理化指标相比较,结果表明,除α-烯基磺酸钠产品色泽值略高外,其他各项指标均达到相应的国标要求,从而证明了该装置在合成磺化产品以及改进磺化工艺中的可行件.

  17. Liquid Crystal Sulfonated Aramids as Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two sulfonated aramids, poly(2,2’-disulfonylbenzidine terephthalamide) (PBDT) and poly(2,2’-disulfonylbenzidine isophthalamide) (PBDI) were synthesized with the aim to explore their unique morphology for proton exchange membrane applications. Due to the different polymer structures, PBDT forms a nem

  18. 一个可降解直链烷基苯磺酸盐的新种%A New Species of the Genus Phenylobacterium for the Degradation of LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯娜; 肖昌松; 应启锋; 纪树兰

    2003-01-01

    本文鉴定了一株可完全降解直链烷基苯磺酸盐(Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate,简称LAS)的菌株GZ6.革兰氏染色阴性,细胞为杆状或短杆状,大小为0.5μm~0.8 μm×1.0μm~2.0 μm,其生长pH范围为pH6.0~10.0,最适生长pH为7.0,生长温度范围为4℃~40℃,最适生长温度为30℃.生化特征测定除过氧化氢酶、尿酶、精氨酸脱羧酶反应为阳性,其它均为阴性.可利用Chloridazon、安替比林(antipyrin)以及LAS等为碳源.不能利用大多数糖醇.醌组分以泛醌Q-10为主.菌体脂肪酸主要为C18∶1、C16∶0及C16∶1.DNA中G+C mol%含量为70.10.16S rRNA 序列分析表明菌株GZ6 与其亲缘关系最近的菌株Phenylobacterium immobile DSM1986T序列相似值为97.49%,DNA-DNA杂交率为40%.菌株GZ6具极生鞭毛,可运动,两者在细胞形态有很大差异.故将菌株GZ6定为苯基杆菌属的新种可动苯基杆菌(Phenylobaterium mobile) GZ6.

  19. Multiblock copolymers with highly sulfonated blocks containing di- and tetrasulfonated arylene sulfone segments for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patric [Polymer and Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lund University (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with different block lengths and ionic contents are tailored for durable and proton-conducting electrolyte membranes. Two series of fully aromatic copolymers are prepared by coupling reactions between non-sulfonated hydrophobic precursor blocks and highly sulfonated hydrophilic precursor blocks containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The sulfonic acid groups are exclusively introduced in ortho positions to the sulfone bridges to impede desulfonation reactions and give the blocks ion exchange capacities (IECs) of 4.1 and 4.6 meq. g{sup -1}, respectively. Solvent cast block copolymer membranes show well-connected hydrophilic nanophase domains for proton transport and high decomposition temperatures above 310 C under air. Despite higher IEC values, membranes containing tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments display a markedly lower water uptake than the corresponding ones with disulfonated diarylsulfone segments when immersed in water at 100 C, presumably because of the much higher chain stiffness and glass transition temperature of the former segments. The former membranes have proton conductivities in level of a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (NRE212) under fully humidified conditions. A membrane with an IEC of 1.83 meq. g{sup -1} reaches above 6 mS cm{sup -1} under 30% relative humidity at 80 C, to be compared with 10 mS cm{sup -1} for NRE212 under the same conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Susceptibility of synthetic long-chain alkylbenzenes to degradation in reducing marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James

    2008-01-01

    Long-chain alkylbenzenes (LCABs) synthesized for production of alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants have been used as molecular markers of anthropogenic waste for 25 years. Synthetic LCABs comprise two classes, the tetrapropylene-based alkylbenzenes (TABs) and the linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). LABs supplanted TABs in the mid-1960s because of improved biodegradability of their sulfonated analogs. Use of LCABs for molecular stratigraphy depends on their preservation in sediments over decadal time scales. Most laboratory and field studies suggest that LABs degrade rapidly under aerobic conditions but are resistant to degradation when oxygen is absent. However, recent work indicates that LABs may not be as persistent under reducing conditions as previously thought. To assess the potential for degradation of LCABs in reducing sediments, box cores collected in 1992 and 2003 near a submarine wastewater outfall system were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The TABs were effectively preserved; differences between whole-core inventories were within analytical error. By contrast, whole-core inventories of the LABs decreased by about 50-60% during the same time interval. Based on direct comparison of chemical inventories in coeval core sections, LAB transformation rates are estimated at 0.07 ±. 0.01 yr-1. These results indicate that caution should be exercised when using synthetic LCABs for reconstruction of depositional records.

  1. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hacer Doǧan; Emel Yildiz; Metin Kaya; Tülay Y Inan

    2013-08-01

    Two different commercial grade carbon black samples, Cabot Regal 400R (C1) and Cabot Mogul L (C2), were sulfonated with diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid. The resultant sulfonated carbon black samples (S–C) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Composite membranes were then prepared using S–C as fillers and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) as polymer matrix with three different sulfonation degrees (DS = 60, 70 and 82%). Structure and properties of the composite membranes were characterized by FTIR, TGA, scanning electron microscopy, proton conduction, water uptake, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. Incorporation of S–C particles above 0.25 wt% caused decrease in chemical stability. Pristine and composite membranes prepared from SPEEK82 decomposed completely in <1 h, which is undesirable for fuel cell applications. SPEEK60 membrane having wt% of 0.25–0.5 with S–C particles led to higher proton conductivity than that of pristine membrane. No positive effect was observed on the properties of the composite membranes with the addition of S–C particles at high concentrations due to the agglomeration problems and decrease in the content of conductive polymer matrix.

  2. Alkylbenzene Project in Xinjiang Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weiyong

    1996-01-01

    @@ The feasibility study on alkylbenzene project in Dushanzi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, submitted jointly by the government of Xinjiang UygurAutonomous Region and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), has been approved by State Council recently,after pass appraisa l by China International Engineering Consulting Corporation entrusted by State Planning Committee.

  3. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate(LAS) on the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in Spinibarbus sinensis%直链十二烷基苯磺酸钠对中华倒刺鲃SOD和GSH-Px的活性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 孙翰昌

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of anionic surfactants on antioxidant enzyme activities in fish, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined in Spinibarbus sinensis after a 10 day exposure to three concentrations (0.01, 0.2 and 4.0 mg/L) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The results showed that, investigation of SOD and GSH-Px in plasma and liver indicated that LAS exposure resulted in changes of the enzyme activities. Induction of the two enzymes in all tested tissues occurred in the initial exposure days, and then the enzyme activities decreased with the increase of LAS concentration (0.2 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L) and extension of exposure time(4?6?8? 10 d) , which suggested that the enzyme activities correlated to the LAS concentrations and the exposure times.%以中华倒刺鲃(Spinibarbus sinensis)暴露于不同浓度的直链十二烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)中10 d,研究阴离子表面活性剂对鱼类抗氧化酶的影响.结果表明,亚致死浓度(4.9 mg/L)LAS暴露可导致中华倒刺鲃超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性发生变化.当LAS质量浓度为0.01 mg/L时,所有受检组织(血液、肝脏)的SOD和GSH-Px活性在暴露初期均受到不同程度的诱导,但LAS浓度为0.2 mg/L和4.0 mg/L和暴露时间超过4 d时,酶活性均呈明显的下降趋势,提示LAS暴露所引起的酶活性变化与暴露浓度和暴露时间有一定的相关性.

  4. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test.

  5. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  6. 茶多酚对直链烷基苯磺酸钠致小鼠皮肤损伤的保护作用%The Protective Effects of Tea Polyphenol on Injury of Skin Tissue of Mice Induced by Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文红; 崔慧娴; 孙倩男; 陈兵兵

    2016-01-01

    本研究主要探讨茶多酚(Tea polyphenol,TP)对直链烷基苯磺酸钠(Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, LAS)引起小鼠皮肤组织损伤的保护作用。将50只健康昆明种雄性小鼠随机分为5组,每组10只,分别为正常对照组、TP 对照组(TP 100 mg·L-1)、LAS 损伤组(LAS 300 mg·L-1)、TP 干预组1(LAS 300 mg·L-1,TP 100 mg·L-1)与干预组2(LAS 300 mg·L-1,TP 200 mg·L-1)。分别用蒸馏水及不同剂量的 LAS 及 TP 涂抹小鼠的背部剃毛处,连续涂抹60 d,观察各组小鼠的饮食、日常活动及体质量变化情况;取背部涂抹皮肤进行 HE 及 Masson染色观察皮肤组织结构及胶原纤维变化情况;检测皮肤中丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、羟脯氨酸(Hyp)及小鼠血清中乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、一氧化氮(NO)水平。结果表明,TP 干预可拮抗 LAS 引起的小鼠皮肤组织氧化应激及胶原改变;从第6周开始,干预组小鼠体质量增长显著高于 LAS 损伤组(P<0.01);皮肤形态结构有所改善,表皮厚度增加且较为完整,胶原纤维含量增加,纤维排列杂乱、松散、模糊的现象得到改善;皮肤中 SOD、GSH-Px 及 Hyp 水平明显增加,MDA 含量显著减少(P<0.01);血清中 LDH、NO 水平显著低于 LAS 损伤组(P<0.01)。实验结果表明 TP 在一定程度上对 LAS 所致小鼠皮肤的损伤有保护作用。%The objective of the study is to investigate the protective effects of tea polyphenol (TP) on injury of skin tissue of mice induced by linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). Fifty healthy Kunming mice (male) were randomly divided into 5 groups including normal control group (NC), TP control group (TPC), LAS-injury group (LAS, 300 mg·L-1), TP-intervention group 1 (LAS 300 mg·L-1, TP 100 mg·L-1) and TP-intervention group 2 (LAS 300 mg·L-1, TP 200 mg·L-1) respectively (n=10). The skins

  7. Effects of polymer structure on properties of sulfonated polyimide/protic ionic liquid composite membranes for nonhumidified fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shin-ichiro; Honda, Yoshiyuki; Kinugawa, Kei; Lee, Seung-Yul; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of polymer structure on the properties of composite membranes including a protic ionic liquid, [dema][TfO] (diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate), for nonhumidified fuel cell applications, we synthesized sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) with different structures as matrix polymers, which have different magnitudes of ion-exchange capacities (IECs), different sequence distributions of ionic groups, and positions of sulfonate groups in the main chain or side chain. Despite having similar IECs, multiblock copolymer SPI and random copolymer SPI having sulfonate groups in the side chain exhibit higher ionic conductivity than random copolymer SPI having sulfonate groups in the main chain, indicating that the flexibility of sulfonic acid groups and the sequence distribution of ionic groups greatly affect the ion conduction. Atomic force microscopy observation revealed that the multiblock copolymer SPI forms more developed phase separation than the others. These results indicate that the flexibility of sulfonic acid groups and the connectivity of the ion conduction channel, which greatly depends on the sequence distribution, affect the ion conduction.

  8. Chemical Agent Performance of Sulfonated Ionomeric Membranes for Chem/Bio Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Polyisobutylene ( PIB ) Chemically Modified IB Sulfonic Acid Counter-ion (Ba, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cs)Block Copolymer Morphology Sulfonic acid...Mauritz, K., 2000: Diffusion of Alcohols Through Sulfonated PS/ PIB /PS Block Copolymers Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Polymer Materials: Engineering

  9. Environmental behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyuan; Tan, Yuyun; Korte, F.

    1991-03-01

    LAS degradation rate in Donghu Lake water under aerobic was much faster than under anaerobic condition. The half life of LAS in aerobic and anaerobic environment was 3.2 days and 57 days, respectively. The degradation rate at 25 27°C was approximately 20 times higher than that at 1.5 3.5 °C. In a laboratory model aquatic ecosystem, two stages of bioconcentration in fish, daphnia and snail were observed. The first stage, on second day exposure, resulted from accumulation of intact LAS, and the second stage, on 16th day exposure, was due to metabolites. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of LAS was extremely low in the muscle of hybrid carp (0.64), but rather high (2485) in the gall bladder.

  10. Degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate with contact glow discharge electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budikania, Trisutanti; Ibrahim, Febiyanti, Irine Ayu; Utami, Nissa; Saksono, Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) is one of electrolysis plasma technologies. CGDE can produce the hydroxyl radical in a large amount that can be used for wastewater degradation process. This study was conducted to obtain the influence of applied voltage, electrolyte concentration, and anode depth in the LAS degradation using CGDE and review its energy consumption. The greatest LAS degradation is achieved up to 99.14% with low energy consumption of 1149.88 kJ/mmol of the energy consumption that is obtained during 120 minutes by using 600 Volt, 0.02 M of KOH, and 0.5 cm of the anode depth and initial concentration of LAS is 100 ppm.

  11. Pendant dual sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) proton exchange membranes for fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Dat Thinh; Yang, Sungwoo; Kim, Dukjoon

    2016-10-01

    Poly(arylene ether ketone) (PAEK) possessing carboxylic groups at the pendant position is synthesized, and the substitution degree of pendant carboxylic groups is controlled by adjusting the ratio of 4,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)valeric acid and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane. Dual sulfonated 3,3-diphenylpropylamine (SDPA) is grafted onto PAEK as a proton-conducting moiety via the amidation reaction with carboxylic groups. The transparent and flexible membranes with different degrees of sulfonation are fabricated so that we can test and compare their structure and properties with a commercial Nafion® 115 membrane for PEMFC applications. All prepared PAEK-SDPA membranes exhibit good oxidative and hydrolytic stability from Fenton's and high temperature water immersion test. SAXS analysis illustrates an excellent phase separation between the hydrophobic backbone and hydrophilic pendant groups, resulting in big ionic clusters. The proton conductivity was measured at different relative humidity, and its behavior was analyzed by hydration number of the membrane. Among a series of membranes, some samples (including B20V80-SDPA) show not only higher proton conductivity, but also higher integrated cell performance than those of Nafion® 115 at 100% relative humidity, and thus we expect these to be good candidate membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  12. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES proton exchange membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa and low water swelling (λ < 15 even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  13. APPLICATION OF THE SULFONATE ESTER GROUP AS A LINKER FOR SOLID PHASE ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Weimin; LUO Juntao; HUANG Wenqiang; ZHU Xiaoxia

    2001-01-01

    A use of Sulfonate ester as a linker in synthesis of ω-aminoalkanols was reported. Diols were tethered onto polystyryl sulfonyl chloride resin, yielding sulfonate resins (2). After cleaved by diethyl amine, diisopropylamine and propylamine respectively, three ω-aminoalkanols were obtained.

  14. APPLICATION OF THE SULFONATE ESTER GROUP AS A LINKER FOR SOLID PHASE ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNWeimin; ZHUXiaoxia; 等

    2001-01-01

    A use of sulfonate ester as a linker in synthesis of w-aminoalkanols was reporte.Diols were tethered onto polystyryl sulfonyl chloride resin,yielding sulfonate resins(2).After cleaved by diethyl amine,diisopropylamine and propylamine respectively,three w-aminoalkanlos were obtained.

  15. Poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Enlei; Wang, Guosheng; Yu, Ping; Zhao, Qiuxia; Yao, Fangbo

    2015-05-01

    To develop high performance and cost-effective membranes with low permeability of vanadium ions for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application, poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups (PyPPSU) are prepared and first investigated for VRFB application. PyPPSU membranes show much lower vanadium ions permeability (0.07 × 10-7-0.15 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) than that of Nafion 117 membrane (31.3 × 10-7 cm2 min-1). As a result, the self-discharge duration of the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane (418 h) is about four times longer than that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (110 h). Furthermore, the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane exhibits higher battery efficiency (coulombic efficiency of 97.8% and energy efficiency of 80.2%) compare with that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (coulombic efficiency of 96.1% and energy efficiency of 77.2%) at a high current density of 100 mA cm-2. In addition, PyPPSU membrane exhibits stable performance in 100-cycle test. The results indicate that PyPPSU membrane is high performance and low-cost alternative membrane for VRFB application.

  16. Preparation of Chitosan/Polystyrene Sulfonate Multilayered Composite Metal Nanoparticles and Its Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fangxin; Chen, Chunxiao; Liu, Shantang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-Chitosan (CTS) composite was first synthesized through the metal composition of chitosan (CTS) and metal ions. The formed composite was alternately deposited on the base with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) through a layer-by-layer self-assembling technique, followed by an in situ reduction by sodium borohydride to produce a polyelectrolyte nanocomposite thin film containing metal nanoparticles. Assembly, surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the composite membrane were analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The UV-Vis results indicated that the absorbance of the multilayer film at the characteristic absorption peak increased as the membrane bilayers increased, in a good linear relationship, which demonstrated that the multilayer film was uniformly assembled on the base. AFM images showed that the surface of the multilayer thin-film composite had some degree of roughness and metal nanoparticles of 10-20 nm in size were generated on the membrane. The CV results indicated that the metal nanocomposite film had excellent electrocatalytic activity to glucose and had a potential for applications in electrochemical sensors.

  17. Radiation grafting of styrene and maleic anhydride onto PTFE membranes and sequent sulfonation for applications of vanadium redox battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Jingyi; Ni Jiangfeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: mlzhai@pku.edu.cn; Peng Jing [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou Henghui [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: hhzhou@pku.edu.cn; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Using {gamma}-radiation technique, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane was grafted with styrene (St) (PTFE-graft-PS) or binary monomers of St and maleic anhydride (MAn) (PTFE-graft-PS-co-PMAn), respectively. Then grafted membranes were further sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid into ion-exchange membranes (denoted as PTFE-graft-PSSA and PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc, respectively) for application of vanadium redox battery (VRB). Micro-FTIR analysis indicated that PTFE was successfully grafted and sulfonated at the above two different conditions. However, a higher degree of grafting (DOG) was obtained in St/MAn binary system at the same dose due to a synergistic effect. Comparing with PTFE-graft-PSSA, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane showed higher water uptake and ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and lower area resistance (AR) at the same DOG. In addition, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc with 6% DOG also showed a higher IEC and higher conductivity compared to Nafion membrane. Radiation grafting of PTFE in St/MAn binary system and sequent sulfonation is an appropriate method for preparing ion-exchange membrane of VRB.

  18. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  19. Covalently Cross-Linked Sulfone Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Poly(Vinylbenzyl Chloride) for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng;

    2013-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked polymer membranes were fabricated from poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO(2) PBI) and poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBCl) as electrolytes for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The cross-linking imparted organo insolubility and chemical stability against...

  20. Jacobsen protocols for large-scale epoxidation of cyclic dienyl sulfones: application to the (+)-pretazettine core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, G Reza; du Jourdin, Xavier Mollat; Fuchs, Philip L

    2012-05-18

    A Jacobsen epoxidation protocol using H2O2 as oxidant was designed for the large-scale preparation of various epoxy vinyl sulfones. A number of cocatalysts were screened, and pH control led to increased reaction rate, higher turnover number, and improved reliability.

  1. Sulfonic Acid Modified Hollow Silica Spheres and Its Application in Proton Exchange Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Min; YUAN Junjie; ZHOU Guangbin

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the proton conductivity of hollow silica spheres (HSS)/perfluorosulfonic acid ion-exchange (PFSA) composite membranes as proton exchange membrane,sulfonic acid groups were grafted onto the surfaces of HSS via post grafting methods.TEM images and FT-IR spectra of the obtained sulfonic acid groups modified hollow silica spheres (SAMHSS) illustrated that the sulfonic acid groups were successfully grafted onto the surfaces of HSS.Water uptake and swelling degree of SAMHSS/PFSA composite membranes were found much higher than those of HSS/PFSA membranes due to the introduction of hydrophilic sulfonic acid groups.In a range from 50 ℃C to 130 ℃,the highest conductivity of composite membranes was obtained when 5 wt% SAMHSS was loaded.The maximum conductivity reached 7.5×10-2S·cm-1 at 100 ℃C and 100% relative humidity,even the temperature increased to 130 ℃,the conductivity of composite membranes with 5 wt% SAMHSS could reach 3.7× 10-2 S·cm-1 at 100 % relative humidity,while the conductivity of the recast PFSA was only 2.2x 10-3 S·cm-1.

  2. Mechanically and structurally robust sulfonated block copolymer membranes for water purification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, J.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S.; Ryu, D. Y.; Kim, T.-H.; Park, M. J.

    2012-06-01

    The effective removal of ionic pollutants from contaminated water using negatively charged nanofiltration membranes is demonstrated. Block copolymers comprising polystyrene (PS) and partially hydrogenated polyisoprene (hPI) were synthesized by varying chain architectures. A one step procedure of cross-linking (hPI blocks) and sulfonation reactions (PS chains) was then carried out, which was revealed as an effective method to enhance mechanical integrity of membranes while hydrophilic sulfonated chains remain intact. In particular, the control of chain architecture allows us to create a synergetic effect on optimizing charge densities of the membrane, water permeability, and mechanical integrity under water purification conditions. The best performing membrane can almost completely (>99%) reject various divalent cations and also show NO3- rejection > 85% and Na+ rejection > 87%. Well defined nanostructures (tens of nanometers) as well as the periodically arranged water domains (a few nanometers) within hydrophilic phases of the hydrated membranes were confirmed by in situ neutron scattering experiments.

  3. 聚醚砜酮的磺化及其在异丁烯低聚反应中的应用%Sulfonation of Poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) and Its Application to Isobutene Oligomerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安增建; 周硼; 蹇锡高; 蔡天锡

    2003-01-01

    @@ Concentrated homogeneous mineral acids have been widely used as catalysts in industrial processes for several decades. These catalysts are corrosive to the apparatus, and there are large volumes of chemically reactive waste stream that are difficult to deal with[1]. In order to solve these problems, investigators have replaced these mineral acids with solid acid catalysts. Besides inorganic solid acid catalysts such as zeolite, solid organic polymeric resins containing acid groups, especially sulfuric acid resins such as Amberlyst[2], have attracted much attention. Compared with most inorganic acid catalysts, they have the advantages of their potentially high acidity, controllable surface area and porosity[3]. This article reports a novel sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (S-PPESK) resin and its application to isobutene oligomerization. S-PPESK exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent dimerization selectivity.

  4. New sulfonated polystyrene and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymers for applications in electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Franciélli; Ferreira, Carlos A; Franco, Lourdes; Puiggalí, Jordi; Alemán, Carlos; Armelin, Elaine

    2012-09-27

    In this study we prepared blends of polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) with poly(styrene-ethylene-butylene) (SEBS) triblock copolymer. After sulfonation, blends were used to fabricate ion-exchange membranes by solvent-casting and subsequent thermal treatment to obtain homogeneous packing densities. The morphology and structure of the blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the thermal transitions and stability of all the blends were characterized using calorimetric techniques and compared with those of the individual polymers. Analyses of the physical properties (i.e., ionic conductivity, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, dimensional stability, mechanical properties, etc.) showed that the performance of the PS-containing membranes is, in general, higher than that of the HIPS containing one. Furthermore, the highest sulfonation degree was also found for the PS/SEBS membranes. The capabilities of the membranes were tested by investigating the extraction of Na(+) by electrodyalisis. Comparison of the percentage of extracted ions indicates that the incorporation of SEBS results in a significant improvement with respect to membranes made of individual polymers.

  5. Observations on the Synergistic Interactions of Aqueous Oxidizers and Ultraviolet Radiation for Decontamination Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-20

    alkylbenzene sulfonic acids to carbon dioxide and water using UV irradiation and aqueous hypochlorite. Thus, the synergistic effect of high energy...Perhydroxyl Radicals. A Flash Photolysis Study," Cz.7 J. Cbem. 57, 3017-3022 (1979). M. Nakamura and Y.Ogata, "Photolytic Oxidation of AlkylBenzene Sulfonic ...the low concentration of quinine in the test solution, fluorescence is linear with concentration (Ewing, 1969). Since the pH of 2 x 10-4 quinine

  6. Voltammetric Behavior of Sodium 7-Methoxyl-4'-hydroxylisoflavone-3'-sulfonate and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zun-Ting张尊听; DONG She-Ying董社英; ZHENG Jian-Bin郑建斌; ZHANG Hong-Fang张宏芳; GAO Hong高鸿

    2004-01-01

    Voltammetric behavior of sodium 7-methoxyl-4'-hydroxylisoflavone-3'-sulfonate (SMHS) in the aqueous solution from pH 1 to 5 was studied by linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry and normal pulse voltammetry.SMHS caused only one reduction wave at -1.34 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode, SCE), which was an irreversible adsorptive wave of SMHS protonized involving one electron and one proton. The peak current of SMHS on synthetic samples. In addition, its scavenging effect on superoxide anion radical was studied by the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol in HCl-tris buffer solution (pH=8.2) in order to explain its peculiar biological effects. The experimental results proved that SMHS has antioxidant quality, and it is an efficient free radical scavenger of superoxide anion radical.

  7. Overbased Calcium sulfonate Detergent Technology Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qing-gao; MUIR Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Overbased calcium sulfonate is used widely as detergent in automotive and marine lubricants, as well as various industrial oil applications. In this paper, the process to produce overbased calcium sulfonate is overviewed. The sulfonate structure and molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution, the enclosed calcium carbonate nanoparticle size and crystalline structure, properties of the carrier oil, all influence its properties, such as stability, viscosity, and detergency of the system.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-poly(arylene ether sulfone)-polystyrene triblock copolymer for proton exchange membrane applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung-Eun; Hong, Young Talk; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2006-11-01

    The polystyrene-poly(arylene ether sulfone)-polystyrene (PS-PAES-PS) coil-semirod-coil triblock copolymer was synthesized by the condensation reaction of PS-COCI and H2N-PAES-NH2 telechelic polymers. The reaction was facile characterized by high yields with a perfect control over the block lengths. Following a known reaction protocol it was possible to selectively sulfonate the PS block of the triblock copolymer that led to the sulfonated copolymer sPS-PAES-sPS. Studies on its proton conductivity and methanol permeability were carried out to evaluate its use as the proton exchange membrane in direct methanol fuel cells. Proton conductivity of the membranes was increased depending on the sulfonic acid group content in the sulfonated polymer. The membranes exhibited good dimensional and thermal stability, and low methanol permeability compared to Nafion 117.

  9. [Preparation and application of solid phase extraction packing of zirconia microsphere coated with sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuchang; Liu, Yuhui; Xiao, Xiaoxing

    2013-08-01

    Zirconia microsphere was prepared by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation (PICA) method and carbon-carbon double bond was grafted onto its surface by titanic acid ester coupling reagent. Poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) was synthesized by free radical polymerization by using styrene, divinylbenzene and carbon-carbon double bond on the microsphere surface in solution system, so the polymer was coated on the microsphere surface. After the benzene ring of the polymer was sulfonated, the cation exchange packing for solid phase extraction (SPE) was obtained. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Three herbicides of mesotrione, atrazine and acetochlor in water were determined by the SPE cartridge coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the range of 0.5 - 3.0 mg/L, the relationships between the peak areas and mass concentrations of mesotrione, atrazine and acetochlor were linear with the correlation coefficients of 0.9936, 0.9925, 0.9919, respectively. The limits of detection were 5.41, 6.72 and 13.4 microg/L for mesotrione, atrazine and acetochlor, respectively. The results showed that the zirconium dioxide microspheres coated with polymer have diameters in the range of about 6 to 8 microm, the SPE cartridges of which have high adsorption rate for the targets.

  10. INHIBITION OF ALKYLBENZENE BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS BY USING THE ACETYLENE BLOCK TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Toluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degr...

  11. Study on efficiency of refractory linear alkyl-benzene sulfonates(LAS) removal from synthetic detergent wastewater by novel up-flow biological aerated filter%新型UBAF处理合成洗涤剂废水中降解LAS的效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪桂霞; 周步轩; 张欢; 刘弦

    2012-01-01

    通过在清水区悬挂生物绳软填料的上向流曝气生物滤池处理合成洗涤剂废水的试验,研究了水力负荷、气水比、污染负荷、滤层高度及溶解氧等对LAS处理效能的影响.结果表明:水力负荷、气水比及滤层厚度是新型UBAF处理效能的主要影响因素,进水污染负荷对LAS处理效能的影响不显著.废水LAS浓度与流经的滤层厚度存在很好的指数关系:Ch=C0ekh.新型UBAF的挂膜性能好,启动速度快,对COD、LAS的处理效能有一定提高.在水力负荷1.1 m3/(m2·h),气水比3∶1~4∶1的运行条件下,对典型合成洗涤剂废水中的LAS去除率达80%以上,处理水的LAS指标达到排放标准.%To improve the efficiency of up - flow biological aerated filter, fixed bio - cord in clarifying region was proposed and the novel system named NUBAF was applied on laboratory scale. Through study the effects of hydraulic loading, ratio of air to liquid, pollution load, media height and DO on linear alkyl - benzene sulfonates ( LAS) treatment performance using this new process and the results indicated that the hydraulic loading, ratio of air to liquid and media height were the main factors to the NUBAF performance , but the effect of the pollution load on the NUBAF performance was unremarkable. The removal efficiency of LAS could be up to 80 % under the optimal conditions; the hydraulic loading of 1. 1 mV (m2 ? H) , ratio of air to liquid of 3= 1 ~4: 1 (based on 3.3 mV (m2 ? H) :1. 1 m3/ (m2 ? H) ) , besides, there was an exponential relationship between the concentration of LAS and media height expressed as Ch = C0ekh. After treated by NUBAF, effluent was greatly improved to reach the discharge standards of China.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonic acid membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks for application in fuel cells; Sintese e caracterizacao de membranas sulfonadas baseadas em redes polimericas interpenetrantes para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Lyzed Toloza; Loureiro, Felipe A.M.; Rocco, Ana Maria [Grupo de Materiais Condutores e Energia, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: amrocco@eq.ufrj.br; Pereira, Robson Pacheco [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of sulfonic membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN). In order to obtain such systems, the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was polymerized in presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). These membranes were submitted to sulfonation reactions, originating IPN-SO{sub 3}H membranes. The characterization by FTIR evidenced the formation of a Semi-IPN structure, while sulfonation reactions resulted in systems containing -SO{sub 3}H groups covalently bonded to the chains. The membranes exhibited water retention up to 200 degree C, in a temperature range sufficient for application in PEMFC under hydration. (author)

  13. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend membranes for fuel cell applications - Surface energy characteristics and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakasabai, P.; Vijay, P.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Varughese, Susy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2011-02-01

    Ionic polymers, their blends and composites are considered potential candidates for application as electrolytes in fuel cells. While developing new materials for membranes, it is important to understand the interactions of these electrolytic materials with electrodes/catalysts and with reactants/products. Some of these interactions can be understood by estimating the surface energy and wettability of the membrane materials. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol with varying degrees of sulfonation and its blend with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) are prepared and studied for their wettability characteristics using goniometry. The surface energy and its components are estimated using different approaches and compared. Properties such as the ion-exchange capacity, the proton conductivity and the water sorption/desorption behaviour are also investigated to understand the relationship with wettability and surface energy and its components. Among the different methods, the van Oss acid-base and the modified Berthelot approaches yield comparable estimates for the total surface energy. (author)

  14. Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate-induced nanofibrillarity of polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate electropolymer and application in an amperometric enzyme biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndangili, Peter M. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Waryo, Tesfaye T., E-mail: twaryo@uwc.ac.z [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Muchindu, Munkombwe; Baker, Priscilla G.L. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Ngila, Catherine J. [School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X541001 Westville, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel I. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2010-05-30

    The formation of nanofibrillar polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate (Pani-PVS) composite by electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of ferrocenium hexafluorophophate (FcPF{sub 6}) and its application in mediated-enzyme biosensor using the horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (HRP/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) enzyme-substrate system is reported. The electropolymerization was carried out at glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) and screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) in a strongly acidic medium (HCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that 100 nm diameter nanofibrils were formed on the SPCE in contrast to the 800-1000 nm cauliflower-shaped clusters which were formed in the absence of FcPF{sub 6}. A model biosensor (GCE//Pani-PVS/BSA/HRP/Glu), consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized by drop coating atop the GCE//Pani-PVS in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (glu) in the enzyme layer casting solution, exhibited voltammetric responses characteristic of a mediated-enzyme system. The biosensor response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was very fast (5 s) and it exhibited a detection limit of 30 muM (3sigma) and a linearity of up to 2 mM (R{sup 2} = 0.998). The relatively high apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value (K{sub M}{sup app}=1.7mM) of the sensor indicated that the immobilized enzyme was in a biocompatible microenvironment. The freshly prepared biosensor was successfully applied in the determination of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content of a commercial tooth whitening gel with a very good recovery rate (97%).

  15. Preparation of sulfonic-functionalized graphene oxide as ion-exchange material and its application into electrochemiluminescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guifen; Zhai, Shengyong; Zhai, Yanling; Zhang, Ke; Yue, Qiaoli; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jinsheng; Wang, Huaisheng; Liu, Jifeng; Jia, Jianbo

    2011-03-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) obtained from chemical oxidation of flake graphite was derivatized with sulfonic groups to form sulfonic-functionalized GO (GO-SO(3)(-)) through four sulfonation routes: through amide formation between the carboxylic group of GO and amine of sulfanilic acid (AA-GO-SO(3)(-)), aryl diazonium reaction of sulfanilic acid (AD-GO-SO(3)(-)), amide formation between the carboxylic group of GO and amine of cysteamine and oxidation by H(2)O(2) (CA-GO-SO(3)(-)), and alkyl diazonium reaction of cysteamine and oxidation by H(2)O(2) (CD-GO-SO(3)(-)). Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrospectrocopy showed that -SO(3)(-) groups were attached onto GO. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that derivatization with sulfonic groups improved thermo stability of GO. X-ray diffraction results indicated that GO-SO(3)(-) had more ordered π-π stacking structure than the original GO. GO-SO(3)(-) and cationic polyelectrote, poly (diallyldimethylammoniumchloride) (PDDA) were adsorbed at indium tin oxide (ITO) glass surface through layer-by-layer assembling to form (GO-SO(3)(-)/PDDA)(n)/ITO multilayers. After tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) dichloride (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) was incorporated into the multilayers, the obtained Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/(GO-SO(3)(-)/PDDA)(n)/ITO electrodes can be used as electrochemiluminescence sensors for detection of organic amine with high sensitivity (limit of detection of 1 nM) and stability.

  16. Functionalization of immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs with lipid vinyl sulfones and their application in immunological techniques and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Bustos T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Cruz-Bustos,1,* Gloria González-González,1,* Julia Morales-Sanfrutos,2 Alicia Megía-Fernández,2 Francisco Santoyo-González,2 Antonio Osuna1 1Molecular Biochemistry and Parasitology Research Group, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOM-type nanocapsules have been functionalized with lipid vinyl sulfones that anchor to them via the hydrophobic zone of their structure and can be charged with pharmacologically active molecules or macromolecules. These functionalized nanocapsules can incorporate protein A and bind to G immunoglobulins (IgGs to make vehicles directed at the surface antigens of infectious agents, tumor cells, or receptor cells and deliver the encapsulated molecules in a highly specific way. They may be of particular use in pharmacological treatments with highly toxic molecules that should not be used in solution whenever it can be avoided. When bound to antibodies they can be used in biological processes that require the delivery or presentation of macromolecules to certain specific cells, in immunization processes for instance, or in diagnostic immunological techniques, as they are able to transport both the secondary antibodies and the reaction labels.Methods and results: We describe the preparation of ISCOMs, the binding to the ISCOMS of newly synthesized compounds composed of chain alkyl vinyl sulfone, and the subsequent binding of the vinyl-sulfone compounds to IgGs. Within this context, a compound deriving from cholesterol functionalized with vinyl sulfone and used together with cholesterol in varying proportions has been linked to the structure of the ISCOMs and bound to protein A–IgG. This functionalization in no way altered

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Silica and Its Application for the Esterification of Ethanol and Maleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsam, Rajkumar; Usmani, Ghayas

    2016-04-01

    The surface of commercially available silica gel, 60-200 mesh size, was modified with sulfonic acid through surface activation, grafting of 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, oxidation and acidification of 3-Mercaptopropylsilica. Sulfonic Acid Functionalization of Silica (SAFS) was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Acid-base titration was used to estimate the cation exchange capacity of the SAFS. Catalytic activity of SAFS was judged for the esterification of ethanol with maleic acid. An effect of different process parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, speed of agitation and temperature were studied and optimized by Box Behnken Design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Quadratic model developed by BBD-RSM reasonably satisfied an experimental and predicted values with correlation coefficient value R2 = 0.9504.

  18. A Durable Alternative for Proton-Exchange Membranes: Sulfonated Poly(Benzoxazole Thioether Sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Jin Hui; Song, Min Kyu; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Meilin

    2011-02-24

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s ( SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid–base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25°C to 90°C and excellent thermal stability up to 250°C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80°C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications.

  19. A durable alternative for proton-exchange membranes: sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Jinhuan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Song, Min-Kyu; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin [Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-03-18

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s (SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid-base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25 C to 90 C and excellent thermal stability up to 250 C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80 C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Preparation of low flow-resistant methacrylate-based monolithic stationary phases of different hydrophobicity and the application to rapid reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of alkylbenzenes at high flow rate and elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Yuji; Umemura, Tomonari; Iwashita, Yoshikazu; Odake, Tamao; Haraguchi, Hiroki; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi

    2006-02-17

    Low flow-resistant alkyl methacrylate-based monolithic stationary phases of different hydrophobicity were constructed for reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography by thermally initiated radical polymerization of respective methacrylate ester monomer with different alkyl chain (C2, C4, C6, C12, C18) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) in a 250 microm i.d. fused silica capillary. The hydrophobicity was basically controlled by changing the length and/or the density of the alkyl-chain, while the composition and the ratio of porogenic solvent were adjusted to obtain highly permeable rigid monoliths with adequate column efficiency. Among the prepared monolithic stationary phases, C18-methacrylate monoliths polymerized from a binary porogenic solvent of isoamyl alcohol and 1,4-buthandiol exhibited the most promising performance in terms of hydraulic resistance and column efficiency. The pressure drops of 20-cm long monolithic columns were below approximately 0.4 MPa at a normal linear velocity of 1mm/s (a flow rate of 3 microL/min), and the numbers of theoretical plates for alkylbenzenes mostly exceeded 3000 plates/20 cm. The produced monolithic columns had good mechanical strength for high pressure and temperature, and could be properly operated even at a temperature of 80 degrees C and at a pressure of at least 33 MPa. At 80 degrees C, the theoretical plate numbers reached 6000 plates/20 cm because of the enhanced mass transfer. Due to the novel hydraulic resistance and mechanical strength, the separation time could be reduced 120-fold simply by raising the flow rate and column temperature.

  1. Elimination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) and soap during composting of anaerobic sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prats, D.; Rodriguez, M.; Muela, M.A.; Llamas, J.M.; Moreno, A.; Ferrer, J. De; Berna, J.L.

    2003-07-01

    The composting plant uses a variety of agricultural residue and sludge from nearby wastewater treatment plants. The results obtained indicate a very high removal of LAS (>97%) in a very short period of time while the removal of soap was substantially lower (32%) as well as the elimination of TOC (total organic matter). The average half life of LAS in the process was between 6 and 9 days which is very short compared to the average residence time of the feed in the composting process (40 days). (author)

  2. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and atrazine on marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelius, B; Forja, J M; Del Valls, A; Lubián, L M

    2008-01-01

    Five marine microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii, Rhodomonas salina, Chaetoceros sp., Isochrysis galbana (T-iso) and Nannochloropsis gaditana), in the same biovolume quantity, were exposed to 72h growth-inhibition tests with atrazine and LAS. In all cases, the inhibition effect of atrazine was higher than that of LAS up to two orders of magnitude higher in the case of T. chuii. In a second part of the study, initial cellular densities for each microalga strain and fixed organic compound concentration were varied, and results show density has a clear influence in growth inhibition tests. Finally, the sum of all data obtained in the study was expressed in terms of "toxic cellular quota" (mass of chemical substance per cell). The result was a sigmoid curve with a good fit, including the two main factors in toxicity tests, initial cellular density and contaminant concentration. This toxic cellular quota exhibits a general tendency to increase with cell volume/size.

  3. Marine microalgae toxicity test for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Garrido, I; Hampel, M; Lubián, L M; Blasco, J

    2001-10-01

    Different microalgal species have been used in growth-inhibition tests to determine the toxic concentrations of anionic and non-ionic surfactants to phytoplankton. The species used were selected from different taxonomic groups, all of considerable ecological relevance to marine environments. The toxicity of the C13 LAS homologue to the microalgal species selected was usually one order of magnitude greater than that of the C11 homologue. The toxicity of a commercial LAS mixture to different microalgal species was also checked. For this material and C. gracilis, cellular counting by means of a Neubauer chamber and by use of a flow cytometer were compared; differences between the two methods were insignificant. The toxicity of decaethoxylated nonylphenol non-ionic surfactant to C. gracilis was also checked; the EC50 value for this compound was 1.0 mg L(-1).

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowanek, Diederik; David, Helen; Francaviglia, Rosa; Hall, Jeremy; Kirchmann, Holger; Krogh, Paul Henning; Schraepen, Nathalie; Smith, Stephen; Wildemann, Tanja

    2007-12-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe's Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge for use in agriculture-conceptual Framework. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40 (3), 227-251], consists of three main steps. First, the most sensitive endpoint was determined. This was found to be the chronic ecotoxicity of LAS to soil invertebrates and plants. Additional endpoints, such as potential for plant uptake and transfer in the food chain, leaching to groundwater, surface erosion run-off, human health risk via drinking water, plant consumption and soil ingestion were also systematically evaluated but were all assessed to be of little toxicological significance. In the second step, a back-calculation was conducted from the Predicted No-Effect Concentration in soil (PNECsoil) to a safe level of LAS in sludge (here called 'Sludge Quality Standard'; SQS). The deterministic approach followed the default agricultural soil exposure scenario in the EU-Technical Guidance Document (TGD). The SQS for LAS was calculated as 49 g/kg sludge Dry Matter (DM). In order to assess the potential variability as a result of varying agricultural practices and local environmental conditions, two probabilistic exposure assessment scenarios were also developed. The mean SQS was estimated at 55 and 27.5 g/kg DM for the homogeneous soil mixing and soil injection scenarios, respectively. In the final step, the resulting SQS values were evaluated for consistency and relevance versus available information from agricultural experience and field tests. No build-up, adverse impact on soil fertility, agronomic performance, or animal/human health have been reported for agricultural fields which have received sludge with high LAS levels for up to 30 years. Distribution statistics of LAS concentrations in anaerobically digested sewage sludge measured across Europe were created (mean value: 5.56 g LAS/kg sludge DM). When compared to the above mean SQS values, adequate risk characterisation ratios of 0.08-0.2 were found. The 'ecological risk' parameter calculated for anaerobic sludge from the probabilistic approaches was below 3%. A regulatory Limit Value for LAS of 2.60 g/kg sludge DM was originally proposed in the 3rd Draft of the Working Document on Sludge [CEC, 2000b. Working Document on Sludge. Third Draft, Brussels 27 April 2000, DG. Environment, 18 p.]. The current assessment, based on an updated dataset and a refined assessment procedure, suggests that the need for a limit value for LAS in sewage sludge cannot be substantiated on a risk basis.

  5. Crosslinked sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) membranes bearing quinoxaline and acid-base complex cross-linkages for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinbing; Chen, Pei; An, Zhongwei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Chen, Kangcheng; Okamoto, Kenichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    A series of crosslinkable sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone)s (SPAEKs) were synthesized by copolymerization of 4,4'-biphenol with 2,6-difluorobenzil and 5,5'-carbonyl-bis(2-fluorobenzene-sulfonate). A facile crosslinking method was successfully developed, based on the cyclocondensation reaction of benzil moieties in polymer chain with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine to form quinoxaline groups acting as covalent and acid-base ionic crosslinking. The uncrosslinked and crosslinked SPAEK membranes showed high mechanical properties and the isotropic membrane swelling, while the later became insoluble in tested polar aprotic solvents. The crosslinking significantly improved the membrane performance, i.e., the crosslinked membranes had the lower membrane dimensional change, lower methanol permeability and higher oxidative stability than the corresponding precursor membranes, with keeping the reasonably high proton conductivity. The crosslinked membrane (C-B4) with an ion exchange capacity of 2.02 mequiv. g{sup -1} showed a reasonably high proton conductivity of 111 mS cm{sup -1} with a low water uptake of 42 wt% at 80 C. C-B4 exhibited a low methanol permeability of 0.55 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for 32 wt% methanol solution at 25 C. The crosslinked SPAEK membranes have potential for PEFC and DMFC applications. (author)

  6. Preparation and properties of sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    In order to develop novel membranes for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with low self-discharge rate and low cost, sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) (SPFEK) was synthesized directly via aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation of bisphenol fluorene with 60% sulfonated difluorobenzophenone and 40% difluorobenzophenone. The SPFEK membrane shows the lower permeability of vanadium ions. The open circuit voltage evaluation demonstrates that the SPFEK membrane is superior to Nafion 117 membrane in self-discharge test. Both energy efficiencies (EE) and power densities of the VRB single cell based on the SPFEK membrane are higher than those of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane at the same current densities. The highest coulombic efficiency (CE) of VRB with SPFEK membrane is 80.3% while the highest CE of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane is 77.0%. The SPFEK membrane shows the comparative stability to Nafion 117 membrane in VO 2 + electrolyte. The experimental results suggest that SPFEK membrane is a promising ion exchange membrane for VRB.

  7. SULFONATION OF A NEW POLYETHERETHERKETONE PREPARED FROM PHENOLPHTHALEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tianlu; YUAN Yagui; ZHANG Manhua; CHEN Zhongqing; XU Jiping

    1990-01-01

    A novel polyetheretherketone (PEK-C) prepared from phenolphthalein has been synthesized. In order to improve some of its properties for application in high performance membrane, the PEK-C has been sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid. Degree of sulfonation can be regulated by controlling the temperature and time of sulfonation. The characterization of the sulfonated PEK-C in sodium salt form has been made by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR etc. It is shown that the sulfonation appears to take place exclusively in the ortho position to phenolic ether of phenolphthalein unit. The result is in agreement with theoretical deduction. Some properties of the sulfonated PEK-C, such as solubility, transition temperature, thermal degradation and hydrophilicity have also been discussed.

  8. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α-Substituted Vinyl Sulfones: An Efficient Approach to Chiral Sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liyang; Wei, Biao; Yin, Xuguang; Xue, Peng; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2017-03-03

    Rh/(S)-(+)-DTBM-Segphos complex catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of α-substituted vinyl sulfones has been achieved, furnishing the desired products in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (>90% yield, up to 99% ee). This method provided an efficient approach to α-substituted chiral sulfones under mild conditions and has potential applications in organic synthesis.

  9. Simulation of Suspension Catalytic Distillation for Synthesis of Linear Alkylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王二强; 李成岳

    2003-01-01

    Suspension catalytic distillation (SCD) has been developed recently as an innovative technology in catalytic distillation. In this paper, a brief introduction to SCD is given and an equilibrium stage (EQ) model is developed to simulate this new process for synthesis of linear alkylbenzene (LAB) from benzene and 1-dodecene.Since non-ideality of this reaction system is not strong, EQ model developed could be applied to it successfully.Simulation results agree well with experimental data, and indicate some characteristics of SCD process as an advanced technology for the production of LAB: 100% conversion of olefins, low temperature (90-100℃) and low benzene/olefin mole ratio.

  10. [Reparation and application of perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column in extraction and enrichment of perfluorooctane sulfonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Zhou, Naiyuan; Chen, Bo

    2011-10-01

    A perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column has been prepared by using sol-gel method. The preparation steps included hydrolysis of alkoxy silane, fasculation of silanol, gelation, aging, meso-pore preparation, drying and surface modification. It could be used as a solid phase extraction (SPE) microcolumn for extraction and enrichment of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The enrichment characteristics and efficiency of the perfluorodecyl modified monolithic silica capillary column has been investigated and compared with C18 silica monolithic capillary column. The results indicated that the perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column ( 15 cm x 75 microm) had a higher adsorption capacity and a better enrichment selectivity for PFOS. The average adsorption capacity of the perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column was 75 ng. And when the PFOS mass concentration in sample was 0. 25 mg/L, the enrichment factor was 29-fold in average. Owing to the good performance of the perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column, it can be used for the extraction and enrichment of trace PFOS in water to meet the requirements of water quality monitoring and analysis.

  11. Sulfonated Polyetherimide and Its Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Polyetherimide (PEI) was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid for the first time. The sulfonated products were characterized by FT-IR, DSC, ion exchange capacity and water sorption measurement. The hydrophilicity of PEI was improved by the sulfonation. The PEI was blended with the sodium salt form of sulfonated PEI (SPEI) to prepare microporous membranes. The morphologies of the membranes were studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  12. Analytical methodology for sulfonated lignins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need to characterize and classify lignins and sulfonated lignins. Lignins have so far received a good deal of attention, whereas this is not true for sulfonated lignins. There is a clear demand for a better understanding of sulfonated lignins on a chemical as well as physical

  13. Anaerobic digestion of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates: biodegradation kinetics and metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M T; Campos, E; Ribosa, I; Latorre, A; Sánchez-Leal, J

    2005-09-01

    In the present work the effect of the alkyl chain length and the position of the sulfophenyl substituent of the linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) on their anaerobic biodegradability have been investigated. Degradation kinetics of the linear alkyl benzene sulfonates homologues, 2phiC10LAS, 2phiC12LAS and 2phiC14LAS, have been studied. It has been also investigated the effect of the isomer type on the degradation rate of the LAS molecule through the comparative study of the 2phiC10LAS and 5phiC10LAS isomers. Batch anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as microorganisms source. Ultimate biodegradation was evaluated from the biogas production whereas primary biodegradation was determined by specific analysis of the surfactant. LAS homologues and isomers showed a negligible primary biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, analysis of sulfophenyl carboxilates (SPC) by LC-MS indicated a low and constant level of these LAS degradation metabolites over the test period. These data are consistent with a minimal transformation of the LAS parent molecule in the anaerobic digesters. On the other hand, the addition of the shortest alkyl chain length homologues, decyl and dodecylbenzene sulfonates, reduces the biogas production whereas the most hydrophobic homologue, the tetradecylbenzene sulfonate, enhances the biogas production. This LAS homologue seems to increase the availability of organic compounds sorbed on the anaerobic sludge promoting their biodegradation.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance Study of Phosphosilicate Gel-Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone Nanocomposite Membrane for Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganguly

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphosilicate gel – SPEEK (Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone hybrid nanocomposite membranes are proposed for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The nanocomposite membranes are synthesized and characterized at 50 and 60 weight percent of inorganic loading. Phosphosilicate gel particles of varying size (sub micro to nanometer are synthesized using sol gel approach followed by grinding using planetary ball mill for different time. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM reveals less than 10 nm particle size for 20 hr grinding. Nano composite membrane having inorganic particles of size less than 10 nm exhibits higher values of proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and water uptake compared to composite membrane comprising of larger (400 nm and above inorganic particles. The membrane is assembled with the electrode in the unit cell and the polarization characteristics are measured at different operating temperatures. Performance study reveals that between 70 to 80 C the membrane offers best performance in terms of peak power generation and of allowable load current. For the same conditions 40-50 % nano-enhancement of peak power generation is achieved by reducing the average gel particle size from sub micro to less than 10 nm. At medium temperature (between 70 to 80 C the nanocomposite membrane offers more than 100 enhancement of peak power generation compared to that generated by SPEEK membrane. Phosphosilicate gel – SPEEK (Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone hybrid nanocomposite membranes are proposed for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The nanocomposite membranes are synthesized and characterized at 50 and 60 weight percent of inorganic loading. Phosphosilicate gel particles of varying size (sub micro to nanometer are synthesized using sol gel approach followed by grinding using planetary ball mill for different time. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM reveals less than 10 nm

  15. Properties investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/polyacrylonitrile acid-base blend membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Yu, Lihong; Liu, Le; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-11-12

    Acid-base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-section morphology as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy images show. The acid-base interaction of ionic cross-linking and hydrogen bonding between SPEEK and PAN could effectively reduce water uptake, swelling ratio, and vanadium ion permeability, and improve the performance and stability of blend membrane. Because of the good balance of proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability, blend membrane with 20 wt % PAN (S/PAN-20%) showed higher Coulombic efficiency (96.2% vs 91.1%) and energy efficiency (83.5% vs 78.4%) than Nafion 117 membrane at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) when they were used in VRFB single cell. Besides, S/PAN-20% membrane kept a stable performance during 150 cycles at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) in the cycle life test. Hence the SPEEK/PAN acid-base blend membrane could be used as promising candidate for VRFB application.

  16. Characterization of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Liu, Le; Yu, Lihong; Wang, Lei; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-12-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-co-HFP)) composite membranes are prepared and investigated in detail for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. With the high hydrophobicity and stability of P(VDF-co-HFP), the properties of composite membranes such as mechanical property and vanadium ion permeability are effectively improved, showing good trends with the increasing of P(VDF-co-HFP) mass ratio. The VRFB single cell assembled with the composite membrane of 15 wt.% P(VDF-co-HFP) (SPEEK-15% membrane) exhibits higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 95.4%) and energy efficiency (EE, 83.8%) than that assembled with Nafion 117 membrane (CE 91.1% and EE 78.4%) at the current density of 80 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the SPEEK-15% membrane maintains a stable performance during 100 cycles at the current density of 80 mA cm-2. Therefore the SPEEK/P(VDF-co-HFP) composite membrane could be used as low-cost and high-performance membrane for VRFB application.

  17. Optimization of Co2+ ions removal from water solutions via polymer enhanced ultrafiltration with application of PVA and sulfonated PVA as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Niğmet; Jaworska, Agnieszka; Miśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grażyna; Cojocaru, Corneliu

    2011-10-15

    The paper presents the results of the studies of UF-complexation process applied for the removal of Co(2+) ions from water solutions. As binding agents for cobalt ions, the PVA polymer (M(w)=10,000) and its sulfonated form, synthesized in the laboratory, have been used. The method of experimental design and response surface methodology have been employed to find out the optimal conditions for the complexation process and to evaluate the interaction between the input variables, i.e., initial cobalt concentration, pH and amount of the polymer used, expressed as a polymer/Co(2+) ratio r. The data collected by the designed experiments showed that sulfonation of polymer has improved significantly the binding ability of PVA. The optimal conditions of cobalt ions complexation established by response surface model for non-sulfonated PVA polymer have been found to be as follows: the initial concentration of Co(2+)=5.70 mg L(-1), the ratio between polymer and metal ions, r=8.58 and pH=5.93. The removal efficiency of Co(2+) in these conditions was 31.81%. For sulfonated PVA polymer, the optimal conditions determined are as follows: initial concentration of [Co(2+)](0)=10 mg L(-1), r=1.2 and pH=6.5. For these conditions, a removal efficiency of 99.98% has been determined. The experiments showed that Co(2+) removal ability of sulfonated PVA was much higher than its non-sulfonated precursor. Although the polymer concentrations used in the tests with sulfonated PVA were approximately ten times lower than the non-sulfonated one, the removal efficiency of cobalt ions was significantly higher.

  18. Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, David M., E-mail: dml@unr.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Physics Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), Freiburg (Germany); Pandey, Hari Datt [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Physics Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes.

  19. Preparation of Sulfonated Poly(aryl ether sulfone) Electrospun Mat/Phosphosilicate Composite Proton Exchange Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Dou, Liyan; Guan, Guoying

    2017-01-01

    Side-chain-type sulfonated poly(aryl ether sulfone) (SPES) was synthesized and then electrospun into mats. Phosphosilicate glass (PS) via in situ sol-gel synthesis was enclosed in the mats to form a new reinforced composite membrane. The SPES/PS composite membranes showed satisfactory dimensional change behavior with varying humidity. Especially, the composite membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity at harsh measurement conditions of low humidity at 80°C. The composite membrane with outstanding combined properties has potential applications for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  20. Preparation of Sulfonated Poly(aryl ether sulfone) Electrospun Mat/Phosphosilicate Composite Proton Exchange Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Dou, Liyan; Guan, Guoying

    2017-03-01

    Side-chain-type sulfonated poly(aryl ether sulfone) (SPES) was synthesized and then electrospun into mats. Phosphosilicate glass (PS) via in situ sol-gel synthesis was enclosed in the mats to form a new reinforced composite membrane. The SPES/PS composite membranes showed satisfactory dimensional change behavior with varying humidity. Especially, the composite membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity at harsh measurement conditions of low humidity at 80°C. The composite membrane with outstanding combined properties has potential applications for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  1. Measurements of the densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene in large liquid scintillator detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 Celsius degree with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene.

  2. Application of commercial poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate for electrochemical sensing of dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and stable composite electrode based on intrinsically conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(sty-renesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS and ion-exchange polymer Nafion, was successfully fabricated by drop-coating the blended commercially available PEDOT:PSS aqueous dispersion and Nafion solution on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. PEDOT:PSS was used as a matrix, while Nafion was employed to improve the immobilization stability of composite films and adhesion to electrode surface in comparison with PEDOT:PSS films. Cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the properties of this composite electrode. The as-proposed composite electrode displayed good water-stability. Meanwhile, the composite electrode was applied to electrochemical sensing of dopamine, and the performance of PEDOT:PSS-Nafion composite films was evaluated. These results demonstrate that PEDOT:PSS-Nafion composites are a promising candidate of electrode modified material in electrochemical sensing and other electrocatalytic applications.

  3. Enantioselective degradation and unidirectional chiral inversion of 2-phenylbutyric acid, an intermediate from linear alkylbenzene, by Xanthobacter flavus PA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yishan; Han, Ping [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Li, Xiao-yan; Shih, Kaimin [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Gu, Ji-Dong, E-mail: jdgu@hkucc.hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); The Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong, Shek O, Cape d' Aguilar, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We isolated a Xanthobacter flavus strain PA1 utilizing the racemic 2-PBA and the single enantiomers as the sole source of carbon and energy. {yields} Both (R) and (S) forms of enantiomers can be degraded in a sequential manner in which the (S) disappeared before the (R) form. {yields} The biochemical degradation pathway involves an initial oxidation of the alkyl side chain before aromatic ring cleavage. - Abstract: Microbial degradation of the chiral 2-phenylbutyric acid (2-PBA), a metabolite of surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), was investigated using both racemic and enantiomer-pure compounds together with quantitative stereoselective analyses. A pure culture of bacteria, identified as Xanthobacter flavus strain PA1 isolated from the mangrove sediment of Hong Kong Mai Po Nature Reserve, was able to utilize the racemic 2-PBA as well as the single enantiomers as the sole source of carbon and energy. In the presence of the racemic compounds, X. flavus PA1 degraded both (R) and (S) forms of enantiomers to completion in a sequential manner in which the (S) enantiomer disappeared much faster than the (R) enantiomer. When the single pure enantiomer was supplied as the sole substrate, a unidirectional chiral inversion involving (S) enantiomer to (R) enantiomer was evident. No major difference was observed in the degradation intermediates with either of the individual enantiomers when used as the growth substrate. Two major degradation intermediates were detected and identified as 3-hydroxy-2-phenylbutanoic acid and 4-methyl-3-phenyloxetan-2-one, using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The biochemical degradation pathway follows an initial oxidation of the alkyl side chain before aromatic ring cleavage. This study reveals new evidence for enantiomeric inversion catalyzed by pure culture of environmental bacteria and emphasizes the

  4. Interaction of Sulfonated Calix [n] arenes with Rhodamine B and Its Application to Determine Acetylcholine in a Real Neutral Aqueous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yong-Jun; XU,Jian; 等

    2002-01-01

    Complexation between Rhodamine B(RB) and sulfonated calix [n] arenes (SCnA) were studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.In the presence of sulfonated calix [n] arenes,the absorption hand of Rhodamine B shifts to longer wavelength and its intensity decreases.The formation of a host-guest type complex also results in the fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B.The accociation constants for the RB/SCn A complexes increase in the order of SC4A

  5. Interaction of Sulfonated Calix[n]arenes with Rhodamine B and Its Application to Determine Acetylcholine in a Real Neutral Aqueous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yong-Jun(张拥军); CAO,Wei-Xiao(曹维孝); XU,Jian(徐坚)

    2002-01-01

    Complexation between Rhodamine B (RB) and sulfonated calix [n]arenes (SCnA) were studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the presence of sulfonated calix[n ]arones, the absorption band of Rhodamine B shifts to longer wavelength and its intensity decreases. The formation of a host-guest type complex also results in the fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B. The association constants for the RB/SCnA complexes increase in the order of SC4A <SC6A < SC8A and show dependence on the size of the cavities of the calixarenes. The fluorescence is selectively regenerated by adding acetylcholine. Based on this observation, a method to determine acetylcholine in a real neutral aqueous medium was developed.

  6. PHOTOPHYSICAL STUDY OF SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jixiang; LI Hexian; WANG Guochang; WANG Yuexi; HE Binglin

    2004-01-01

    The photophysical properties of a series of sulfonated micromolecule (paratoluenesulfonic acid, HPTS) and macromolecules (linear and crosslinked polystyrene) have been studied by steady-state fluorescence spectra. The results indicate that the ground sulfonated ring associations can form in both the micromolecules and the macromolecules. The fluorescence spectra of the sulfonated crosslinked copolymers appear a red-shift when the copolymers change from hydrogen-type to sodium-type, and some new emission bands appear in the long-wavelength region. These results are explained in terms of synergetic effect of hydrogen bond, π-π interaction and crosslinking effect.

  7. Application of sulfonic acid functionalized nanoporous silica (SBA-Pr-SO3H in the green one-pot synthesis of triazoloquinazolinones and benzimidazoquinazolinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H with a pore size of 6 nm was proven to be an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst in the green one-pot synthesis of triazoloquinazolinones and benzimidazoquinazolinones from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (or 2-aminobenzimidazole and dimedone under solvent free conditions.

  8. Assessment of the potential toxicity of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) to freshwater animal life by means of cladoceran bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Katiuscia da Silva; Rocha, Odete

    2010-04-01

    The acute and chronic toxic effects of LAS on the cladocerans Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii were tested. Both types of toxicity bioassays and the methods of culture and stock maintenance of the test organisms conformed to the recommendations of ABNT (Brazilian Society of Technical Standards), which closely follow the standard methods of USEPA. The results obtained for EC(50) (48 h) were: 14.17 mg L(-1) for D. similis, 11.84 mg L(-1) for C. dubia and 13.52 mg L(-1) for C. silvestrii. In the chronic toxicity tests performed on C. dubia and C. silvestrii, there was a significant decrease in the fecundity of the exposed animals; the value of NOEC for C. dubia and C. silvestrii were 1.00 mg L(-1) and 2.50 mg L(-1), respectively. Cladoceran bioassays provided evidence that LAS concentration as low as 1.00 mg L(-1) can damage invertebrate animal life in freshwaters, concentrations that can be found in many eutrophic rivers and reservoirs.

  9. Influence of support material on the immobilization of biomass for the degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Oliveira, Lorena; Silveira Duarte, Iolanda Cristina; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Amâncio Varesche, Maria Bernadete

    2009-02-01

    Two horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactors (HAIB) were used to study the degradation of the LAS surfactant: one filled with charcoal (HAIB1) and the other with a mixed bed of expanded clay and polyurethane foam (HAIB2). The reactors were fed with synthetic substrate supplemented with 14 mg l(-1)of LAS, kept at 30+/-2 degrees C and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12h. The surfactant was quantified by HPLC. Spatial variation analyses were done to quantify organic matter and LAS consumption along the reactor length. The presence of the surfactant in the load did not affect the removal of organic matter (COD), which was close to 90% in both reactors for an influent COD of 550 mg l(-1). The results of a mass balance indicated that 28% of all LAS added to HAIB1 was removed by degradation. HAIB2 presented 27% degradation. Molecular biology techniques revealed microorganisms belonging the uncultured Holophaga sp., uncultured delta Proteobacterium, uncultured Verrucomicrobium sp., Bacteroides sp. and uncultured gamma Proteobacterium sp. The reactor with biomass immobilized on charcoal presented lower adsorption and a higher kinetic degradation coefficient. So, it was the most suitable support for LAS anaerobic treatment.

  10. Application of Partial Least Square (PLS) Analysis on Fluorescence Data of 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-Sulfonic Acid, a Polarity Dye, for Monitoring Water Adulteration in Ethanol Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence characteristic of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) in ethanol-water mixture in combination with partial least square (PLS) analysis was used to propose a simple and sensitive analytical procedure for monitoring the adulteration of ethanol by water. The proposed analytical procedure was found to be capable of detecting even small adulteration level of ethanol by water. The robustness of the procedure is evident from the statistical parameters such as square of correlation coefficient (R(2)), root mean square of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square of prediction (RMSEP) that were found to be well with in the acceptable limits.

  11. Investigation on the co-luminescence effect of europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Hailin; Zhao, Fang; Cai, Huan

    2013-01-01

    A novel luminescence, enhancement phenomenon in the europium(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was observed when lanthanum(III) was added. Based on this, a sensitive co-luminescence method was established for the determination of dopamine. The luminescence signal for the europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was monitored at λ(ex) = 300 nm, λ(em) = 618 nm and pH 8.3. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced luminescence signal responded linearly to the concentration of dopamine in the range 1.0 × 10(-10)-5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 (n = 11). The detection limit (3σ) was 2.7 × 10(-11) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 3.0 × 10(-8) mol/L dopamine was 1.9%. The presented method was successfully applied for the estimation of dopamine in samples of pharmaceutical preparations, human serum and urine. The possible luminescence enhancement mechanism of the system is discussed briefly.

  12. Pre-irradiation grafting of styrene and maleic anhydride onto PVDF membrane and subsequent sulfonation for application in vanadium redox batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jingyi; Zhai, Maolin; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhou, Henghui; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science (BNLMS), Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, Long [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Gunma University, Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    A poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) membrane was grafted with styrene (St) and maleic anhydride (MAn) using an electron-beam-induced pre-irradiation grafting technique. The grafted membrane (PVDF-g-PS-co-PMAn) was then sulfonated and hydrolyzed to give an ion exchange membrane (denoted as PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc) for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) use. Micro-FTIR analysis indicated that PVDF was successfully grafted and sulfonated at the above condition, and the membrane with a high grafting yield (GY) can be easily prepared in a St/MAn binary system at low dose due to a synergistic effect. The water uptake and ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane increased with GY, so too did the conductivity. At a GY of 33.6%, the resulting PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane showed a much higher IEC and conductivity than a conventional Nafion117 membrane, and a much lower permeability of vanadium ions: ca. 1/11 to 1/16 of that through Nafion117. Open circuit voltage measurements showed that the VRB assembled with the PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane maintained values above 1.3 V after a period of 33 h, which was much longer than that with the Nafion117 membrane. It is expected that this work provides a new approach for the fabrication of ion exchange membranes for VRB. (author)

  13. Synthesis & application of α-sulfonic acid fatty acid soap collector%α-磺酸基油酸皂捕收剂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄齐茂; 蔡坤; 王巍; 罗伍容; 潘志权; 罗惠华; 池汝安

    2012-01-01

    以大豆油酸化油为原料,经磺化、皂化等单元反应合成了α-磺酸基油酸皂浮选捕收剂,用于四川某中低品位胶磷矿的浮选试验.结果表明,该捕收剂实现了胶磷矿与白云石的有效分离,入选原矿P2O5品位23.80%,MgO质量分数6.54%;获得磷精矿P2O5品位33.88%,回收率85.37%,MgO含量1.50%.%A floatation collector, a-sulfonic acid fatty acid soap, was prepared by steps of sulfonated, saponification with soybean oil as raw material. It was used in the floatation of low-and-middle grade Sichuan phosphate ores. Test results show that the collector realizes the effective separation of phosphate and dolomite, the P2O5 content goes up to 33. 88% from 23. 80% of run-of mine with a recovery of 85. 37% , and the MgO content goes down to 1. 50% from 6. 54%.

  14. Study of methanol catalyzed reaction between sodium 1,2-naphthoquine-4-sulfonate and hydroxyl ion and its application in the determination of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Huanhuan

    2008-11-01

    A novel and simple spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of methanol with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) is developed in this paper. It is based on the fact that methanol can catalyze the reaction between 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and hydroxyl ion to form 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in buffer solution of pH 13.00. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 0.26-15.8 mg/ml at the maximal absorption wavelength of 454 nm. The equation of linear regression is A = 0.01998 + 0.05944 C (mg/ml), with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9977. The detection limit is 0.25 mg/ml (3 σ/ k), while R.S.D. is 2.0% and the recovery rate is in a range of 96.5-103%. The detailed mechanism for the formation of the products is proposed and discussed.

  15. Sulfonated PEEK and fluorinated polymer based blends for fuel cell applications: Investigation of the effect of type and molecular weight of the fluorinated polymers on the membrane's properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inan, Tuelay Y.; Dogan, Hacer; Unveren, Elif E. [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Marmara Research Center, Chemistry Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Eker, Ersoy [Tuerk Demirdoekuem Fabrikalari A.S., 11300 Bozueyuek, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    This work clearly demonstrates the effect of the type and molecular weight of the fluorinated polymer of SPEEK/Fluorinated polymer blends for low temperature (<80 C) Fuel Cell Applications. Comparisons with trademarks (e.g., Nafion {sup registered}) suggests that the membranes we have prepared in this study have good compatibility in all application respects. Membranes were prepared by solution casting method from four different fluorinated polymers; poly (vinylidene fluoride) with three different molecular weights (PVDF, M{sub w}: 180.000, M{sub w}: 275.000, M{sub w}: 530.000); Poli(vinylidene fluoride-co-Hexafluoro propylen) (PVDF-HFP M{sub n}:130.000) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with sulfonation degree (SD) of 70. The sulfonation degree (SD) of SPEEK was determined by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR and ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements. Thermo-oxidative stability and proton conductivity of the membranes were determined by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and BT-512 BekkTech membrane test systems, respectively. Chemical degradation of SPEEK membranes was investigated via Fenton test. The morphology of the membranes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Water uptake and proton conductivity values decreased with the addition of fluorinated polymers (PVDF, PVDF-HFP) as expected, but proton conductivity values were still comparable to that of Nafion 117 {sup registered} membrane. Addition of fluorinated polymers improved chemical degradation of the blend membranes in all ratios while addition of PVDF-HFP to the SPEEK70 caused phase separations in all ratios. Methanol permeability value of SPEEK70/PVDF(M{sub w} = 275.000) blend membrane (3.13E-07 (cm{sup 2}/s)) was much lower than Nafion 117 {sup registered} (1.21E-06 (cm{sup 2}/s)). PVDF addition to the SPEEK polymers caused increase in elongation of the membranes. Increase in the molecular weight of the PVDF did not show any effect on

  16. Preparation and characterization of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid)/Chitosan hydrogel using gamma irradiation and its application in wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gad, Y.H. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: yasser2uk@yahoo.com

    2008-09-15

    Radiation grafting of chitosan with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) has been successfully performed. The effect of absorbed dose (kGy) and the chitosan:AMPS ratio on graft hydrogelization was studied. The structure of the prepared hydrogel was confirmed using infrared spectroscopy (IR). Thermal properties were simultaneously studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of the polymerization variables on the swelling % of the prepared hydrogel was investigated. The highest equilibrium degree of swelling (38.6 g/g) and gel % (94.7%) of the prepared chitosan-AMPS hydrogel was at 40% AMPS and absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The removal of methylene blue, acid red dye, Cd (II) and Cr (III) from composed wastewater was also investigated. The effect of pH, the chitosan:AMPS ratio and the concentration of the pollutant on the adsorption process were studied.

  17. Preparation and characterization of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid)/Chitosan hydrogel using gamma irradiation and its application in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Y. H.

    2008-09-01

    Radiation grafting of chitosan with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) has been successfully performed. The effect of absorbed dose (kGy) and the chitosan:AMPS ratio on graft hydrogelization was studied. The structure of the prepared hydrogel was confirmed using infrared spectroscopy (IR). Thermal properties were simultaneously studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of the polymerization variables on the swelling % of the prepared hydrogel was investigated. The highest equilibrium degree of swelling (38.6 g/g) and gel % (94.7%) of the prepared chitosan-AMPS hydrogel was at 40% AMPS and absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The removal of methylene blue, acid red dye, Cd (II) and Cr (III) from composed wastewater was also investigated. The effect of pH, the chitosan:AMPS ratio and the concentration of the pollutant on the adsorption process were studied.

  18. Coarse graining of polystyrene sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perahia, Dvora; Agrawal, Anupriya; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-03-01

    Capturing large length scales in soft matter while retaining atomistic properties is imperative to computational studies. Here we develop a new coarse-grained model for polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) that often serves as a model system because of its narrow molecular weight distribution and defined degree of sulfonation. Four beads are used to represent polymer where the backbone, the phenyl group, and the sulfonated group are each represented by a different bead and the fourth one represents counterion, which is sodium in our case. Initial atomistic simulations of PSS melt with sulfonation levels of 2-10%, with a dielectric constant ɛ = 1 revealed a ``locked'' phase where motion of the polymer is limited. Dielectric constant of ɛ = 5 was used to accelerate the dynamics. Bonded interactions were obtained using Boltzmann inversion on the bonded distributions extracted from atomistic simulation. Non-bonded interaction of polystyrene monomer was taken from our previous work and potential of mean force was used as the initial guess for interaction of the ionic beads. This set of potential was subsequently iterated to get a good match with radial distribution functions. This potential and its transferability across dielectric constants and temperatures will be presented. Grant DE-SC007908.

  19. Optimization based on retention prediction and information theory for liquid-chromatographic analysis of alkylbenzenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Rieko; Hayashi Yuzuru; Suzuki Takashi; Saito Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Jinno Kiyokatsu (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    The mobile phase composition and column length are optimized for analyses of six alkylbenzenes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography with the aid of retention prediction and information theory. Optimal conditions selected according to the resolution Rs and information theory are evaluated from the viewpoint of the precision and analytical efficiency (rapidity) of chromatography. The combination of the information-theoretical optimization with the retention prediction will accelerate the development in the automation of liquid-chromatographic analysis.

  20. Preparation and characterization of sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Wan; Lim, Young-Don; Lee, Soon-Ho; Jeong, Young-Gi; Kim, Whan-Gi [Department of Applied Chemistry/RIC-ReSEM, Konkuk University, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Department of Materials Sci and Engineering/RIC-ReSEM, Chungju National University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s (S-APES)s were prepared by nitration, reduction and sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone) (ultrason {sup registered} -S6010). Poly(ether sulfone) was reacted with ammonium nitrate and trifluoroacetic anhydride to produce the nitrated poly(ether sulfone), and was followed by reduction using tin(II)chloride and sodium iodide as reducing agents to give the amino-poly(ether sulfone). The S-APES was obtained by reaction of 1,3-propanesultone and the amino-poly(ether sulfone) (NH{sub 2}-PES) with sodium methoxide. The different degrees of nitration and reduction of poly(ether sulfone) were successfully synthesized by an optimized process. The reduction of nitro group to amino was done quantitatively, and this controlled the contents of the sulfonic acid group. The films were converted from salt to acid forms with dilute hydrochloric acid. Different contents of sulfonated unit of the S-APES were studied by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymers with water and methanol. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), a measure of proton conductivity, was evaluated. The S-APES membranes exhibit conductivities (25 C) from 1.05 x 10{sup -3} to 4.83 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, water swell from 30.25 to 66.50%, IEC from 0.38 to 0.82 meq/g, and methanol diffusion coefficients from 3.10 x 10{sup -7} to 4.82 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/S at 25 C. (author)

  1. Determination of Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate in human plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, WeiWei; Wang, Bin; Lu, XiaoPei; Liu, HaiMing; Wang, Li; Qi, WeiLin

    2016-03-20

    An assay based on protein precipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate (STS) in human plasma. After the addition of dehydroepiandrosterone-D5-3-sulfate sodium salt (DHEAS-D5) as internal standard (IS) and formic acid, plasma samples were prepared by one-step protein precipitation with a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol. Isocratic mobile phase consisted of 0.4 mmol/L ammonium formate buffer (16 ppm formic acid)/acetonitrile (40/60, v/v) on a XSELECT™ HSS T3 column. Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operating in positive ion and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with the precursor to product ion transitions m/z 373.3→357.1 for STS and m/z 373.0→97.8 for the IS. Calibration curves of STS in human plasma were linear (r=0.9957-0.9998) over the concentration range of 2-1000 ng/mL with acceptable accuracy and precision. The lower limit of quantification in human plasma was 2 ng/mL. The validated LC-MS/MS method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of STS in Chinese healthy male volunteers.

  2. 电动生物修复湖泊底泥中直链烷基苯磺酸钠%Bioremediation of Lake Sediment Contaminated by Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates Using Electrokinetic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广容; 叶春松; 钱勤; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Electrodynamic and biological technologies are combined and applied to the remediation of LAS-contaminated lake sediments. A bench scale experiment was conducted with an electrodynamic apparatus and the sediment samples were taken up from East Lake, the largest urban lake in Wuhan, polluted by domestic wastewater containing organic pollutants such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonates(LAS). The experiment started from culture of Bacilli which belong to LAS degrading strains and then electric field was exerted. The coupled electrodynamic bioremediation of the sediment resulted in removal of LAS by 40.5%, a remarked increase compared to biological method singly used. It was found as well that electric field polarity reversal could boost LAS degradation in sediment.%直链烷基苯磺酸钠(Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates,LAS)是环境中最常见的具有代表性的一类有机污染物,城市湖泊长期以来接纳了大量的污染物,致使底泥沉积了大最的LAS.采用电动生物复合技术修复东湖底泥中LAS,由于其LAS含量过高,当直接添加芽孢杆菌降解LAS时,发现无明显的降解效果.经过驯化培养芽孢杆菌,得到了降解LAS的菌株.电动生物修复LAS去除率达到40.5%,比单纯的生物修复高出三十多个百分点,比单纯电动修复高出二十个百分点.电极正负极交替有利于底泥中LAS的降解与去除.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol; Sintese e caracterizacao de poliesteres sulfonados obtidos a partir do glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fiuza, R.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  4. Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2001-01-01

    . It was found that lignin is very reactive, that is why the sulfonation chemistry alone does not necessarily determine its dissolution rate. It became evident that the ultrastructure dispersion of lignin in wood is beneficial for its dissolution. For W, the rate was much higher at pH 1.5 than at 6. MW lignin....... Methylation had also a small rate effect for W, but again a large decrease for MWL....

  5. Preparation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing amino groups/epoxy resin composite membranes and their in situ crosslinking for application in fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Meimei; Liu, Baijun; Li, Long; Liu, Chang; Wang, Lifeng; Jiang, Zhenhua [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-01-01

    A series of amino-containing sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone)/4,4'-diglycidyl(biphenyl) epoxy resin (DGBP) composite membranes for proton exchange membranes fuel cells (PEMFCs) are prepared by solution blending and casting. The reaction kinetics and the effects of introduction of DGBP content on the properties of the composite membranes are thoroughly investigated. The crosslinked composite membranes after treatment at either 120 C or 200 C have improved oxidative and dimensional stability than those without crosslinking. Despite the fact that crosslinked membranes generally have lower proton conductivity in comparison with the original ones, the proton conductivities of the membranes treated at 120 C are above 2.22 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature and 9.42 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 100 C. Even for the samples treated at 200 C, their proton conductivities are still higher than 1.26 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature and higher than 8.67 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 100 C, which are well satisfied with elementary requirement of fuel cells. In addition, all the evaluated membranes have low methanol permeability. For example, the methanol permeability of AP6FSPEEK/DGBP1 cured at 200 C is 0.33 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, which is an order magnitude lower than Nafion 117. Therefore, these novel crosslinked composite membranes could be potential usage in fuel cells. (author)

  6. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Gido, Samuel P.; Huang, Tianzi; Hong, Kunlun

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  7. Polystyrene-supported Selenomethyl-sulfonates:Efficient Reagents for Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Substituted Vinyl Sulfones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming XU; Lu Ling WU; Xian HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene-supported selenomethyl-sulfonates have been prepared. These novel reagents were treated with LDA to produce selenium stabilized carbanions, which reacted with alkyl halide and epoxides, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination, to give E-vinyl sulfones and γ-hydroxy-substituted-E-vinyl sulfones respectively.

  8. High performance disulfonated poly(arylene sulfone) co- and terpolymers for proton exchange membranes for fuel cell and transducer applications: Synthesis, characterization and fabrication of ion conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Kenton Broyhill

    2005-07-01

    The results described in this dissertation have demonstrated several alternative proton exchange membranes (PEM) for hydrogen-air and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) that perform as well or better than the state of the art Nafion perfluorosulfonic acid membrane. Direct aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensations of disodium 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4 '-difluorodiphenylsulfone (SDFDPS), 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone (DFDPS) (or their chlorinated analogs, SDCDPS, DCDPS) and 4,4' -thiobisbenzenethiol (TBBT) in the presence of potassium carbonate were investigated. Electrophilic aromatic substitution was employed to synthesize the SDFDPS or SDCDPS comonomers in high yields and purity. High molecular weight disulfonated poly(arylene thioether sulfone) (PATS) copolymers were easily obtained using the SDFDPS monomers, but in general, slower rates and a lower molecular weight copolymer was obtained using the analogous chlorinated monomers. Tough and ductile membranes were solution cast from N,N-dimethylacetamide for both series of copolymers. The degrees of disulfonation (20--50%, PATS 20--50) were controlled by varying the ratio of disulfonated to unsulfonated comonomers. Composite membranes were prepared by homogeneous solution blending the copolymers with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The composite PATS membranes exhibited moderate PTA molecule water extraction after acidification treatments performed at either room or boiling temperatures. The membranes containing HPA showed improved conductivity at high temperatures (120°C) and low relative humidities when compared to the pure copolymers. Molecular weight of the copolymers plays a critical role in the overall copolymer physical behavior. It is well known that molecular weight has an enormous impact on practically all of the physical properties of polymeric systems. This dissertation discusses the influence of molecular weight on the characteristics of a specific family of PEM PATS

  9. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on the mineralization, metabolism and uptake of 14C-phenanthrene in a model ecosystem (water-lava-plant-air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Yediler, Ayfer; Yufang, Song; Sun, Tieheng; Kettrup, Antonius

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS, 200 mg l(-1)) on the fate of phenanthrene in a model ecosystem "water-lava-hydrophytes-air". The experiments were conducted using two closed cultivation chamber systems. Rushes (Juncus effesus) were selected as a representative hydrophyte. Five hundred micrograms per liter of phenanthrene in a culture solution containing a 14C-activity of 75 microCi per chamber was applied (i) to investigate the degradation of the labeled test substance and the transfer processes within the system; (ii) to determine the mass-balance possible and (iii) to detect the occurrence of volatile test substances, their volatile metabolites and the degradation end-product CO2 in the gas phase. Most of the applied 14C-activity was found in the plant (41-45%), in which approximately 95% was associated with plant roots and approximately 5% with shoots. The 14C-activity recovered in the form of VOCs and CO2 was measured in lava (18-29%, 8-11%), and in the culture solution (10-14% and 1%), respectively. Majority of the applied 14C-activity existed in two forms, i.e. (1) polar metabolites (26%), of which 91% were found in plant roots, and (2) un-extractable residues (23%), most of which were in plant roots (40%) and bounded to lava (58%). The presence of LAS significantly increased the volatilization of phenanthrene and its metabolites, inhibited its mineralization and decreased the level of 14C-activity in lava. Moreover, LAS reduced the phenanthrene level in plant roots.

  10. 三硝基苯磺酸诱导的慢性胰腺炎模型在疼痛研究中的应用%Application of trinitrobenze sulfonic acid-induced chronic pancreatitis rat model in pain study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋; 沈佳庆; 王兴鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of chronic pancreatitis (CP) model induced by trinitrobenze sulfonic acid (TNBS) in pain study. Methods CP was induced by intraductual infusion of 2% TNBS in rats. Histopathological examination and serum amylase and lipase measurement were performed for the validation of CP. Pain resulting from CP was studied as abdominal sensitivity to Von Frey Filament stimulation on week 1,2,3 and 4 after the induction of CP. Results Progressive fibrosis and parenchyma injury were observed in tissue sections after 4 weeks of TNBS treatment. Abdominal pain was observed in TNBS treated rats and the severity was increased over time. Conclusion The rat CP model induced by TNBS is suitable in pain study.%目的 探讨三硝基苯磺酸(trinitrobenze sulfonic acid,TNBS)建立的慢性胰腺炎(chronic pancreatitis,CP)模型在CP腹痛研究中的适用性.方法 2% TNBS逆行胆胰管灌注建立大鼠CP模型.观察血清淀粉酶、脂肪酶和组织学以评价造模是否成功.Von Frey Filament测试检测不同时间点(1、2、3和4周)大鼠腹部的阳性反应,进而推测大鼠胰腺疼痛的改变.结果 TNBS处理4周后,大鼠胰腺出现实质损伤和进行性纤维化,具有CP的组织病理学改变.Von Frey Filament检测显示CP造模后,随着时间推移,大鼠腹部阳性反应逐渐增加.结论 TNBS不但适用于CP动物模型的建立,而且还适用于CP疼痛的基础研究.

  11. 4-Aminopyridinium-3-sulfonate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Biao Zhu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 4-aminopyridine and oleum yielded the title hydrated zwitterion, C5H6N2O3S·H2O. There are two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The H and non-H atoms of both zwitterions lie on a mirror plane except for one sulfonate O atom. The water molecules are also situated on a mirror plane. In the crystal, the zwitterions and water molecules are linked by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  12. Degradation of linear alkylabenzene sulfonate (LAS) and its compounds in Donghu Lake (Hubei, P.R.C.) determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayfer, Yediler; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yongyuan; Chen, Junjian

    1990-06-01

    Commercial linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), mixture of alkylchain lengths and phenyl position isomers (C10-C13), is widely used as a major constituent of household and industrial detergents in the People's Republic of China. Degradation process and behaviour of LAS compounds during an 82-hour lake water die-away study, with an added LAS concentration of 1.5mg·L-1, was quantified and accomplished by HPLO-UV after extractionon the SepPek C18 reversed-phase cartridges. The degradation rate became progressively faster with increasing chain length. The technique described in this study is fast, sensitive and specific, and can be used to determine low levels of LAS and for establishing water quality criteria and standards relating to LAS and its compounds.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Lee, Soonho; Hossain, Md Awlad; Lim, Jinseong; Lee, Sangyoung; Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Whangi

    2014-10-01

    The novel sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene (MNF) moiety were synthesized and characterized their properties. The prepared polymers have highly conjugated aromatic structure due to the MNF group which is an allotrope of carbon and one atom thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms. Poly(ether sulfone)s bearing tetraphenylethylene on polymer backbone were synthesized by polycondensation and followed intra-cyclization from tetraphenylethylene to form MNF by Friedel-craft reaction with Lewis acid (FeCl3). The sulfonation was performed selectively on MNF units with conc. sulfuric acid. The structural properties of the sulfonated polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied by ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, and proton conductivity. The synthesized polymer electrolyte membranes showed better thermal and dimensional stabilities owing to the inducted highly conjugated aromatic structure in the polymer backbone. The water uptake of the synthesized membranes ranged from 23-52%, compared with 32.13% for Nafion 211 at 80 degrees C. The synthesized membranes exhibited proton conductivities (80 degrees C, RH 90%) of 74.6-100.4 mS/cm, compared with 102.7 mS/cm for Nafion 211.

  14. Synthesis of Linear Alkylbenzene in a Novel Liquid-Solid Circulating Moving Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明汉; 徐聪; 崔哲; 金涌

    2004-01-01

    For the alkylation of benzene with long-chain olefins, using Hβ zeolite catalyst as replacement of HF or A1Cl3 has the advantages of no corrosion, less environmental pollution, and much more 2-phenyl isomer, which has the highest biodegradability and solubility, and better detergent properties among the related isomers. The characterization of the coke shows that the deactivation of catalyst is caused by the jam of bulkier molecules, such as naphthalene, indane and linear alkylbenzenes, which are too big to move quickly in the intracrystalline pores of catalyst. The deactivated catalyst can be regenerated by benzene washing at higher temperature. To make the processes of reaction and regeneration continuous, a novel moving bed reactor is developed. Comparing with the processes with fixed bed reactors, the processes in this work have the advantages of continuous operation, low temperature, low pressure, low mole ratio of benzene to olefins, and high weight hourly space velocity.Keywords t3 zeolite, alkylation, linear alkylbenzene, moving bed reactor

  15. Sulfonated polystyrene fiber network-induced hybrid proton exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yingfang; Ji, Liwen; Lin, Zhan; Li, Ying; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Hamouda, Hechmi; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2011-09-01

    A novel type of hybrid membrane was fabricated by incorporating sulfonated polystyrene (S-PS) electrospun fibers into Nafion for the application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. With the introduction of S-PS fiber mats, a large amount of sulfonic acid groups in Nafion aggregated onto the interfaces between S-PS fibers and the ionomer matrix, forming continuous pathways for facile proton transport. The resultant hybrid membranes had higher proton conductivities than that of recast Nafion, and the conductivities were controlled by selectively adjusting the fiber diameters. Consequently, hybrid membranes fabricated by ionomers, such as Nafion, incorporated with ionic-conducting nanofibers established a promising strategy for the rational design of high-performance proton exchange membranes.

  16. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, James E.; Park, Ho Bum; Freeman, Benny D.

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  17. Facile preparation of magnetic separable powdered-activated-carbon/Ni adsorbent and its application in removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuanqi; Gondal, Mohammed A; Chang, Xiaofeng; Yamani, Zain H; Li, Nianwu; Lu, Hongling; Ji, Guangbin

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to synthesize magnetic separable Nickel/powdered activated carbon (Ni/PAC) and its application as an adsorbent for removal of PFOS from aqueous solution. In this work, the synthesized adsorbent using simple method was characterized by using X-ray diffractionometer (XRD), surface area and pore size analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The surface area, pore volume and pore size of synthesized PAC was 1521.8 m(2)g(-1), 0.96 cm(3)g(-1), 2.54 nm, respectively. Different kinetic models: the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, and three adsorption isotherms--Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin--were applied to study the sorption kinetics and isothermal behavior of PFOS onto the surface of an as-prepared adsorbent. The rate constant using the pseudo-second-order model for removal of 150 ppm PFOS was estimated as 8.82×10(-5) and 1.64×10(-4) for PAC and 40% Ni/PAC, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the composite adsorbents exhibited a clear magnetic hysteretic behavior, indicating the potential practical application in magnetic separation of adsorbents from aqueous solution phase as well.

  18. Linear alkylbenzenes in urban riverine environments in Tokyo: distribution, source, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, H.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1987-09-01

    The distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LASs) in river sediments, suspended river particles, domestic wastes, and waste effluents around the Tokyo city area was investigated. LABs as well as LASs with alkyl carbon chain lengths in the range from 10 to 14 were found in all environmental samples and LAS-type synthetic detergents examined. These results indicate that LABs are carried into aquatic environments as a result of the use of synthetic detergents around the Tokyo metropolitan area. Further results are (1) LABs in urban river sediments originate predominantly from untreated domestic wastes, final effluents contributing only a minor portion of the LABs in sediments, (2) the isomeric composition of the LABs changes systematically during biodegradation, and (3) the ratio of LAS to LAB decreases as follows: commercial synthetic detergents > suspended particles in domestic wastes > river sediments > Tokyo Bay sediments.

  19. Effect of Dermal Exposure to Paraphenylenediamine and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of paraphenylenediamine (PPD) and linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) alone and in combination on the skin. Methods Forty-eight guinea pigs were divided equally into 4 groups and exposed to PPD (4 mg/kg), LAS (12 mg/kg) and PPD (4 mg/kg) plus LAS (12 mg/kg) for 30 days. The biochemical parameters such as acid phosphatase, gtutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, lipid peroxidation and histamine contents in exposed skin were estimated. The histopathological examination of the exposed skin was also carried out. Results The skin enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and histamine increased while glutathione decreased in skin. The simultaneously exposed group showed additive toxic effects. The histopathological examination showed severe hyperkeratosis, thickening of collagen fibres and vacuolisation of epidermal cells in PPD plus LAS exposed skin. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that simultaneous exposure to PPD and LAS has additive toxic effects.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of Ag grid/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) coatings for diode application through advanced printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Ponniah, Ganeshthangaraj; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2013-08-01

    This paper is focused on printed techniques for the fabrication of hybrid structure of silver (Ag) grid/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) as a flexible substrate. Ag grid has been printed on PET substrate by using gravure offset printing process, followed by PEDOT:PSS thin film deposition on Ag grid through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The important parameters for achieving uniform hybrid structure of Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS through printed techniques have been clearly discussed. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies revealed the uniformity of printed Ag grid with homogeneous deposition of PEDOT:PSS on Ag grid. The optical properties of Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS were measured by UV-visible spectroscopy, which showed nearly 80-82% of transparency in the visible region and it was nearly same as PEDOT:PSS thin film on PET substrate. Current-voltage (I-V) analysis of fabricated hybrid device by using printed Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS as a bottom electrode showed good rectifying behavior with possible interfacial mechanisms. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) analysis was carried over different frequencies. These results suggest that fabrication of hybrid structure through printed techniques will play a significant role in mass production of printed electronic devices for commercial application by using flexible substrate.

  1. Preparation of main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jie-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Kung

    Novel main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)s (MS-SPEEKs) are synthesised by reacting the sulphonic acid groups of pristine SPEEKs with 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid to improve the nano-phase separated morphology of the material. 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy are employed to determine the structure and composition of main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulphonated polymers. Flexible and tough membranes with reasonable thermal properties are obtained. The MS-SPEEKs show good hydrolytic stability, and water uptake values ranging from 15% to 30% are observed. Compared to Nafion 117 ®, the methanol permeability of the MS-SPEEKs is dramatically reduced to 8.83 × 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 to 3.31 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1. The proton conductivity increases with increasing temperature, reaching 0.013-0.182 S cm -1. A maximum power density and open circuit voltage of 115 mW cm -2 and 0.830 V are obtained at 80 °C, respectively, which is significantly greater than the values generated with Nafion 117 ®. The introduction of pendent side-chain-type sulphonic acid groups increases the single-cell performance by more than approximately 20%; thus, the lower water diffusivity, methanol permeability, electro-osmotic drag coefficient and high cell performance indicated that MS-SPEEK is a promising candidate for DMFC applications.

  2. Sulfonation of vulcanized ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bujans, F. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fbarroso@ictp.csic.es; Verdejo, R.; Lozano, A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Manchado, M.A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    In the present work, sulfonation of previously vulcanized ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) membranes was developed in a swelling solvent with acetyl sulfate. This procedure avoids the need to pre-dissolve the raw polymer. The reaction conditions were optimized in terms of solvent type, reaction time, acetyl sulfate concentration and film thickness to obtain the maximum degree of sulfonation of the polymer. The sulfonation procedure presented in this study yields a degree of sulfonation comparable to the chlorosulfonic acid procedure. Sulfonic acid groups were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantified by titrations. Proton conductivity and water uptake were measured by means of impedance spectroscopy and swelling measurements, respectively, and were correlated with the degree of sulfonation. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of sulfonated EPDM increased with the degree of sulfonation, while elongation at break remained constant. Thermal stability of the sulfonated EPDM was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy.

  3. Preparation of Sulfonated PVA-TMSP Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel preparation and characterization of sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA–trimethoxysilyl propanethiol (TMSP membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC application have been investigated. Preparation of sulfonated PVA-TMSP membrane was conducted by crosslinking steps using sol-gel method and a catalyst of concentrated HCl. TMSP concentrations were varied from 1% to 3%. The gel solution was cast on to the membrane metal plate to obtain membrane sheets. The membrane was then oxidized in H2O2 concentrations of (10-30% to convert the mercapto groups into sulfonate group. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the existence of sulfonate group were conducted by infrared spectroscopy as shown for frequencies at 1140–1200/cm and 1200–1145/cm respectively. The scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-rays (SEM–EDX of the membranes indicated that the distribution of silica particles from sol–gel reaction products was uneven due to the fast exchange rate of condensation. The degree of swelling decreased as methanol concentrations increase for sulfonated PVA–TMSP membrane which opposed toward the value of commercial Nafion membrane. The maximum value of ion exchange capacity of the membrane was 1.82 mmol/g whereas the highest proton conductivity was 3.9 x 10-4 S/cm. Therefore it can be concluded that the membrane was a potential candidate for application in DMFC.

  4. Aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, and 1-octanol-water partition coefficients for C9-C14 linear alkylbenzenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherblom, P.M.; Gschwend, P.M.; Eganhouse, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and estimates of aqueous solubilities, 1-octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow), and vapor pressures were made for 29 linear alkylbenzenes having alkyl chain lengths of 9-14 carbons. The ranges of values observed were vapor pressures from 0.002 to 0.418 Pa, log Kow, from 6.83 to 9.95, and aqueous solubilities from 4 to 38 nmol??L-1. Measured values exhibited a relationship to both the alkyl chain length and the position of phenyl substitution on the alkyl chain. Measurement of the aqueous concentrations resulting from equilibration of a mixture of alkylbenzenes yielded higher than expected values, indicating cosolute or other interactive effects caused enhanced aqueous concentrations of these compounds. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  5. Sulfonated poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (SABPBI) impregnated with phosphoric acid as proton conducting membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asensio, J.A. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Quimic de Sarria; Borros, S. [Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Quimic de Sarria; Gomez-Romero, P. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2004-10-01

    Previously cast ABPBI membranes were sulfonated by doping with sulfuric acid followed by heat treatment at 450 {sup o}C for 5 min in air. Sulfonation degrees between 35 and 49% of the benzimidazole rings were achieved. The resulting SABPBI membranes were impregnated with phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} 85%/H{sub 2}O, 70:30 bath). For concentrated phosphoric acid baths (above 65%), the capacity of these membranes for phosphoric acid uptake (and consequently also their conductivity) increased with the degree of sulfonation. Sulfonated and acid doped SABPBI membranes were characterized in terms of degree of sulfonation, thermal stability (TGA), X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and proton conductivity in the dry state, and compared with phosphoric acid impregnated ABPBI studied earlier. The maximum conductivity measured in dry conditions was 3.5x10{sup -2} S cm{sup -2} at 185 {sup o}C for SABPBI 4.6H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (with a degree of sulfonation of 41%) which compares favorably with non-sulfonated ABPBI and makes feasible their application in PEM Fuel Cells working at temperatures of 150-200 {sup o}C. (Author)

  6. Susceptibility of Candida albicans to new synthetic sulfone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    The influence of halogenated methyl sulfones, i.e. bromodichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (named halogenated methyl sulfone 1), dichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 2), and chlorodibromomethyl-4-hydrazino-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 3), on cell growth inhibition, aspartic protease gene (SAP4-6) expression, adhesion to epithelium, and filamentation was investigated. Antifungal susceptibility of the halogenated methyl sulfones was determined with the M27-A3 protocol in the range of 16-0.0313 µg/mL. Adherence to Caco-2 cells was performed in 24-well plates; relative quantification was normalized against ACT1 in cells after 18 h of growth in YEPD and on Caco-2 cells. SAP4-6 expression was analyzed using RT-PCR. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that halogenated methyl sulfone 1 containing bromodichloromethyl or dichloromethyl function at C-4 (halogenated methyl sulfone 2) of the phenyl ring showed the best activity (100% cell inhibition at 0.5 µg/mL), while hydrazine at C-1 (halogenated methyl sulfone 3) reduced the sulfone potential (100% = 4 µg/mL). SAP4-6 were up- or down-regulated depending on the strains' genetic background and the substitutions on the phenyl ring. Halogenated methyl sulfone 2 repressed germination and affected adherence to epithelium (P ≤ 0.05). The tested halogenated methyl sulfones interfered with the adhesion of Candida albicans cells to the epithelial tissues, without affecting their viability after 90 min of incubation. The mode of action of the halogenated methyl sulfones was attributed to the reduced virulence of C. albicans. SAP5 and SAP6 contribute to halogenated methyl sulfones resistance. Thus, halogenated methyl sulfones can inhibit biofilm formation due to their interference with adherence and with the yeast-to-hyphae transition.

  7. Interaction of apo cytochrome c with sulfonated polystyrene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Yao, Ping; Gong, Jie; Jiang, Ming

    2004-04-13

    Stable nanoparticle dispersion in aqueous solutions was obtained with partially sulfonated polystyrene. The hydrophobic association of the backbone chains and phenyl groups is balanced by the electrostatic repulsion of the sulfonate groups on the particle surface. The size distribution of the sulfonated polystyrene particles in relation to concentration, degree of sulfonation and chain length, and pH was characterized by dynamic laser light-scattering. The structure and morphology of the particles were characterized with fluorescence and atom force microscopy. Highly sulfonated polystyrene particles can form large complex particles with positively charged protein, apo cytochrome c. Dynamic laser light-scattering and atom force microscopy studies show that the size and distribution of the complex particles depend on the relative amount of apo cytochrome c and sulfonated polystyrene. When sulfonated polystyrene is in excess, apo cytochrome c interacts with sulfonated polystyrene particles forming stable complexes and excessive sulfonated polystyrene particles bind to the periphery of the complexes preventing them from further aggregation. When apo cytochrome c is in excess, apo cytochrome c links the complexes forming much larger particles. Fluorescence study demonstrates that the hydrophobicity/hydrophility of the complex particles is relative to the ratio of apo cytochrome c and sulfonated polystyrene, degree of sulfonation, and pH. Apo cytochrome c not only can neutralize the negative charges on the surface of sulfonated polystyrene particles, but may also insert into the cores disrupting the original structure of sulfonated polystyrene particles.

  8. Fluorescent Polystyrene Sulfonate for Polyelectrolyte Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Wayne; Tong, Xiaowei; Balamurugan, Sreelatha; Zhang, Donghui; Russo, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The slow-mode decay found by dynamic light scattering for polyelectrolytes in low-salt conditions has perplexed investigators since its first observation. Many characterization methods have suggested temporary or transient aggregation, although there is still no consensus on the cause. Many different polyelectrolytes demonstrate the slow-mode decay, but the sodium salt of polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) is the most popular choice for study. Commercially available NaPSS may have hydrophobic patches due to incomplete sulfonation leading to associations apart from any putative ionic mechanisms. Therefore, essentially full sulfonation, or ``patchless'', NaPSS should be synthesized. To facilitate fluorescence measurements, which can provide new insights to the slow-mode phenomenon, the material must be rendered fluorescent (F-NaPSS). Several approaches to F-NaPSS have appeared; some labeled a previously synthesized NaPSS without concern for its hydrophobic patches. Other strategies include a free radical copolymerization of styrene sulfonate and a vinyl amine to provide side chains viable for labeling. This method is successful, but yields only small amounts of nearly monodisperse polymer after fractionation. In this presentation, a high-yield synthesis of fully sulfonated, low-polydispersity, fluorescently tagged polymer will be discussed.

  9. Activity and population dynamics of heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil surrounding sludge bands spiked with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K. K.; Sørensen, J.; Krogh, P. H.

    2003-01-01

    bioluminescence toxicity assay, however, LAS or other sludge components never accumulated to toxic levels in the soil compartments and the LAS tolerance of the indigenous microbes further remained unchanged following LAS exposure. LAS effects on the investigated microbial populations largely occurred during...

  10. 鱼吸收富集LAS的分析研究进展%Advances on Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Surfactant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先利; 邓南圣; 刘光红; 薛蓓

    2006-01-01

    LAS对鱼等水生生物均产生有害影响,会破坏鱼鳃上皮组织、影响其相关功能(如通透性等).LAS经由鱼鳃吸收、并通过血液输送到鱼体中各组织.LAS疏水性越大,其在鱼体中生物富集系数越大.水硬度等影响鱼吸收、富集LAS.鱼体中LAS生物转化过程减小了LAS生物富集.鱼体中LAS及其生物转化产物大多是经过固相萃取或基质固相分散萃取后,采用HPLC或HPLC/MS等方法进行分析.

  11. Reinforced films based on cross-linked water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes with sulfonated polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Haiping, Hong; Guiver, Michael; Welsh, Jeffry S

    2009-09-01

    Reinforced films based on sulfonated polystyrene cross-linked with water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a free-standing film-making method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to verify the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical properties of these films demonstrated that the tensile strength increases with an increase in the sulfonated nanotube concentration. At 5 wt% nanotube loading, the tensile strength increased 84% compared with polymer containing no nanotube loading. The relationships between structure and mechanical properties are discussed and a possible direction for making ultra thin and ultra lightweight film is proposed.

  12. Reinforced membrane based on crosslink reaction between water soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Hong, Haiping; Welsh, Jeffry S.

    2008-08-01

    Reinforced films based on sulfonated polystyrene cross-linked with water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a free-standing film-making method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis were used to verify the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical properties of these films demonstrated that the tensile strength increases with an increase in the sulfonated nanotube concentration. At 5 wt% nanotube loading, the tensile strength increased 84% compared with polymer containing no nanotube loading. The relationships between structure and mechanical properties are discussed and a possible direction for making ultra thin and ultra lightweight film is proposed

  13. The facile insertion of β-keto sulfones to arynes: The direct preparation of polysubstituted ortho-keto benzyl sulfones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xue; Lu Ling Wu; Xian Huang

    2008-01-01

    One novel carbon-carbon bond insertion reaction of arynes has been developed. By this reaction β-keto sulfones can insert the triple bond of arynes to prepare polysubstituted ortho-keto benzyl sulfones.

  14. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used...

  15. Mechanoassisted Synthesis of Sulfonated Covalent Organic Frameworks with High Intrinsic Proton Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Xu, Guodong; Hu, Zhigang; Cheng, Youdong; Chi, Chenglong; Yuan, Daqiang; Cheng, Hansong; Zhao, Dan

    2016-07-20

    It is challenging to introduce pendent sulfonic acid groups into modularly built crystalline porous frameworks for intrinsic proton conduction. Herein, we report the mechanoassisted synthesis of two sulfonated covalent organic frameworks (COFs) possessing one-dimensional nanoporous channels decorated with pendent sulfonic acid groups. These COFs exhibit high intrinsic proton conductivity as high as 3.96 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) with long-term stability at ambient temperature and 97% relative humidity (RH). In addition, they were blended with nonconductive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) affording a series of mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with proton conductivity up to 1.58 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) and low activation energy of 0.21 eV suggesting the Grotthuss mechanism for proton conduction. Our study has demonstrated the high intrinsic proton conductivity of COFs shedding lights on their wide applications in proton exchange membranes.

  16. PLENARY LECTURES-PL1 Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S TSUDA; I SATO; N SAITO; K OAMI; JIN YH4

    2006-01-01

    @@ Persistent perfluorinated organic compounds, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are used in a variety of industrial applications. They are very stable in the environment, distribute widely in the global environment and in wild life, and are detected in human sera.

  17. Thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films for the dehydration of compressed carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the properties of thin films from highly sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) have been investigated within the context of their application as membranes for the dehydration of compressed carbon dioxide. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used as the predominant measurement t

  18. Mouse determinant lethal and bone marrow micronucleus studies on methyl vinyl sulfone and divinyl sulfone

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Artículo científico-- Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud-- 1991. La revista no permite distribuir la versión final del documento. Methyl vinyl sulfone and divinyl sulfone were tested for the induction of dominant lethal mutations and micronucleated bone-marrow erythrocytes in male mice. These chemicals were chosen for study because of their similarities in structure and chemical reactivity to acrylamide which is known to induce both effects. Following administration of the test...

  19. Carbon dioxide sensing with sulfonated polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Bent, van der J.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of polyaniline and especially sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) is explored for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. Frequency-dependent AC measurements were carried out to detect changes in impedance of the polymer, drop casted on interdigitated electrodes, when exposed to CO2 gas.

  20. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  1. 磺化蓖麻油应用于无煮茧自动缫丝工艺的研究%Research on Application of Sulfonated Castor Oil in Non-cocoon Cooking Automatic Silk Reeling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖海波; 李军生; 阎柳娟; 黄国霞; 邓塔; 韦德科; 徐立勤

    2013-01-01

    This paper conducts a practical reeling test using raw materials with different cocoon qualities based on non-cocoon cooking automatic silk reeling technology and discusses the influence of sulfonated castor oil additive on the performance of silk reeling. The test result shows that sulfonated castor oil additive can improve the reelability percentage of non-cocoon cooking automatic silk reeling technology, reduce the frequency rushing upon cocoons per 10 km averages, decrease the maximum deviation and mean square deviation, improve machine-hour output and cleanness and neatness, thus increasing the overall grade of raw silk by 0. 64 A on average. Sulfonated castor oil non-cocoon cooking automatic silk reeling technology inherits all advantages of non-cocoon cooking automatic silk reeling technology and overcomes the deficiency that non-cocoon cooking technology is inappropriate for raw material cocoon with a poor reelability performance. It is highly feasible to use sulfonated castor oil additive to improve the silk reeling performance of non-cocoon cooking automatic silk reeling technology.%在无煮茧自动缫丝工艺的基础上,采用不同茧质的原料进行实缫试验,探讨了磺化蓖麻油助剂对缫丝成绩的影响.试验结果表明:磺化蓖麻油助剂可提高无煮茧自动缫丝工艺的解舒率,降低万米吊糙次数、减小最大偏差和均方差、增加台时产量、提高清洁和洁净,使生丝的综合等级平均提高了0.64 A.磺化蓖麻油无煮茧自动缫丝工艺继承了无煮茧自动缫丝工艺的全部优点,并克服了无煮茧工艺对解舒成绩较差的原料茧不宜使用的不足,利用磺化蓖麻油助剂来改善无煮茧自动缫丝工艺的缫丝性能具有很大的可行性.

  2. Modeling the Conformation-Specific Infrared Spectra of N-Alkylbenzenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Daniel P.; Sibert, Edwin; Hewett, Daniel M.; Korn, Joseph A.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2016-06-01

    Conformation-specific UV-IR double resonance spectra are presented for n-alkylbenzenes. With the aid of a local mode Hamiltonian that includes the effects of stretch-bend Fermi coupling, the spectra of ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butylbenzene are assigned to individual conformers. These molecules allow for further development of the work on a first principles method for calculating alkyl stretch spectra. Due to the consistency of the anharmonic couplings from conformer to conformer, construction of the model Hamiltonian for a given conformer only requires a harmonic frequency calculation at the conformer's minimum geometry as an input. The model Hamiltonian can be parameterized with either density functional theory or MP2 electronic structure calculations. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods are evaluated, including their predictions of the relative energetics of the conformers. Finally, the IR spectra for conformers that have the alkyl chain bend back and interact with the π cloud of the benzene ring are modeled.

  3. Sulindac Sulfide, but Not Sulindac Sulfone, Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Williams

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide, a metabolite of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac sulfoxide, is effective at reducing tumor burden in both familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in animals with colorectal cancer. Another sulindac sulfoxide metabolite, sulindac sulfone, has been reported to have antitumor properties without inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Here we report the effect of sulindac sulfone treatment on the growth of colorectal carcinoma cells. We observed that sulindac sulfide or sulfone treatment of HCA-7 cells led to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited HCA-7 and HCT-116 cell growth in vitro. Sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of either HCA-7 or HCT-116 xenografts, whereas the sulfide derivative inhibited HCA-7 growth in vivo. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth and prostaglandin production in vitro, but sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice.

  4. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Bijay P. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Department of Membranes for Sustainable Energy, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Schieda, M. [Department of Membranes for Sustainable Energy, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Shahi, Vinod K. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Nunes, Suzana P. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 30 C and 16.8 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 80 C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. (author)

  6. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Bijay P.; Schieda, M.; Shahi, Vinod K.; Nunes, Suzana P.

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level.

  7. Polyaniline synthesized with functionalized sulfonic acids for blends manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Joelma Raupp Cardoso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PAni, an electronic conductive polymer, has poor mechanical properties, such as low tensile, compressive and flexural strength that render PAni a non-ideal material to be processed for practical applications. Desired properties of polyaniline can be enhanced by mixing it with a polymer that has good mechanical properties. In this work, PAni was synthesised using functionalized sulfonic acids like camphorsulfonic acid (CSA and dodecilbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA in order to promote PAni doping and improve its solubility, making possible conductive blends manufacture. The different forms of PAni were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and conductivity measurements. A conductive blend composed of PAni/DBSA and lower density polyethylene (LDPE was obtained via solubilization method and its thermal, morphological and electrical properties were investigated. Concentrations as low as 5 wt. (% of PAni was able to lead to electrical conductivities of PAni/LDPE blends in the range of 10-3 S.cm-1, showing great potential to be used in antistatic packing, electromagnetic shielding, anti-corrosion shielding or as a semiconductor.

  8. Highly branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s membrane for energy efficient vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bibo; Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu

    2015-07-01

    A series of highly branched sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s (HSPAEK) are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions. The HSPAEK with 8% degree of branching is further investigated as membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The HSPAEK membrane prepared by solution casting method exhibits smooth, dense and tough morphology. It possesses very low VO2+ permeability and high ion selectivity compared to those of Nafion 117 membrane. When applied to VRFB, this novel membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 99%) and energy efficiency (EE, 84%) than Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 92% and EE, 78%) at current density of 80 mA cm-2. Besides, the HSPAEK membrane shows super stable CE and EE as well as excellent discharge capacity retention (83%) during 100 cycles life test. After being soaked in 1.5 mol L-1 VO2+ solution for 21 days, the weight loss of HSPAEK membrane and the amount of VO2+ reduced from VO2+ are only 0.26% and 0.7%, respectively, indicating the superior chemical stability of the membrane.

  9. Highly charged proton-exchange membrane. Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)-silica polyelectrolyte composite membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahi, Vinod K. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar-364002, Gujarat (India)

    2007-01-15

    Sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone) was carried out with chlorosulphonic acid in chloroform and its composite proton-exchange membrane was prepared using aminopropyltriethoxysilane as inorganic precursor by sol-gel in acidic medium. These membranes were further subjected to phosphorylation with phosphorous acid for introducing phosphonic acid functionality at inorganic segment. Extent of sulphonation was estimated by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy while introduction of phosphonic acid groups was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and ion-exchange capacity studies. Different membranes, with varied silica content without and with phosphorylation, were characterized for their thermal and mechanical stabilities, physicochemical and electrochemical properties using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), aq. methanol uptake studies, proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements. The silica content in the membrane matrix and effect of phosphorylation was optimized as a function of membrane properties. Activation energy required for the proton transport across the membrane was also estimated and found to be comparable with Nafion 117 membrane. From the frictional interpretation and estimation of selectivity parameter it was observed that SPS-Si composite phosphorylated membrane with 20% silica content (SPS-Si(P)/20) resulted in the best proton-exchange membrane, which exhibited quite higher selectivity parameter in comparison to Nafion 117 for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Also, current-voltage polarization characteristics of SPS-Si(P)/20 membrane measured in direct methanol fuel cell, were found to be comparable to the Nafion 117 membrane. (author)

  10. STUDY ON LIGHTLY SULFONATED SYNDIOTACTIC POLYSTYRENE IONOMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wang; Fang-ming Zhu; Jin-cheng Lui; Hua-ming Li; Shang-an Lin

    2001-01-01

    ulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene ionomers (SsPS) with 1.8 mol% degree of sulfonation have been studied.SWAXD shows that the crystallinity of SsPS ionomers was decreased with increasing diameter size of the counter ions and sPS > SsPS-H > SsPS-K > SsPS-Zn. Moreover, SsPS ionomers only have α crystal form, while original sPS has two crystal forms: α and β crystal form. TGA shows that the thermal stability of SsPS ionomers is higher than that of the original sPS and SsPS-Zn > SsPS-K > SsPS-H. DSC shows that all the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of SsPS ionomers are higher than that of the neat sPS and SsPS-Zn > SsPS-Na > SsPS-K > SsPS-H. However, the melting temperature (Tm) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp) of SsPS ionomers are lower and SsPS-H > SsPS-Zn > SsPS-K > SsPS-Na, while the crystallinity (Xc) of SsPS-Zn is the lowest. Nonisothermal crystallization kinetics shows that the Avrami index of sPS and SsPS-H are both about 4, suggesting the nucleation growth of SsPS-H with lower degree of sulfonation still keeps its threedimension form. FTIR spectra of SsPS ionomers show a splitting absorption band for asymmetric stretching vibration of sulfonation group. The CH in-plane bending vibration of benzene ring shifted to higher wavenumber and the symmetric stretching vibration of sulfonation group changed slightly with different counter ion neutralized SsPS ionomers.

  11. The Effect of Nanoscale Particles and Ionomer Architecture on the Crystallization Behavior of Sulfonated Syndiotactic Polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Sonya Denese

    2011-01-01

    Semicrystalline ionomers are an important class of polymers that are utilized in a wide range of applications. The particular end-use applications of these materials are determined by their chemical, physical, and thermomechanical properties which are directly related to their crystallization behavior. It is therefore critical to identify structure-property relationships for these materials. Sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene (SsPS) is used as a model semicrystalline ionomer and two appro...

  12. Proton-conducting membrane based on epoxy resin-poly(vinyl alcohol)-sulfosuccinic acid blend and its nanocomposite with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes for fuel-cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, Nitul; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A blend of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGB) in the presence of sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) was investigated as hydrolytically-stable proton-conducting membrane. The PVA modification was carried out by varying the DGB:SSA ratio (20:20, 10:20, and 5:20). A nanocomposite of the blend (20:20) was prepared with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes (viz., 1, 3 and 5 wt%). The water uptake behavior and the proton conductivity of the prepared membranes were evaluated. The ionic conductivity of the membranes and the water uptake behavior depended on the s-MWCNT and the DGB contents. The ionic conductivity showed an enhancement for the blend and for the nanocomposite membrane as compared to the pristine polymer.

  13. Synthesis and Application of Sodium 1,4 - Dihydroxybutane - 2 - Sulfonate in Synthesis of Polyurethane Ionomer Containing Sulfonate%1,4-二羟基丁烷-2-磺酸钠的合成及其在聚氨酯离子聚合物合成中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书; 孙东成

    2012-01-01

    采用1,4 -丁烯二醇和亚硫酸氢钠反应合成了1,4-二羟基丁烷-2-磺酸钠,经甲醇/水混合溶剂提纯,产率90%以上.红外光谱(FT- IR)、核磁氢谱(1H- NMR)和碳谱(13C- NMR)证实了产物的结构,并对其物理性质(如熔点)和其在水、丙酮、甲醇等中的溶解性进行了测试.研究了反应温度、反应时间、反应物物质的量比对产率的影响,结果表明:反应温度为40℃,反应时间为3h,亚硫酸氢钠与1,4-丁烯二醇的物质的量比为1.2:1是合成1,4-二羟基丁烷-2-磺酸钠的最佳反应条件.以1,4-二羟基丁烷-2-磺酸钠为含离子的单体,聚己二酸己二醇新戊二醇酯(PHNA)、异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯(IPDI)、乙二胺(EDA)、1,4-丁二醇(BDO)为原料,采用丙酮法合成了聚氨酯离子聚合物,红外光谱证实了其结构.拉伸测试表明聚氨酯离子聚合物拉伸强度达41.3 MPa,断裂伸长率为1700%;聚氨酯离子聚合物分散后对分散体的基本性能进行测试,结果显示ξ电位为- 53.85 mV,说明分散体具有良好的稳定性;固含量为50.6%,黏度320 mPa·s,说明聚氨酯分散体具有高固含量、低黏度的特征.%Sodium 1,4- dihydroxybutane - 2 - sulfonate was synthesized by the reaction of sodium bisulfite with 1,4- butenediol. The reaction product was extracted by methanol/water mixtures and a purified product was obtained with a yields of up to 90% . The structure of the product was characterized by use of FT - IR,1H - NMR and C - NMR. The physical properties of the product,such as the melting point,and the solubility in water,acetone and methanol and so on were tested. The influence of reaction temperature,reaction time and the mole ratio of sodium bisulfite and 1,4- butenediol on the yields were studied. The results showed that the best conditions of the reaction was as follows: mole ratio of sodium bisulfite with 1,4-butenediol 1.2:1,reaction temperature 40 ℃ and reaction time 3 hours. The polyurethane

  14. The Effect of Sulfonation and Neutralization on the Dynamics of Zn Neutralized Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alicia; Wang, Wenqin; Winey, Karen I.; Runt, James

    2011-03-01

    The effect of sulfonation and neutralization levels on structure and dynamics of Zn neutralized sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers were investigated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray scattering, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. STEM and X-ray scattering revealed the presence of spherical aggregates 2 nm in diameter. Successful fitting of the scattering data to the Kinning-Thomas modified hard sphere model revealed that aggregate size is independent of degree of sulfonation and neutralization level, and that aggregate composition becomes increasingly ionic with increasing neutralization. Two segmental relaxations were identified in dielectric loss spectra corresponding to cooperative motion of chain segments in the unrestricted matrix and motions of chain segments restricted by aggregates. A Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization process was revealed, with relaxation times that were in good agreement with predictions from a simple model of dispersed ionic spheres.

  15. Phosphorus-containing sulfonated polyimides for proton exchange membranes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of the novel sulfonated BAPPO monomer and its use in the synthesis of a new phosphine oxide-based sulfonated polyimide are described. BTDA, 6FDA, and DDS were used as monomers in the polyimide synthesis. Sulfonated polyimide membranes were obtained by a solution thermal imidization method. The thermal behavior of the polymers was investigated by DSC and TGA. The morphological structure of the membranes was investigated by tapping-mode AFM. The proton conductivit...

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Ion-exchange Sulfonated Poly (ether sulfone)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    N,N'-Bis(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1,8,4,5-naphthalenetetracarboxylic bisimide was prepared from the reaction of 1,8,4,5-naphthalenetetrcarboxylic acid dianhydride and 2-aminophenol in N,N-dimethylformamide. Polymerization of this bisimide with 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone and disodium 3,3'-disulfonate4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone gave ion-exchange sulfonated poly(ether sulfone). The structure of the title compound was characterized with 1H-NMR and its polymer was characterized with FT-IR.

  17. Where's the Bend? Locating the First Folded Structure in Straight Chain Alkylbenzenes in a Supersonic Jet Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Daniel M.; Bocklitz, Sebastian; Suhm, Martin A.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2016-06-01

    Alkylbenzenes make up 20-30% of petroleum fuels and are important intermediates in combustion. In gasoline, these alkyl chains are relatively short, but extend to 20 or more carbons in length in diesel fuels. While one tends to think of these chains as extending out away from the phenyl ring in an all-trans configuration, dispersive interactions between segments of the alkyl chain and between the alkyl chain and the ring will stabilize more compact geometries in which the alkyl chain folds back on itself and extends over the aromatic π cloud. This talk seeks to answer the following question: How long must the alkyl chain be before it starts to fold back over itself? Studies of the pure n-alkanes by the Suhm group have shown the turn to favorably occur for a chain about 17 carbon atoms in length. The studies presented here focus on the affect the aromatic ring has on when this turn becomes favorable. Jet-cooled laser-induced fluorescence excitation and single-conformation IR spectra have been recorded in the alkyl CH stretch region for a series of alkylbenzenes with chain lengths ranging from two to ten carbon atoms. We show, through a combination of experiment, high level calculation, and theoretical modeling, that conformations begin to form that fold back over the aromatic ring at about n=8.

  18. Sulfonated polyvinyl chloride fibers for cation-exchange microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lee, Hian Kee

    2009-09-18

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fiber was derivatized by concentrated sulfuric acid to yield sulfonated PVC (PVC-SO3H). The PVC-SO3H fiber had dual properties as a sorbent, based on cation-exchange and hydrophobicity. In the present study, the novel fiber was used directly as an individual device for extraction purposes in the cation-exchange microextraction of anaesthetics, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV analysis. The results demonstrated that this PVC-SO3H fiber-based microextraction afforded convenient operation and cost-effective application to basic analytes. The limits of detection for four anaesthetics ranged from 1.2 to 6.0 ng/mL. No carryover (because of its disposable usage), and no loss of sorbent phase (which normally occurs in stir-bar sorptive extraction) during extraction were observed.

  19. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing sulfonated units were prepared by blending styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS), with both sulfonated PS and sulfonated SEBS in a Brabender mixer. Such a procedure was performed as an alter...

  20. 不同磺酸掺杂聚苯胺的制备及在超级电容器中的应用%Preparation and Application of Polyaniline Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids for Supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林有铖; 钟新仙; 黄寒星; 王红强; 冯崎鹏; 李庆余

    2016-01-01

    以MnO2为氧化剂,采用乳液聚合法,用三种不同的磺酸型表面活性剂制备掺杂聚苯胺(PANI)。通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、傅里叶变换红外(FTIR)光谱以及X射线衍射(XRD)等手段对其结构及形貌进行表征;用所得的掺杂聚苯胺制作电极,组装成对称扣式超级电容器,用循环伏安法(CV)、电化学阻抗(EIS)和恒电流充放电技术进行电化学性能研究。结果表明,磺酸表面活性剂的引入有利于PANI纳米纤维的形成和分散,掺杂Nafion的PANI纤维直径在30-40 nm之间,纤维交织成多孔的疏松结构;当放电电流为0.1 A∙g-1时,以PANI-Nafion、PANI-SDS(十二烷基磺酸钠)、PANI-SDBS(十二烷基苯磺酸钠)为电极材料的超级电容器比容量分别为385.3、359.7、401.6 F∙g-1,均高于未掺杂PANI的比容量(235.8 F∙g-1);其中,PANI-Nafion的循环稳定性最好,1000次循环后其比容量保持率高达70.7%。%Polyaniline (PANI) nanomaterials doped with three different sulfonic acid surfactants (perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion exchange resin (Nafion), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)) were prepared using an emulsion polymerization method with manganese dioxide (MnO2) as the oxidant. The structure and morphology of the products were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Symmetric redox supercapacitor was assembled with doped PANI as the active electrode material. The electrochemical performances of the materials were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. These results suggest that the introduction of surfactant is beneficial for the formation of a fiber structure and increases the dispersion of PANI. A PANI-Nafion network with distributed porosity and average diameters of 30-40 nm is obtained. The

  1. Molecular sieve/sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkhamchom, Sairung; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) is an electrolyte membrane used in both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Currently, PEMs typically used for PEMFCs are mainly the commercially available Nafion^ membranes, which is high cost and loss of proton conductivity at elevated temperature. In this work, the Sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone), (S-PEKES), was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution polycondensation between bisphenol S and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone, and followed by the sulfonation reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. The molecular sieve was added in the S-PEKES matrix at various ratios to form composite membranes to be the candidate for PEM. Properties of both pure sulfonated polymer and composite membranes were compared with the commercial Nafion^ 117 membrane from Dupont. S-PEKES membranes cast from these materials were evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. The main properties investigated were the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal, chemical, oxidative, and mechanical stabilities by using a LCR meter, Gas Chromatography, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fenton's reagent, and Universal Testing Machine. The addition of the molecular sieve helped to increase both the proton conductivity and the methanol stability. These composite membranes are shown as to be potential candidates for use as a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM).

  2. Thermal and Dielectric Behavior Studies of Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfones with Sulfonated and Phosphonated Pendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoga D. Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the aspects of the synthesizing valeric acid based poly(ether sulfones with active carboxylic acid pendants (VALPSU from solution polymerization technique via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation reaction among 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (BHPA. The conditions necessary to synthesize and purify the polymer were investigated in some detail. The synthesized poly(ether sulfones comprise sulfone and ether linkages in addition to reactive carboxylic acid functionality; these active carboxylic acid functional groups were exploited to hold the phenyl sulphonic acid and phenyl phosphonic acid pendants. The phenyl sulphonic acid pendants in VALPSU were easily constructed by altering active carboxylic acid moieties by sulfanilic acid using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC mediated mild synthetic route, whereas the latter one was built in two steps. Initially, polyphosphoric acid condensation with VALPSU by 4-bromoaniline and next straightforward palladium catalyzed synthetic route, in both of which acidic pendants are clenched by polymer backbone via amide linkage. Without impairing the primary polymeric backbone modified polymers were prepared by varying the stoichiometric ratios of respective combinations. All the polymers were physicochemically characterized and pressed into tablets; electrical contacts were established to study the dielectric properties. Finally, the influence of the acidic pendants on the dielectric properties was examined.

  3. Mass transport of direct methanol fuel cell species in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, V.S.; Boaventura, M.; Mendes, A.M.; Madeira, L.M. [LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ruffmann, B.; Vetter, S.; Nunes, S.P. [GKSS Research Centre, Max-Planck Str., 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-05-05

    Homogeneous membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with different sulfonation degrees (SD) were prepared and characterized. In order to perform a critical analysis of the SD effect on the polymer barrier and mass transport properties towards direct methanol fuel cell species, proton conductivity, water/methanol pervaporation and nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure rise method experiments are proposed. This procedure allows the evaluation of the individual permeability coefficients in hydrated sPEEK membranes with different sulfonation degrees. Nafion{sup (R)} 112 was used as reference material. DMFC tests were also performed at 50{sup o}C. It was observed that the proton conductivity and the permeability towards water, methanol, oxygen and carbon dioxide increase with the sPEEK sulfonation degree. In contrast, the SD seems to not affect the nitrogen permeability coefficient. In terms of selectivity, it was observed that the carbon dioxide/oxygen selectivity increases with the sPEEK SD. In contrast, the nitrogen/oxygen selectivity decreases. In terms of barrier properties for preventing the DMFC reactants loss, the polymer electrolyte membrane based on the sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with SD lower or equal to 71%, although having slightly lower proton conductivity, presented much better characteristics for fuel cell applications compared with the well known Nafion{sup (R)} 112. In terms of the DMFC tests of the studied membranes at low temperature, the sPEEK membrane with SD=71% showed to have similar performance, or even better, as that of Nafion{sup (R)} 112. However, the highest DMFC overall efficiency was achieved using sPEEK membrane with SD=52%. (author)

  4. Microbial toxicity and biodegradability of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and shorter chain perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Field, Jim A; Luna-Velasco, Antonia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-09-14

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have been widely applied in consumer and industrial applications for decades. However, PFOS has raised public concern due to its high bioaccumulative character, environmental persistence, and toxicity. Shorter PFASs such as perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and polyfluoroalkyl compounds have been proposed as alternatives to PFOS but it is unclear whether these fluorinated substances pose a risk for public health and the environment. The objective of this research was to investigate the microbial toxicity and the susceptibility to microbial degradation of PFOS and several related fluorinated compounds, i.e., short-chain perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids. None of the compounds tested were toxic to the methanogenic activity of anaerobic wastewater sludge even at very high concentrations (up to 500 mg L(-1)). All PFASs evaluated were highly resistant to microbial degradation. PFOS was not reductively dehalogenated by the anaerobic microbial consortium even after very long periods of incubation (3.4 years). Similarly, the tested short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (i.e., PFBS and trifluoroacetic acid) and a polyfluoroalkyl PFOS analogue, 6 : 2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA) were also resistant to anaerobic biodegradation. Likewise, no conclusive evidence of microbial degradation was observed under aerobic conditions for any of the short-chain perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids tested after 32 weeks of incubation. Collectively, these results indicate that PFOS and its alternatives such as short chain perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylates and their polyfluorinated homologues are highly resistant to microbial degradation.

  5. Synthesis of Ru(0.58)In(0.42)O(y)⋅nH(2)O nanoparticles dispersed onto poly(sodium-4-styrene sulfonate)-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application for electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changzhou; Hou, Linrui; Yang, Long; Li, Diankai; Tan, Jie; Shen, Laifa; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-02-15

    In this work, poly(sodium-4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS)-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) were first synthesized via a polymer-assisted technique. Then, Ru(0.58)In(0.42)O(y)⋅nH(2)O nanoparticles (NPs) were mono-dispersed onto the FMWCNTs surfaces under mild hydrothermal condition. Here, PSS with negative charge serves as a bifunctional molecule both for solubilizing and dispersing MWCNTs into aqueous solution and for tethering Ru(3+) and In(3+) to facilitate the good dispersion of Ru(1-)(x)In(x)O(y)⋅nH(2)O NPs onto their surfaces. The good dispersion of Ru(0.58)In(0.42)O(y)⋅nH(2)O NPs onto FMWCNTs makes OH(-) ions and electrons easily contact these NPs with abundant electroactive sites, which results in a large specific capacitance (SC) of 319Fg(-1) for the naocomposites. Moreover, a symmetric electrochemical capacitor (EC) is constructed by using the nanocomposites as electrodes and delivers large specific energy density of 18.1Whkg(-1), desirable power property of 1302Wkg(-1), high electrochemical reversibility and good SC retention of 84.7%.

  6. Bisphenol A sulfonation is impaired in metabolic and liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Emine B.; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Slitt, Angela L.; King, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and suspected endocrine disruptor to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. Liver metabolizes and facilitates BPA excretion through glucuronidation and sulfonation. The sulfotransferase enzymes contributing to BPA sulfonation (detected in human and rodents) is poorly understood. Objectives To determine the impact of metabolic and liver disease on BPA sulfonation in human and mouse livers. Methods The capacity for BPA sulfonation was determined in human liver samples that were categorized into different stages of metabolic and liver disease (including obesity, diabetes, steatosis, and cirrhosis) and in livers from ob/ob mice. Results In human liver tissues, BPA sulfonation was substantially lower in livers from subjects with steatosis (23%), diabetes cirrhosis (16%), and cirrhosis (18%), relative to healthy individuals with non-fatty livers (100%). In livers of obese mice (ob/ob), BPA sulfonation was lower (23%) than in livers from lean wild-type controls (100%). In addition to BPA sulfonation activity, Sult1a1 protein expression decreased by 97% in obese mouse livers. Conclusion Taken together these findings establish a profoundly reduced capacity of BPA elimination via sulfonation in obese or diabetic individuals and in those with fatty or cirrhotic livers versus individuals with healthy livers. PMID:26712468

  7. Responses and toxin bioaccumulation in duckweed (Lemna minor) under microcystin-LR, linear alkybenzene sulfonate and their joint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Song, Lirong; Wang, Chunbo; Zhang, Junqian

    2012-08-30

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) are commonly found in eutrophic lakes due to toxic cyanobacterial blooms and exogenous organic compounds pollution. However, the ecotoxicological risk of their combination in the aquatic environment is unknown. This study investigated the effects of MCLR, LAS and their mixture on duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and physiological responses. MCLR accumulation in duckweed, with or without LAS, was also examined. Growth of duckweed and chlorophyll-a contents were significantly reduced after 8d exposure to high concentrations of MCLR (≥ 3 μg/ml), LAS (≥ 20 μg/ml) and their mixture (≥ 3+10 μg/ml). After 2d of exposure, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content in duckweed increased with increasing concentrations of MCLR, LAS and their mixture, with a significant difference observable after 8d of exposure. When MCLR and LAS concentrations were lower (≤ 0.1+1 μg/ml), the interaction of them is synergistic, but when the concentrations were higher, the synergy was weak. MC accumulation was much higher at 2d than at 8d when duckweed was exposed to lower concentrations of MCLR (≤ 3 μg/ml) or MCLR-LAS (≤ 3+10 μg/ml). Furthermore, LAS significantly enhanced the accumulation of MCLR in duckweed, even with LAS concentrations as low as 0.3 μg/ml (environmental concentration), indicating that greater negative ecological risks and higher MCLR phytoremediation potentials of duckweed might occur in MCLR-LAS-concomitant water.

  8. Controlling Structure in Sulfonated Block Copolymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Phuc; Stein, Gila; Strzalka, Joe

    2015-03-01

    In many ionic block copolymer systems, the strong incompatibility between ionic and non-ionic segments will trap non-equilibrium structures in the film, making it difficult to engineer the optimal domain sizes and transport pathways. The goal of this work is to establish a framework for controlling the solid-state structure of sulfonated pentablock copolymer membranes. They have ABCBA block sequence, where A is poly(t-butyl styrene), B is poly(hydrogenated isoprene), and C is poly(styrene sulfonate). To process into films, the polymer is dissolved in toluene/n-propanol solvent mixtures, where the solvent proportions and the polymer loading were both varied. Solution-state structure was measured with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We detected micelles with radii that depend on the solvent composition and polymer loading. Film structure was measured with grazing-incidence SAXS, which shows (i) domain periodicity is constant throughout film thickness; (ii) domain periodicity depends on solvent composition and polymer loading, and approximately matches the micelle radii in solutions. The solid-state packing is consistent with a hard sphere structure factor. Results suggest that solid-state structure can be tuned by manipulating the solution-state self-assembly.

  9. The Effects of Surfactants on the Desorption of Organic Contaminants from Aquifer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Wilmington Delaware, April 11, 1989. Cox, M. F. and K. L. Matheson. "Interactions between Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates and Water Hardness Ions. II. Reducing...Between Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates and Water Hardness Ions. I. Effect of Calcium Ion on Surfactant Solubility and Implications for Detergency...Fatty acids Sulfonate Paraffins Sulfate Olefins Carboxylate Alkylbenzenes Quaternary ammonium Long chain alcohols Protonated amine Alkyl Phenols

  10. Pengaruh Rasio Mol Reaktan dan Lama Sulfonasi terhadap Karakteristik Methyl Ester Sulfonic (MES) dari Metil Ester Minyak Sawit (Effects of Mol Ratio and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic (MES) Characteristics from Methyl Ester of Palm Oil)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Hidayati; Pudji Permadi; Hestuti Eni

    2017-01-01

    An experiment of sulfonation process of methyl ester to produce methyl ester sulfonates (MES) was caried out using methyl ester palm oil in factorial design and NaHSO as sulfonating agent with variation of ratio mol NaHSO : methyl ester (1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:2 ) and sulfonation time (3 hour (L1), 4.5 hour (L2) and 6 hour (L3). The result showed that the best sulfonation condition present in 1:1,5 mol ratio and sulfonation time of 4,5 hour. The best characteristic of MES was produced em...

  11. Sulfonate-grafted porous polymer networks for preferential CO2 adsorption at low pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Sculley, Julian; Zhao, Dan; Krishna, Rajamani; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2011-11-16

    A porous polymer network (PPN) grafted with sulfonic acid (PPN-6-SO(3)H) and its lithium salt (PPN-6-SO(3)Li) exhibit significant increases in isosteric heats of CO(2) adsorption and CO(2)-uptake capacities. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and a 15/85 CO(2)/N(2) ratio at 295 K and 1 bar revealed that the sulfonate-grafted PPN-6 networks show exceptionally high adsorption selectivity for CO(2) over N(2) (155 and 414 for PPN-6-SO(3)H and PPN-6-SO(3)Li, respectively). Since these PPNs also possess ultrahigh physicochemical stability, practical applications in postcombustion capture of CO(2) lie well within the realm of possibility.

  12. Sulfonated Styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene-styrene/Montmorillonite Clay Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Morphology, and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly Anirban

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSulfonated styrene-(ethylene-butylene-styrene triblock copolymer (SSEBS was synthesized by reaction of acetyl sulfate with SEBS. SSESB-clay nanocomposites were then prepared from hydrophilic Na-montmorillonite (MT and organically (quaternary amine modified hydrophobic nanoclay (OMT at very low loading. SEBS did not show improvement in properties with MT-based nanocomposites. On sulfonation (3 and 6 weight% of SEBS, hydrophilic MT clay-based nanocomposites exhibited better mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and thermal properties, and also controlled water–methanol mixture uptake and permeation and AC resistance. Microstructure determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy due to better dispersion of MT nanoclay particles and interaction of MT with SSEBS matrix was responsible for this effect. The resulting nanocomposites have potential as proton transfer membranes for Fuel Cell applications.

  13. Proton Conducting Composite Membranes from Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone and SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gaowen; ZHOU Zhentao; LI Chunqing; CHU Heng

    2009-01-01

    Proton conducting composite membranes from sulfonated polyether ether ketone and SiO2 for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application were prepared with sulfonated polyether ether ketone(SPEEK) and tetracethoxy silane(TEOS) by sol-gel method. The covalent crosslinking structure was formed between -SO3H of SPEEK via SiO2. The SEM images show that the interfacial compatibility of SPEEK and SiO2 is improved obviously and SiO2 disperses uniformly in the polymer matrix and the particle diameter of SiO2 does not exceed 40 nm. The proton conductivity of composite membranes decreases slightly compared with the SPEEK membrane while the methanol permeability and swelling of composite membrane are improved remarkablely owing to covalent cross-linking between -SO3H and SiO2 .

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Nanofiller for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Y. Y.; Loh, K. S.; Daud, W. R. W.; Mohamad, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) nanocomposite were produced as potential nanofiller to improve the properties of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) for fuel cell applications. The GO is produced by modified Hummers's method and the as-synthesized GO was used to prepare SGO with three distinctive precursors, namely 3- mercaptomethoxysilane (MPTMS), sulfanilic acid (SA) and butane sultone (BS). The SGO samples were characterized with several physical characterization techniques (XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX and XPS) to provide the insights into the morphology; the state of homogenization; the crystallography and the functional groups. The experimental result indicated that the sulfonic acid group has been successfully incorporated with GO and can be used as filler in PEM.

  15. Sulfonated polystyrene as a new gradient-index medium for light-focusing elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S D; Hwang, W Y; Song, S H; Lee, el-H; Lee, J I; Shim, H K

    1995-06-01

    We have discovered that the sulfonation of polystyrene can form a gradient-index medium useful for lightfocusing purposes. We found that the refractive index of sulfonated polystyrene varies with the degree of sulfonation and that the refractive index of the fully sulfonated polystyrene decreased by approximately 0.06 at 0.633 microm from that of pure polystyrene.

  16. Preparation of new proton exchange membranes using sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) modified by octylamine (SPESOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrouk, W. [Societe ERAS Labo, 222 RN 90, 38330, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris 75003, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire 1092, Tunis (Tunisia); Ogier, L. [Societe ERAS Labo, 222 RN 90, 38330, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Matoussi, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire 1092, Tunis (Tunisia); Sollogoub, C., E-mail: cyrille.sollogoub@cnam.fr [Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris 75003, Paris (France); Vidal, S. [Societe ERAS Labo, 222 RN 90, 38330, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Dachraoui, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire 1092, Tunis (Tunisia); Fauvarque, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris 75003, Paris (France)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} New, simple and cheap way to synthesize a membrane. {yields} The membranes combine good proton conductivities with good mechanical properties. {yields} The membrane performances in a fuel cell are similar to the Nafion 117. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) has received considerable attention in membrane preparation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). But such membranes are brittle and difficult to handle in operation. We investigated new membranes using SPES grafted with various degrees of octylamine. Five new materials made from sulfonated polyethersulfone sulfonamide (SPESOS) were synthetized with different grades of grafting. They were made from SPES, with initially an ionic exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.4 meq g{sup -1} (1.3 H{sup +} per monomer unit). Pristine SPES with that IEC is water swelling and becomes soluble at 80 deg. C, its proton conductivity is in the range of 0.1 S cm{sup -1} at room temperature in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 1 M, similar to that of Nafion. After grafting with various amounts of octylamine, the material is water insoluble; membranes are less brittle and show sufficient ionic conductivity. Proton transport numbers were measured close to 1.

  17. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene): synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    OpenAIRE

    Picchioni, F.; Tricoli,V.; Carretta, N.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was found that both these properties increase as the polymer is increasingly sulfonated, with abrupt jumps occurring at a concentration of sulfonic acid groups of about 15 mol%. The most extensively sulfon...

  18. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristiane R.; Ruggeri,Giacommo; Paoli,Marco-A. De

    2003-01-01

    The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units). The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Th...

  19. Synthesis of Poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) Containing Sodium Sulfonate Groups via Direct Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1, 2-Dihydro-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)(2H)phthalazin-1-one(DHPZ) was sulfonated in con- centrated sulfuric acid. Poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) containing pendant sodium sulfonate group was synthesized from sulfonated and pure 1,2-dihydro-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)(2H)phthalazin- 1-one, and 4,4(-difluorodiphenylketone. The sulfonated monomer and sulfonated polymer were characterized with FT-IR and 1H-NMR.

  20. Tracer Diffusion of Polystyrene in Lightly Sulfonated Polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhou, Nancy; Burghardt, Wesley; Winey, Karen; Composto, Russell

    2005-03-01

    The tracer diffusion coefficient D^* of deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) (Mw = 65,900 g/mol) in lightly sulfonated polystyrene (P(S-SSx)) (Mw = 65,000 g/mol) as a function of sulfonation mole fraction (x) was measured by forward recoil spectrometry (FRES). For x sulfonation, according to D^* = Do exp(-0.14 Ns), where Ns is the number of sulfuric acid groups per chain. This slowing-down is attributed to an increase in the monomeric friction coefficient which increases with sulfonation. The diffusion mechanism includes both reptation and constraint release. The monomeric friction coefficient for d-PS in P(S-SSx) is compared with the coefficient for P(S-SSx) measured by rheology.

  1. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, R. B. Nasir; Verma, Sanny; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2016-12-01

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  2. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  3. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  4. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...

  5. Synthesis of Petroleum Sulfonate Surfactant with Ultra-Low Interfacial Tension in Rotating Packed Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Zhan; Zhang Pengyuan; Chu Guangwen; Zou Haikui; Jimmy Yun; Chen Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum sulfonate is one of the most important surfactants used in surfactant lfooding for enhanced oil recov-ery, which is mainly obtained by treating high-boiling petroleum fractions in a stirred tank reactor (STR) or in a falling-iflm reactor (FFR). The synthesis of petroleum sulfonate with ultra-low interfacial tension from viscous petroleum fractions was carried out in a rotating packed bed (RPB) reactor using dilute liquid sulfur trioxide as the sulfonating agent in this study. The effects of various experimental conditions on components content and oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the active matter content could reach up to 50.3% and the IFT could be equal to 4.7×10−3 mN/m. Compared with the traditional reactor, the active matter content is by 14.12% higher in the RPB as compared to that obtained in the STR. The uneven change of the test oil droplets during the IFT measurement was also dis-cussed. The increase of heavy components content not only can eliminate the contraction phenomenon, but also can reduce the IFT to a minimum. This can be conducive to explaining the reason for producing IFT and the preparation of proper for-mulations for practical application.

  6. Colorful Polyelectrolytes: An Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Route to Fluorescent Polystyrene Sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Wayne; Tong, Xiaowei; Balamurugan, Sreelatha; Deville, Kyle; Russo, Paul S; Zhang, Donghui

    2016-03-01

    A labeled green fluorescent polystyrene sulfonate (LNaPSS) has been synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization of a styrene sulfonate monomer with a fluorescent co-monomer, fluorescein thiocyanate-vinyl aniline. As a result this 100 % sulfonated polymer contains no hydrophobic patches along the chain backbone besides the fluorescent marker itself. The concentration of the fluorescent monomer was kept low to maintain the characteristic properties of the anionic polyelectrolyte, LNaPSS. ATRP conditions facilitated the production of polymers spanning a range of molecular weights from 35,000 to 175,000 in gram-scale batches with polydispersity indices of 1.01-1.24. Molecular weight increased with the monomer to initiator ratio. Gel permeation chromatography results show a unimodal distribution, and the polymer structure was also confirmed by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed covalent bonding of fluorescein isothiocyanate to the polymer, indicating that the polymer is suitable as a probe in fluorescence microscopy. To demonstrate this ability, the polymer was used to locate structural features in salt crystals formed during drying, as in the evaporation of sea mist. A second application to probe diffusion studies is also demonstrated.

  7. A cell-repellent sulfonated PEG comb-like polymer for highly resolved cell micropatterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaeyeon; Na, Kyunga; Shin, Byungcheol; Kim, Okgene; Lee, Jonghwan; Yun, Kyusik; Hyun, Jinho

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the chemical modification of a cell-repellent poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymer to enhance its hydrophilicity with sulfonate groups, and its application in the fabrication of a cell microarray. First, a polymer comprised of a methyl methacrylate (MMA) backbone with PEG side-chains (PMMA-b-PEG) was synthesized from three monomers by radical polymerization and purified. Despite the hydrophilic side-groups in the amphiphilic polymer, the backbone structure's hydrophobicity allows for local adsorption of biomolecules in incubation media with or without serum. To enhance the hydrophilicity of the polymer, we tethered sulfonate groups to the hydroxyl groups on the PEG side chains (PMMA-b-PEG-SO3). The sulfate groups' physical and mechanical movement competitively repels biomolecules approaching the PMMA-b-PEG surface. Polymers modified with sulfonate were characterized by contact angle measurement, FT-IR, NMR, AFM and GPC. PMMA-b-PEG and PMMA-b-PEG-SO3 were successfully micropatterned on polystyrene and glass surfaces, and cell attachment was performed in either serum-free or serum-containing media, resulting in highly resolved cell micropatterns.

  8. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. L. Yee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK. This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems.

  9. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h{sup -1} from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  10. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  11. The Snail-Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0494   TITLE: The Snail -Induced Sulfonation... Snail -Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0494 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...provided funding for a 3-year project that has resulted in fundamental new insights into how the transcription factor Snail can control gene

  12. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  13. Synthesis and Water Uptake of Sulfonated Poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone)/Polyacrylic Acid Proton Exchange Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei WU; Gao Hong HE; Lin GAO; Shuang GU; Zheng Wen HU; Ping Jing YAO

    2006-01-01

    Novel SPPESK/PAA composite proton exchange membranes with semi-interpenetrating polymer network (sIPN) structure have been synthesized through the in-situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (SPPESK). The composite membranes were identified by FT-IR analysis. Water uptake of the composite membranes was as high as 89.7% at 90℃, nearly one time higher than that of the corresponding SPPESK membrane.

  14. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  15. Fibronectin fibrillogenesis on sulfonated polystyrene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernodet, Nadine; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Xu, D; Yang, Nan-Loh; McLeod, Kenneth

    2003-03-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) protein adsorption and organization serves as a critical first step in the development and organization of tissues. Advances in tissue engineering, therefore, will depend on the ability to control the rate and pattern of ECM formation. Fibronectin is a prominent component of the ECM, which undergoes fibrillogenesis in the presence of cells. Using sulfonated polysyrene surfaces, we showed that fibronectin undergoes a transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption at calculated surface charge densities above 0.03 Coulombs (C)/m(2). At charge densities above approximately 0.08 C/m(2), distinct fibronectin fibrillar networks are observed to form with a fibril morphology similar to those observed to form in situ on cell surfaces. This self-organization process is time dependent, with the fibrils achieving dimensions of 30-40 microm in length and 1 microm in height after 72 h of incubation. We suggest that the polarization of charge domains on the polyampholytic fibronectin molecules near high charge density surfaces is sufficient to initiate the multilayer adsorption and the organization of these fibrillar structures. These results suggest that the nonlinear dependence of adsorption on surface charge density may play an important role in the self-organization of many matrix components.

  16. Nanoscale Morphology of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nancy C.; Winey, Karen I.

    2007-03-01

    We have applied our scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) methods to investigate the size, shape and spatial distribution of the ionic, nanoscale aggregates in poly(styrene-ran-styrene sulfonate) (P(S-SSx)) ionomers. This analytical electron microscopy method minimizes phase contrast that can obscure nano-scale features and accentuates differences in atomic number. We recently reported quantitative agreement between STEM and X-ray scattering results in a Cu-neutralized poly(styrene-ran-methacrylic acid) (SMAA) ionomer with respect to the size of the ionic aggregates and their number density. For this study, P(S-SSx) ionomers were prepared by solution neutralizing with metal acetates, solution casting, and annealing. Initial STEM results from P(S-SS0.019) fully neutralized with Zn indicate a uniform distribution of monodisperse spherical aggregates. Combining direct imaging and X-ray scattering of P(S-SSx) ionomers, we will investigate the effect of cation type and level of neutralization.

  17. Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES)/boron phosphate (BPO{sub 4}) composite membranes for high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Sheng [Faculty of Chemistry and Material Science, Xiaogan University, Xiaogan, Hubei 432100 (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for the Green, Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Institute of Composite Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Gong, Chunli [Faculty of Chemistry and Material Science, Xiaogan University, Xiaogan, Hubei 432100 (China); Tsen, Wen-Chin; Shu, Yao-Chi [Department of Polymer Materials, Vanung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 32045 (China); Tsai, Fang-Chang [Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for the Green, Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Institute of Composite Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A new series of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES)/boron phosphate (BPO{sub 4}) composite membranes for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) applications, with a BPO{sub 4} content up to 40 wt%, were prepared by a sol-gel method using tripropylborate and phosphoric acid as precursors. Compared to a pure SPES membrane, BPO{sub 4} doping in the membranes led to a higher thermal stability and glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) as revealed by TGA-FTIR, DSC and DMTA. Water uptake and oxidative stability were significantly increased by increasing the content of BPO{sub 4}. At both operating temperature conditions, namely 20 C and 100 C, the tensile strength of all the composite membranes were lower than that of the SPES membrane. However, even when the content of BPO{sub 4} was as high as 30%, the composite membrane still possessed strength similar to the Nafion 112 membrane. SEM-EDX indicated that the BPO{sub 4} particles were uniformly embedded throughout the SPES matrix, which may facilitate proton transport. Proton conductivities increased from 0.0065 to 0.022 S cm{sup -1} at room temperature as BPO{sub 4} increased from 0 to 40%. The conductivities also increased with the temperature. The SPES/BPO{sub 4} composite membrane is a promising candidate for PEMFCs applications, especially at higher temperatures. (author)

  18. Partially Fluorinated Sulfonated Poly(ether amide Fuel Cell Membranes: Influence of Chemical Structure on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsung Bae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated sulfonated poly (ether amides (SPAs were synthesized for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. A polycondensation reaction of 4,4’-oxydianiline, 2-sulfoterephthalic acid monosodium salt, and tetrafluorophenylene dicarboxylic acids (terephthalic and isophthalic or fluoroaliphatic dicarboxylic acids produced SPAs with sulfonation degrees of 80–90%. Controlling the feed ratio of the sulfonated and unsulfonated dicarboxylic acid monomers afforded random SPAs with ion exchange capacities between 1.7 and 2.2 meq/g and good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Their structures were characterized using NMR and FT IR spectroscopies. Tough, flexible, and transparent films were obtained with dimethylsulfoxide using a solution casting method. Most SPA membranes with 90% sulfonation degree showed high proton conductivity (>100 mS/cm at 80 °C and 100% relative humidity. Among them, two outstanding ionomers (ODA-STA-TPA-90 and ODA-STA-IPA-90 showed proton conductivity comparable to that of Nafion 117 between 40 and 80 °C. The influence of chemical structure on the membrane properties was systematically investigated by comparing the fluorinated polymers to their hydrogenated counterparts. The results suggest that the incorporation of fluorinated moieties in the polymer backbone of the membrane reduces water absorption. High molecular weight and the resulting physical entanglement of the polymers chains played a more important role in improving stability in water, however.

  19. Simulation and pre-feasibility analysis of the production process of alpha-methyl ester sulfonates (alpha-MES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel; Orozco, Gustavo; Rincón, Sandra; Gil, Iván

    2010-11-01

    alpha-Methyl esters sulfonates (alpha-MES) are anionic surfactants that are derived from biorenewable resources, offering interesting environmental and chemical properties for application in the detergent industry. A simulation of their production process was conducted using a commercial production process currently used for palm oil. Results, prices of raw materials were submitted to economic analysis, and final MES price was compared with available data for linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) prices. The results for substances properties and product streams obtained from simulation were reliable in agreement to real values. It was found that increasing methyl ester national price by 20%, 50% and the equivalent to linear alkyl benzene price, the final price of alpha-methyl ester sulfonates was lower than the current price of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. The capital cost and payout period for a production capacity of 49,000tons of surfactant per year were obtained. Results indicate that the process is economically feasible and can be applied to palm oil-based industries in Colombia.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cause alkyl chain length-dependent hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia mainly by impairing lipoprotein production in APOE*3-leiden CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Chang, S.C.; Ehresman, D.J.; Butenhoff, J.L.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive correla

  1. Miscibility of Polystyrene and Lighted Sulfonated Polystyrene Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N. C.; Burghardt, W. R.; Composto, R. J.

    2005-03-01

    The blend miscibility of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and lighted sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-sulfonated polystyrene) (P (S-SS)) has been examined by forward recoil spectrometry (FRES). Equilibrium coexistence compositions were determined for dPS:P(S-SSx) blends where x is the mole percent of sulfonation.At x = 0.2%, the blends are fully miscible at 150°C to 190°C, while at x = 2.6% the system fully immiscible at the same temperatures. Intermediate levels of sulfonation (0.7, 1.0 and 1.2%) are partially miscible and exhibit an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). This behavior is attributed to the dilution of repulsive intra-molecular interaction between the ionic and non-ionic groups in the copolymer due to favorable interactions with the non-ionic group of the homopolymer PS. Estimates using the Flory-Huggins and the copolymer effect theories found a large ( 20) positive monomer-monomer interaction parameter between styrene and styrene sulfonate. This large interaction parameter might drive phase separation within a compositionally disperse random copolymers sample.

  2. A Facile Synthesis of Mesoporous Sulfonated Carbon and Its Structural Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Azhagapillai; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed; Srinivasakannan, C

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous sulfonated carbons (SC) have been synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a silica source and sucrose as carbon source. The synthesized SC samples were carbonized in N₂flow at various high temperatures and then passing high purity air at room temperature. In this study, we extended the idea to deposit more oxygen functional groups into the surface of SC being high micropores for the favorable adsorption applications. The resulting materials were characterized by using XRD, BET surface area, TPD, TEM, TGA and FTIR techniques. Mesoporous SC materials with controllable pore diameters are expected to be significant to future research concerning the improvement of catalysis, supercapacitors, fuel cells and adsorption.

  3. Computational and experimental investigations of one-step conversion of poly(carbonate)s into value-added poly(aryl ether sulfone)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gavin O; Yuen, Alexander; Wojtecki, Rudy J; Hedrick, James L; García, Jeannette M

    2016-07-12

    It is estimated that ∼2.7 million tons poly(carbonate)s (PCs) are produced annually worldwide. In 2008, retailers pulled products from store shelves after reports of bisphenol A (BPA) leaching from baby bottles, reusable drink bottles, and other retail products. Since PCs are not typically recycled, a need for the repurposing of the PC waste has arisen. We report the one-step synthesis of poly(aryl ether sulfone)s (PSUs) from the depolymerization of PCs and in situ polycondensation with bis(aryl fluorides) in the presence of carbonate salts. PSUs are high-performance engineering thermoplastics that are commonly used for reverse osmosis and water purification membranes, medical equipment, as well as high temperature applications. PSUs generated through this cascade approach were isolated in high purity and yield with the expected thermal properties and represent a procedure for direct conversion of one class of polymer to another in a single step. Computational investigations performed with density functional theory predict that the carbonate salt plays two important catalytic roles in this reaction: it decomposes the PCs by nucleophilic attack, and in the subsequent polyether formation process, it promotes the reaction of phenolate dimers formed in situ with the aryl fluorides present. We envision repurposing poly(BPA carbonate) for the production of value-added polymers.

  4. Effect of degree of sulfonation and casting solvent on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membrane for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jingyu; Li, Zhaohua; Yu, Lihong; Yin, Bibo; Wang, Lei; Liu, Le; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2015-07-01

    The properties of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes with various degree of sulfonation (DS) and casting solvent are investigated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The optimum DS of SPEEK membrane is firstly confirmed by various characterizations such as physicochemical properties, ion selectivity, and VRFB single-cell performance. Subsequently the optimum casting solvent is selected for the optimum DS SPEEK membrane within N,N‧-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N‧-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The different performance of SPEEK membranes prepared with various casting solvents can be attributed to the different interaction between solvent and -SO3H group of SPEEK. In the VRFB single-cell test, the optimum SPEEK membrane with DS of 67% and casting solvent of DMF (S67-DMF membrane) exhibits higher VRFB efficiencies and better cycle-life performance at 80 mA cm-2. The investigation of various DS and casting solvent will be effective guidance on the selection and modification of SPEEK membrane towards VRFB application.

  5. Julia Olefination as a General Route to Phenyl (alpha-Fluoro)vinyl Sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maggie; Ghosh, Arun K; Zajc, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    Mild and efficient synthesis of phenyl (alpha-fluoro)vinyl sulfones via condensation of aldehydes and a ketone with a novel benzothiazolyl based bis-sulfone reagent is reported and this proceeds with moderate to good Z-stereoselectivity.

  6. Dynamics of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alicia; Wang, Wenqin; Winey, Karen; Runt, James

    2010-03-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to investigate the dynamics of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers, in both the acid and neutralized form. This study seeks to elucidate the role of counter ion type (Zn, Na, and Cs), degree of sulfonation (9 and 6%), and ion cluster morphology on the relaxation phenomena of SPS. Degree of neutralization and ion type have been found to significantly impact the breadth and time scale of the segmental relaxation process. High temperature relaxation processes, tentatively proposed to arise from Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and a hydrogen bonding relaxation, have also been identified. Bands in the sulfonate stretching region of FTIR spectra reveal information about ion coordination in the local aggregate environment. A combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and X-ray scattering confirmed the presence of homogeneously distributed, nearly monodisperse spherical ionic aggregates in the polymer matrix.

  7. Surface Sulfonation of Polyvinyl Chloride by Plasma for Antithrombogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 陈亚芍

    2004-01-01

    To enhance the blood compatibility of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) film, the film was modified by SO2/O2 gas plasma treatment. The effect of surface sulfonation of PVC treated by various SO2/O2 gas plasma depended on the volume ratio O2/(SO2 + 02). When the volumeratio was 0.5, the effect of sulfonation was the best. Sulfonic acid groups were specifically and efficiently introduced onto the PVC surface, which was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transfer Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface microstructure of modified PVC film was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The antithrombogenicity of the samples was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and plasma recalcification time (PRT)tests and platelet adhesion experiment. The results indicated that the antithrombogenicity of modified PVC was improved remarkably.

  8. Phase Behavior and Structural Transitions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 施介华; 等

    2002-01-01

    The forming mechanism of microemulsion of sodium dodecyl sulfonate.alcohols,water and isooctane was studied,with particular emphasis on the effect of molecular weight and concentration of alocohols.Phase diagram of the four components,alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfonate,water and isooctane,was used as a means of study,through which the microemulsion regions were determined.Phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfonate/n-pentanol/isooctane/water system at km=2(km=Wn-pentanol/WSDS)is presented. The variation of conductivities of different microemulsion samples with water was measured.From the conductivities we investigated a change in structure from water droplets in oil(W/O)at low water content to liquid crystal at intermediate water content and a structure of oil droplets in water(O/W)at high water content.

  9. Miscibility of Methylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic Acid Polymer with Magnesium, Zinc, and Manganese Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    OpenAIRE

    ALKAN, Cemil; YURTSEVEN, Nebahat; ARAS, Leyla

    2005-01-01

    The miscibility of methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid polymer (MMA-MAA) with metal neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers was investigated by viscometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared radiation spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Polystyrene (PS) was sulfonated by acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid and the sulfonation degree was found to be 2.6 mole percent, and 2.6 mole percent sulfonated polystyrene was neutralized by Mg, Zn, and Mn sa...

  10. Conjugate Additions of Secondary Amines and Water to Allenyl Perfluoroalkyl Sulfones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Jin; LIN Yun; LIU Jin-Tao

    2006-01-01

    Preparation of allenyl perfluoroalkyl sulfones from perfluoroalkyl sulfinyl chlorides and their reactions with secondary amines and water were studied. At room temperature secondary amines reacted readily with allenyl perfluoroalkyl sulfones to give the corresponding enamine adducts, which underwent rearrangement to afford conjugate enamines in refluxing toluene. Good diastereoslectivities were observed in the addition of diethylamine to γ-ethyl-γ-methylallenyl perfluoroalkyl sulfones. In refluxing acetonitrile, water could also undergo the similar addition with allenyl perfluoroalkyl sulfones.

  11. Ruthenium-catalyzed meta sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Ourida; Marafie, Jameel; Ledger, Araminta E W; Liu, Po Man; Mahon, Mary F; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Whittlesey, Michael K; Frost, Christopher G

    2011-12-07

    A selective catalytic meta sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridines was found to occur in the presence of (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes upon reaction with sulfonyl chlorides. The 2-pyridyl group facilitates the formation of a stable Ru-C(aryl) σ bond that induces a strong para-directing effect. Electrophilic aromatic substitution proceeds with the sulfonyl chloride to furnish a sulfone at the position meta to the chelating group. This new catalytic process offers access to atypical regioselectivity for reactions involving chelation-assisted cyclometalation.

  12. Integration of aquatic fate and ecological responses to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in model stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, S E; Bowling, J W; Lee, D M; LeBlanc, E M; Kerr, K M; McAvoy, D C; Christman, S C; Davidson, D H

    2002-06-01

    An integrated model stream ecosystem fate and effect study of dodecyl linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C(12)LAS) was performed in the summer and fall of 1996. The study addressed responses of periphytic microbes, immature benthic fauna including abundance, drift, and emergence of adult insects in a 56-day exposure. Exposures ranged from 126 to 2978 microg/L and were continuously presented in a single-pass, flow-through test system. Microbial heterotrophs acclimated to C(12)LAS exposure quickly (14 days) and biodegraded C(12)LAS at all concentrations. Blue-green algae responded by increasing in abundance with increasing C(12)LAS concentration. Invertebrates responded by increased drift and reduced benthic abundances at concentrations exceeding 293 microg/L. Emergence at 927 microg/L also declined relative to the control. Adverse responses for mayflies and chironomids were indicated using univariate statistical techniques. Multivariate techniques indicated these taxa plus mollusks, aquatic worms, caddisflies, and stoneflies were impaired at some concentrations. Bioavailability of C(12)LAS was investigated in streams as a function of the total suspended solid load in the water column driven by local weather and watershed patterns. A continuous bioavailability model indicated exposure was reduced by an average of 8.5+/-8.9%. A model ecosystem no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was concluded to be 293 microg/L based on measured water column exposure and adjusted to 268 microg/L by the bioavailability model. A literature review of 13 available model ecosystem studies was conducted and NOEC conclusions were adjusted by a structure-activity relationship to a dodecyl chain length (sulfophenyl position and distribution being ignored due to lack of information in the reviewed studies). Lentic studies (n=7) were found to have higher NOECs than lotic studies (n=6) and were more variable. Mean NOECs+/-SD for all studies, lentic studies only, and lotic studies only were 3320

  13. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  14. Survey of sulfonated polyimide membrane as a good candidate for nafion substitution in fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarian-Feizi, Leila; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram; Yeganeh, Hamid [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Studies in fuel cell membranes show that modification of polyimides by introduction of aliphatic linkages in the structure of sulfonated copolyimides, synthesis of branched/crosslinked sulfonated polyimides, and semi and fully interpenetrating polymer networks of sulfonated polyimides restrain suitable potential for Nafion substitution. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 721.5450 - α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721... Substances § 721.5450 α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as α-olefin sulfonate, sodium...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing

  18. Phase behavior of a pure alkyl aryl sulfonate surfactant. [Sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.; Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.

    1978-03-01

    Specctroturbidimetry, visual and microscopic observations, ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, conductimetry, and /sup 13/C NMR were used to study the phase behavior of pure sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate in water--NaCl, decane, and water--decane. Solubility of the sulfonate in water is 0.06 wt % at 25/sup 0/C and 0.7 wt % at 90/sup 0/C, and it drops to 0.0002 wt % in 3 wt % NaCl (25/sup 0/C). A liquid crystalline phase in equilibrium with aqueous solution contains 25 wt % water. Nucleation of supersaturated solutions is slow. Dispersability of the sulfonate is high, but NaCl has an adverse effect. 39 references, 13 figs., 5 tables. (DLC)

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion coefficients and structural properties of some alkylbenzenes in supercritical carbon dioxide at infinite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Feng, Huajie; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping

    2014-03-14

    The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D₁₂(∞), of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C(n), from Ph-H to Ph-C12) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C(n)/CO2 fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C(n) in scCO2 is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C(n) solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C(n) in scCO2. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C(n) is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (σ(c-c)) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C(n) with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ≥ 5) and long-chain Ph-C(n) (n ≥ 4) in scCO2 are different.

  20. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  1. Wetting behavior of lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomers on silica surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaowen; Weiss, R A

    2008-11-18

    The wetting/dewetting behavior of thin films of lightly sulfonated low molecular weight polystyrene (SPS) ionomers spin-coated onto silica surfaces were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, and electron microscopy. The effects of the sulfonation level, the choice of the cation, the solvent used to spin-coat the films, and the molecular weight of the ionomer were investigated. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the bulk microstructure of the films. The addition of the sulfonate groups suppressed the dewetting behavior of the PS above its glass transition temperature, e.g. no dewetting occurred even after 240 h of annealing at 120 degrees C. Increasing the sulfonation level led to more homogeneous and smoother surfaces. The choice of the cation used affected the wetting properties, but not in a predictable manner. When tetrahydrofuran (THF) or a THF/methanol mixed solvent was used for spin-casting, a submicron-textured surface morphology was produced, which may be a consequence of spinodal decomposition of the film surface during casting. Upon annealing for long times, the particles coalesced into a coherent, nonwetted film.

  2. Homolytic C-O cleavage in phosphates and sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lanlan; Zheng, Wenrui; Wang, Yingxing

    2015-04-09

    The C-O homolytic bond dissociation enthalpies(BDEs) were calculated by high-level ab initio including G4, G3B3, G3, CBS-QB3 and a series of density function theory (DFT) methods. It is found that the wB97 method gave the most reliable C-O BDEs and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) is 7.6 kJ/mol. Therefore, the C(sp(2))-O BDE predictions and the substituent effects of alkenyl phosphates/sulfonates and aryl phosphates/sulfonates were investigated in detail by using the wB97 method. Interestingly, there exist different substituent effects in α- and β-substituted alkenyl phosphates/sulfonates. Excellent linear relationships between the C-O BDEs of β-substituted alkenyl phosphates/sulfonates with substituent constant σp(+) were found. In addition, the NBO analysis further disclosed the essence of the substituent effects on C-O BDEs.

  3. Production of sulfonated cation-exchangers from petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol' kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Vinogradov, M.V.

    1982-02-10

    Continuing our studies of the preparation of products of practical value from asphaltite, a new by-product of oil refining, we obtained sulfonated cation-exchangers from a mixture of asphaltite and acid tar. It is shown that these cation-exchangers have good kinetic properties and are superior in thermal and thermohydrolytic stability to the commercial cation-exchange resin KU-2.

  4. Synthesis and properties of poly(sulfone-arylate) copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephen, Ranimol; Gibon, Cécile M.; Weber, Martin; Gaymans, Reinoud J.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(sulfone-arylate) was synthesized in a reaction between dihydroxy polysulfone prepolymers and either diphenyl terephthalate or terephthaloyl chloride. The dihydroxy polysulfone prepolymers had molecular weights of 2000 and 4000 g/mol. The polymerization with diphenyl terephthalate was carried ou

  5. Sulfonated polyimides containing triphenylphosphine oxide for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Arun Kumar; Bera, Debaditya; Banerjee, Susanta, E-mail: susanta@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-09-15

    A series of sulfonated co-polyimides (co-SPI) were prepared by one pot polycondensation reaction of a combination of diamines namely; 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSDSA) and prepared non-sulfonated diamine (DATPPO) containing triphenylphosphine oxide with 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA). All these soluble co-SPI gave flexible membranes with high thermal stability and showed good mechanical property. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the microphase separated morphology with well-dispersed hydrophilic (cluster size in the range of 5–55 nm) domains. The co-SPI membranes showed high oxidative and hydrolytic stability with higher proton conductivity. All these co-SPI membranes exhibited low water uptake and swelling ratio. The co-SPI membrane TPPO-60 (60% degree of sulfonation) with IEC{sub W} = 1.84 mequiv g{sup −1} showed high proton conductivity (99 mS cm{sup −1} at 80 °C and 107 mS cm{sup −1} at 90 °C) in water with high oxidative (20 h) and hydrolytic stability (only 5% degradation in 24 h). - Highlights: • Triphenylphosphine oxide containing sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) was synthesized. • The SPIs showed good oxidative and hydrolytic stability and high proton conductivity. • TEM analysis revealed well separated morphology of the SPIs.

  6. Sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate as antidote against non-metallic pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-kang CHEN; Zhong-qiu LU

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION With the advent of World War II, dimercaptol was first developed in England as an effective antidote against arsenical agents. In 1950' s, scientists from the Soviet Union developed a water-soluble compound, sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) named as Unithiol (or Unitiol), which was able to chelate heavy metals and metalloids.

  7. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS), dimethylsulfone (MSM), and topiramate (TOP) in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (E a ), frequency factor (A), and r...

  8. Fate of linear alkylbenzenes and benzothiazoles of anthropogenic origin and their potential as environmental molecular markers in the Pearl River Delta, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen Rulang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng Hui [Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng, Eddy Y., E-mail: eddyzeng@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The mass emissions of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), benzothiazole (BT), and 2-[4-morpholinyl]benzothiazole (24MoBT) from anthropogenic activities within one year were estimated according to the population and the number of automobiles in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Based on the estimation, the distribution of these compounds among various environmental media was simulated with a mass balance box model established in the present study. The results showed that 79% of LABs generated in the PRD was stored in sediment while only 1.3% of LABs was presumably transported to the adjacent South China Sea (SCS). On the contrary, 47% of BT and 77% of 24MoBT generated in the region were carried with riverine runoff to the coastal ocean. The results from the present study suggest that hydrophobic compounds tend to stay in the watershed of the PRD, whereas hydrophilic ones mainly outflow to the coastal ocean. - A simple mass balance box model examines the fate of linear alkylbenzenes and benzothiazoles in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

  9. Phase equilibria study in binary systems (tetra-n-butylphosphonium tosylate ionic liquid + 1-alcohol, or benzene, or n-alkylbenzene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Paduszyński, Kamil

    2008-09-04

    Ambient pressure (solid + liquid) equilibria (SLE) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) of binary systems--ionic liquid (IL) tetra- n-butylphosphonium p-toluenesulfonate + 1-alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, or 1-dodecanol), benzene, or n-alkylbenzene (toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene)-have been determined by using dynamic method in a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 250 to 335 K. For binaries containing alcohol, simple eutectic diagrams were observed with complete miscibility in the liquid phase. Only in the case of system [IL + n-propylbenzene] was mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) with low solubility of the IL in the alcohol and high solubility of the alcohol in the IL detected. The basic thermal properties of pure IL, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as enthalpy of melting, have been measured with differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Well-known UNIQUAC, Wilson, NRTL, NRTL1, and NRTL2 equations have been fitted to obtain experimental data sets. For the system containing immiscibility gap [IL + n-propylbenzene], parameters of the equations have been derived only from SLE data. As a measure of goodness of correlations, root-mean square deviations of temperature have been used. These experimental results were compared to the previously measured binary systems with tetra- n-butylphosphonium methanesulfonate. Changing anion from methanesulfonate to p-toluenesulfonate decreases solubilities in systems with alcohols and increases the solubilities in binary systems with benzene and alkylbenzenes.

  10. Concrete Durability: A Multibillion-Dollar Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    materials usually are sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensates and sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensates. The use of water-reducing...used in air-entraining additions and admixtures include alkylbenzene sulfonate , polyethylene oxide, detergents, and salts of fatty acids. Specifications

  11. Effect of a sulfonated azo dye and sulfanilic acid on nitrogen transformation processes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaç, F Olcay; Dindar, Efsun; Uçaroğlu, Selnur; Başkaya, Hüseyin S

    2009-10-30

    Introduction of organic dyes into soil via wastewater and sludge applications has been of increasing concern especially in developing or under-developed countries where appropriate management strategies are scarce. Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to organic dyes and estimating the inhibition concentrations will probably contribute to soil remediation studies in regions affected by the same problem. Hence, an incubation study was conducted in order to investigate the impact of a sulfonated azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and sulfanilic acid (SA), a typical representative of aromatic sulfonated amines, on soil nitrogen transformation processes. The results apparently showed that nitrogen related processes in soil can be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic stress caused by organic dyes. It was found that urease activity, arginine ammonification rate, nitrification potential and ammonium oxidising bacteria numbers decreased by 10-20% and 7-28% in the presence of RB5 (> 20 mg/kg dry soil) and SA (> 8 mg/kg dry soil), respectively. Accordingly, it was concluded that organic dye pollution may restrict the nitrogen-use-efficiency of plants, thus further reducing the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, the response of soil microbiota to SA suggested that inhibition effects of the organic dye may continue after the possible reduction of the parent dye to associated aromatic amines.

  12. Improvement in silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate membranes by blending and crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Shuangling, E-mail: zhongsl8077@yahoo.com.c [College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Cui Xuejun, E-mail: cui_xj@jlu.edu.c [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China); Dou Sen; Liu Wencong; Gao Yan; Hong Bo [College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China)

    2010-12-01

    Silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate-poly(vinyl alcohol) (Si-sPS/A-PVA) and Si-sPS/A-PVA-phosphotungstic acid (Si-sPS/A-PVA-PWA) composite membranes were fabricated by solution blending and physical and chemical crosslinking methods to improve the properties of silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate (Si-sPS/A) membranes. FTIR spectra clearly show the existence of various interactions and a crosslinked silica network in composite membranes. The potential of the composites to act as proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) was assessed by studying their thermal and hydrolytic stability, swelling, methanol diffusion coefficient, proton conductivity and selectivity. TGA measurements show that the composite membranes possess good thermal stability up to 190 {sup o}C, satisfying the requirement for fuel cell operation. Compared to the unmodified membrane, the composites exhibit less swelling and a superior methanol barrier. Most importantly, all of the composite membranes have significantly lower methanol diffusion coefficients and significantly higher selectivity than those of Nafion 117. The Si-sPS/A-20PVA-20PWA membrane is the best applicant for use in DMFCs because it exhibits an optimized selectivity value (5.93 x 10{sup 5} Ss cm{sup -3}) that is approximately 7.8 times of that of the unmodified membrane and is 27.8 times higher than that of Nafion 117.

  13. Cross-linked polystyrene sulfonic acid and polyethylene glycol as a low-fouling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghunaim, Abdullah; Zhang Newby, Bi-min

    2016-04-01

    A negatively charged hydrophilic low fouling film was prepared by thermally cross-linking a blend consisting of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was found to be stable by dip-washing. The fouling resistance of this material toward bacterial (Escherichia coli) and colloidal (polystyrene particles) attachment, non-specific protein (fibronectin) adsorption and cell (3T3 NIH) adhesion was evaluated and was compared with glass slides modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) brushes, oxidized 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (sulfonic acid, SA), and n-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory and thermodynamic models based on surface energy were used to explain the interaction behaviors of E. coli/polystyrene particles-substrate and protein-substrate interactions, respectively. The cross-linked PSS-PEG film was found to be slightly better than SA and PEG toward resisting non-specific protein adsorption, and showed comparable low attachment results as those of PEG toward particle, bacterial and NIH-3T3 cells adhesion. The low-fouling performance of PSS-PEG, a cross-linked film by a simple thermal curing process, could allow this material to be used for applications in aqueous environments, where most low fouling hydrophilic polymers, such as PSS or PEG, could not be easily retained.

  14. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature.

  15. Sulfone-Containing Dipolar Glass Polymers with High Dielectric Constant and Low Loss Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhongbo; Litt, Morton; Zhu, Lei

    Sulfone-containing polyoxetanes are designed and synthesized for high dielectric constant and low loss dipolar glasses. The precursor polymer, poly(3,3-bis(chloromethyl)oxetane) (PBCMO) is synthesized by bulk cationic polymerization with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as initiator. The number-average molecular weight of PBCMO is 73 kDa, with a polydispersity of 1.53 as obtained from size-exclusion chromatography results. Post-modification of PBCMO yields the dipolar glass polymer, poly(3,3-bis(methylsulfonylmethyl)oxetane) (MST). Nuclear magnetic resonance result shows 100% conversion. Differential scanning calorimetry result indicates that MST has a glass transition temperature of ca. 120 °C. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, MST exhibits a high dielectric constant of 8.7 and a low dissipation factor of 0.01 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipoles in the side chains are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications. This work is supported by NSF Polymers Program (DMR-1402733).

  16. Isotopic Measurements of Organic Sulfonates From The Murchison Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G. W.; Chang, S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Organic sulfonates and phosphonates have been extracted from the Murchison meteorite for stable isotope measurements. Preliminary stable isotope measurements of individual alkyl sulfonates, R-SO3H (R=C(sub n)H(sub 2n+l)), are shown. These compounds were found in aqueous extracts of Murchison. Both groups show trends similar to other homologous series of organic compounds indigenous to Murchison. Molecular abundances decrease with increasing carbon number, and all possible isomers at each carbon number (through C-4) are present. Carbon isotope measurements of the sulfonates show a decrease in the C-13/C-12 ratio with increasing carbon number. The overall objectives of this project are to obtain dime element carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur - intramolecular isotopic analyses of individual sulfonates, and isotopic measurement of carbon and hydrogen of the phosphonates as a group. The Murchison meteorite is the best characterized carbonaceous chondrite with respect to organic chemistry. The finding of organic sulfonates and phosphonates in Murchison is of interest because they are the first well-characterized series of sulfur and phosphorus containing organic compounds found in meteorites. Also, meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust particles may have been involved in chemical evolution on the early Earth. Because of the critical role of organic phosphorus and sulfur in all living systems, it is particularly interesting to see examples of abiotic syntheses of these classes of compounds. The study of the isotopic composition of the sulfonates and phosphonates can yield insight into their possible interstellar origin as well as their mechanisms of synthesis in the early solar system. Previous isotopic analyses of other classes of organic compounds indigenous to meteorites, e.g., amino acids, carboxylic acids, and hydrocarbons indicate the possibility that interstellar molecules were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies. In these compounds the ratios of heavy to

  17. Improved Performance of Sulfonated Polyarylene Ethers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Xing; J. Kerres; F. Sch(o)nberger

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The proton exchange membrane (PEM) is one of key components in fuel cell system. Its properties are very important in determining PEMFC performance. The membranes presently used in fuel cell are perfluorosulfonic polymers, such as Nafion(R) from Dupont. Although they have high proton conductivity and excellent chemical stability, their too high production cast and methanol permeability lead to failure of fuel cell application. Therefore, various partially fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymer electrolytes are under development for PEMFC application since one decade. In the middle of non-fluorinated polymer electrolytes, sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s display high thermal stability, good mechanical properties and exceptional resistance to oxidation and acid catalyzed hydrolysis. They have been regarded as well-suited proton exchange membrane candidates for fuel cells.

  18. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL BASED POLYSTYRENE SULFONATED MEMBRANE AS PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mulijani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell (MFC represents a major bioelectrochemical system that converts biomass spontaneously into electricity through the activity of microorganisms. The MFC consists of anode and cathode compartments. Microorganisms in MFC liberate electrons while the electron donor is consumed. The produced electron is transmitted to the anode surface, but the generated protons must pass through the proton exchange membrane (PEM to reach the cathode compartment. PEM, as a key factor, affects electricity generation in MFCs. The study attempted to investigate if the sulfonated polystyrene (SPS membrane can be used as a PEM in the application on MFC. SPS membrane has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM and conductivity. The result of the conductivity (σ revealed that the membrane has a promising application for MFC.

  19. Sulfonation of Tyrosine as a Method to Improve Biodistribution of Peptide-Based Radiotracers: Novel (18)F-Labelled Cyclic RGD Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskali, Mohammad Baqir; Denoyer, Delphine; Noonan, Wayne; Cullinane, Carleen; Rangger, Christine; Pouliot, Normand; Haubner, Roland; Roselt, Peter D; Hicks, Rodney J; Hutton, Craig A

    2017-02-13

    The labeling of peptides with positron emitting radionuclides has long held the promise of a wide range of PET agents possessing high affinity and selectivity. Not surprisingly, controlling the biodistribution of these agents has proven to be a major challenge in their successful application. Modification of peptide hydrophilicity in order to increase renal clearance has been a common endeavor to improve overall biodistribution. Herein, we examine the effect of site-specific sulfonation of tyrosine moieties in cyclic(RGDyK) peptides as a means to enhance their hydrophilicity and improve their biodistribution. The novel sulfonated cyclic(RGDyK) peptides were conjugated directly to 4-nitrophenyl 2-[18F]fluoropropionate and the biodistribution of the radiolabeled peptides was compared with that of their non-sulfonated, clinically relevant counterparts, [18F]GalactoRGD and [18F]FPPRGD2. Site-specific sulfonation of the tyrosine residues was shown to increase hydrophilicity and improve biodistribution of the RGD peptides, despite contributing just 79 Da towards the MW, compared with 189 Da for both the 'Galacto' and mini-PEG moieties, suggesting this may be a broadly applicable approach to enhancing biodistribution of radiolabelled peptides.

  20. ISOLATION OF LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE(LAS)-DEGRADING BACTERIUM AND ITS DEGRADING CHARACTERS%直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)降解菌的分离鉴定及其降解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹静; 李君文; 王新为; 王福玉; 王景峰; 张斌; 晁福寰

    2005-01-01

    从天津市某洗涤剂生产厂的排水沟污泥中分离到一株对直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)具有较强降解能力的菌株LAS1,经生理、生化、VITEK微生物自动鉴定仪以及分子生物学等方法鉴定,该菌为放射形土壤杆菌(Agrobacter Radiobacter).LAS1生长的最佳pH值为7.0,最适生长温度为30 ℃,无机氮可以促进其对LAS的降解,而有机氮则会对其降解LAS产生强烈竞争.当LAS浓度高于60 mg/L时,LAS1的LAS降解能力受到一定程度的抑制.LAS1对LAS的降解时间动力学曲线为二级动力学反应. 图4 参5

  1. Determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in auxiliaries by SPE-IPLC-FLD method%SPE-IPLC-FLD法测定助剂中的线性烷基苯磺酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁友超; 吴晓琼; 高颖; 汤娟; 蔡建和; 孙成

    2015-01-01

    建立固相萃取-离子对液相色谱-荧光检测器法(SPE-IPLC-FLD),测定纺织染整助剂中的线性烷基苯磺酸盐(LAS).样品经甲醇+水(50+50,体积比)超声助溶、固相萃取SAX柱净化后,以2.5 mmol/L磷酸二氢四丁基铵溶液作为阳离子对试剂、乙腈梯度洗脱,经离子对反应和反相C18柱色谱分离后,得到4组峰(每组包含4个色谱峰)的独特图谱.荧光检测的激发波长为230 nm,发射波长为310 nm.以十二烷基苯磺酸钠为标准物,LAS的定低限为25 mg/kg(S/N=10),线性范围为0.5~250 mg/L,线性关系大于0.999 5,方法的回收率为91.3%~97.4%,批间RSD小于6.8%.对不同类型染整助剂的实际样品检测,LAS检测结果与理论含量比较一致,阳性样品重复测试的RSD都小于4.2%,结果令人满意.

  2. NiO/活性炭催化氧化降解水中LAS研究%Study on Degradation of Aqueous Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Using NiO/Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建峰; 徐春彦; 白婷婷

    2008-01-01

    以NiO/活性炭为催化剂,并加入H2O2,催化氧化降解100 mL 50 mg/L十二烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS).结果表明,H2O2用量为4.9 mmol/L,温度为50℃,pH值在3~4之间,反应时间为2.0 h,LAS降解率接近80%,COD M去除率为71.6%.

  3. 废水中的直链烷基苯磺酸钠的混凝气浮处理研究%Coagulation-flotation treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in waste water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏红云; 贺敏

    2009-01-01

    研究了废水中的直链烷基苯磺酸钠混凝气浮处理的一些影响因素,包括pH、混凝剂(硫酸铝钾)用量、气浮时间,对比了混凝沉淀和混凝气浮处理直链烷基苯磺酸钠的处理效果.实验结果表明,pH、混凝剂用量及气浮时间均对混凝气浮处理效果有较大影响,当pH=6、混凝剂质量浓度为667 mg/L及气浮时间为5 min时,混凝气浮对直链烷基苯磺酸钠的去除率可达78.50%.

  4. 应用拓扑指数预测直链烷基苯磺酸盐(LAS)的生物降解性%PREDICTION OF THE BIODEGRADABILITY OF LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE (LAS) USING TOPOLOGICAL INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 刘先军; 丁伟; 刘娜; 方伟

    2005-01-01

    用拓扑方法研究了直链烷基苯磺酸盐(LAS)的生物降解性与分子结构的关系.根据分子结构的特点,用距离矩阵表征分子中原子基团的连接性.据此提出一个结构基础明确的定量关系式,可预测分子的生物降解性,以及表征LAS的结构-性质关系.对C10~C13LAS的计算结果表明,计算值与文献报道值较为一致.应用这一定量关系式,能够合理表征LAS的结构性能关系,且有助于揭示化合物结构与性能之间的关系.

  5. Accumulation and degradation of anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Spirulina platensis%钝顶螺旋藻对阴离子表面活性剂(LAS)的富集与降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昊翔; 蒋小龙; 陈锋; 陈红

    2006-01-01

    实验考察了使用钝顶螺旋藻富集与降解溶液中的阴离子表面活性剂(LAS).结果表明,溶液中不同浓度LAS存在下,钝顶螺旋藻的生长符合逻辑斯谛克方程;钝顶螺旋藻对LAS具有一定的富集能力,当LAS的质量浓度为0.5、1、2 mg/L时,24 h时富集量达到最大,分别为2.43、4.83、10.12 mg/g;钝顶螺旋藻对LAS也具有一定的降解能力,当LAS的质量浓度分别为0.5、1、2 mg/L时,5 d内LAS的降解率分别为87%、80%和70.5%,其降解动力学方程可用二级反应动力学方程很好地拟合,拟合度达到87%以上.

  6. Cytotoxic effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on human Chang liver cells%直链烷基苯磺酸钠致人张氏肝细胞损伤的毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文红; 赵红; 王开磊; 张雯; 王金花

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过检测不同剂量的直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)对人张氏肝细胞(Chang liver cells)增殖、损伤、凋亡及坏死的影响,探讨LAS对人张氏肝细胞的毒性作用.方法 体外培养人张氏肝细胞,将细胞分为对照组及LAS不同剂量组,分别为正常对照组(不合LAS的正常培养基培养细胞)、LAS低、中、高剂量组(37.5、75.0及150.0 mg/L).各组细胞培养24 h后,倒置显微镜下观察细胞形态及结构;四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法检测细胞生存率;检测丙二醛(MDA)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)水平以了解肝细胞损伤程度;Hoechst 33342及PI染色观察细胞凋亡及坏死情况.结果 LAS处理后细胞表面出现黑色颗粒,部分细胞变圆脱落并产生碎片,高剂量组出现细胞脱落、死亡.LAS各处理组细胞存活率明显低于对照组(P<0.01),MDA、LDH及AST水平也均明显高于对照组;细胞凋亡率与坏死率明显增加(P<0.01),且这些变化随LAS剂量增加更加明显(P<0.01).结论 LAS可抑制人张氏肝细胞增殖,改变细胞形态,并导致细胞损伤、凋亡和坏死.

  7. STUDY ON THE DEGRADATION OF LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATE BY IMMOBILIZED LAS1 STRAIN%固定化细胞技术降解直链烷基苯磺酸钠的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹静; 李君文; 王新为; 王福玉; 王景峰; 张斌; 晁福寰

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨固定化细胞技术对直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)降解效果及其影响因素,为含LAS废水的处理提供有效方法.方法以海藻酸钠作为从环境中筛选的LAS降解菌LAS1的固定化载体,通过摇床恒温培养观察其对LAS的降解效果.结果用固定化细胞技术降解直链烷基苯磺酸钠,其降解反应为一级动力学,最适降解温度为30℃,并具有较宽的pH值作用范围,在pH值5~9范围内其对LAS均有一定的降解效果,同时其耐受高浓度LAS的能力较悬浮态LAS1明显增强,当LAS浓度达到110 mg·L-1时仍具有98%的降解效果,在单位时间内降解LAS的能力是悬浮态LAS的5倍.结论固定化LAS1具有较强的LAS降解能力,其所需要的作用条件比较温和,具有应用于实际含LAS废水处理的前景.

  8. Determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in leather by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱测定皮革中直链烷基苯磺酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂红雨; 王俊苏; 陈丽华; 刘浩; 张后兵; 万廷春; 杨静; 王国民

    2015-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法对皮革中的直链烷基苯磺酸盐(LAS)进行测定.皮革样品采用甲醇超声波提取后浓缩至干,二氯甲烷溶解,经中性氧化铝固相萃取柱净化,浓缩至干,甲醇定容.用反相C8柱(4.6×150 mm,5μm)分离,以甲醇-10 mmol/L乙酸铵为流动相进行等度洗脱,二级管阵列检测器测定波长为225 nm.结果表明,LAS在0.5~ 10.0 mg/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数大于0.999;检测限为10 mg/kg;在10 ~ 2000 mg/kg添加水平下回收率为86.1%~96.8%,RSD均不大于13%.方法适用于皮革中直链烷基苯磺酸盐的测定.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of 4 Kinds of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates in Bun by SPE-HPLC%SPE-HPLC同时测定馒头中的4种直链烷基苯磺酸钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾松涛; 周围; 王波; 解迎双; 牛宏亮

    2011-01-01

    建立了馒头中4种直链烷基苯磺酸钠高效液相色谱的测定方法.样品经甲醇和水提取后经过MAX复合阴离子交换小柱净化后,利用高效液相色谱进行检测.方法检出限为5μg/mL,4种直链烷基苯磺酸钠的检测波长为225nm,回收率为84.92%-99.28%,相对标准偏差为4.37%-5.93%.可以满足馒头中直链烷基苯磺酸钠检测的方法要求.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly(Phenylene Containing a Non-Planar Structure and Dibenzoyl Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohyoun Jang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers for application as sulfonated polyphenylene membranes were prepared by nickel-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling reaction of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene (BCD and 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene (DCBP. Conjugated cis/trans isomer (BCD had a non-planar conformation containing four peripheral aromatic rings that facilitate the formation of π–π interactions. 1,4-Dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene was synthesized from the oxidation reaction of 2,5-dichloro-p-xylene, followed by Friedel-Crafts reaction with benzene. DCBP monomer had good reactivity in polymerization affecting the activity of benzophenone as an electron-withdrawing group. The polyphenylene was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid. These polymers without any ether linkages on the polymer backbone were protected from nucleophilic attack by hydrogen peroxide, hydroxide anion, and radicals generated by polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC operation systems. The mole fraction of the sulfonic acid groups was controlled by varying the mole ratio of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene in the copolymer. In comparison with Nafion 211® membrane, these SBCDCBP membranes showed ion exchange capacity (IEC ranging from 1.04 to 2.07 meq./g, water uptake from 36.5% to 69.4%, proton conductivity from 58.7 to 101.9 mS/cm, and high thermal stability.

  11. Dual-mode fluorescence switching induced by self-assembly of well-defined poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing pyrene and amide moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeyoung; Kim, Jisung; Seo, Myungeun; Lee, Jinhee; Kim, Sang Youl

    2012-11-04

    A new class of fluorescent organogelators, pyrene-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, showed two fluorescence switching modes in different gelation solvents. The THF gel exhibited excimer emission due to dimerization of the pyrene groups. In contrast, excimer emission was quenched after gelation in MC because of stacking among the pyrene groups.

  12. 二苯砜-3磺酸钾的合成及表征%SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POTASSIUM-DIPHENYL SULFONE SULFONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弋冰; 王德义; 李泽军

    2001-01-01

    Potassium-diphenyl sulfone sulfonate,a kind of effective flame retardant,was synthesized by two steps from benzene,benzenesulfony chloride and chlorosulfonic acid.The structure of the product was analyzed by MS,FT-IR and 1HNMR techniques.

  13. Development and characterization of acid-doped polybenzimidazole/sulfonated polysulfone blend polymer electrolytes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasiotis, C.; Li, Qingfeng; Deimede, V.

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric membranes from blends of sulfonated polysulfones (SPSF) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) doped with phosphoric acid were developed as potential high-temperature polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and other electrochemical applications. The water uptake and acid doping of these polymeric...... it was found to be higher than 10/sup -2/ S cm/sup -1/. Much improvement in the mechanical strength is observed for the blend polymer membranes, especially at higher temperatures. Preliminary work has demonstrated the feasibility of these polymeric membranes for fuel-cell applications...

  14. Proton conductive membranes based on doped sulfonated polytriazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, M.; Brandao, L.; Mendes, A. [Laboratorio de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente e Energia (LEPAE), Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ponce, M.L.; Nunes, S.P. [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of proton conducting sulfonated polytriazole membranes doped with three different agents: 1H-benzimidazole-2-sulfonic acid, benzimidazole and phosphoric acid. The modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The addition of doping agents resulted in a decrease of the glass transition temperature. For membranes doped with 85 wt.% phosphoric acid solution proton conductivity increased up to 2.10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 120 C and at 5% relative humidity. The performance of the phosphoric acid doped membranes was evaluated in a fuel cell set-up at 120 C and 2.5% relative humidity. (author)

  15. Dynamics and Morphology of Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers by Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alicia; Wang, Wenqin; Winey, Karen I.; Runt, James

    2009-03-01

    The dynamics of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers, in both the acid and neutralized forms, were investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The influences of acid content, counterion type (Zn, Na and Cs), degree of neutralization, and microphase separated morphology on segmental and local dynamics, as well as on Maxwell -- Wagner -- Sillars interfacial polarization, were examined. Ionomers prepared from SPS containing 1.9 mol% sulfonic acid species exhibit a broader segmental process indicative of a considerably broader distribution of local environments, as compared to those in unneutralized SPS. Moreover, multiple segmental relaxations were identified in the dielectric spectra of Zn and Na neutralized SPS (1.9 mol%) ionomers, likely indicating two distinct environments arising from ion clustering. A combination of STEM imaging and X-ray scattering confirmed the presence of monodisperse spherical ionic aggregates that were homogeneously distributed in the polymer matrix.

  16. Preparation of sulfonated cation exchangers from petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol' kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    It was established that the reaction of petroleum asphaltite sulfonation is determined in the first step by the chemical reaction rate, and in the last --- by diffusion factors. The kinetic constants were found for each reaction step. Sulfonated cation exchangers were obtained having the characteristics: specific volume of the swollen cation exchanger 3.30 mL/g, bulk density of the air-dry product 0.58 g/mL., moisture content 23.4%, swelling in water 41.6%, mechanical strength 80.0%, static exchange capacity with respect to 0.1N NaOH solution 2.76 mg equiv/g, dynamic exchange capacity with respect to 0.0035N CaC1/sub 2/ solution for a specific load of 10 L/L.h 465 mg equiv/L.

  17. Permselectivity and conductivity of membranes based on sulfonated naphthalenic copolyimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhai, Fengxia; Fang, Jianhua; Laguna, Maria Fe; López-Gonzalez, Mar; Riande, Evaristo

    2007-12-13

    A series of sulfonated diamines were synthesized which were further used to obtain relevant sulfonated naphthalenic copolyimides. Tough and ductile membranes were cast from solutions of the copolyimides in dimethylsulfoxide, which exhibit high ion-exchange capacity and high water uptake. The protonic conductivity of the membranes equilibrated with water lies in the range 1.0-8.6 S/m, at 25 degrees C, being of the same order of magnitude as that reported for perfluorinated acidic membranes. The values of the transport number of protons and sodium ions are close to the unit for very dilute electrolyte solutions, but they lie in the range 0.80-0.90 for moderate concentrations. The membranes exhibit rather high electroosmotic permeability. The similarity of the diffusion coefficients of protons and water in the membranes suggests that the Grottus mechanism governs the protonic conductive process in the acidic membranes equilibrated with water.

  18. SULFONATED POLYIMIDES CONTAINING PYRIDINE GROUPS AS PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Lei; Chuan-qing Kang; Yun-jie Huang; Xue-peng Qiu; Xiang-ling Ji; Wei Xing; Lian-xun Gao

    2011-01-01

    A series of sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) containing pyridine groups were prepared by direct polycondensation from 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA),4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2′-disulfonic acid (ODADS) and 4-(4-methoxy)phenyl-2,6-bis(4-aminophenyl)pyridine (DAM).The resulting copolymers displayed good solubility in common organic solvents.Flexible,transparent,tough membranes were obtained via solution casting.All the films showed high thermal stability with desulfonation temperature over 300℃.They exhibited prominent mechanical properties with Young's modulus around 2.0 GPa.High proton conductivity (0.23 S/em at 100% RH) was also observed.More importantly,the new materials exhibited low water uptake (30 wt%-75 wt% at 80℃) and improved water stability,which were attributed to the acid-base interaction between sulfonic acid and pyridine functional groups.

  19. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  20. New Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-23

    serves as a plasticizer even in the hydrophobic FI domain. Similar glass transition reduction effects observed in other ionomer systems have been...Sulfonated Ionomer : Thermal Annealing and Solvent Effects.” American Physical Society National Meeting. Los Angeles, CA. March 21, 2005. 4. Akinbode...optimizing morphology and ultimately properties, membranes have been cast from relatively inexpensive block-copolymer ionomers of fluorinated poly

  1. Regioselective synthesis of chiral dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Pop

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enantiopure (R,R and (S,S-dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene monosulfones have been synthesized by the aerial oxidation of the chiral dithiolates generated from the propionitrile-protected precursors. Both enantiomers crystallize in the orthorhombic chiral space group P212121. They show a boat-type conformation of the TTF moiety, a rather rigid dithiin sulfone ring and the methyl groups in a bisequatorial conformation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate fully reversible oxidation in radical cation and dication species.

  2. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio José Felix; Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas; Faria, Roberto Mendonça

    2009-12-01

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak β), an intermediate peak (peak α), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak ρ). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes.

  3. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Antonio Jose Felix [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Laboratory of Polymers and Renewable Materials, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faria, Roberto Mendonca [USP, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak {beta}), an intermediate peak (peak {alpha}), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak {rho}). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes. (orig.)

  4. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti, E-mail: jchutiaiasst@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  5. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 (μA · cm(-2)·mM(-1). The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12-12.3 mM) with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity) after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection.

  6. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 (μA · cm−2·mM−1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM) with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity) after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. PMID:26346240

  7. Sulfonate-containing Copolymers Prepared by Semi-Continuous Emulsion Copolymerizaiton of Styrene and Sodium Styrene Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiming HUANG; Wei XIE; Chengyou KAN; Yajie LI; Deshan LIU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Soap-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene (St) and sodium sulfonate styrene (NaSS) could yield homodisperse sulfonate-containing particles with clean surface. But the incorporation of NaSS could never be increased beyond 2.6 % by weight in the conventional batch and seeded emulsion copolymerization in the absence of emulsifier because large amounts of soluble polyelectrolyte would unstablize the reaction system if excessive amount of NaSS was used[1]. In our work, semi-continuous copolymerizations were carried out in the presence of mixed emulsifiers, and a new method to purify the latex polymer was developed. The influences of the NaSS mole ratio in the total monomers and the monomer addition time on the S content in the purified copolymer were investigated by elemental analysis.

  8. Proton Conduction in Sulfonated Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Monoliths with Hierarchical Pore Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lehr, Martin; Seidler, Christopher F; Taffa, Dereje H; Wark, Michael; Smarsly, Bernd M; Marschall, Roland

    2016-09-28

    Porous organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths with hierarchical porosity exhibiting macro- and mesopores are prepared via sol-gel process under variation of the mesopore size. Organic moieties in the pore walls are incorporated by substituting up to 10% of the silicon precursor tetramethylorthosilicate with bisilylated benzene molecules. After functionalization with sulfonic acid groups, the resulting sulfonated hybrid monoliths featuring a bimodal pore structure are investigated regarding proton conduction depending on temperature and relative humidity. The hierarchical pore system and controlled mesopore design turn out to be crucial for sulfonation and proton conduction. These sulfonated hybrid hierarchical monoliths containing only 10% organic precursor exhibit higher proton conduction at different relative humidities than sulfonated periodic mesoporous organosilica made of 100% bisilylated precursors exhibiting solely mesopores, even with a lower concentration of sulfonic acid groups.

  9. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  10. Study on the generation of perfluorooctane sulfonate from the aqueous film-forming foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Takahiro; Arai, Mitsuru

    2008-11-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (C(8)HF(17)SO(3)) and perfluorooctane acid (C(8)HF(15)O(2)) are artificial chemicals and have been used all over the world, mainly as water repellent agents, fluorochemical surfactants, coating agents, etc. However, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane acid are environmental contaminants because of their stability, bio-accumulativeness, and long-term persistence in the ecological environment. At the present day, they are diffused all over the world. Lately, this diffusion is viewed with suspicion and there is a movement towards their restriction, even if the environmental fate of them is still under investigation. Fluorochemical surfactants are key compounds in the aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) formulations. AFFFs are used for massive conflagration such as industrial fire and petroleum fire because of their efficient fire control. On the other hand, a lot of AFFFs are used in case of massive conflagration and most of them enter ocean and groundwater. Actually, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane sulfonate related substances were detected from the fire-fighting facility of US forces. Therefore, there is the possibility of generating perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane sulfonate related substances from fluorochemical surfactants in the AFFFs. In this study, activated sludge added AFFF were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane acid with time. And the perfluorooctane sulfonate was directly detected after 2 days using LC-MS. This shows that AFFF can be decomposed perfluorooctane sulfonate by microorganisms easily. However, perfluorooctane sulfonate would not decompose at all. Additionally, activated sludge added N-polyoxyethylene-N-propyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide which is one of the fluorochemical surfactants used in the AFFF was analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane acid with time and the perfluorooctane sulfonate was detected too.

  11. A STUDY OF THE HEAT OF HYDRATION OF SULFONIC ACID RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XURongnan; JIJunyan; 等

    1992-01-01

    The heat of hydration of dry sulfonic acid resin in different comcentrations of sulfuric acid has been determined. The heat of hydration of the resin in H2O is 143.4J/g(resin). The greater the concentration of sulfuric acid,the less the heat will be released.The hydrate formed from three sulfonic acid groups and one water molecule is the most stable one of all the hydrates of sulfonic acid resin and water.

  12. Development of thin-film composite forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes using direct sulfonated polyphenylenesulfone (sPPSU) as membrane substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peishan; Fu, Xiuzhu; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Maletzko, Christian

    2013-07-02

    This study investigates a new approach to fabricate thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes via interfacial polymerization for forward osmosis (FO) applications. Different degrees of sulfonation of polyphenylenesulfone (PPSU) were adopted as membrane substrates to investigate their impact on water flux. It has been established that the degree of sulfonation plays a role in both creating a macrovoid-free structure and inducing hydrophilicity to bring about higher water fluxes. The fabricated membranes exhibit extremely high water fluxes of 30.6 and 82.0 LMH against a pure water feed using 2.0 M NaCl as the draw solution tested under FO and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) modes, respectively, while maintaining low salt reverse fluxes below 12.7 gMH. The structural parameter (S) displays remarkable decreases of up to 4.5 times as the membrane substrate is switched from a nonsulfonated to sulfonated one. In addition, the newly developed TFC-FO membranes containing 1.5 mol % sPPSU in the substrate achieves a water flux of 22 LMH in seawater desalination using a 3.5 wt % NaCl model solution and 2.0 M NaCl as the draw solution under the PRO mode. To the best of our knowledge, this value is the highest ever reported for seawater desalination using flat and hollow fiber FO membranes. The use of sulfonated materials in the FO process opens up a frontier for sustainable and efficient production of potable water.

  13. A simple LC-MS/MS method to determine plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of albendazole metabolites (albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone) in patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Iliana; Ruiz-Olmedo, María Isabel; Cárdenas, Graciela; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2012-02-01

    The development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of albendazole metabolites (albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone) in human plasma are described. Samples of 200 μL were extracted with ether-dichloromethane-chloroform (60:30:10, v/v/v). The chromatographic separation was performed using a C(18) column with methanol-formic acid 20 mmol/L (70:30) as the mobile phase. The method was linear in a range of 20-5000 ng/mL for albendazole sulfoxide and 10-1500 ng/mL for albendazole sulfone. For both analytes the method was precise (RSD 90%). The method was successfully applied to determine the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone in patients with subarachnoidal neurocysticercosis who received albendazole at 30 mg/kg per day for 7 days. This LC-MS/MS method yielded a quick, simple and reliable protocol for determining albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples and is applicable to therapeutic monitoring.

  14. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.

    1984-09-04

    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  15. Quinone-mediated decolorization of sulfonated azo dyes by cells and cell extracts from Sphingomonas xenophaga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Ling; LU Hong; ZHOU Jiti; WANG Jing

    2009-01-01

    The effects of various quinone compounds on the decolorization rates of sulfonated azo dyes by Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY were investigated. The results showed that anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) was the most effective redox mediator and AQS reduction was the rate-limited step of AQS-mediated decolorization of sulfonated azo dyes. Based on AQS biological toxicity tests, it was assumed that AQS might enter the cells to kill them. In the cytoplasmic extracts from strain QYY, AQS effectively increased decolorization rates of sulfonated azo dyes than other quinone compounds. In addition, we found a NADH/FMN-dependent AQS reductase using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE).

  16. The selective determination of sulfates, sulfonates, and phosphates in urine by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunz, Svenja-Catharina; Neusüß, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Metabolite identification and metabolite profiling are of major importance in the pharmaceutical and clinical context. However, anions of biological relevance such as sulfates, sulfonates, and phosphates are rarely included in common techniques for metabolite studies. In this protocol, we demonstrate a unique method to selectively determine these anions. The method comprises a capillary electrophoresis separation using an acidic background electrolyte (pH ≤ 2) and anodic detection by mass spectrometry via negative electrospray ionization. In this way, only anions of strong acids like sulfates are determined. The selectivity for sulfur-containing species is proved based on the specific isotopic ratios. In conjunction with the accurate mass from the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the presented method is well suited for clinical and pharmaceutical applications to identify possible metabolites and to quantify known metabolites.

  17. Reactivity and fate of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2014-06-01

    This research is focused on secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS), anionic surfactants widely used in household applications that access aquatic environments mainly via sewage discharges. We studied their sorption capacity and anaerobic degradation in marine sediments, providing the first data available on this topic. SAS partition coefficients increased towards those homologues having longer alkyl chains (from up to 141 L kg(-1) for C14 to up to 1753 L kg(-1) for C17), which were those less susceptible to undergo biodegradation. Overall, SAS removal percentages reached up to 98% after 166 days of incubation using anoxic sediments. The degradation pathway consisted on the formation of sulfocarboxylic acids after an initial fumarate attack of the alkyl chain and successive β-oxidations. This is the first study showing that SAS can be degraded in absence of oxygen, so this new information should be taken into account for future environmental risk assessments on these chemicals.

  18. Síntese de poliestireno sulfonado para aplicações no tratamento de água produzido a partir de copos e bandejas descartadas de poliestireno Synthesis of poly(styrene sulfonate from discarded polystyrene cups and expanded trays for application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the use of poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS, produced from discarded polystyrene materials through heterogeneous and homogeneous processes, was investigated. The use of PSS for water treatment, using a kaolin suspension as wastewater model, reduced water turbidity for all the employed materials when compared to the blank analysis, without PSS. The most efficient polyelectrolyte was PSS cups obtained by homogeneous route. The same behavior was observed for real system. The homogeneous PSS cups showed a balance between a moderate molecular weight and high anionic character that improved flocks formation and water removal turbidity.

  19. Properties of sulfonated cation-exchangers made from petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol' kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1982-01-10

    The use of ion-exchangers in radiochemical technology is accompanied by changes of their properties under the influence of ionizing radiation. The rate of development of these processes depends on the nature and structure of the matrix and on the nature and amount of ionic groups. We have proposed a method of synthesis of ion-exchangers resistant to ..gamma.. radiation from petroleum asphaltites. Continuing these investigations, we prepared cation-exchangers by sulfonation of a mixture of petroleum asphaltites and acid asphalt. An investigation of their radiation resistance is described in this paper.

  20. Electrooxidation of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS) on Pt Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of linear alklybenzene sulfonate (LAS) on Pt electrodes was investigated in 0.05M Na2SO4 and in 0.1M NaCl at pH=8 by the potentiokinetic method and by electrolysis. The anodic and cathodic semilogarithmic current-potential curves were obtained between -1.6V - +1.6V. The experimental discharge potentials were determined by means of current-potential-curves obtained by electrolysis between 0-3V. The percentages of surface active material remaining in the so...

  1. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cejas, María Dolores; de-Torres-Ramírez, Inés; Alonso-Cotoner, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

  2. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol

    OpenAIRE

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas; Inés de Torres-Ramírez; Carmen Alonso-Cotoner

    2013-01-01

    Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

  3. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AJ95 Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl... new use rule (SNUR) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical.... EPA is also finalizing a SNUR for long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (LCPFAC) chemical...

  4. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  5. Cationic and radical intermediates in the acid photorelease from aryl sulfonates and phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpolilli, Marco; Merli, Daniele; Protti, Stefano; Dichiarante, Valentina; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Albini, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The irradiation of a series of phenyl sulfonates and phosphates leads to the quantitative release of acidity with a reasonable quantum yield (≈0.2). Products characterization, ion chromatography analysis and potentiometric titration are consistent with the intervening of two different paths in this reaction, viz. cationic with phosphates and (mainly) radical with sulfonates.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  7. Coating of Sulfonic Silica onto Magnetite from Marina Beach Iron sand, Semarang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmiyawati, C.; Suyati, L.; Taslimah; Anggraeni, R. D.

    2017-02-01

    The mineral iron oxide is the main component of sand iron that are abundant in nature. Mineral iron oxide not yet widely applied into more useful products. The main component of iron ore is magnetite. Magnetite can be used as a basic ingredient in the manufacture of magnetite-modified silica adsorbent sulfonate. In this research, the adsorbent made from sulfonic functionalized silica-coated magnetic particle has been successfully produced, with the magnetite was obtained from iron sand at Marina Beach, Semarang Indonesia. This adsorbent was then used as a metal ion preconcentration media. From the research that it was found that the sulfonic has been bound to the silica marked by the emergence of element S on EDX. Whilst, the evidence that silica has coated on the magnetite could be seen from the SEM images which showed the morphology of sulfonic functionalized silica-coated magnetic particles were larger than the sulfonic functionalized silica without magnetite. From the DSC results showed that the addition of magnetite on sulfonic functionalized silica did not change the heat resistance of the sulfonic functionalized silica. Based on the XRD patterns show that magnetite sulfonate silica was formed.

  8. Sulfonated polyetherketone (SPEK-C) films investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Htwe Htwe Yin; YIN Ze-Jie; TANG Shi-Biao; HUANG Huan; ZHU Da-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of sulfonated polyetherketone (SPEK-C) films was investigated by using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that free volume radius and intensity depend on the variation of sulfonation degree and solvent evaporation time of the films. Pore size and distribution determined from PALS and AFM measurements showed reasonable agreement.

  9. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene) : synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, F.; Tricoli, V.; Carretta, N.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was foun

  10. Julia Olefination as a General Route to Phenyl (α-Fluoro)vinyl Sulfones

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maggie; Ghosh, Arun K.; Zajc, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Mild and efficient synthesis of phenyl (α-fluoro)vinyl sulfones via condensation of aldehydes and a ketone with a novel benzothiazolyl based bis-sulfone reagent is reported and this proceeds with moderate to good Z-stereoselectivity. PMID:19888442

  11. Mass spectrometric composition and structural studies of petroleum sulfonates and petroleum sulfonate components for utilization in tertiary petroleum production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belafi, L.; Decsy, Z.; Kerenyi, E.; Lukacs, J.

    1984-01-01

    A separation and mass spectrometric analytical method was developed for the separation and characterization of the monosulfonate fractions of petroleum sulfonate products. The technique is based on distillation and preparative column and thin-layer chromatography. The structure and carbon number distributions of monosulfonate fractions transformed to metilesters were measured based on their low resolution molecular mass spectra. The conditions of an actual petroleum container were simulated and the measurement of the effluent composition during its discharge revealed no change in the composition of monosulfonates.

  12. Radiation-chemical synthesis of polypropylene fabrics with sulfonic acid functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Kug; Park, Jung Soo; Han, Do Hung, E-mail: dhhan@yumail.ac.kr; Bondar, Iuliia, E-mail: juliavad@yahoo.co

    2011-04-01

    A sorption-active material carrying sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene monomer onto the surface of non-woven polypropylene fabric, followed by sulfonation of the grafted polystyrene chains. The effect of the main experimental parameters (absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time) on the styrene degree of grafting was investigated. The sulfonation process with 5% chlorosulfonic acid at room temperature was investigated in detail and the optimal sulfonation conditions for the samples with a medium degree of grafting (70-140%) were determined. Densities of 3.5-5 meq/g were obtained by applying those sorption-active PP fabrics with a sulfonic acid group.

  13. Selective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubo DENG; Danmeng SHUAI; Qiang YU; Jun HUANG; Gang YU

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), as a potential persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in water environments, and has become a great concern in recent years. PFOS is very stable and difficult to decompose using conventional techniques. Sorption may be an attractive method to remove it from water. In this study, the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents were prepared through the polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine under different preparation conditions in order to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water. The MIP adsorbents using perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the template had good imprinting effects and could selectively remove PFOS from aqueous solution. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics,isotherms, and effect of pH, salt, and competitive anions were investigated. Experimental results showed that the sorption of PFOS On the MIP adsorbents was very fast, pH-dependent, and highly selective. The achieved fast sorption equilibrium within 1 h was attributed to the surface sorption on the fine adsorbents. The sorption isotherms showed that the sorption selectivity of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents decreased at high PFOS concentrations, which may be due to the double-layer sorption and the formation of PFOS micelles on the sorbent surface. The sorption of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents was mainly dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the protonated vinylpyridine on the adsorbent surface and the anionic PFOS. The prepared MIP adsorbents can potentially be applied in water and wastewater treatment for selective removal of PFOS.

  14. Study on the resonance light scattering spectra of the interaction of quinine dihydrochloride with perfluorooctane sulfonate and its analytical applications%盐酸奎宁与全氟辛烷磺酸体系的共振光散射光谱研究及其分析应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴飞; 谭克俊; 刘忠德

    2011-01-01

    研究了盐酸奎宁(Quinine dihydrochloride,简称Quinine)与全氟辛烷磺酸(perfluorooctane sulfonate,简称PFOS)相互作用的共振光散射(resonance light scattering,RLS)光谱,并建立了PFOS的共振光散射分析方法.在pH值为2.87的Britton-Robinson(BR)缓冲溶液中,全氟辛烷磺酸根阴离子与质子化的盐酸奎宁通过静电引力和疏水作用形成2:1的离子缔合物,引起共振光散射强度(IRLS)显著增强,最大散射波长位于283nm处,增强的散射信号强度与PFOS浓度在0.10-50.0μmol/L范围内呈线性关系,据此建立了测定PFOS的散射分析方法,检测限为9.88nmol/L.讨论了体系的最佳反应条件及外来物质的干扰,同时研究了体系的吸收光谱及荧光光谱,并探讨了反应机理.本方法用于水样及人体血清样品中PFOS的测定,RSD≤4.2%.%The resonance light scattering(RLS) spectra of the interaction Quinine dihydrochloride (Quinine)with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was investigated. A RLS method for the determination of PFOS has been established. In pH 2.87 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) anions can react with the protonated Quinine by electrostatic forces and hydrophobic interactions to form 2:1 ion-association complexes and resulting in greatly enhanced resonance light scattering signals characterized by a peak at 283 nm, and the RLS intensity was proportional to the concentration of PFOS in the range of 0.10 ~ 5.00 μmol/L. The limit of detection is 9.88 nmol/L. In this paper, the optimum reaction conditions and the interference of foreign substances of the system were investigated. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the system as well as the reaction mechanism were also discussed. This RLS method has been applied to the determination of PFOS in environmental samples and human serum samples with RSD ≤ 4.2%.

  15. Future LAB feedstocks:the advent of pearl GTL%未来的烷基苯原料:天然气液化油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓臣

    2016-01-01

    采用两种不同来源的正构烷烃合成了相应的烷基苯,经磺化、中和后得到两种烷基苯磺酸盐,测定了其应用性能,评价了其对环境的影响。结果发现,来源于天然气液化油(GTL)的正构烷烃完全可以替代来源于煤油的正构烷烃生产烷基苯及其磺酸盐。%Two kinds of normal parafifn were used to synthesize their corresponding linear alkylbenzene, followed by sulfonation and neutralization to obtain linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The properties of LAS were measured to investigate their applications and impact on environment. Results showed that the normal parafifn obtained from kerosene could be replaced by that of Pearl Gas to Liquids (GTL) to prepare linear alkylbenzene and alkylbenzene sulfonate.

  16. Coupling hydrogen separation with butanone hydrogenation in an electrochemical hydrogen pump with sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqi; Wang, Tao; Wu, Xuemei; Xiao, Wu; Yu, Miao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Fengxiang; He, Gaohong

    2016-09-01

    This work reports the novel work of coupling H2/CO2 separation with biomass-derived butanone hydrogenation in non-fluorinated sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (SPPESK) electrochemical hydrogen pump (EHP) reactor. Due to higher resistance to swelling, SPPESK-based EHP reactor exhibits more excellent reaction rate in elevated temperature (60 °C) and higher butanone concentration (2 M) as 270, 260 nmol cm-2 s-1, respectively, higher than 240, 200 nmol cm-2 s-1of Nafion-based EHP reactors. Also, the SPPESK-based EHP reactor remains 90% of initial hydrogenation rate after 4 batches, better than that of Nafion-based EHP reactors, which is only 62%. The energy efficiency of EHP separator reaches 40% under H2/CO2 mixture feed mode, and electricity of about 0.3 kWh is consumed per Nm3 H2 product, being superior to energy consumption compared with alternative processes like PSA and electrolysis of water. In addition, SPPESK-based EHP exhibits better hydrogenation stability due to lower CO2 permeation than Nafion. With increasing CO2 content in H2 feed, hydrogenation rate almost keeps constant at around 210 nmol cm-2 s-1 in SPPESK-based EHP reactor while decreases fast to 50 nmol cm-2 s-1 in Nafion/PTFE-based EHP reactor. These results show integration of gas separation with hydrogenation reactor is feasible in SPPESK-based EHP reactor.

  17. Synthesis and properties of reprocessable sulfonated polyimides cross-linked via acid stimulation for use as proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boping; Ni, Jiangpeng; Xiang, Xiongzhi; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Cross-linked sulfonated polyimides are one of the most promising materials for proton exchange membrane (PEM) applications. However, these cross-linked membranes are difficult to reprocess because they are insoluble. In this study, a series of cross-linkable sulfonated polyimides with flexible pendant alkyl side chains containing trimethoxysilyl groups is successfully synthesized. The cross-linkable polymers are highly soluble in common solvents and can be used to prepare tough and smooth films. Before the cross-linking reaction is complete, the membranes can be reprocessed, and the recovery rate of the prepared films falls within an acceptable range. The cross-linked membranes are obtained rapidly when the cross-linkable membranes are immersed in an acid solution, yielding a cross-linking density of the gel fraction of greater than 90%. The cross-linked membranes exhibit high proton conductivities and tensile strengths under hydrous conditions. Compared with those of pristine membranes, the oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of the cross-linked membranes are significantly higher. The CSPI-70 membrane shows considerable power density in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) test. All of these results suggest that the prepared cross-linked membranes have great potential for applications in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  18. Friedel-Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2013-12-30

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel-Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  19. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Merle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone (cSPEEK membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  20. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion. PMID:24957118

  1. 聚吡咯/蒽醌-2-磺酸盐复合体系的制备及其在锂离子电池中的应用%Preparation of Polypyrrole/Anthraquinone-2-sulfonate Nanocomposite and Application in Li-Ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春明; 黄昭; 杨扬; 王丹; 何丹农

    2014-01-01

    以苯酐为起始原料,采用改进的苯酐法及磺化方法,首先通过硫酸氧化合成蒽醌,再通过发烟硫酸磺化在蒽醌的侧位上引入磺酸根,从而制备了含有电子转移活性的可溶于水的高纯度蒽醌-2-磺酸盐,然后通过电化学聚合反应在集流体上原位得到聚吡咯复合材料(PPy/AQS)。最后,将得到的PPy/AQS复合材料作为锂离子电池的有机电极材料,在常规的有机电解液中形成稳定的电池体系,具备储存和释放锂离子的能力,具有良好的充放电性能及循环稳定性。%Anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) was prepared from phthalic anhydride by modified phthalic anhydride method and sulphonation method. Anthraquinone was synthesized by oxidation of sulfuric acid and phthalic anhydride. Then sulfonic acid group was introduced to the anthraquinone with fuming sulfuric acid to form AQS. And then polypyrrole (PPy)/AQS composite was synthesized by electrochemical in-situ polymerization reaction on current collector from the aqueous solution containing pyrrole and AQS. The prepared PPy/AQS composite material exhibited good charge/discharge property and cycling stability in the conventional organic electrolyte as organic electrode in lithium ion batteries.

  2. State of the water in crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). Two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Lafi, Abdul G. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Hay, James N., E-mail: cscientific9@aec.org.sy [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • 2D-DSC mapping was applied to analyze the heat flow responses of hydrated crosslinked sPEEK. • Two types of loosely bond water were observed. • The first was bond to the sulfonic acid groups and increased with ion exchange capacity. • The second was attributed to the polar groups introduced by ions irradiation and increased with crosslinking degree. • DSC combined with 2D mapping provides a powerful tool for polymer structural determination. - Abstract: This paper reports the first application of two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping, 2D-DSC-CM to analyze the heat flow responses of sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone), sPEEK, films having different ion exchange capacity and degrees of crosslinks. With the help of high resolution and high sensitivity of 2D-DSC-CM, it was possible to locate two types of loosely bound water within the structure of crosslinked sPEEK. The first was bound to the sulfonic acid groups and dependent on the ion exchange capacity of the sPEEK. The second was bound to other polar groups, either introduced by irradiation with ions and dependent on the crosslinking degree or present in the polymer such as the carbonyl groups or terminal units. The results suggest that the ability of the sulfonic acid groups in the crosslinked sPEEK membranes to adsorb water molecules is increased by crosslinking, probably due to the better close packing efficiency of the crosslinked samples. DSC combined with 2D correlation mapping provides a fast and powerful tool for polymer structural determination.

  3. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  4. 含氨基磺化聚芳醚酮砜质子交换膜的制备与性能%Preparation and Behavior of Sulfonated Poly (aryle ether ketone sulfone)Containing Amino Proton Exchange Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晶美; 程海龙; 马丽; 白洪伟; 任春丽; 张会轩; 王哲

    2013-01-01

    The sulfonated poly(aryle ether ketone sulfone) with different sulfonation degree containing amino copolymers were prepared by polycondensation method.The FTIR and 1 H NMR spectra of amino membranesulfonated poly(aryle ether ketone sulfone) (Am-SPAEKS) show that the amino groups are introduced into SPAEKS copolymers.The measured results show that the thermal stability,dimensional stability,resistance methanol performance and proton conductivities of Am-SPAEKS membranes are improved due to the introduction of amino groups.The proton conductivity of Am-SPAEKS-1 membrane reaches 0.0894 S/cm at 80 ℃.The methanol permeability coefficient of Am-SPAEKS-1 membrane is only 0.24×10-6 cm2/s,which is lower than that of pure SPAEKS(0.87×10-6 cm2/s) membrane and Nafion(2×10-6 cm2/s) membrane.All the results indicate that the Am-SPAEKS membranes are promising as proton exchange membranes for middle-high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells applications and direct methanol fuel cells(DMFCs).%通过四元缩聚的方法合成了带有氨基的磺化度可控的磺化聚芳醚酮砜共聚物(Am-SPAEKS).采用红外光谱和核磁共振谱表征了Am-SPAEKS共聚物的结构.该共聚物膜具有较好的热性能、尺寸稳定性、较高的质子传导率和阻醇能力.在80℃时Am-SPAEKS-1膜的质子传导率达到0.0894S/cm,而其甲醇渗透系数在25C时为0.24×10-6 cm2/s,低于相同温度下SPAEKS膜(0.87×10-6 cm2/s)和Nation膜(2×10-6 cm2/s).结果表明,Am-SPAEKS膜能够满足质子交换膜燃料电池(PEMFC)的使用要求.

  5. Celecoxib influences steroid sulfonation catalyzed by human recombinant sulfotransferase 2A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambadapadi, Sriram; Wang, Peter L; Palii, Sergiu P; James, Margaret O

    2015-08-01

    Celecoxib has been reported to switch the human SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) from the 3- to the 17-position. The effects of celecoxib on the sulfonation of selected steroids catalyzed by human SULT2A1 were assessed through in vitro and in silico studies. Celecoxib inhibited SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (AD), testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (Epi-T) in a concentration-dependent manner. Low μM concentrations of celecoxib strikingly enhanced the formation of the 17-sulfates of 6-dehydroestradiol (6D-E2), 17β-dihydroequilenin (17β-Eqn), 17β-dihydroequilin (17β-Eq), and 9-dehydroestradiol (9D-E2) as well as the overall rate of sulfonation. For 6D-E2, 9D-E2 and 17β-Eqn, celecoxib inhibited 3-sulfonation, however 3-sulfonation of 17β-Eq was stimulated at celecoxib concentrations below 40 μM. Ligand docking studies in silico suggest that celecoxib binds in the substrate-binding site of SULT2A1 in a manner that prohibits the usual binding of substrates but facilitates, for appropriately shaped substrates, a binding mode that favors 17-sulfonation.

  6. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Young [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shul, Yong-Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • The c-SBS films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam. • The crosslinking degree of the c-SBS films were increased with the irradiation dose. • The prepared c-SBS films were sulfonated with various concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation of the c-SBS film is largely dependent on the concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation process is progressed from the surface to the inner part of c-SBS film. -- Abstract: Several crosslinked poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  7. Characteristics of polyaniline electropolymerized in camphor sulfonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.R. Jr. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos/DFQ/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Malmonge, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Conceicao Silva, A.J.G. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Motheo, A.J. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos/DFQ/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mascarenhas, Y.P. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mattoso, L.H.C. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    Polyaniline was electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetry in the presence of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), and the resulting film was characterized by solubility tests, UV-Vis absorption, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and conductivity measurements. The use of the functionalized acid - CSA - made it possible to obtain the as-electropolymerized polymer (in the doped state) soluble in organic solvents such as m-cresol and chloroform. The UV-Vis spectra of PAni-CSA in m-cresol presented a free-carrier tail commencing at 1000nm which may be attributed to secondary doping due to conformational changes of the polymer chains. After treatment with m-cresol the film exhibited an increase of conductivity reaching ca. 100S/cm. (orig.)

  8. Chemoselective allylation of ketones in ionic liquids containing sulfonate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, Paola; Moretti, Fabio; Samorì, Chiara; Tagliavini, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The chemoselective addition of tetraallyltin to dialkyl, alkenyl-alkyl, and alkynyl-alkyl ketones can be performed with high yields in N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium trifuoromethansulfonate (MBP-Tf). Other room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) can also be successfully employed if some sulfonic acid is added. The reaction is very sensitive to the electronic properties of the substrate. Aryl alkyl ketones bearing electron-withdrawing substituents behave like dialkyl ketones and react promptly; on the contrary, electron-rich aryl alkyl ketones react sluggishly, which allows selective competitive allylation of dialkyl substrates to occur. The ionic liquid solvent can be easily recycled, which meets the green chemistry principles of selectivity and reuse of chemicals. NMR spectroscopic data support the formation of tin-triflate catalysts in situ.

  9. Mouse model of ulcerative colitis using trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad Rather

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal model of intestinal inflammation is of paramount significance that aids in discerning the pathologies underlying ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the two clinical presentations of inflammatory bowel disease. The 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS colitis model represents one such intestinal inflammation-prototype that is generated in susceptible strains of mice through intra-rectal instillation of compound TNBS. In this paper, we demonstrate the experimental induction of TNBS-mediated colitis in a susceptible strain of ICR mice. This can be done by the following steps: a acclimation, b induction and c observation. TNBS-mouse model provides the information in shortest possible time and simultaneously represents a cost effective and highly reproducible model method of studying the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2004-01-01

    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...... dodecyl isomers (with the benzene group at positions 1, 2 and 6). The conductivity was measured both by van der Pauw measurements on PPy-DBS in the oxidized, dry state as function of temperature, and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as function of potential in 0.1 M NaCl aqueous electrolyte...... carriers is at a minimum. The conductivity is further reduced because of the uptake of water at low potentials, creating electrolytic domains that separate the electronic domains and inhibit hopping. There is a pronounced hysteresis in the conductivity as a function of potential. However, the major part...

  11. Enchansing the Ionic Purity of Hydrophilic Channels by Blending Fully Sulfonated Graft Copolymers with PVDF Homopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Ching-Ching Yang, Ami; Jankova Atanasova, Katja;

    2013-01-01

    The influence of tuning the ionic content of membranes by blending, as opposed to varying the degree of sulfonation, is evaluated. Membranes of fully sulfonated poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)-g-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) blended with PVDF were prepared and investigated...... for morphology, water sorption, and proton transport properties. The blend membranes exhibit conductivities superior to pure graft copolymers under fully humidified conditions despite their lower water uptake. Transmission electron microscopy images of the blends reveal that the membranes comprise a combination...

  12. Derivatives of phenyl tribromomethyl sulfone as novel compounds with potential pesticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Borys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A halogenmethylsulfonyl moiety is incorporated in numerous active herbicides and fungicides. The synthesis of tribromomethyl phenyl sulfone derivatives as novel potential pesticides is reported. The title sulfone was obtained by following three different synthetic routes, starting from 4-chlorothiophenol or 4-halogenphenyl methyl sulfone. Products of its subsequent nitration were subjected to the SNAr reactions with ammonia, amines, hydrazines and phenolates to give 2-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenylhydrazine and diphenyl ether derivatives. Reduction of the nitro group of 4-tribromomethylsulfonyl-2-nitroaniline yielded the corresponding o-phenylenediamine substrate for preparation of structurally varied benzimidazoles.

  13. Laser photolysis of interaction of poly-guanylic acid (5′) with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建华; 林维真; 王文峰; 韩镇辉; 姚思德; 林念芸

    2002-01-01

    The electron transfer reaction between triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly- guanylic acid (5′) in CH3CN-H2O (97:3) has been investigated by 248 nm (KrF) laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained from the interaction of triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly[G] demonstrate that the primary ionic radical pair, radical cation of poly[G] and radical anion of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate have been detected simultaneously. The free energy changes in the process of the electron transfer were also calculated.

  14. Sterically Stabilized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Colloidal Dispersions Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Jun WANG; Ping CHEN; Xiu Jie HU; Shu Yun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of sterically stabilized poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)colloidal dispersions doped with different sulfonic acids is described. Three different sulfonic acids, i.e., p-toluenesulfonic acid, β-naphthalenesuffonic acid and D-camphor-10-sulfonic acid are used, facilitating the preparation of sterically stable PEDOT colloidal particles. The influences of the dopants and concentration of polymeric stabilizer on the yields, morphologies and electrical properties of the resultant colloidal particles were investigated. The colloidal particles with the size ranging from 172 to 334 nm have been obtained in good yields. The compressed pellet conductivity was as high as 4.5 Scm-1.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of quaternized poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) for anion-exchange membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloromethylated poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (CMPPESK) was prepared from poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK) using chloromethyl octyl ethers (CMOE) with lower toxicity as chloromethylated regent. CMPPESK was soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and chloroform. Quatemized poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (QAPPESK) was prepared from CMPPESK by quaternization. QAPPESK had excellent solvent resistance,which was only partly soluble in sulfuric acid (98%) and swollen in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The vanadium redox flow battery (V-RFB) using QAPPESK anion-exchange membrane had better performance with 88.3% of overall energy efficiency.

  16. Laser photolysis of interaction of poly-guanylic acid (5’) with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建华; 韩镇辉; 林维真; 姚思德; 王文峰; 林念芸

    2002-01-01

    The electron transfer reaction between triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly-guanylic acid (5’) in CH3CN-H2O (97 : 3) has been investigated by 248 nm (KrF) laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained from the interaction of triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and poly[G] demonstrate that the primary ionic radical pair, radical cation of poly[G] and radical anion of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate have been detected simultaneously. The free energy changes in the process of the electron transfer were also calculated.

  17. Coupling chemical oxidation and biostimulation: Effects on the natural attenuation capacity and resilience of the native microbial community in alkylbenzene-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pascual, Eulàlia; Grotenhuis, Tim; Solanas, Anna M; Viñas, Marc

    2015-12-30

    Coupling chemical oxidation with bioremediation could be a cost-effective system to cope with soil and groundwater pollution. However, the effects of chemical oxidation on autochthonous microbial communities are scarcely known. A detailed analysis that considers both the efficiency of the two technologies and the response of the microbial communities was performed on a linear alkylbenzene-polluted soil and groundwater samples. The impacts of a modified Fenton's reaction (MFR) at various dosages and of permanganate on the microbiota over 4 weeks were assessed. The permanganate and MFR negatively affected microbial abundance and activity. However, the resilience of certain microbial populations was observed, with a final increase in potential hydrocarbon-degrading populations as determined by both the alkB gene abundance and the predominance of well-known hydrocarbon-degrading phylotypes such as Rhodococcus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter and Cupriavidus genera as determined by 16S rRNA-based DGGE fingerprinting. The assessment of the chemical oxidant impact on autochthonous microbiota should be considered for the optimization of coupled field remediation technologies.

  18. Suitability of the marine prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae for sediment toxicity assessment: A case study with the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, M; Moreno-Garrido, I; González-Mazo, E; Blasco, J

    2009-05-01

    Individuals of the mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) were exposed to sediments spiked with increasing concentrations (1.59-123.13mgkg(-1) dry weight) of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) which is employed in the formulation of laundry powders and liquids, as well as hand dishwashing products. The suitability of the selected organism, H. ulvae for routine sediment toxicity testing was evaluated by measuring acute toxicity recording survival. Sublethal toxicity was evaluated as total number of produced veliger larvae per treatment throughout the test (9d). Mortality has shown to be a reliable and reproducible indicator of acute toxicity. LC(50) values were comprised between 203.4 (48h) and 94.3mgkg(-1) (9d) dry weight. As sublethal endpoint, the total number of produced larvae showed to be a useful indicator of toxicity for this organism. The number of produced larvae increased at lower exposure concentrations, whereas at the highest LAS concentration, the number of produced larvae decreased. This is the first report of acute and sublethal toxicity of sediment associated LAS for this species.

  19. Characterization of polymer blends of polyethersulfone/sulfonated polysulfone and polyethersulfone/sulfonated polyetheretherketone for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, Carmen; Mulder, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    Existing polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) applied for hydrogen fuel cells are frequently not suitable for direct methanol fuel cells due to the high methanol permeability. Therefore, new materials are required and in order to avoid laborious fuel cell experiments with a so-called membrane–electr

  20. Sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane with embedded silica rich layer and enhanced proton selectivity for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Han, Dongmei; Meng, Yuezhong

    A series of novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes with special microstructure, based on sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) ionomer (SFPEK, IEC = 1.92 mequiv. g -1) and SiO 2 or sulfonic acid group containing SiO 2 (SiO 2-SO 3H), has been successfully designed and prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The SiO 2-SO 3H is synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and γ-propyl mercaptotrimethoxysilane via sol-gel process to control the same IEC with neat SPFEK. The hybrid membranes are prepared by simply adding the inorganic particles into the SPFEK solution in N, N‧-dimethylacetamide, followed by ultrasonic dispersion, casting and profiled temperature drying process. The morphology is examined by SEM-EDX which is applied to the top surface, bottom surface and cross-section of the hybrid membranes. The water uptake, oxidative stability, thermal property, mechanical property, proton conductivity, VO 2+ permeability and single cell performance are investigated in detail in order to understand the relationship between morphology and property of the membranes. All the hybrid membranes show dramatically improved proton selectivity at 20 °C and 40 °C when compared with Nafion117. The VRB assembled with the SPFEK/3%SiO 2 and SPFEK/9%SiO 2 membranes exhibit higher coulombic efficiency and average discharge voltage than the VRB assembled with the SPFEK membrane at all the tested current densities.

  1. Nanostructured bacterial cellulose-poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) composite membranes with high storage modulus and protonic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadim, Tiago D O; Figueiredo, Andrea G P R; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly C; Vilela, Carla; Gamelas, José A F; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R; Figueiredo, Filipe M L

    2014-05-28

    The present study reports the development of a new generation of bio-based nanocomposite proton exchange membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA), produced by in situ free radical polymerization of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker, followed by conversion of the ensuing polymer into the acidic form. The BC nanofibrilar network endows the composite membranes with excellent mechanical properties at least up to 140 °C, a temperature where either pure PSSA or Nafion are soft, as shown by dynamic mechanical analysis. The large concentration of sulfonic acid groups in PSSA is responsible for the high ionic exchange capacity of the composite membranes, reaching 2.25 mmol g(-1) for a composite with 83 wt % PSSA/PEGDA. The through-plane protonic conductivity of the best membrane is in excess of 0.1 S cm(-1) at 94 °C and 98% relative humidity (RH), decreasing to 0.042 S cm(-1) at 60% RH. These values are comparable or even higher than those of ionomers such as Nafion or polyelectrolytes such as PSSA. This combination of electric and viscoelastic properties with low cost underlines the potential of these nanocomposites as a bio-based alternative to other polymer membranes for application in fuel cells, redox flow batteries, or other devices requiring functional proton conducting elements, such as sensors and actuators.

  2. Positional isomers of linear sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate: solubility, self-assembly, and air/water interfacial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Guo; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2006-10-10

    Commercial linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) are a very important class of anionic surfactants that are employed in a wide variety of applications, especially those involving wetting and detergency. Linear ABS surfactants generally consist of a complex mixture of different chain lengths and positional isomers. This diversity and level of complexity makes it difficult to develop fundamental structure-property correlations for the commercial surfactants. In this work, six monodisperse headgroup positional isomers of sodium para-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (Na-x-DBS, x = 1-6) have been studied. The influence of headgroup position and added electrolyte (NaCl) on the solubility and self-assembly (micellar and vesicular aggregation and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior) in the temperature range from 10 to 90 degrees C have been investigated. Additionally, the air-aqueous solution interfacial adsorption at 25 (no added NaCl) and 50 degrees C (from 0 to 1.0 M added NaCl) has been examined. The observed physicochemical behavior is interpreted in terms of local molecular packing constraints, and in the case of the lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior global aggregate packing constraints as well.

  3. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Haojie [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shouchun, E-mail: zschun@sxicc.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lu, Chunxiang [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.

  4. Derivatization of enolic OH of piroxicam: a comparative study on esters and sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaselli, J.; Cheemala, J. Manila Sagar; Geetha Rani, D.P.; Pal, Sarbani [MNR Post Graduate College, Kukatpally, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: sarbani277@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    A number of ester and sulfonate derivatives of piroxicam were prepared via acylation/sulfonation of the enolic OH of piroxicam. All the compounds were evaluated for their chemical stability and cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties. Data suggested that esters could be useful for the development of potential prodrugs. The sulfonate derivatives prepared for the first time were found to be stable. One of them showed a moderately selective COX-2 inhibition over COX-1 and would have lower gastrointestinal side effects than piroxicam due to the masked enolic OH group. A plausible mechanism for the acylation/sulfonation process has been proposed that involves participation of the pyridine moiety of piroxicam. Molecular structure of one of the ester was established for the first time by the crystal structure analysis from X-ray powder data. (author)

  5. Nonaqueous preparation of stable silver nano particles dispersions from organic sulfonic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Glushko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for stable silver nano particles dispersions synthesis from organic sulfonic acids in an anhydrous medium of ethylene glycol and its methyl ester were studied. Ascorbic acid and potassium citrate were used as reducing agents.

  6. Synthesis of sulfonated oxindoles by potassium iodide catalyzed arylsulfonylation of activated alkenes with sulfonylhydrazides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiangsheng; Hu, Peizhu; Xiao, Xuqiong; Zhou, Can

    2013-07-19

    A catalytic system consisting of KI, 18-crown-6, and TBHP for arylsulfonylation of activated alkenes with sulfonylhydrazides as sulfonyl precursor is described. This protocol provides a practical and environmentally benign method for the construction of sulfonated oxindoles in water.

  7. Preparation of a Sulfonated Carbonaceous Material from Lignosulfonate and Its Usefulness as an Esterification Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%–29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of novel sulfonated polyimide containing phthalazinone moieties as PEM for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Yan Pan; Yong Fang Liang; Xiu Ling Zhu; Xi Gao Jian

    2007-01-01

    A novel sulfonated diamine monomer, 1,2-dihydro-2-(3-sulfonic-4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-aminophenoxy)-phenyl]phthalazin1-one (S-DHPZDA), was successfully synthesized by direct sulfonation of diamine 1,2-dihydro-2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-aminophenoxy)-phenyl]-phthalazin- 1-one (DHPZDA). A series of sulfonated polyimides (SPIs), which can be used as the material of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), were prepared from 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), S-DHPZDA, and nonsulfonated diamines DHPZDA. The structure of the monomer and polymers were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The solubility of the S-DHPZDA-based SPIs has been improved due to the induction of the phthalazione moiety. The SPIs membranes have high thermo-stability, predominant swelling resistance with high ion exchange capacity.

  9. Sulfonyl Imidazoles as Reagents for the Preparation of Sulfonates and Sulfonamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Several new sulfonates and sulfonamides were synthesized with sulfonyl imidazoles as reagents. These compounds were characterized by 1H NMR. The melting points of all solids synthesized were obtained on Fisher-Johns Melting Point Apparatus.

  10. Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reaction between Poly-guanylic Acid (5`) with Anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The electron transfer reaction between triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate with poly-guanylic acid (5) (poly[G]) in acetonitrile-H2O has been investigated by 248 nm laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra of radical cation of poly[G] and radical anion of anthraqunione-2-sulfonate(AQS) arising from electron transfer reaction has been observed simultaneously for the first time. The formation processes of radical cation of poly[G] and radical anion of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate as well as the decay processes of triplet anthraquinone-2-sulfonate have also been observed, the apparent rate constants for the formation and decay of transient species have been determined. The free energy changes in the process of the electron transfer was also calculated.

  11. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  12. Direct electrochemical DNA detection originated from the self-redox signal of sulfonated polyaniline enhanced by graphene oxide in neutral solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Meng, Le; Wang, Xinxing; Wang, Longlong; Jiao, Kui

    2013-11-13

    In this paper, a type of direct DNA impedance detection using the self-redox signal change of sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) enhanced by graphene oxide (GNO) was reported, here SPAN is a copolymer obtained from aniline and m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid. The resulting nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The π-π planar structure of GNO and the carboxyl groups on the surface of GNO ensured it could act as an excellent substrate for adsorption and polymerization of aniline monomer. Because of the existence of GNO, the electrochemical activities of SPAN were enhanced obviously. Because of abundant sulfonic acid groups, the resulting nanocomposite showed obvious self-redox signal even at physiological pH, which is beneficial for biosensing field. DNA probes with amine groups could be covalently attached to the modified electrode surface through the acyl chloride cross-linking reaction of sulfonic groups and amines. When the flexible probe DNA was successfully grafted, the electrode was coated and electron transfer between electrode and buffer was restrained. Thus, the inner impedance value of SPAN (rather than using outer classic EIS probe, [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) increased significantly. After hybridization, the rigid helix opened the electron channel, which induced impedance value decreased dramatically. As an initial application of this system, the PML/RARA fusion gene sequence formed from promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) was successfully detected.

  13. Suppression of angiogenic activity of sera from diabetic patients with non-proliferative retinopathy by compounds of herbal origin and sulindac sulfone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinski, Piotr; Szaflik, Jerzy; Duda-Król, Barbara; Nartowska, Jadwiga; Sommer, Ewa; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Demkow, Urszula; Skopinska-Rózewska, Ewa

    2004-10-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, is the key event in the mechanism of several pathological processes including diabetic retinopathy. The physiological control of angiogenesis depends on the balance between stimulatory and inhibitory factors. Therefore, a number of anti-angiogenic approaches has been developed, many of them based on the inhibition of the functional activity of pro-angiogenic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-angiogenic effectiveness of sulindac sulfone and some herbal compounds in the serum-induced angiogenesis test performed in Balb/c mice. Pooled sera from 35 patients with diabetes type 2 and retinopathy were used as pro-angiogenic stimuli. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed for the sulindac sulfone and ursolic acid in the highest concentration of 200 micro g/ml, as well as for the low-dosage concomitant treatment with 2 micro g/ml of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, green tea flavanol), ursolic acid (plant-derived triterpenoid), sulindac sulfone and convalamaroside (steroidal saponin). Combination treatment was significantly more effective than monotherapy with medium (20 micro g/ml) or lowest doses of tested compounds. The present study is the first to demonstrate the potent anti-angiogenic effect of the combination therapy comprising of plant-derived extracts and sulindac sulfone, as tested in the in vivo angiogenesis experimental model with sera of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients used as the pro-angiogenic stimuli. We think that it might be the first step toward application of some of these compounds, in the future, in preventive anti-angiogenic therapy of these patients, as well, as in the treatment of later, proliferative stage of this disease.

  14. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G.; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinician...

  15. Asymmetrical Self-assembly From Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers of fluorinated isoprene and partially sulfonated styrene form novel tapered rods and ribbon-like micelles in aqueous media due to a distribution of sulfonation sites and a large Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. A combination of microscopy, light scattering, and simulation demonstrates the presence of these unique nanostructures. This study sheds light on the micellization behavior of amphiphilic block polymers by revealing a new mechanism of self-assembly.

  16. Unusual Cycloadducts from the Dipolar Cycloaddition of Allenyl Perfluoroalkyl Sulfones to Nitrones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Xiao-Jin; LIU,Jin-Tao

    2007-01-01

    The dipolar cycloaddition reaction of allenyl perfluoroalkyl sulfones (1) to nitrones (2) was described. Unlike nonfluorine-containing allenyl sulfones, 1 reacted readily with 2 in ether at room temperature and unusual zwitterionic cycloadducts (3) were obtained in good yields due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of perfluoroalkyl groups. The structure of 3 was characterized by spectral analyses and X-ray crystallography.

  17. Activated-sludge nitrification in the presence of linear and branched-chain alkyl benzene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillod, C R; Boyle, W C

    1968-01-01

    The effects of biodegradable linear alkyl benzene sulfonate and branched-chain alkyl benzene sulfonate detergents on activated-sludge nitrification were investigated by administering a synthetic waste containing up to 23 mg of each detergent per liter to eight bench-scale, batch, activated-sludge units. It was found that both detergents tended to promote complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, whereas control units produced approximately equal amounts of nitrite and nitrate. Various hypotheses are offered to explain the phenomenon.

  18. Viscoelastic Behavior of Low Molecular Weight Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying

    Ionomers are those hydrophobic polymers having small amounts of bonded ionic groups. The introduction of the ionic groups into polymer chain produces large changes in the physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the parent polymer. Characterization of the effect of the ionic interactions on the rheology is complicated by the difficulty in separating effects due to molecular entanglements and the ionic interactions. In this study, low molecular weight (Mw=4000) sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) was used to study the dynamic and steady shear rheology of SPS ionomers. The polymer chain length used was far below the entanglement molecular weight of polystyrene and effects of molecular entanglements will be absent. Any polymer chain entanglements or lengthening behavior on the melt rheology should be due to the ionic interactions. Random SPS ionomers with two sulfonation levels were examined, 2.5 and 4.8 mol%, which corresponded, respectively, to one and two sulfonate groups per chain on average. The metal counterions was varied across the alkali metal series of the periodic table. Morphology of the ionomer was characterized by using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, and dynamic and steady shear measurements were performed to investigate rheological behavior of the ionomers. Glass transition temperatures of the ionomers increased with increasing ion concentration but were insensitive to cation used. The scattering peak in SAXS indicates the existence of the nanophase separated ionic clusters. The strong ionic nanophase persist up to very high temperatures and is not sensitive to the external stress. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) of G' worked reasonably well while TTS of G" failed for most ionomers. Ionic interactions increased the terminal relaxation time of the melts as much as seven orders of magnitude greater than the unentangled PS melt. The zero shear viscosity and first normal stress coefficients scaled with cq/a, where c was the

  19. Semiquantitative evaluation of fibronectin adsorption on unmodified and sulfonated polystyrene, as related to cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyńska, Hanna M; Nowak-Wyrzykowska, Małgorzata; Kołos, Robert; Dobkowski, Jacek; Kamiński, Jarosław

    2008-12-15

    The process of human fibronectin (FN) adsorption on nonsulfonated and sulfonated polystyrene surfaces was studied in relation to mechanisms of L1210 cell adhesion. Radioisotope assays directed towards FN, as well as ELISA measurements of adsorbed FN and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were carried out. (125)I radioisotope assays led to linear FN adsorption isotherms. When combined to ELISA measurements for FN, they revealed the multilayer adsorption. Results indicated a large difference in the saturating first-layer surface density of FN adsorbed on sulfonated and nonsulfonated polystyrene surfaces: significantly (ca. factor of 5) less FN molecules are necessary to complete a monolayer on sulfonated than on nonsulfonated polystyrene. This suggests an unfolded conformation of FN on sulfonated polystyrene, and a more compact one on the nonsulfonated polymer. Significant conformational changes of FN are also indicated by the following: (1) early phase of cell adhesion to FN adsorbed on sulfonated polystyrene surfaces is significantly (ca. factor of 6) higher than to FN on nonsulfonated surfaces, and in the former case adhesion proceeds mostly via alpha(5)beta(1) integrins; (2) RGD, the crucial fragment within central cell binding domain, seems to be partially hidden in the protein structure adopted on nonsulfonated surfaces; (3) patterns of F-actin organization differ in cells adhering to FN on sulfonated and nonsulfonated surfaces. The ELISA study directed against BSA (this protein always present on the surface after the adsorption of FN), showed the importance of "free area," uncovered by both proteins, which influence the cell adhesion processes.

  20. Single-step synthesis of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles and their use as proton conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dominique; Roeder, Jerusa; Ponce, Mariela L.; Nunes, Suzana P.

    A single-step approach for the synthesis of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles from hydrazine sulfate was developed using non-sulfonated diacids in polyphosphoric acid. The post-sulfonation conditions were optimized by varying reaction time, medium and reagent concentrations in sulfuric acid, oleum and/or their mixtures. For the first time, a series of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles with ion exchange capacity (IEC) ranging from 1.26 to 2.7 meqiv. g -1 and high molecular weight (about 40,0000 g mol -1) were synthesized. The structures of the polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and FTIR. Sulfonated polyoxadiazole membranes with high thermal stability indicated by observed glass-transition temperatures (T g) ranging from 364 to 442 °C in sodium salt form and from 304 to 333 °C in acid form and with high mechanical properties (storage modulus about 3 GPa at 300 °C) have been prepared. The membrane stability to oxidation was investigated by soaking the film in Fenton's reagent at 80 °C for 1 h. The sulfonated polyoxadiazole membranes exhibited high oxidative stability, retaining 98-100% of their weight after the test. Proton conductivity values with the order of magnitude of 10 -1 to 10 -2 S cm -1 at 80 °C and with relative humidity ranging from 100% to 20% were obtained.

  1. Morphogenetic control of calcite crystal growth in sulfonic acid based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Olaf; Löbmann, Peer

    2003-03-17

    In this paper the mineralization of CaCO(3) in various hydrogel matrices is presented. Sulfonic acid based hydrogels were prepared by introduction of sulfonate-containing monomers into a polyacrylamide network. The sulfonate content of polyacrylamide-co-vinylsulfonate and polyacrylamide-co-allylsulfonate decreases during elution of the copolymers in demineralized water, indicating insufficient linking of the sulfonate-bearing monomers within the hydrogel. In contrast to this, acrylamidomethylpropanesulfonate (AMPS) effectively copolymerizes with acrylamide (AAm) monomers. To study the influence of spatial arrangement of ionic functional groups within hydrogel networks on the mineralization of CaCO(3), AMPS copolymers with different degrees of AMPS cross-linking were synthesized. For the mineralization experiments the copolymers were placed into a double-diffusion arrangement. Calcite as the thermodynamically stable modification of CaCO(3) was obtained with a particular morphology. The pseudocubic habitus resembles aggregates obtained by mineralization in pure polyacrylamide. However, closer examination of the aggregates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the crystal growth in the AMPS copolymers is different from that observed in polyacrylamide. Whereas the morphology of the calcite aggregates could be fine-tuned by using copolymers with different sulfonate content, the spatial distribution of the ionic functional groups alters the course of crystallization. Calcium ions are locally accumulated due to the heterogeneous distribution of functional sulfonate groups within the copolymer network. Thereby the nucleation of calcite is triggered, resulting in enhanced mineralization.

  2. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shul, Yong-Gun; Shin, Junhwa

    2013-12-01

    Several crosslinked poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  3. Fire Fighter Trainer Environmental Considerations. Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    Tergitol NP-9 (Union Carbide) - Tergitol NP-10 (Union Carbide) Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates - Ultrawet K (Arco) - Nacconol 35 SL (Stepan) Polyethylene...environment. The sulfonic acids (and salts) were also preliminarily acceptable according to the criteria. We selected the subclass of alkylbenzene sulfonates ...salts) - 552 million 1pounds Carboxylic acids (and their salts) - 878 million pounds i . Sulfonic acids (and their salts) - 1.6 billion pounds

  4. Comparative toxicity of some detergents on an estuarine fish, Ambassis commersonii

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The comparative toxicity was evaluated using four detergents, viz, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), branched alkylbenzene sulfonate (BAS), sodium sulfonate (SS) and alfa-olefin sulfonate (AOS) on an estuarine fish, Ambassis commersonii, abundant in Kali estuarine system. Standard toxicity bioassay method was followed as per APHA (1980). AOS concentration in "Mega" soap was determined by the standard MBAS method described in APHA (1980). The results indicate that LAS was the most toxic det...

  5. Review on Modification of Sulfonated Poly (-ether-ether-ketone Membranes Used as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin GAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is a type of modern power, but the traditional proton exchange membranes (PEM of PEMFC are limited by high methanol permeability and water uptake. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK is a widely used thermoplastic with good cost-effective property. Sulfonated poly (-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK has high electric conductivity and low methanol permeability, as well as comprehensive property, which is expected to be used as PEMs. However, the proton exchange ability, methanol resistance, mechanical property and thermal stability of SPEEK are closely related to the degree of sulfonation (DS of SPEEK membranes. Additionally, the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and stability of SPEEK membranes applied in various conditions need to be further improved. In this paper, the research into modification of SPEEK membranes made by SPEEK and other polymers, inorganic materials are introduced. The properties and modification situation of the SPEEK and the composite membranes, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of membranes prepared by different materials are summarized. From the results we know that, the methanol permeability of SPEEK/PES-C membranes is within the order of magnitude, 10-7cm2/s. The proton conductivity of the SPPESK/SPEEK blend membrane reaches 0.212 S cm-1 at 80 °C. The cross-linked SPEEK membranes have raised thermal and dimensional stability. The non-solvent caused aggregation of the SPEEK ionomers. The proton conductivity of SPEEK/50%BMIMPF6/4.6PA membrane maintains stable as 2.0 x 10-2S cm-1 after 600 h at 160 °C. Incorporation of aligned CNT into SPEEK increases the proton conductivity and reduces the methanol permeability of the composite membranes. The PANI improves the hydrothermal stability. More proton transfer sites lead to a more compact structure in the composite membranes. According to the results, the proton exchange capacity, water uptake, and conductivity of

  6. Terbufos-sulfone exacerbates cardiac lesions in diabetic rats: a sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, Syed M; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Yasin, Javed; Adem, Abdu; Kaabi, Juma Al; Tariq, Saeed; Adeghate, Ernest; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide range of applications, from agriculture to warfare. Exposure to these brings forward a varied kind of health issues globally. Terbufos is one of the leading OPCs used worldwide. The present study investigates the cardiac effect of no observable dose of a metabolite of terbufos, terbufos-sulfone (TS), under non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic condition. One hundred nanomoles per rat (1/20 of LD50) was administered intraperitoneally to adult male Wister rats daily for fifteen days. The left ventricle was collected for ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. The blood samples were collected for biochemical tests including RBC acetylcholinesterase, creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, ALT, AST, and GGT. The study revealed about 10 % inhibition of RBC-AChE in two weeks of TS treatment in non-diabetic rats whereas RBC-AChE activity was significantly decreased in diabetic TS treated rats. CK, LDH, and triglycerides were significantly higher in diabetic TS treated rats. Electron microscopy of the heart showed derangement and lesions of the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes in the TS treated groups. The present study concludes that a non-lethal dose of TS causes cardiac lesions which exacerbate under diabetic condition. Biochemical tests confirmed the ultrastructural changes. It is concluded that a non-lethal dose of TS may be a risk factor for a cardiovascular disease, which may be fatal under diabetic condition.

  7. 脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐%Fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate(MES) is an anionic surfactant based on natural oils generated from plant and animal as raw materials. MES has good detergency, lime soap dispersing ability, hard water-resistance, emulsibility, water-solubility and biodegradability; besides, it can improve the solubility of soap in water. Because of the good performance of MES, it can be used in synthetic powder detergent, compound soap powder, composite soap, shampoo and personal care products. The present production situation, product forms, properties as well as applications of MES were related.%脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐简称(MES)是以天然动植物油脂为原料制得的脂肪酸系阴离子表面活性剂。它具有良好的去污性、钙皂分散性、抗硬水性、乳化性、增溶性和生物降解性,并能改进肥皂的溶解性。由于MES性能优良,主要用于合成洗衣粉、复合皂粉、复合肥皂、香波以及个人清洁用品中。对MES的生产现状、产品形式、性能以及应用进行了概述。

  8. Removal of Chromium(III Using Synthetic Polymers, Copolymers and their Sulfonated Derivatives as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Kanwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the development of some synthetic polymers, copolymers and their sulfonated derivatives as adsorbents. The effectiveness of these adsorbents in removing Cr(III from aqueous solution was evaluated by batch technique. The influence of different experimental parameters on removal process such as solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, Cr(III concentration and temperature were evaluated. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 20 to 30 min. at pH > 5. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The maximum Cr(III37.8 mg/gram of PS(polystyrene and 37.2 mg/g of SAN (styrene/acrylonitrile copolymer was removed as evaluated from Langmuir isotherm while the heat of sorption was in the range 0.21–7.65 kJ/mol as evaluated from Temkin isotherm. It can be concluded that PS developed in this study exhibited considerable adsorption potential for application in removal of Cr(III from aqueous media as compared to its copolymers and other derivatives used in this study.

  9. A strategy to modulate the electrophoretic behavior in plastic microchips using sodium polystyrene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinxiu; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lizhi; Sun, Ping; Li, Hongli; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Xiayan; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2016-12-16

    Plastic microchips have been broadly used as disposable microfluidic devices, but the poorly defined surface properties limit their application. Herein, we proved that an anionic polymer could be used as the background electrolyte (BGE) to provide a strong and stable cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) and modulate the electrophoretic behavior for efficient separation in relative thicker microchannels (∼75μm id). A cathodic EOF of ∼3.3×10(-4)cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) was maintained using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSSNa) with a molecular weight of 5×10(5) as the BGE, which ensured fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled biogenic amines (BAs) appeared ahead of other components in the electropherograms obtained with microchips of cyclic olefin copolymer. Four selected BAs appeared within 50s and theoretical plate numbers of 8.0×10(5)/m were achieved. The role of PSSNa was evaluated with streaming potential, dynamic light scattering, contact angle and atomic force microscopy. Its functionalities as surface modifier, viscosity regulator and pseudostationary phase were also confirmed. The proposed electrophoretic method was applied in the fast determination of BAs in fish meat samples.

  10. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate in utero reduces testosterone production in rat fetal Leydig cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a synthetic material that has been widely used in industrial applications for decades. Exposure to PFOS has been associated with decreased adult testosterone level, and Leydig cell impairment during the time of adulthood. However, little is known about PFOS effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study investigated effects of PFOS on FLC function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley female rats received vehicle (0.05% Tween20 or PFOS (5, 20 mg/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD 11-19. At GD20, testosterone (T production, FLC numbers and ultrastructure, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. The results indicate that exposures to PFOS have affected FLC function as evidenced by decreased T production, impaired FLC, reduced FLC number, and decreased steroidogenic capacity and cholesterol level in utero. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that PFOS is an endocrine disruptor of male reproductive system as it causes reduction of T production and impairment of rat fetal Leydig cells.

  11. Environmental Biotechnology: Moving from the Flask to the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    Procter and Gamble Co., Ivorydale Technical Center A pond receiving high levels of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and a pristine pond were compared... Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates by a Mixed Bacterial Culture Luis Jimenez, Ph.D., Alec Breen, Gary S. Sayler, Ph.D., The Center for Environmental...and Catabolic Gene Frequencies in Linear Alkylbenzene Contaminated and Pristine Freshwater Ponds Alec Breen, Luis Jimenez, Ph.D., and Gary S.Sayler

  12. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated polysulfone/polyvinyltriazole after doping with inorganic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Serkan Sevinç; Sevim Ünügür Çelik; Ayhan Bozkurt

    2015-04-01

    As anhydrous proton conductive membranes, sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) and polyvinyl triazole were studied as binary matrices. The sulfonation of polysulfone was performed with trimethylsilylchlorosulfonate and high degree of sulfonation (140%) was obtained. Ion exchange capacity of SPSU was determined as 3.05 mmol−1/g. The polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared by blending of sulfonated polysulfone with polyvinyl triazole and phosphoric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the sulfonation of the polysulfone and the ionic interaction between sulfonic acid and triazole units. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the polymer electrolyte membranes are thermally stable up to at least 150° C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the homogeneity of the ternary composites. The maximum proton conductivity has been measured as 3.63 × 10−4S cm−1 at 150° C.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF SULFONATED POLY(ARYLENE ETHER) CONTAINING TRIPHENYL METHANE MOIETIES FROM ISOCYNATE MASKED BISPHENOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether) containing triphenylmethane moieties was synthesized by the sulfonation of a designed parent polymer using chlorosulfonic acid as sulfonation agent. The sulfonation took place at the para position of the pendant phenyl rings because of the specially designed parent polymer. The position and degree of sulfonation were characterized by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The sulfonated polymers are highly soluble in common organic solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and can be readily cast into tough and smooth films from solutions. The films showed good thermal and hydrolysis stabilities. Moreover, Fenton's reagent test revealed that the films exhibited superior stability to oxidation. The proton conductivities of the films were comparable with Nation 117 under same conditions. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared with the asmade film (706 EW, 100 μm dry thickness) shows better cell performance than Nation 115-MEA in the whole current density range.

  14. Sorption and desorption of dyes by sulfonated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.K. (Motilal Nehru Regional Coll. of Engineering, Allahabad (India)); Venkobachar, C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India))

    Wastewaters from dye-manufacturing factories and textile, paper, and pulp industries are highly colored. Their discharge into river waters make the water inhibitory to aquatic life, aside from causing, visible pollution. Dyes have a tendency to sequester metals, thus causing microtoxicity to fish and other aquatic organisms. A wide variety of low-cost materials such as flyash, clay minerals, coal, tire chippings, coconut shell powder and biosorbents are being tried as viable substitutes for activated carbon to remove different pollutants such as pesticides, heavy metals, and dyes. The removal of dyes depends upon their physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the properties of the selected sorbents. To understand the nature of the chemical bonding between dyes and sorbents during the sorption process, it is essential to conduct desorption studies. The reversibility of adsorption of dyes can also be determined by a simple mathematical equation. These studies provide information on whether or not the sorbent material can be regenerated after exhaustion. The present study focuses on sorption-desorption of dyes by sulfonated coal, whose dye sorption potential was established by Mittal and Venkobachar (1990).

  15. Chronic perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiangfei; Lv, Suping; Nie, Shangfei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shoufang; Kang, Ning; Xiao, Yanyan; Dong, Qiaoxiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Yang, Dongren, E-mail: yangdongren@yahoo.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • PFOS chronic exposure induces sex-dependent hepatic steotosis in zebrafish. • PFOS interferes with β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and lipid hepatic export process. • Zebrafish could be used as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and human. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by chronic PFOS exposure are still largely unknown. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings revealed a severe hepatic steatosis in the liver of males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS as evidenced by hepatosomatic index, histological assessment and liver lipid profiles. Quantitative PCR assay further indicated that PFOS significantly increase the transcriptional expression of nuclear receptors (nr1h3, rara, rxrgb, nr1l2) and the genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (acox1, acadm, cpt1a). In addition, chronic PFOS exposure significantly decreased liver ATP content and serum level of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein in males. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic PFOS exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish via disturbing lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and excretion of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein, and also demonstrate the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening.

  16. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced embryotoxicity and disruption of cardiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhuo; Feng, Lixin; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is correlated with birth defects and adverse health effects. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In current study, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) was performed to evaluate the embryotoxicity of PFOS, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived cardiomyocytes were used as a model of the early stages of heart development to determine the developmental toxicity of PFOS. One validated endpoint and three molecular endpoints were observed to ensure accurate evaluation of toxicity. According to the criteria of the EST, PFOS was classified as weak embryotoxic. In addition, a cascade of genes related to normal cardiac development was examined at three different time points to monitor cardiogenesis. We found that PFOS significantly interfered with gene expression during cardiogenesis, especially on Nkx2.5 and Myl4. Further, PFOS reduced ATP production in ESCs-derived cardiomyocytes, together with PFOS induced apoptosis, could explain the reduction in beating ability. PFOS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated within cells, which was accompanied by an interfering expression of apoptosis-related genes, ultimately leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, PFOS altered the expression of crucial genes, reduced ATP production, induced ROS, and stimulated apoptosis during the early stages of cardiogenesis; these effects may result in poor developmental outcomes.

  17. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreeyasunthorn, Phenpimuk; Boontanon, Suwanna K; Boontanon, Narin

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 µg m(-2) (0.02 to 0.61 µg m(-2)) and 2.74 µg m(-2) (0.31 to 14.14 µg m(-2)), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 µg m(-2). Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment.

  18. Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and doxepin adsorption onto sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study Comparative in vitro studies were carried out to determine the adsorption characteristics of 3 drugs on activated charcoal (AC) and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS). Activated charcoal (AC) has been long used as gastric decontamination agent for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). Methods Solutions containing drugs (amitriptyline, clomipramine, or doxepin) and variable amount of AC or SPS were incubated for 30 minutes. Results At pH 1.2 the adsorbent: drug mass ratio varied from 2 : 1 to 40 : 1 for AC, and from 0.4 : 1 to 8 : 1 for SPS. UV–VIS spectrophotometer was used for the determination of free drug concentrations. The qmax of amitriptyline was 0.055 mg/mg AC and 0.574 mg/mg SPS, qmax of clomipramine was 0.053 mg/mg AC and 0.572 mg/mg SPS, and qmax of doxepin was 0.045 mg/mg AC and 0.556 mg/mg SPS. The results of adsorption experiments with SPS revealed higher values for the qmax parameters in comparison with AC. Conclusion In vitro gastric decontamination experiments for antidepressant amitriptyline, clomipramine, and doxepin showed that SPS has higher qmax values than the corresponding experiments with AC. Therefore, we suggest SPS is a better gastric decontaminating agent for the management of acute TCA intoxication. PMID:24450391

  19. Toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate to Daphnia magna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-hua Lu; Jian-chao Liu; Li-sha Sun; Lu-jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study toxicological effects of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and their mixtures (PFNA/PFOS) on Daphnia magna (D. magna), a suite of comprehensive toxicity tests were conducted, including a 48-h acute toxicity test, a 21-day chronic test, a feeding experiment, and a biomarker assay. D. magna were exposed to aqueous solutions of PFNA and PFOS (alone and in combination) at concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 5 mg/L. The survival, growth, and reproduction of D. magna were monitored over a 21-day life cycle. The biomarkers, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities, were determined after seven days of exposure. PFOS was more toxic than PFNA based on the results of the acute toxicity test. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) inhibited both growth and reproduction of D. magna during the testing period. The ingestion rates and the biomarkers, including AChE, SOD, and CAT activities, were significantly inhibited by PFCs in most cases. Moreover, the combined effects related to the growth and reproduction showed the antagonistic effects of PFCs.

  20. Toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate to Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hua LU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study toxicological effects of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, and their mixtures (PFNA/PFOS on Daphnia magna (D. magna, a suite of comprehensive toxicity tests were conducted, including a 48-hour acute toxicity test, a 21-day chronic test, a feeding experiment, and a biomarker assay. D. magna were exposed to aqueous solutions of PFNA and PFOS (alone and in combination at concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 5 mg/L. The survival, growth, and reproduction of D. magna were monitored over a 21-day life cycle. The biomarkers, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities, were determined after seven days of exposure. PFOS was more toxic than PFNA based on the results of the acute toxicity test. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs inhibited both growth and reproduction of D. magna during the testing period. The ingestion rates and the biomarkers, including AChE, SOD, and CAT activities, were significantly inhibited by PFCs in most cases. Moreover, the combined effects related to the growth and reproduction showed the antagonistic effects of PFCs.

  1. 新型磺化聚酰亚胺的合成%The Synthesis of New Type Sulfonated Polyimide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 张丽荣; 张春庆; 高悦

    2003-01-01

    质子导电离子交换膜由于其高导电率和优异的化学性质而广泛应用于H2/O2燃料电池,但是全氟化膜的昂贵的价格限制了它的市场应用,为此,研究者尝试生产廉价的代替品,磺化聚酰亚胺就是被人们看好的代替品之一.用3,3′-二磺酸钠基-4,4′-二氟二苯酮和对氨基苯酚为原料合成一种新型芳香族二胺,再将新型芳香族二胺和二酐以间甲酚为溶剂一步法合成一系列具有不同磺化度的聚酰亚胺,从而避免了由聚合物磺化改性引起的聚合物链的交联与降解.用红外吸收光谱和H NMR核磁共振光谱对新型芳香族二胺单体进行了表征,并用红外吸收光谱表征了聚合物.研究了共聚物的组成结构,溶解性,及磺化度对共聚物的影响.结果表明DMF,DMAc,NMP等均是该磺化聚酰亚胺的良溶剂,聚合物粘度随着磺酸基含量的增加而降低.%Proton conductor ion exchange membrances, because of their high ionic conductivity and excellent resistant, are used in solid polymer H2/O2 fuel cells. But their too high cost has limited their application on market. Researches have been undertaken to provide cheaper alternative productions. Sulfonated polyimides are thought of as the possible alternatives. A new aromatic diamine was synthesized by using sodium 5,5-carbonylbis(2-flurobenzensulfonate) and 4-aminophenol, then a series of sequenced sulfonated polyimides were prepared by one step in m-cresol using the new aromatic diamine and dianhydride,which avoided the crosslink and degradation of polymeric chain when the polymer was sulfonated. New aromatic diamine was characterilized by H NMR and IR spectroscopies, while sulfonated polyimides were characterilized by IR spectroscopies. The influence of degree of sulfonation on the properties of copolymers,such as component, solubility and inherent viscosity were studied. The results show that the new polyimides are soluble in the solutions such as DMF

  2. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Richard L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate

  3. Highly Efficient Biomimetic Oxidation of Sulfide to Sulfone by Hydrogen Peroxide in the Presence of Manganese meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU,Xian-Tai; JI,Hong-Bing; YUAN,Qiu-Lan; XU,Jian-Chang; PEI,Li-Xia; WANG,Le-Fu

    2008-01-01

    Low amount of manganese meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin [Mn(TPP)] was used for highly efficient selective oxidation of sulfide to sulfone by hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.Sulfones were produced directly with yields generally around 90% while the catalyst concentration was only 4 ×10-5 mol·L-1.In a large-scale experiment of thioanisole oxidation,the isolated yield of sulfone (87%) was obtained and the turnover number (TON) reached up to 8×106,which is the highest TON for the oxidation systems of sulfide to sulfone catalyzed by metalloporphyrins.

  4. Phosphoric Acid-Mediated Synthesis of Vinyl Sulfones through Decarboxylative Coupling Reactions of Sodium Sulfinates with Phenylpropiolic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guangwei; Mao, Jincheng; Yan, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Guoqi

    2015-08-07

    A novel phosphoric acid -mediated synthesis of vinyl sulfones through decarboxylative coupling reactions of sodium sulfinates with phenylpropiolic acids is described. This transformation is efficient and environmentally friendly.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanoscale distribution and mobility of water and dimethylmethylphosphonate in sulfonated polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2008-11-27

    The interest in a better understanding of the specific interactions of phosphor-organic compounds and water with sulfonated polystyrene (sPS) is motivated by the use of block copolymers as protective membranes against chemical warfare agents. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we explored the nanoscale segregation and diffusion of water and nerve gas simulant dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) in sPS neutralized with calcium counterions at different sulfonation and hydration levels. The water content was varied from 15 to 54% of dry polymer weight, and the DMMP content was varied from 0 to 100 wt %. We found that, in the 40% sulfonated polystyrene, water forms well defined aggregates, which grow in size as the hydration increases, reaching approximately 20 A at the maximum water content. In the 100% sulfonated polystyrene, the overall structure of hydrated polymer is more uniform with smaller water aggregates. Diffusion of water at the same number of water molecules per sulfonate group is faster at a lower sulfonation level. The solvation of sPS in water-DMMP binary mixtures was found to differ substantially from Nafion, where DMMP forms a layer between the hydropholic and hydrophobic subphases. In sPS with divalent Ca(2+) counterions, DMMP and water compete for the solvation of the sulfonate group. At high water and DMMP contents, the diffusion of DMMP turned out to be rather fast with a diffusion coefficient of ca. 30% of that of water. At the same time, water diffusion slows down as the DMMP concentration increases. This observation suggests that although sPS is permeable for both solvents, water and DMMP are partially segregated on the scale of 1-2 nm and have different pathways through the system. The nonuniform nanoscale distribution of water and DMMP in sPS is confirmed by analyses of different pair correlation functions. This feature may significantly affect the perm-selective properties of sPS-contained block copolymer membranes.

  6. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): emerging contaminants of increasing concern in fish from Lake Varese, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Ciccotelli, V; Prearo, M; Favaro, L; Scanzio, T; Foglini, C; Abete, M C

    2015-07-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are highly fluorinated aliphatic compounds with high thermal and chemical stability, used in a range of industrial applications. Extensive screening analyses in biota samples from all over the world have shown the bioaccumulation of PFAS into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters. Ingestion of fish and other seafood is considered the main source of exposure of these contaminants. Here, we quantified PFOS and PFOA by LC-MS/MS in muscle samples of European perch from Lake Varese, Italy. PFOS was detected in all samples with concentrations of up to 17.2 ng g(-1). Although the reported values were lower than the recommended total daily intake (TDI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish from Lake Varese may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure.

  7. Influence of Sulfonated-Kaolin On Cationic Exchange Capacity Swelling Degree and Morphology of Chitosan/Kaolin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozi Adi Saputra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of sulfonated-kaolin (sKao has been conducted and used as filler on chitosan matrix via solution casting method, namely chitosan/sKao (Cs/sKao. Swelling degree, cationic exchange capacity and thermal stability were evaluated to determine chitosan/sKao membranes performance as proton exchange membrane in fuel cell. Functional group analysis of chitosan, sKao and synthesized products were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy. In this study, swelling degree and swelling area of Cs/sKao are also studied to determine of membrane ability to swelling which compare to unmodified chitosan/kaolin (Cs/Kao. The presence of sKao in chitosan matrix was able to improve cationic exchange capacity (CEC which proved by morphological study of membrane surface after CEC test. Moreover, Thermal stability of Cs/sKao showed the membrane has meet requirement for PEM application.

  8. A facile synthesis of a novel optoelectric material: a nanocomposite of SWCNT/ZnO nanostructures embedded in sulfonated polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Agrawalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs hybridized with freshly prepared zinc oxide (ZnO nanocrystals have been found to be good luminescent material with tuned emission properties. A three-phase nanocomposite of sulfonated polyaniline embedded with such SWCNT/ZnO nanostructures has been prepared by a simple solution mixing chemical process and characterized by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The study of UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies reveal that the ternary polymer nanocomposite is a luminescent material with enhanced emission intensity. Also an increase in DC conductivity indicates that the nanocomposite is also a good conductive material, satisfying Mott’s variable range hopping model for a two-dimensional conduction. Such a three-phase nanocomposite may find extensive application in dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors, and supercapacitors.

  9. Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Kimball S.; Hirth, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schiestel, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Schiestel@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-25

    The present study reports on dihydrogenimidazole modified inorganic-organic mixed matrix membranes for possible application as a proton exchange membrane in direct ethanol fuel cells. The polymeric phase consisted mainly of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree of 55%. The inorganic phase was built up from hydrophilic fumed silica particles interconnected with partially hydrolyzed and condensed tetraethoxysilane with a total inorganic loading of 27.3%. This inorganic phase was further modified with N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole (DHIM), which consists of an hydrolyzable inorganic part and a functional organic group. The influence of the modifier on the mixed matrix system was studied by means of various modifier concentrations in various aqueous-ethanolic systems (water, 2 M and 4 M ethanol). Modifier concentration and ethanol concentration of the ethanol-water mixture exhibited significant but opposite effects on the liquid uptake of the mixed matrix membranes. The proton conductivity as well as the proton diffusion coefficient as a function of modifier content showed a linear decrease. The proton conductivity as a function of temperature showed Arrhenius behavior and the activation energy of the mixed matrix membranes was 43.9 {+-} 2.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. High selectivity of proton diffusion coefficient to ethanol permeability coefficient was obtained with high modifier concentrations. At low modifier concentrations, this selectivity was dominated by ethanol permeation and at high modifier concentrations by proton diffusion. The main electrolyte properties can be optimized by setting the DHIM content in mixed matrix membrane. With this approach, tailor-made membranes can be prepared for possible application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  10. Mechanisms for selective toxicity of fipronil insecticide and its sulfone metabolite and desulfinyl photoproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainzl, D; Cole, L M; Casida, J E

    1998-12-01

    Fipronil, an N-phenylpyrazole with a trifluoromethylsulfinyl substituent, initiated the second generation of insecticides acting at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor to block the chloride channel. The first generation includes the polychlorocycloalkanes alpha-endosulfan and lindane. In this study, we examine the mechanisms for selective toxicity of the sulfoxide fipronil and its sulfone metabolite and desulfinyl photoproduct relative to their target site interactions in vitro and ex vivo and the importance in fipronil action of biooxidation to the sulfone. Differences in GABA receptor sensitivity, assayed by displacement of 4'-ethynyl-4-n-[2, 3-3H2]propylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H]EBOB) from the noncompetitive blocker site, appear to be a major factor in fipronil being much more toxic to the insects (housefly and fruit fly) than to the vertebrates (humans, dogs, mice, chickens, quail, and salmon) examined; in insects, the IC50s range from 3 to 12 nM for fipronil and its sulfone and desulfinyl derivatives, while in vertebrates, the IC50 average values are 1103, 175, and 129 nM for fipronil, fipronil sulfone, and desulfinyl fipronil, respectively. The insect relative to the vertebrate specificity decreases in the following order: fipronil > lindane > desulfinyl fipronil > fipronil sulfone > alpha-endosulfan. Ex vivo inhibition of [3H]EBOB binding in mouse brain is similar for fipronil and its sulfone and desulfinyl derivatives at the LD50 dose, but surprisingly, at higher doses fipronil can be lethal without detectably blocking the [3H]EBOB site. The P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide, acting in houseflies, increases the metabolic stability and effectiveness of fipronil and the sulfone but not those of the desulfinyl compound, and in mice it completely blocks the sulfoxide to sulfone conversion without altering the poisoning. Thus, the selective toxicity of fipronil and fipronil-derived residues is due in part to the higher potency of the parent compound at

  11. Neurotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate to hippocampal cells in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a ubiquitous pollutant and found in the environment and in biota. The neurotoxicity of PFOS has received much concern among its various toxic effects when given during developing period of brain. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects and potential mechanisms of PFOS in the mature brain. Our study demonstrated the neurotoxicity and the potential mechanisms of PFOS in the hippocampus of adult mice for the first time. The impairments of spatial learning and memory were observed by water maze studies after exposure to PFOS for three months. Significant apoptosis was found in hippocampal cells after PFOS exposure, accompanied with a increase of glutamate in the hippocampus and decreases of dopamine (DA and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC in Caudate Putamen in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS group. By two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis, seven related proteins in the hippocampus that responded to PFOS exposure were identified, among which, Mib1 protein (an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, Herc5 (hect domain and RLD 5 isoform 2 and Tyro3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3 were found down-regulated, while Sdha (Succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit, Gzma (Isoform HF1 of Granzyme A precursor, Plau (Urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor and Lig4 (DNA ligase 4 were found up-regulated in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS-treated group compare with control group. Furthermore, we also found that (i increased expression of caspase-3 protein and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin proteins, (ii the increased glutamate release in the hippocampus. All these might contribute to the dysfunction of hippocampus which finally account for the impairments of spatial learning and memory in adult mice.

  12. Highly Sulfonated Diamine Synthesized Polyimides and Protic Ionic Liquid Composite Membranes Improve PEM Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel sulfonated diamine was synthesized from 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy benzene [pBAB]. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were synthesized from sulfonated pBAB, 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy-2-sulfonic acid benzenesulfonic acid [pBABTS], various diamines and aromatic dianhydrides. Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs made of novel SPIs and a protic ionic liquid (PIL 1-vinyl-3-H-imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [VIm][OTf] showed substantially increased conductivity. We prepared an SPI/PIL composite PEM using pBABTS, 4,4′-(9-fluorenylidene dianiline (9FDA as diamine, 3,3′,4,4′-diphenylsulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA as dianhydride and 40 wt % [VIm][OTf] with a high conductivity of 16 mS/cm at 120 °C and anhydrous condition. pBABTS offered better conductivity, since the chemical structure had more sulfonated groups that provide increased conductivity. The new composite membrane could be a promising anhydrous or low-humidity PEM for intermediate or high-temperature fuel cells.

  13. The host cell sulfonation pathway contributes to retroviral infection at a step coincident with provirus establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Bruce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The early steps of retrovirus replication leading up to provirus establishment are highly dependent on cellular processes and represent a time when the virus is particularly vulnerable to antivirals and host defense mechanisms. However, the roles played by cellular factors are only partially understood. To identify cellular processes that participate in these critical steps, we employed a high volume screening of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV vector. This approach identified a role for 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1, one of two enzymes that synthesize PAPS, the high energy sulfate donor used in all sulfonation reactions catalyzed by cellular sulfotransferases. The role of the cellular sulfonation pathway was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of PAPS synthases and cellular sulfotransferases. The requirement for sulfonation was mapped to a stage during or shortly after MLV provirus establishment and influenced subsequent gene expression from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR promoter. Infection of cells by an HIV vector was also shown to be highly dependent on the cellular sulfonation pathway. These studies have uncovered a heretofore unknown regulatory step of retroviral replication, have defined a new biological function for sulfonation in nuclear gene expression, and provide a potentially valuable new target for HIV/AIDS therapy.

  14. One Step Preparation of Sulfonated Solid Catalyst and Its Effect in Esterification Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康世民; 常杰; 范娟

    2014-01-01

    A carbon-based sulfonated catalyst was prepared by direct sulfonation and carbonization (in moderate conditions:200 °C, 12 h) of red liquor solids, a by-product of paper-making process. The prepared sulfonated cata-lyst (SC) had aromatic structure, composed of carbon enriched inner core, and oxygen-containing (SO3H, COOH, OH) groups enriched surface. The SO3H, COOH, OH groups amounted to 0.74 mmol·g-1, 0.78 mmol·g-1, 2.18 mmol·g-1, respectively. The fresh SC showed much higher catalytic activity than that of the traditional solid acid catalysts (strong-acid 732 cation exchange resin, hydrogen type zeolite socony mobile-five (HZSM-5), sulfated zir-conia) in esterification of oleic acid. SC was deactivated during the reactions, through the mechanisms of leaching of sulfonated species and formation of sulfonate esters. Two regeneration methods were developed, and the catalytic activity can be mostly regenerated by regeneration Method 1 and be fully regenerated by regeneration Method 2, respectively.

  15. EFFECT OF SOLVENT COMPOSITION ON THE SULFONATION DEGREE OF OLY(PHENYLENE OXIDE) (PPO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-wen Xu; Wei-hua Yang; Bing-lin He

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of attaining sulphonated poly(phenylene oxide) (SPPO) with a relatively higher sulfonation degree. To achieve this aim, the approach we adopt is to improve the solubility of the final product in the mixed solvent so that the sulfonation may take place between the bulk solutions and PPO powders even at higher sulfonation degree. It is shown that the addition of a proper amount of dimethyl formide (DMF) to the conventional PPO-chloroform system can actually enhance the sulfonation effect. The solvent composition is then correlated with the sulfonation degree based on the solubility parameters. It is interesting to find that solubility parameters between the mixed solvent and the precipitated products keep an approximately unchanged value at about 4.9, which is just equal to that when pure chloroform is used, though the solubility parameters of both solvents increase with the content of DMF in solution. This may be the main reason why the addition of DMF can reduce the precipitation and improve the ion exchange capacity (IEC) of SPPO polymer.

  16. Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Membrane structure and transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodeye, Akinbode [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts; Huang, Tianzi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gido, Samuel [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    With a view to optimizing morphology and ultimately properties, membranes have been cast from relatively inexpensive block copolymer ionomers of fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene (FISS) with various sulfonation levels, in both the acid form and the cesium neutralized form. The morphology of these membranes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, as well as water uptake, proton conductivity and methanol permeability within the temperature range from 20 to 60 C. Random phase separated morphologies were obtained for all samples except the cesium sample with 50 mol% sulfonation. The transport properties increased with increasing degree of sulfonation and temperature for all samples. The acid form samples absorbed more water than the cesium samples with a maximum swelling of 595% recorded at 60 C for the acid sample having 50 mol% sulfonation. Methanol permeability for the latter sample was more than an order of magnitude less than for Nafion 112 but so was the proton conductivity within the plane of the membrane at 20 C. Across the plane of the membrane this sample had half the conductivity of Nafion 112 at 60 C.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFONATED SYNDIOTACTIC POLYSTYRENE%磺化间规聚苯乙烯的表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 祝方明; 刘金成; 黎华明; 林尚安

    2001-01-01

    The effect of different sulfonation degree on properties of sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene(SsPS) was investigated by 1H-NMR,13C-NMR,FTIR,DSC and WAXD.The results of 13C-NMR showed that a peak at δ=145.5 appeared in all SsPS spectra,which proved that the syndiotactic structure of syndiotactic polystyrene(sPS) still existed in SsPS.With increasing degree of sulfonition,the chemical shifts of C-1 and C\\|3 for sulfonated benzene ring turned out to be wider.1H-NMR spectra showed that C\\|3 for sulfonated benzene ring had a chemical shift of 7.66.FTIR spectra showed that sulfonic acid groups were introduced on the para position of benzene rings and with increasing sulfonation degree,the absorption strength of 612/1600 cm-1,834/1600cm-1 increased,but the absorption strength of 1078/1600cm-1 decreased.The absorption of ~1030cm-1,~1179cm-1,~1217cm-1 appeared when the sulfonation degree was higher that 6%.sPS and SsPS-H-2.2 had absorption at 975 and 943cm-1 and also had double peaks around ~1175cm-1;DSC showed that with increasing sulfonation degree, the glass transition temperature increased, the melt temperature,crystallization temperature and crystallization degree decreased;SsPS couldn't crystallize when sulfonation degree was higher that 6mol%;WAXD proved that sPS had the α and β crystal types, however,SsPS with 2.2% sulfonation degree only had the β crystal type, and SsPS with 6.1% sulfonation degree didn't crystallize.

  18. Influence of charge densities of randomly sulfonated polystyrene surfaces on cell attachment and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Dibyendu; Kwak, Byeongdo; Shin, Kwanwoo; Song, Ju-Myung; Kim, Joon-Seop; Choi, Jai-Hak

    2011-05-01

    Attachment and proliferation of NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells on random polymer surfaces, polystyrene sulfonated acid (PSSAx) with five different degrees of sulfonation (x = 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 33%) and on a tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surface were studied. The surface properties, wettability and roughness were measured by water-contact angle and atomic force microscopy measurement. The wettability and surface roughness increased with increasing the content of sulfonic acid groups on the surfaces. The number of cells attached on the surface after seeding increased with increasing x and reached to the maximum value on PSSA15. The cell proliferation also increased with increasing x. However, cell proliferation was slow down on PSSA33 in comparison to PSSA10 and PSSA15 surfaces after 48 h culture.

  19. Structure-Properties Relationship in Proton Conductive Sulfonated Polystyrene-Polymethyl Methacrylate Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatat, Laurent; Li, Chaoxu; Dietsch, Herve; Nykainen, Antti; Ruokolainen, Janne; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2009-03-01

    We report on the dependence of proton conductivity on the morphologies of sulfonated polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPS-PMMA) diblock copolymers. Three diblock copolymers of varying molecular weight and block volume fraction were studied, for each one several sulfonation degrees of the PS block were considered. The investigation of the morphologies of the self-assembled sPS-PMMA diblocks was carried out by means of small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Depending on molecular weight and sulfonation degrees, isotropic phase (ISO), lamellar phase (LAM), cylindrical hexagonal phase (HEX) and hexagonally perforated lamellae (HPL) were observed. Proton conductivity, normalized by the volume fraction of the conductive domains (formed by PS, sPS and water), was shown to rise monotonically with the following sequence of morphologies: ISO to HEX to HPL to LAM.

  20. Sulfonated dyes attenuate the toxic effects of beta-amyloid in a structure-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S J; Sadler, I I; Hawtin, S R; Tailor, V J; Shearman, M S

    1995-09-15

    We recently reported that several sulfate-containing glycosaminoglycans, a class of compounds associated with the beta-amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease, attenuate the toxic effects of beta-amyloid fragments beta 25-35 and beta 1-40. The amyloid-binding sulfonated dye Congo Red was shown to have a similar effect. Using two clonal cell lines, we now demonstrate that several sulfonated dyes attenuate beta-amyloid toxicity and that the protective effect appears specific for compounds whose sulfonate groups can interact with the beta-pleated structure of aggregated amyloid. These results suggest that by binding beta-amyloid these compounds may prevent toxic interactions of the peptide with cells.