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Sample records for alkylbenzene sulfonates application

  1. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2001-01-01

    -standing 10 mu m thick film is prepared electrochemically at a constant current from an aqueous solution of pyrrole and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and the reversible linear elongation between the oxidised and reduced states...... are measured. Alkylbenzene sulfonates with alkyl chain lengths between 1 and 22 carbon atoms are used as dopant anion. The films made with the different anions have highly different properties and are here compared to outline the influence of the size of the anion. A maximum in linear elongation is found for p......-(n-octyl)benzene sulfonate and in conductivity for p-(n-butyl)benzene sulfonate....

  2. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2001-01-01

    -standing 10 mu m thick film is prepared electrochemically at a constant current from an aqueous solution of pyrrole and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and the reversible linear elongation between the oxidised and reduced states...

  3. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  4. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  5. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...... of the anaerobic digestion process should be seriously taken into consideration when wastewater from a surfactant producing industry is to be treated biologically or enter a municipal wastewater treatment plant that employs anaerobic technology. The upper allowable biomass specific LAS concentration should be 14......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...

  6. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was used to assess the degradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS. The reactor was inoculated with sludge from an UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and was fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with LAS. Sand was used as support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was kept in a controlled temperature chamber (30±1 ºC and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 18 h. The LAS concentration was gradually increased from 8.2±1.3 to 45.8±5.4 mg.L-1. The COD removal was 91%, on average, when the influent COD was 645±49 mg.L-1. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis showed that the reactor removed 93% of the LAS after 270 days of operation.

  7. Screening test for assessment of ultimate biodegradability: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, W E

    1975-01-01

    A relatively simple shake-flask system for determining CO2 evolution was developed to assess the ultimate biodegradability by soil and sewage micro-organisms of chemicals which enter the environment. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were used as model compounds to evaluate the method and were found to undergo substantial biodegradation in this dilute system. At the 30 mg/liter test concentration, higher-molecular-weight LAS compounds were biodegraded at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than lower-molecular-weight LAS, an effect which was eliminated or greatly reduced upon incremental addition of the LAS to the test medium during the first week of incubation. LA35S was used to demonstrate rapid LAS desulfonation, and 14CO2 evolution studies with (14C) benzene ring-labeled LAS indicated concomitant biodegradation of the entire LAS molecule as well as the LAS aromatic component. The test can be employed to examine numerous compounds at the same time and is readily adapted to studies of the effect of variation in temperature and oxygen concentration on biodegradation. PMID:1211937

  8. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åke Jönsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM. Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 µg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ~15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15–24 h (depending on sample volume. Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35–150 times enrichment below ~150 µg L−1 and 1850–4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L−1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds.

  9. Formation of metabolites during biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor under thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was shown in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor under thermophilic conditions. The reactor was inoculated with granular biomass and fed with a synthetic medium and 3 mumol/L of a mixture of LAS with alkylchain length of 10 to 13 carbon...

  10. The Use of Multi-Reactor Cascade Plasma Electrolysis for Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Nelson; Ibrahim; Zainah; Budikania, Trisutanti

    2018-03-01

    Plasma electrolysis is a method that can produce large amounts of hydroxyl radicals to degrade organic waste. The purpose of this study is to improve the effectiveness of Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) degradation by using multi-reactor cascade plasma electrolysis. The reactor which operated in circulation system, using 3 reactors series flow and 6 L of LAS with initial concentration of 100 ppm. The results show that the LAS degradation can be improved multi-reactor cascade plasma electrolysis. The greatest LAS degradation is achieved up to 81.91% with energy consumption of 2227.34 kJ/mmol that is obtained during 120 minutes by using 600 Volt, 0.03 M of KOH, and 0.5 cm of the anode depth.

  11. Mineralization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by a four-member aerobic bacterial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, L.; Breen, A.; Thomas, N.; Sayler, G.S.; Federle, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. The consortium, designated KJB, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. Three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of Pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the Aeromonas spp. Cell suspensions were grown together in minimal medium with [ 14 C]LAS as the only carbon source. After 13 days of incubation, more than 25% of the [ 14 C]LAS was mineralized to 14 CO 2 by the consortium. Pure bacterial cultures and combinations lacking any one member of the KJB bacterial consortium did not mineralize LAS. Three isolates carried out primary biodegradation of the surfactant, and one did not. This study shows that the four bacteria complemented each other and synergistically mineralized LAS, indicating catabolic cooperation among the four consortium members

  12. Effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate on Mortality, Hatching Rate of Eggs and Abnormality of Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS surfactant in the water can affecting fish in all developmental stages.  This study was aimed to observe the effect of LAS on mortality, hatching rate of eggs, and abnormality of patin catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage larvae.   Fertilized eggs were incubated in water containing LAS at the dosages of 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 9.0, and 18.0 mg/L.  Eggs mortality was observed every 6 hours until larvae hatched (24 hours.  The results of study showed that the exposure of 18.0 mg LAS per liter water could put to death all the fertilized eggs and larvae be abnormal.  The exposure of LAS at concentration of 9.0 mg/L could kill 98% of eggs and hatching rate was only 2%.  The abnormality in larvae was bending in the body and tails. Keywords: patin catfish, Pangasius, Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, LAS, abnormality   ABSTRAK Surfaktan Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS yang masuk ke dalam perairan sangat berpengaruh terhadap ikan dari stadia awal hidup ikan sampai dewasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh LAS terhadap mortalitas, daya tetas telur dan abnormalitas larva ikan patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage.  Telur ikan patin yang telah dibuahi di rendam dalam air yang mengandung LAS dengan konsentrasi 0,0; 0,5; 1,5; 3,0; 9,0 dan 18,0 mg/L.  Mortalitas telur dicatat setiap 6 jam sampai menetas (24 jam.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi LAS sebesar 18,0 mg/L dapat mengakibatkan mortalitas telur dan abnormalitas pada larva secara total.  Konsentrasi LAS sebesar 9,0 mg/L dapat mematikan telur hingga 98% dan hanya menghasilkan daya tetas sebanyak 2%. Abnormalitas pada larva berupa pembengkokan pada tubuh dan ekor. Kata kunci: ikan patin, Pangasius, Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, LAS dan abnormalitas

  13. Matrix effect study in the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Verge, Coral; De Ferrer, Juan A

    2011-04-01

    We propose a study of the matrix effect in the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sewage sludge samples. First, a rapid, selective and sensitive method is proposed. The method involves two stages: the extraction of the compound from the samples and analysis by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD). Three different techniques of extraction (microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet, and ultrasounds) were compared, and microwave-assisted extraction was selected as the best suited for our purpose. Microwave-assisted extraction allows reducing the extraction time (25 min compared with 12 h for conventional Soxhlet extraction) and solvent waste (25 ml of methanol compared with 200 ml for Soxhlet or more than 50 ml for the ultrasonic procedure). Absence of matrix effect was evaluated with two standards (2ØC(8:0) and 2ØC(16:0) ) that are not commercial; therefore, neither of them was detected in sewage sludge samples and they showed similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to LAS (C(11:0) -C(13.0) ), which allow us to evaluate the matrix effect. Validation was carried out by a recovery assay, and the method was applied to samples from different sources; therefore, they had different compositions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  14. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  15. Formation of metabolites during biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor under thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    , the removal of LAS in the reactor inoculated with active granular biomass exceeded the removal in the sterile reactor inoculated with sterile granular biomass. The effect of sorption ceased after 185 to 555 h depending on the LAS homologs. 40% of the LAS was biodegraded, and the removal rate was 0.5 x 10......Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was shown in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor under thermophilic conditions. The reactor was inoculated with granular biomass and fed with a synthetic medium and 3 mumol/L of a mixture of LAS with alkylchain length of 10 to 13 carbon...... atoms. The reactor was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 12 h with effluent recirculation in an effluent to influent ratio of 5 to 1. A sterile reactor operated in parallel revealed that sorption to sludge particles initially accounted for a major LAS removal. After 8 days of reactor operation...

  16. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T Kehinde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r= 0.9124 was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0 and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (vHB: 2.9×10(5 to 1.2×10(7 cfu/g and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5×10(4 to 1.2×10(6 cfu/g had a direct relationship (r= 0.9500. An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r vHB/ LAS = -0.9303 and rLTB/ LAS = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v. The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4:7-15. Epub 2008 December 12.La descarga de desechos que contienen detergentes liberan sulfonatos de alquibenceno lineal (LAS al

  18. New extraction method for the analysis of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in marine organisms. Pressurized liquid extraction versus Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñoz, D; Sáez, M; Lara-Martin, P A; Gómez-Parra, A; González-Mazo, E

    2004-10-15

    A new method has been developed for the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from various marine organisms, and compared with Soxhlet extraction. The technique applied includes the use of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for the extraction stage, preconcentration of the samples, purification by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The spiked concentrations were added to the samples (wet mass of the organisms: Solea senegalensis and Ruditapes semidecussatus), which were homogenized and agitated continuously for 25 h. The samples were extracted by pressurized hot solvent extraction using two different extraction temperatures (100 and 150 degrees C) and by traditional Soxhlet extraction. The best recoveries were obtained employing pressurized hot solvent extraction at 100 degrees C and varied in the range from 66.1 to 101.3% with a standard deviation of between 2 and 13. Detection limit was between 5 and 15 microg kg(-1) wet mass using HPLC-fluorescence detection. The analytical method developed in this paper has been applied for LAS determination in samples from a Flow-through exposure system with the objective of measuring the bioconcentration of this surfactant.

  19. Effects of microcystin-LR, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Song, Lirong; Wu, Xingqiang; Zhang, Junqian; Wang, Chunbo

    2011-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) are present widely in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but their combined ecotoxicological risk is unknown. This study investigated the toxic effects of MCLR, LAS and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and evaluated MCLR accumulation level in lettuce with or without LAS. The changes in seed germination and shoot/root growth, responses of the antioxidative defense system, and the accumulation of MCLR in lettuce were tested to evaluate the single and combined toxic effect of MCLR and LAS in well-controlled conditions. The results showed that seedling growth (except for root elongation and leaf weight) was more sensitive to toxicant exposure than seed germination. For seedling leaves, lipid peroxidation was not observed when the antioxidative defense system (including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) was activated to relieve the adverse effects of oxidative stress via different pathways. Our results also confirmed that the interaction between MCLR and LAS was synergistic. Both toxicants in combination not only significantly inhibited seedling growth, but also increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as the contents of glutathione. Furthermore, LAS dramatically enhanced the accumulation of MCLR in the plant, thus leading to a reduction in quality and yield and posing greater potential risk to humans via consumption of these edible plants.

  20. Bioremediation of surface water co-contaminated with zinc (II) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huijuan; Xia, Yunfeng; Chen, Hong

    Potential remediation of surface water contaminated with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and zinc (Zn (II)) by sorption on Spirulina platensis was studied using batch techniques. Results show that LAS can be biodegraded by Spirulina platensis, and its biodegradation rate after 5 days was 87%, 80%, and 70.5% when its initial concentration was 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L, respectively. The maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis was found to be 30.96 mg/g. LAS may enhance the maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis, which can be attributed to an increase in bioavailability due to the presence of LAS. The biodegradation rates of LAS by Spirulina platensis increased with Zn (II) and reached the maximum when Zn (II) was 4 mg/L. The joint toxicity test showed that the combined effect of LAS and Zn (II) was Synergistic. LAS can enhance the biosorption of Zn (II), and reciprocally, Zn (II) can enhance LAS biodegradation.

  1. Cellular and molecular hypoxic response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate at sublethal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Junichi; Nakayama, Kei; Shimizu, Ichiyo; Yamada, Hiroko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Yamane, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant commonly used in cleaning agents such as laundry detergents. Trace amounts of LAS are released into environmental waters after processing in wastewater treatment plants after the use of this chemical. Acute toxicity of LAS has been well-studied using various organisms, and its effects are particularly well known in fish. LAS damages fish gill morphology and induces mucous excretion from these organs. LAS also causes hematological changes. These observations suggest that LAS might induce hypoxic conditions in fish. However, the connections between hypoxia and hematological changes at the cellular and molecular levels remain unknown. Common carp were exposed to LAS at concentrations of 625, 1250, and 2500 μg/L for 96 h. A total of 9-10 fish were sampled at the end of the exposure period for each concentration. For hematological analysis, carp blood was sampled from the caudal vein. Gill tissue was used for real-time PCR analysis to evaluate transcriptional changes of hypoxia-induced genes. The number of normal red blood cells and the number of immature red blood cells were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in fish exposed to 2500 µg/L LAS. The hypoxic marker genes hypoxia inducible factor 1α, myoglobin 1, and erythropoietin 2 were upregulated in these fish. Our results suggest that LAS decreases erythrocyte numbers and induces hypoxic conditions. In addition, LAS-exposed fish increase production of immature erythrocytes and upregulate myoglobin expression in gills to improve oxygen transport and absorption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 122-130, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Screening method for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in sediments based on water Soxhlet extraction assisted by focused microwaves with on-line preconcentration/derivatization/detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Muñoz, S; Luque-García, J L; de Castro, Luque

    2004-02-13

    A screening method for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sediments has been developed. Soxhlet extraction with water assisted by focused microwaves provides recoveries better (>90%) than obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction (70-80%). Coupling of the extractor with an on-line preconcentration/derivatization/detection manifold through a flow injection (FI) interface allows a fully automated screening approach. A yes/no answer can be obtained in less than 2 h (for the whole analytical process), a short time compared with the at least 24 h of Soxhlet extraction (without final detection). Due to the use of water as leaching agent, the proposed method is environmentally friendly.

  3. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola, Kehinde I T; Olayemi, Albert B

    2008-12-01

    The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alklcylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r = 0.9124) was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0) and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g) in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (VHB: 2.9 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g) and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) cfu/g) had a direct relationship (r = 0.9500). An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r(VHB/LAS) = -0.9303 and r(LTB/LAS) = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcusfaecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v). The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste.

  4. Activity and population dynamics of heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil surrounding sludge bands spiked with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K. K.; Sørensen, J.; Krogh, P. H.

    2003-01-01

    in a sandy soil surrounding well-defined sludge bands spiked with high but realistic LAS levels (7.1 or 31.3 g/kg). Surprisingly, LAS had no effect on heterotrophic respiration in the sludge compartment per se but stimulated activity and metabolic quotient (microbial activity per unit of biomass......Recent research has documented soil microorganisms to be rather sensitive to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), which may enter the soil environment in considerable quantities following sewage sludge disposal. We here report field effects of LAS on selected microbial populations present......) in the surrounding soil. By contrast, autotrophic ammonia oxidation was initially inhibited in the LAS-spiked sludge. This led to dramatic transient increases of NH+4 availability in the sludge and surrounding soil, subsequently stimulating soil ammonia oxidizers. As judged from a Nitrosomonas europaea...

  5. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfact......The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  6. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice....... The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice...... that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production....

  7. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M; Poulsen, L K; Nielsen, G D

    2000-11-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice were boosted up to three times with OVA (0.1 microg sc) in saline. OVA-specific IgE antibodies were determined by the heterologous mouse rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. The results were confirmed by a specific ELISA method. After the first booster, the Al(OH)(3) group and the 10 mg/l SDS group showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production.

  8. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  9. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  10. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    % of the added C-12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C-12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C-12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation...... under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation....

  11. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s for fuel cell proton exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Jang, H.H.; Lim, Y.D.; Seo, D.W.; Kim, W.G. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.H.; Hong, Y.T. [Energy Material Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.M. [Material Engineering and Science, Hongik Univ, Jochiwon-eup, Yeongi-gun, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (SPPA-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation (DS) were prepared by post-sulfonation of synthesized phenolphthalein anilide (PPA; N-phenyl-3,3'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-isobenzopyrolidone) poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PPA-PES) by using concentrated sulfuric acid. PPA-PES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of PPA with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol. The DS was varied with different mole ratios of PPA (24, 30, 40, 50 mol.%) in the polymer. The structure of the resulting SPPA-PES copolymers and the different contents of the sulfonated unit were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of SPPA-PES were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting SPPA-PES membranes was in the range of 20-72%, compared with 28% for Nafion 211 registered. The SPPA-PES membranes showed proton conductivities of 23-82 mS cm{sup -1}, compared with 194 mS cm{sup -1} for Nafion 211 registered, under 100% relative humidity (RH) at 80 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. 40 CFR 417.90 - Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. 417.90 Section 417.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Oleum Sulfonation and Sulfation Subcategory § 417.90 Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  13. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.110 Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  14. Alkyl-benzene-sulfonates; Alkylbenzenesulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcou, L. [Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France)]|[CEN, Comite europeen de normalisation (France)]|[Syndicat francais des producteurs d`agents de surface et produits auxiliaires industriels (ASPA) (France)

    1998-03-01

    The alkyl-benzene-sulfonates, or sulfophenyl-4-alkanes salts, (ABS) are anionic surface agents whose chemical formula is R-C{sub 6} H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3} M (where R is an aliphatic hydro-carbonated radical and M a metal). Like most of the surface agents, the ABS are complicated mixtures of isomers and homologues, the most usual products having 10 or 13 atoms of carbons. Their chemical preparation is carried out in two steps: 1)the alkyl-benzenes production by the alkanes or alkenes condensation on benzene 2)the alkyl-benzenes sulfonation and the neutralization of the sulfonic acids. The environmental impacts of these compounds are also given. (O.M.) 11 refs.

  15. Chitin nanowhisker-supported sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) proton exchange for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Zhuang, Xupin; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Bowen; Kang, Weimin; Cai, Zhanjun; Li, Mengqin

    2016-04-20

    To balance the relationship among proton conductivity and mechanic strength of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES) membrane, chitin nanowhisker-supported nanocomposite membranes were prepared by incorporating whiskers into SPES. The as-prepared chitin whiskers were prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) mediated oxidation of α-chitin from crab shells. The structure and properties of the composite membranes were examined as proton exchange membrane (PEM). Results showed that chitin nanowhiskers were dispersed incompactly in the SPES matrix. Thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake and proton conductivity of the nanocomposite films were improved from those of the pure SPES film with increasing whisker content, which ascribed to strong interactions between whiskers and between SPES molecules and chitin whiskers via hydrogen bonding. These indicated that composition of filler and matrix got good properties and whisker-supported membranes are promising materials for PEM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 417.100 - Applicability; description of the air-SO3 sulfation and sulfonation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-SO3 sulfation and sulfonation subcategory. 417.100 Section 417.100 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.100 Applicability; description of the air—SO3 sulfation and sulfonation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  18. Sulfonated Polyimide-Clay Thin Films for Energy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Saeed, Shaukat; Shah, Syed Sakhawat; Rahim, Fazal; Duclaux, Laurent; Levêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) are considered as the promising alternatives to Nafion as membrane materials for the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). They generally exhibit high ionic conductivity, good mechanical properties, excellent thermal and chemical stabilities. The six-membered ring, naphthalenic anhydride-based SPIs, not only exhibit superior chemical and thermo-oxidative stabilities but are also more resistant to hydrolysis than their five-membered phthalic anhydride-based SPIs. The composites based on napthalenic polyimides are also significantly stable in high temperature environment and show better stability to hydrolysis. Incorporation of inorganic fillers into organic polymers has gained tremendous attention and these new materials are called organic-inorganic hybrids. Few patents related to the synthesis and performance PEM materials have been reviewed and cited. Keeping in view the importance of sulfonated polyimide based nanocomposites as potential membrane materials for PEM in fuel cell, we have synthesized SPIs clay based nanocomposite as potential membrane material. The objective of this work was to synthesize clay based SPIs thin films which could be used as membrane materials in PEM fuel cell for energy applications. Methods/Experimental: At the first step the nanometric sheets of vermiculite clay prepared via sonication was surface modified by grafting 3-APTES. Then the SPI was synthesized via one-step high temperature direct imidization method, which serve as a matrix material. The organo modified VMT was dispersed via sonication in the SPI matrix. Four different sets of organic-inorganic nanocomposite membranes thin films, having VMT contents in the range of 1 to 7 wt.% were prepared by casting, curing and acidification route. The synthesis of SPIs clay based thin films were carried out at three different steps and fully characterized. The synthesis of SPIs and SPIs clay based thin films were analyzed via different analytical techniques

  19. Water and Salt Transport Properties of Triptycene-Containing Sulfonated Polysulfone Materials for Desalination Membrane Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongxi; Aboki, Joseph; Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ruilan; Geise, Geoffrey M

    2018-01-31

    A series of triptycene-containing sulfonated polysulfone (TRP-BP) materials was prepared via condensation polymerization, and the desalination membrane-relevant fundamental water and salt transport properties (i.e., sorption, diffusion, and permeability coefficients) of the polymers were characterized. Incorporating triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone increased the water content of the material compared to sulfonated polysulfone materials that do not contain triptycene. No significant difference in salt sorption was observed between TRP-BP membranes and other sulfonated polysulfone membranes, suggesting that the presence of triptycene in the polymer did not dramatically affect thermodynamic interactions between salt and the polymer. Both water and salt diffusion coefficients in the TRP-BP membranes were suppressed relative to other sulfonated polysulfone materials with comparable water content, and these phenomena may result from the influence of triptycene on polymer chain packing and/or free-volume distribution, which could increase the tortuosity of the transport pathways in the polymers. Enhanced water/salt diffusivity selectivity was observed for some of the TRP-BP membranes relative to those materials that did not contain triptycene, and correspondingly, incorporation of triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone resulted in an increase, particularly for acid counterion form TRP-BP materials, in water/salt permeability selectivity, which is favorable for desalination membrane applications.

  20. Comparative Study of Sulfonated and Phosphorylated Commercial Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Grafted with Styrene for Fuel Cell Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hady, E.E.; Abdel-Hamed, M.O.; El-Sharkawy, M.R.M.; ELtoony, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop novel, low cost high temperature membranes specifically for automotive fuel cell use. Styrene grafted commercial PTFE which carried out by simultaneous - irradiation was taken. Sulfonation was performed using chloro sulfonic acid for different times, while phosphorylation was done by two techniques. Synergistic effect was studied by carrying out sulfonation for phosphorylated styrene grafted PTFE. Mechanical investigation was performed by measuring tensile strength and thermal characterization was discussed by DSC measurements. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) measurements were preformed to characterize the free volume properties by using fast-fast coincidence technique. While the crystallinity and the crystalline size were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Water uptake and ion exchange capacity were determined prior to measure the electrical conductivity and capacitance at different frequencies to assure the availability of the membrane for using in fuel cell application.

  1. Response of weeping willows to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.

    2006-01-01

    in hydroponic solution spiked with LAS at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C for 192 h. The normalized relative transpiration of plants was used to determine toxicity. Severe reduction of the transpiration was only found for high doses of LAS (>= 240 mg 1(-1)). Chlorophyll contents in leaves of treated plants varied...

  2. Multiblock copolymers with highly sulfonated blocks containing di- and tetrasulfonated arylene sulfone segments for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patric [Polymer and Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lund University (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with different block lengths and ionic contents are tailored for durable and proton-conducting electrolyte membranes. Two series of fully aromatic copolymers are prepared by coupling reactions between non-sulfonated hydrophobic precursor blocks and highly sulfonated hydrophilic precursor blocks containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The sulfonic acid groups are exclusively introduced in ortho positions to the sulfone bridges to impede desulfonation reactions and give the blocks ion exchange capacities (IECs) of 4.1 and 4.6 meq. g{sup -1}, respectively. Solvent cast block copolymer membranes show well-connected hydrophilic nanophase domains for proton transport and high decomposition temperatures above 310 C under air. Despite higher IEC values, membranes containing tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments display a markedly lower water uptake than the corresponding ones with disulfonated diarylsulfone segments when immersed in water at 100 C, presumably because of the much higher chain stiffness and glass transition temperature of the former segments. The former membranes have proton conductivities in level of a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (NRE212) under fully humidified conditions. A membrane with an IEC of 1.83 meq. g{sup -1} reaches above 6 mS cm{sup -1} under 30% relative humidity at 80 C, to be compared with 10 mS cm{sup -1} for NRE212 under the same conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Controlled sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone using phthalic anhydride as catalyst and its membrane performance for fuel cell application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikh Jiyaur Rahaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells are one of the most emerging alternative energy technologies under development. A novel proton exchange membrane sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES was developed by homogeneous method using phthalic anhydride as catalyst and chlorosulfonic acid as sulfonating agent to control the sulfonation reaction. The method of sulfonation was optimized by varying the reaction time and concentration of the catalyst. The structure of the SPES was studied by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The extent of sulfonation was determined by ion exchange capacity studies. The thermal and mechanical stabilities were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA respectively. DMA results show that the storage modulus increased with increase in degree of sulfonation (DS and water uptake of SPES increased with DS. The proton conductivity of SPES (34% DS measured by impedance spectroscopy was found to be 0.03S/cm at 80%RH and 100°C. Also, current-voltage polarization characteristics of SPES membranes offer a favourable alternative PEM due to the thermal stability and cost effective than perfluorinated ionomers.

  4. Synthesis and Properties of Poly(ether sulfone)s with Clustered Sulfonic Groups for PEMFC Applications under Various Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Chien; Wu, Jin-An; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2017-03-22

    Novel sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) copolymers (S4PH-x-PSs) based on a new aromatic diol containing four phenyl substituents at the 2, 2', 6, and 6' positions of 4,4'-diphenyl ether were synthesized. Sulfonation was found to occur exclusively on the 4 position of phenyl substituents by NMR spectroscopy. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values can be controlled by adjusting the mole percent (x in S4PH-x-PS) of the new diol. The fully hydrated sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) copolymers had good proton conductivity in the range 0.004-0.110 S/cm at room temperature. The surface morphology of S4PH-x-PSs and Nafion 212 was investigated by atomic force microscopy (tapping-mode) and related to the percolation limit and proton conductivity. Single H 2 /O 2 fuel cell based on S4PH-40-PS loaded with 0.25 mg/cm 2 catalyst (Pt/C) exhibited a peak power density of 462.6 mW/cm 2 , which was close to that of Nafion 212 (533.5 mW/cm 2 ) at 80 °C with 80% RH. Furthermore, fuel cell performance of S4PH-35-PS with various relative humidity was investigated. It was confirmed from polarization curves that the fuel cell performance of S4PH-35-PS was not as high as that of Nafion 212 under fully hydrated state due to higher interfacial resistance between S4PH-35-PS and electrodes. While under low relative humidity (53% RH) at 80 °C, fuel cells based on S4PH-35-PS showed higher peak power density (234.9 mW/cm 2 ) than that (214.0 mW/cm 2 ) of Nafion 212.

  5. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  6. Graft-crosslinked copolymers based on poly(arylene ether ketone)-gc-sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) for PEMFC applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Zhaoxia; Luo, Linqiang; Chen, Shanshan; Liu, Jianmei; Chen, Shouwen; Wang, Lianjun

    2011-07-15

    Novel poly(arylene ether ketone) polymers with fluorophenyl pendants and phenoxide-terminated wholly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) oligomers are prepared via Ni(0)-catalyzed and nucleophilic polymerization, respectively, and subsequently used as starting materials to obtain graft-crosslinked membranes as polymer electrolyte membranes. The phenoxide-terminated sulfonated moieties are introduced as hydrophilic parts as well as crosslinking units. The chemical structure and morphology of the obtained membranes are confirmed by (1) H NMR and tapping-mode AFM. The properties required for fuel cell applications, including water uptake and dimensional change, as well as proton conductivity, are investigated. AFM results show a clear nanoscale phase-separation microstructure of the obtained membranes. The membranes show good dimensional stability and reasonably high proton conductivities under 30-90% relative humidity. The anisotropic proton conductivity ratios (σ(formula see text) ) of the membranes in water are in the range 0.65-0.92, and increase with an increase in hydrophilic block length. The results indicate that the graft-crosslinked membranes are promising candidates for applications as polymer electrolyte membranes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Chemical Agent Performance of Sulfonated Ionomeric Membranes for Chem/Bio Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Polyisobutylene ( PIB ) Chemically Modified IB Sulfonic Acid Counter-ion (Ba, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cs)Block Copolymer Morphology Sulfonic acid...Mauritz, K., 2000: Diffusion of Alcohols Through Sulfonated PS/ PIB /PS Block Copolymers Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Polymer Materials: Engineering

  8. Fungal metabolism of n-alkylbenzenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1986-02-01

    Isolates of Paecilomyces, Verticillium, Beauveria, and Penicillium species were tested for ability to metabolize a variety of n-alkylbenzenes. Minimum side chain lengths were required for metabolism of these substrates. These were C/sub 4/ for the Paecilomyces sp., C/sub 8/ for the Verticillium sp., and C/sub 9/ for the other two isolates. Growth on dodecylbenzene yielded benzoic and phenylacetic acids as transient intermediates, and these acids supported growth of the isolates.

  9. Hierarchical porous poly (ether sulfone) membranes with excellent capacity retention for vanadium flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongju; Li, Dandan; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-06-01

    A hierarchical poly (ether sulfone) (PES) porous membrane is facilely fabricated via a hard template method for vanadium flow battery (VFB) application. The construction of this hierarchical porous membrane is prepared via removing templates (phenolphthalein). The pore size can be well controlled by optimizing the template content in the cast solution, ensuring the membrane conductivity and selectively. The prepared hierarchical porous membrane can combine high ion selectivity with high proton conductivity, which renders a good electrochemical performance in a VFB. The optimized hierarchical porous membrane shows a columbic efficiency of 94.52% and energy efficiency of 81.66% along with a superior ability to maintain stable capacity over extended cycling at a current density of 80 mA cm-2. The characteristics of low cost, proven chemical stability and high electrochemical performance afford the hierarchical PES porous membrane great prospect in VFB application.

  10. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T C Mike

    2015-12-04

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young's modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ 3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO₂• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  11. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES proton exchange membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa and low water swelling (λ < 15 even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone) Random and Segmented Copolymers for Membrane Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebipasagil, Ali

    Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s are high-performance engineering thermoplastics that have been investigated extensively over the past several decades due to their outstanding mechanical properties, high glass transition temperatures (Tg), solvent resistance and exceptional thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability. Their thermal and mechanical properties are highly suited to a variety of applications including membrane applications such as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and gas separation. This dissertation covers structure-property-performance relationships of poly(arylene ether sulfone) and poly(ethylene oxide)-containing random and segmented copolymers for reverse osmosis and gas separation membranes. The second chapter of this dissertation describes synthesis of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers with oligomeric molecular weights that contain hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments for thin film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis membranes. These copolymers were synthesized and chemically modified to obtain novel crosslinkable poly(arylene ether sulfone) oligomers with acrylamide groups on both ends. The acrylamideterminated oligomers were crosslinked with UV radiation in the presence of a multifunctional acrylate and a UV initiator. Transparent, dense films were obtained with high gel fractions. Mechanically robust TFC membranes were prepared from either aqueous or water-methanol solutions cast onto a commercial UDELRTM foam support. This was the first example that utilized a water or alcohol solvent system and UV radiation to obtain reverse osmosis TFC membranes. The membranes were characterized with regard to composition, surface properties, and water uptake. Water and salt transport properties were elucidated at the department of chemical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. The gas separation membranes presented in chapter three were poly(arylene ether sulfone) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polyurethanes. Poly

  13. Polyvinyl Alcohol-Sulfonated Polyethersulfone Blend for Application in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Askari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, proton-exchange membranes as the main components of composite actuators have been paid special attention because of their important role in membrane technology. Polyvinyl alcohol was blended with sulfonated polyethersulfone in the presence of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. The effect of the blend ratio and glutaraldehyde content on the ionic and mechanical properties of the blend was studied. For this purpose, polyethersulfone was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonated sample was blended with polyvinyl alcohol in different ratios, and in order to control the water uptake of polyvinyl alcohol, glutaraldehyde was added into the blend mixture. Degree of sulfonation of polyethersulfone measured by titration method was found to be 26%. By increasing the sulfonated polyethersulfone and glutaraldehyde contents, the water uptake of membranes indicated a decreasing trend with a minimum of 18%. The higher glutaraldehyde/polyvinyl alcohol (GA/PVA ratio from 0.03 to 0.06 had not much effect on the ion exchange capacity but reduced its proton conductivity. With increasing the sulfonated polyethersulfone/polyvinyl alcohol (SPES/PVA ratio, the sulfonic acid groups were increased, and therefore, the ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity were both increased to their maximum values of 0.62 meq/g and 2.63 mS/cm. Tensile test results showed that the blend containing 70% sulfonated polyethersulfone with the GA/PVA ratio of 0.06, had the maximum mechanical strength and young modulus of 30.86 and 104.18 MPa, respectively. Besides, each membrane showed a tougher behavior when the sulfonated polyethersulfone content was increased.

  14. Removal of polyvinylamine sulfonate anthrapyridone dye by application of heterogeneous electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzayani, Bakhta; Meijide, Jessica; Pazos, Marta; Elaoud, Sourour Chaâbane; Sanroman, Maria Angeles

    2017-08-01

    Diversity and rapidly multiplication of the pollutants incite as to improve the conventional treatments wastewater methods. One of the bottlenecks often faced is the presence into wastewater of organic pollutants with complex structures that requests the design of efficient processes. Thus, this work investigates the removal of polyvinylamine sulfonate anthrapyridone (PSA) dye which complex structure makes difficult its degradation by conventional technologies. For that, a heterogeneous oxidative process using pyrite as sustainable catalyst was designed. Initially, the performance of the system BBD-carbon felt as anode and cathode, respectively for the production of H 2 O 2 was determined in comparison with system boron-doped diamond nickel foam. The carbon felt electrode provided the highest oxidant production, and it was selected for the treatment of the polymeric dye. Several oxidative processes were evaluated, and the best degradation levels were obtained by application of electro-Fenton-pyrite process. In addition, it was determined that dye removal followed a kinetic model of pseudo-first-order achieving the highest efficiency by operation at optimum dosage of pyrite 2 g/L and 200 mA of current intensity. Depending on the optimal experimental conditions, these values lead to a nearly complete mineralization (total organic carbon removal of 95%) after 6 h. Furthermore, the reusability of pyrite was evaluated, by removal of PSA in four cycles.

  15. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  16. Radiation grafting of styrene and maleic anhydride onto PTFE membranes and sequent sulfonation for applications of vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Jingyi; Ni Jiangfeng; Zhai Maolin; Peng Jing; Zhou Henghui; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan

    2007-01-01

    Using γ-radiation technique, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane was grafted with styrene (St) (PTFE-graft-PS) or binary monomers of St and maleic anhydride (MAn) (PTFE-graft-PS-co-PMAn), respectively. Then grafted membranes were further sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid into ion-exchange membranes (denoted as PTFE-graft-PSSA and PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc, respectively) for application of vanadium redox battery (VRB). Micro-FTIR analysis indicated that PTFE was successfully grafted and sulfonated at the above two different conditions. However, a higher degree of grafting (DOG) was obtained in St/MAn binary system at the same dose due to a synergistic effect. Comparing with PTFE-graft-PSSA, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane showed higher water uptake and ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and lower area resistance (AR) at the same DOG. In addition, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc with 6% DOG also showed a higher IEC and higher conductivity compared to Nafion membrane. Radiation grafting of PTFE in St/MAn binary system and sequent sulfonation is an appropriate method for preparing ion-exchange membrane of VRB

  17. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  18. Synthesis and properties of a novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) membrane with a high β-value for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingmei; Ma, Li; Han, Hailan; Ni, Hongzhe; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Huixuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduction of carboxyl groups into copolymers resulted in extensive hydrogen bond. • The C-SPAEKS membranes had obviously hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation. • The membranes showed low methanol permeability and high β values. • The membranes exhibited good thermal property and desirable mechanical performance. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) membranes containing carboxylic acid groups (C-SPAEKS) with different degrees of sulfonation were synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions of 4-carboxylphenyl hydroquinone (4C-PH), bisphenol A, 3,3′-disulfonated 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone, and 4,4′-difluorobenzophenone. The Fourier transform infrared and 1 H NMR analyses of C-SPAEKS revealed the presence of carboxylic acid groups in the C-SPAEKS membranes. The membranes exhibited a low swelling degree and methanol crossover level. The effects of different degrees of sulfonation on the water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient of the membranes were studied. The maximum proton conductivity of C-SPAEKS-80 membrane at room temperature was 0.069 S cm −1 , which was higher than that of Nafion ® 117 membrane. The methanol permeability coefficient of C-SPAEKS-80 membrane was 9.15 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 at 20 °C, much lower than that of Nafion 117 membrane (22.9 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 ). Furthermore, the carboxyl group-containing membranes exhibited a high β-value, further confirming that this series of membranes possess excellent comprehensive performance and can be applied in direct methanol fuel cells

  19. Sulfonation of polyvinylidene difluoride resin and its application in extraction of restriction enzymes from DNA digestion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Dong, Chunxia; Huang, Xu; Zhao, Jindong

    2003-11-01

    Sulfonation of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) resin was achieved by incubation of the resin with sulfuric acid at a moderately high temperature. The sulfonated PVDF (SPVDF) resin was studied for its ability to extract restriction enzymes from DNA digestion solutions. The SPVDF resin was effective in adsorbing restriction enzymes such as EcoRI and BamHI and the extraction procedure was easy and simple to perform. The adsorption depended upon the amount of the resin added. We found that 1 mg of the SPVDF resin could completely remove all restriction enzyme activity routinely used in DNA digestion within 2 min after its addition. Treatment of a digestion solution with the SPVDF resin did not change the reaction solution and the same digestion buffer could be used for another digestion of the same DNA with other enzymes. We also found that, in comparison with normal PVDF, the SPVDF resin adsorbed less DNA, resulting in less loss of DNA in the extraction step. The potential application of the SPVDF resin in other procedures of molecular cloning and enzyme purification is discussed.

  20. Covalently Cross-Linked Sulfone Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Poly(Vinylbenzyl Chloride) for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked polymer membranes were fabricated from poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO(2) PBI) and poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBCl) as electrolytes for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The cross-linking imparted organo insolubility and chemical stability against...... radical attack to the otherwise flexible SO(2) PBI membranes. Steady phosphoric acid doping of the cross-linked membranes was achieved at elevated temperatures with little swelling. The acid-doped membranes exhibited increased mechanical strength compared to both pristine SO(2) PBI and poly[2,2'-(m......-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (mPBI). The superior characteristics of the cross-linked SO(2) PBI membranes allowed higher acid doping levels and, therefore, higher proton conductivity. Fuel-cell tests with the cross-linked membranes demonstrated a high open circuit voltage and improved power performance...

  1. Synthesis of methyl ester sulphonate by sulfonation of soybean oil methyl ester for chemical flooding application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richie Adi Putra; Renisa Ismayanti; Agam Duma Kalista W

    2018-01-01

    This research has accomplished the synthesis of Surfactant Methyl Ester Sulphonate from Methyl Soyate and Sodium Bisulfite as sulfonating agent. The Steps of the synthesis were reaction, purification, neutralization, and separation. The reaction done by several variated condition such as Reaction Temperature (100, 110, 120)°C, Reaction time (210, 270, 330)minute, and the mole ratio between Methyl Soyate and NaHSO 3 (1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2) with 1.5 % of Al 2 O 3 as catalyst of sulfonation reaction. The purification process was conducted at 55 °C and 60 minute by adding Methanol 35 % v/v. The neutralization done was conducted by 20 % of NaOH until pH 6-8. And the rest of the methanol are separated from MES using rotary evaporator. MES which is pass the compatibility Test is MES at the condition of reaction (100 °C, 210 minute and 1 : 2 mole ratio).This MES has tested by FT - IR to see the existence of the Sulphonate group.The FT-IR test result has shown the existence of the Sulphonate group at wave length between 1000 until 1300 cm -1 . Which is the highest peak at 1176 cm-1. From the qualitative test above, then the MES performed by IFT Test with light oil of X- field as comparison. The IFT results has shown a decrease of the interfacial tensions between 12,000 ppm of brine water and the light oil with addition of 0.3 % (v/v) MES, from 3.36 dyne/cm 2 to 1.54 dyne/cm 2 . (author)

  2. Application of Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles in Increasing the Lifetime of Poly(Vinyl Sulfonate) Scale Inhibitor in Berea Sandstone Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisi, Masoumeh

    Water flooding is used extensively in oil fields to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. However, seawater containing high concentrations of sulfate ion may form scale precipitate when mixed with incompatible formation water containing barium and strontium ions. Formation of scales such as barium sulfate can pose costly operational problems by plugging the injection and production wells. Polymers such as poly(vinyl sulfonate) (PVS) are well-known scale inhibitors which can effectively prevent the formation of barium sulfate. Squeeze treatment is a common method which can be used to inject the PVS in the reservoir. In this process, PVS solution is injected into production wells and the inhibitor is adsorbed on reservoir rocks and released during subsequent production of reservoir fluids. Once inhibitor concentration decreases to its minimum effective concentration (MEC), the process needs to be repeated. However, the low adsorption of PVS onto the rock results in a very short squeeze lifetime rendering the treatment uneconomical. In this research, the application of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) to increase the squeeze treatment lifetime of PVS was examined. The objective of the project was to develop PEC nanoparticles (NPs) which would improve the PVS adsorption on the rock through charge alteration. The PECs entrapped the PVS in their structure and released the polymer gradually when pH or ionic strength of the surrounding brine increased. PVS adsorption followed by a slow release of the polymer can maintain the scale inhibitor concentration above MEC for longer, and therefore extend the squeeze treatment lifetime. Positively charged nanoparticles consisting of poly(ethyleneimine) and poly(vinyl sulfonate) (PEI-PVS) were prepared and optimized to maximize PVS entrapment in the PEC structure. The stability of the nanoparticles at different temperatures and over time was confirmed. Their stability in the presence of mono and divalent cations was also

  3. Structure-activity relationship of the ionic cocrystal: 5-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate·ammonium ions for pharmaceutical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mathammal, R.

    2018-02-01

    The ionic cocrystals of 5-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate · ammonium ions (ANSA-ṡNH4+) were grown under slow evaporation method and examined in detail for pharmaceutical applications. The crystal structure and intermolecular interactions were studied from the single X-ray diffraction analysis and the Hirshfeld surfaces. The 2D fingerprint plots displayed the inter-contacts possible in the ionic crystal. Computational DFT method was established to determine the structural, physical and chemical properties. The molecular geometries obtained from the X-ray studies were compared with the optimized geometrical parameters calculated using DFT/6-31 + G(d,p) method. The band gap energy calculated from the UV-Visible spectral analysis and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap are compared. The theoretical UV-Visible calculations helped in determining the type of electronic transition taking place in the title molecule. The maximum absorption bands and transitions involved in the molecule represented the drug reaction possible. Non-linear optical properties were characterized from SHG efficiency measurements experimentally and the NLO parameters are also calculated from the optimized structure. The reactive sites within the molecule are detailed from the MEP surface maps. The molecular docking studies evident the structure-activity of the ionic cocrystal for anti-cancer drug property.

  4. Novel sulfonated poly (ether ether keton)/polyetherimide acid-base blend membranes for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Lihua; Ding, Yue; Liu, Biqian; Han, Xutong; Song, Yanlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPEEK/PEI acid-base blend membranes are prepared for VRB applications. • The acid-base blend membranes have much lower vanadium ion permeability. • The energy efficiency of SPEEK/PEI maintain around 86.9% after 50 cycles. - Abstract: Novel acid-base blend membranes composed of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The blend membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity, water uptake, vanadium ion permeability and mechanical properties were measured. As a result, the acid-base blend membranes exhibit higher water uptake, IEC and lower vanadium ion permeability compared to Nafion117 membranes and all these properties decrease with the increase of PEI. In VRB single cell test, the VRB with blend membranes shows lower charge capacity loss, higher coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) than Nafion117 membrane. Furthermore, the acid-base blend membranes present stable performance up to 50 cycles with no significant decline in CE and EE. All experimental results indicate that the SPEEK/PEI (S/P) acid-base blend membranes show promising prospects for VRB

  5. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonic acid membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks for application in fuel cells; Sintese e caracterizacao de membranas sulfonadas baseadas em redes polimericas interpenetrantes para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Lyzed Toloza; Loureiro, Felipe A.M.; Rocco, Ana Maria [Grupo de Materiais Condutores e Energia, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: amrocco@eq.ufrj.br; Pereira, Robson Pacheco [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of sulfonic membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN). In order to obtain such systems, the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was polymerized in presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). These membranes were submitted to sulfonation reactions, originating IPN-SO{sub 3}H membranes. The characterization by FTIR evidenced the formation of a Semi-IPN structure, while sulfonation reactions resulted in systems containing -SO{sub 3}H groups covalently bonded to the chains. The membranes exhibited water retention up to 200 degree C, in a temperature range sufficient for application in PEMFC under hydration. (author)

  6. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend membranes for fuel cell applications - Surface energy characteristics and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakasabai, P.; Vijay, P.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Varughese, Susy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2011-02-01

    Ionic polymers, their blends and composites are considered potential candidates for application as electrolytes in fuel cells. While developing new materials for membranes, it is important to understand the interactions of these electrolytic materials with electrodes/catalysts and with reactants/products. Some of these interactions can be understood by estimating the surface energy and wettability of the membrane materials. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol with varying degrees of sulfonation and its blend with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) are prepared and studied for their wettability characteristics using goniometry. The surface energy and its components are estimated using different approaches and compared. Properties such as the ion-exchange capacity, the proton conductivity and the water sorption/desorption behaviour are also investigated to understand the relationship with wettability and surface energy and its components. Among the different methods, the van Oss acid-base and the modified Berthelot approaches yield comparable estimates for the total surface energy. (author)

  7. Sulfonated methyl esters of fatty acids in aqueous solutions: Interfacial and micellar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Stanimirova, Rumyana D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Basheva, Elka S; Ivanova, Veronika I; Petkov, Jordan T

    2015-11-01

    The interest to sulfonated methyl esters of fatty acids (SME) has been growing during the last decade, because these surfactants are considered as an environmentally friendly and renewable alternative of the linear alkyl-benzene sulfonates (LAS). Here, we present a quantitative study on the properties of aqueous SME solutions, and especially on their surface tension isotherms, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and its dependence on the concentration of added NaCl. It is demonstrated that the CMC of an ionic surfactant determined by electrical conductivity is insensitive to the presence of a small nonionic admixture, so that the CMC values determined by conductivity represent the CMC of the pure surfactant. Using SME as an example, we have demonstrated the application of a new and powerful method for determining the physicochemical parameters of the pure ionic surfactant by theoretical data analysis ("computer purification") if the used surfactant sample contains nonionic admixtures, which are present as a rule. This method involves fits of the experimental data for surface tension and conductivity by a physicochemical model based on a system of mass-balance, chemical-equilibrium and electric-double-layer equations, which allows us to determine the adsorption and micellization parameters of C12-, C14-, C16- and C18-SME, as well the fraction of nonionic admixtures (if any). Having determined these parameters, we can further predict the interfacial and micellization properties of the surfactant solutions, such as surface tension, adsorption, degree of counterion binding, and surface electric potential at every surfactant, salt and co-surfactant concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate-induced nanofibrillarity of polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate electropolymer and application in an amperometric enzyme biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndangili, Peter M.; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Muchindu, Munkombwe; Baker, Priscilla G.L.; Ngila, Catherine J.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of nanofibrillar polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate (Pani-PVS) composite by electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of ferrocenium hexafluorophophate (FcPF 6 ) and its application in mediated-enzyme biosensor using the horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (HRP/H 2 O 2 ) enzyme-substrate system is reported. The electropolymerization was carried out at glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) and screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) in a strongly acidic medium (HCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that 100 nm diameter nanofibrils were formed on the SPCE in contrast to the 800-1000 nm cauliflower-shaped clusters which were formed in the absence of FcPF 6 . A model biosensor (GCE//Pani-PVS/BSA/HRP/Glu), consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized by drop coating atop the GCE//Pani-PVS in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (glu) in the enzyme layer casting solution, exhibited voltammetric responses characteristic of a mediated-enzyme system. The biosensor response to H 2 O 2 was very fast (5 s) and it exhibited a detection limit of 30 μM (3σ) and a linearity of up to 2 mM (R 2 = 0.998). The relatively high apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value (K M app =1.7mM) of the sensor indicated that the immobilized enzyme was in a biocompatible microenvironment. The freshly prepared biosensor was successfully applied in the determination of the H 2 O 2 content of a commercial tooth whitening gel with a very good recovery rate (97%).

  9. Effect of cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid (Cs-TPA) on the properties of sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Hacer; Inan, Tuelay Y.; Unveren, Elif [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUeBiTAK), Marmara Research Center, Chemistry Institute, P.K. 21, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Kaya, Metin [DEMIRDOeKUeM A.S. 4 Eyluel Mah, ismet inoenue Cad. No:245 Bozueyuek/Bilecik (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    We have prepared composite membranes for fuel cell applications. Cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid (Cs-TPA) particles was synthesized by aqueous solutions of tungstophosphoric acid and cesium hydroxide and, Cs-TPA particles and sulfonated (polyether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with two sulfonation degrees (DS), 60 and 70%have been used. We examined both the effects of Cs-TPA in SPEEK membranes as functions of sulfonation degrees of SPEEK and the content of Cs-TPA. The performance of the composite membranes was evaluated in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, chemical stability, hydrolytic stability, thermal stability and methanol permeability. The morphology of the membranes was investigated with SEM micrographs. Increasing sulfonation degree of SPEEK from 60 to 70 caused agglomeration of the Cs-TPA particles. The methanol permeability was reduced to 4.7 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s for SPEEK (DS: 60%)/Cs-TPA membrane with 10 wt.% Cs-TPA concentration, and acceptable proton conductivity of 1.3 x 10{sup -1} S/cm was achieved at 80 C under 100% RH. The weight loss at 900 C increased with the addition of inorganic particles, as expected. The hydrolytic stability of the SPEEK/Cs-TPA based composite membranes was improved with the incorporation of the Cs-TPA particles into the matrix. We also noted that SPEEK60/Cs-TPA composite membranes were hydrolytically more stable than SPEEK70/Cs-TPA composite membranes. On the other hand, Methanol, water vapor, and hydrogen permeability values of SPEEK60 composite membranes were found to be lower than that of Nafion {sup registered}. (author)

  10. Sulfonated amphiphilic block copolymers : synthesis, self-assembly in water, and application as stabilizer in emulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguang Zhang; Matthew R. Dubay; Carl J. Houtman; Steven J. Severtson

    2009-01-01

    Described is the synthesis of diblock copolymers generated via sequential atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) followed by chain augmentation with either sulfonated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) or poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) blocks. ATRP of PHEMA or PHEA from PnBA macroinitiator was conducted in acetone/...

  11. Sulfonic acid-functionalized golf nanoparticles: A colloid-bound catalyst for soft lithographic application on self-assembled monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Paraschiv, V.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    In this report, we present a new lithographic approach to prepare patterned surfaces. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the acid-labile trimethylsilyl ether (TMS-OC11H22S)2 (TMS adsorbate) was formed on gold. 5-Mercapto-2-benzimidazole sulfonic acid sodium salt (MBS-Na+) was used as a ligand for

  12. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  13. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  14. Densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Q M; Liu, Q; Ding, Y Y; Zhou, L; Cao, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 °C with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene. Relevance of results for current generation (i.e., Daya Bay) and next generation (i.e. JUNO) large liquid scintillator neutrino detectors are discussed. (paper)

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Silica and Its Application for the Esterification of Ethanol and Maleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsam, Rajkumar; Usmani, Ghayas

    2016-04-01

    The surface of commercially available silica gel, 60-200 mesh size, was modified with sulfonic acid through surface activation, grafting of 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, oxidation and acidification of 3-Mercaptopropylsilica. Sulfonic Acid Functionalization of Silica (SAFS) was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Acid-base titration was used to estimate the cation exchange capacity of the SAFS. Catalytic activity of SAFS was judged for the esterification of ethanol with maleic acid. An effect of different process parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, speed of agitation and temperature were studied and optimized by Box Behnken Design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Quadratic model developed by BBD-RSM reasonably satisfied an experimental and predicted values with correlation coefficient value R2 = 0.9504.

  16. A durable alternative for proton-exchange membranes: sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Jinhuan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Song, Min-Kyu; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin [Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-03-18

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s (SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid-base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25 C to 90 C and excellent thermal stability up to 250 C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80 C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. A Durable Alternative for Proton-Exchange Membranes: Sulfonated Poly(Benzoxazole Thioether Sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Jin Hui; Song, Min Kyu; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Meilin

    2011-02-24

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s ( SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid–base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25°C to 90°C and excellent thermal stability up to 250°C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80°C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications.

  18. Ultrasonic irradiation to modify the functionalized bionanocomposite in sulfonated polybenzimidazole membrane for fuel cells applications and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzade, Banafshe; Esmaielzadeh, Sheida; Ahmadizadegan, Hashem

    2018-04-01

    In this article the new proton exchange membranes were prepared from sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI) and various amounts of sulfonated titania/cellulose nanohybrids (titania/cellulose-SO 3 H) via ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic irradiation effectively changes the rheology and the glass transition temperature and the crystallinity of the composite polymer. Ultrasonic irradiation has a very strong mixing and dispersion effect, much stronger than conventional stirring, which can improve the dispersion of titania/cellulose-SO 3 H nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The strong -SO 3 H/-SO 3 H interaction between s-PBI chains and titania/cellulose-SO 3 H hybrids leads to ionic cross-linking in the membrane structure, which increases both the thermal stability and methanol resistance of the membranes. After acid doping with phosphoric acid, s-PBI/titania/cellulose-SO 3 H nanocomposite membranes exhibit depressions on methanol permeability and enhancements on proton conductivity comparing to the pristine s-PBI membrane. The chemical structure of the functionlized titania was characterized with FTIR, and energy-dispersive X-ray. Imidazole and sulfonated groups on the surface of modified nanoparticles forming linkages with s-PBI chains, improved the compatibility between s-PBI and nanoparticles, and enhanced the mechanical strength of the prepared nanocomposite membranes. From SEM and TEM analysis could explain the homogeneous dispersion of titania/cellulose-SO 3 H in nanocomposite membranes. Moreover, the membranes exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli. A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of new sulfonated mono- and diphthalocyanines d- and f-elements and perspectives of their application for plastic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilova, Larisa G.; Podgaetsky, Vitaly M.; Dyumaev, Kirill; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.

    1996-01-01

    We carried out the synthesis of the new compounds -- sulfonated mono- and diphthalocyanines of d- and f-elements (sPcM, sPc2M). The unusual geometry of these compounds leads to the appearance of new properties -- they are highly water soluble, non- toxic and in contrast to porphyrines they strongly absorb clinically useful light. Suitable methods for synthesis of unknown before water soluble Ga, In and Ti phthalocyanines have been developed. Our investigations show that these compounds are prospects for plastic surgery.

  20. Crosslinked sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) membranes bearing quinoxaline and acid-base complex cross-linkages for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinbing; Chen, Pei; An, Zhongwei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Chen, Kangcheng; Okamoto, Kenichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    A series of crosslinkable sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone)s (SPAEKs) were synthesized by copolymerization of 4,4'-biphenol with 2,6-difluorobenzil and 5,5'-carbonyl-bis(2-fluorobenzene-sulfonate). A facile crosslinking method was successfully developed, based on the cyclocondensation reaction of benzil moieties in polymer chain with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine to form quinoxaline groups acting as covalent and acid-base ionic crosslinking. The uncrosslinked and crosslinked SPAEK membranes showed high mechanical properties and the isotropic membrane swelling, while the later became insoluble in tested polar aprotic solvents. The crosslinking significantly improved the membrane performance, i.e., the crosslinked membranes had the lower membrane dimensional change, lower methanol permeability and higher oxidative stability than the corresponding precursor membranes, with keeping the reasonably high proton conductivity. The crosslinked membrane (C-B4) with an ion exchange capacity of 2.02 mequiv. g{sup -1} showed a reasonably high proton conductivity of 111 mS cm{sup -1} with a low water uptake of 42 wt% at 80 C. C-B4 exhibited a low methanol permeability of 0.55 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for 32 wt% methanol solution at 25 C. The crosslinked SPAEK membranes have potential for PEFC and DMFC applications. (author)

  1. Effect of sulfonation degree on molecular weight, thermal stability, and proton conductivity of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali-Hamedani, Majid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Direct copolymerization of sulfonated and non-sulfonated difluorodiphenyl sulfones as dihalide monomers with hydroquinone and also 4,4'-(4,4'-sulfonylbis-(1,4-phenylene)bis(oxy)) diphenol as diols led to preparation of two series of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s. Copolymers with different degrees of sulfonation (40, 50 and 60%) were synthesized in order to evaluate their potential for fuel cell application. 1 H-NMR, FT-IR, and mass spectroscopy were used for characterization of prepared monomers and copolymers. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were applied for investigation and comparison of the thermal properties of copolymers. Laser light scattering (LLS) was employed to calculate zeta potential, conductivity, and molecular weight of copolymers. Copolymers were obtained in high and sufficient molecular weight that was basic need to reach reasonable physical and thermal properties for applications as fuel cell membrane. The effect of similar structural repeating units with different sizes on the final properties of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s was investigated to compare their potential in fuel cell membrane.

  2. Preparation and properties of sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies/The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-04-02

    In order to develop novel membranes for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with low self-discharge rate and low cost, sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) (SPFEK) was synthesized directly via aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation of bisphenol fluorene with 60% sulfonated difluorobenzophenone and 40% difluorobenzophenone. The SPFEK membrane shows the lower permeability of vanadium ions. The open circuit voltage evaluation demonstrates that the SPFEK membrane is superior to Nafion 117 membrane in self-discharge test. Both energy efficiencies (EE) and power densities of the VRB single cell based on the SPFEK membrane are higher than those of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane at the same current densities. The highest coulombic efficiency (CE) of VRB with SPFEK membrane is 80.3% while the highest CE of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane is 77.0%. The SPFEK membrane shows the comparative stability to Nafion 117 membrane in VO{sub 2}{sup +} electrolyte. The experimental results suggest that SPFEK membrane is a promising ion exchange membrane for VRB. (author)

  3. Sulfonation and molecular action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Charles A

    2002-10-01

    The sulfonation of endogenous molecules is a pervasive biological phenomenon that is not always easily understood, and although it is increasingly recognized as a function of fundamental importance, there remain areas in which significant cognizance is still lacking or at most minimal. This is particularly true in the field of endocrinology, in which the sulfoconjugation of hormones is a widespread occurrence that is only partially, if at all, appreciated. In the realm of steroid/sterol sulfoconjugation, the discovery of a novel gene that utilizes an alternative exon 1 to encode for two sulfotransferase isoforms, one of which sulfonates cholesterol and the other pregnenolone, has been an important advance. This is significant because cholesterol sulfate plays a crucial role in physiological systems such as keratinocyte differentiation and development of the skin barrier, and pregnenolone sulfate is now acknowledged as an important neurosteroid. The sulfonation of thyroglobulin and thyroid hormones has been extensively investigated and, although this transformation is better understood, there remain areas of incomplete comprehension. The sulfonation of catecholamines is a prevalent modification that has been extensively studied but, unfortunately, remains poorly understood. The sulfonation of pituitary glycoprotein hormones, especially LH and TSH, does not affect binding to their cognate receptors; however, sulfonation does play an important role in their plasma clearance, which indirectly has a significant effect on biological activity. On the other hand, the sulfonation of distinct neuroendocrine peptides does have a profound influence on receptor binding and, thus, a direct effect on biological activity. The sulfonation of specific extracellular structures plays an essential role in the binding and signaling of a large family of extracellular growth factors. In summary, sulfonation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification of hormones and extracellular

  4. Preparation and characterization of poly (methyl methacrylate) and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes for protein separation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthanareeswaran, G.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Raajenthiren, M.

    2009-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (methyl methacrylate)/sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) blend membranes were prepared by phase inversion technique in various composition using N,N'-dimethylformamide as solvent. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of pure water flux, water content, porosity and thermal stability. The addition of SPEEK to the casting solution resulted in membranes with high pure water flux, water content, porosity and slightly low thermal stability. The cross sectional views of the blend membranes under electron microscope confirm the porosity and water flux results. The effect of the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA matrix on the extent of bovine serum albumin (BSA) separation was studied. It was found that the permeate flux increased significantly while the rejection of BSA from aqueous solution reduced moderately during ultrafiltration (UF) process. The effect was attributed to the increase in porosity and charge of the membrane due to the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA blend solution

  5. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S.; Fiuza, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  6. Enantioselective degradation and unidirectional chiral inversion of 2-phenylbutyric acid, an intermediate from linear alkylbenzene, by Xanthobacter flavus PA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yishan; Han, Ping [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Li, Xiao-yan; Shih, Kaimin [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Gu, Ji-Dong, E-mail: jdgu@hkucc.hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); The Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong, Shek O, Cape d' Aguilar, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We isolated a Xanthobacter flavus strain PA1 utilizing the racemic 2-PBA and the single enantiomers as the sole source of carbon and energy. {yields} Both (R) and (S) forms of enantiomers can be degraded in a sequential manner in which the (S) disappeared before the (R) form. {yields} The biochemical degradation pathway involves an initial oxidation of the alkyl side chain before aromatic ring cleavage. - Abstract: Microbial degradation of the chiral 2-phenylbutyric acid (2-PBA), a metabolite of surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), was investigated using both racemic and enantiomer-pure compounds together with quantitative stereoselective analyses. A pure culture of bacteria, identified as Xanthobacter flavus strain PA1 isolated from the mangrove sediment of Hong Kong Mai Po Nature Reserve, was able to utilize the racemic 2-PBA as well as the single enantiomers as the sole source of carbon and energy. In the presence of the racemic compounds, X. flavus PA1 degraded both (R) and (S) forms of enantiomers to completion in a sequential manner in which the (S) enantiomer disappeared much faster than the (R) enantiomer. When the single pure enantiomer was supplied as the sole substrate, a unidirectional chiral inversion involving (S) enantiomer to (R) enantiomer was evident. No major difference was observed in the degradation intermediates with either of the individual enantiomers when used as the growth substrate. Two major degradation intermediates were detected and identified as 3-hydroxy-2-phenylbutanoic acid and 4-methyl-3-phenyloxetan-2-one, using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The biochemical degradation pathway follows an initial oxidation of the alkyl side chain before aromatic ring cleavage. This study reveals new evidence for enantiomeric inversion catalyzed by pure culture of environmental bacteria and emphasizes the

  7. [Reparation and application of perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column in extraction and enrichment of perfluorooctane sulfonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Zhou, Naiyuan; Chen, Bo

    2011-10-01

    A perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column has been prepared by using sol-gel method. The preparation steps included hydrolysis of alkoxy silane, fasculation of silanol, gelation, aging, meso-pore preparation, drying and surface modification. It could be used as a solid phase extraction (SPE) microcolumn for extraction and enrichment of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The enrichment characteristics and efficiency of the perfluorodecyl modified monolithic silica capillary column has been investigated and compared with C18 silica monolithic capillary column. The results indicated that the perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column ( 15 cm x 75 microm) had a higher adsorption capacity and a better enrichment selectivity for PFOS. The average adsorption capacity of the perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column was 75 ng. And when the PFOS mass concentration in sample was 0. 25 mg/L, the enrichment factor was 29-fold in average. Owing to the good performance of the perfluorodecyl modified silica monolithic capillary column, it can be used for the extraction and enrichment of trace PFOS in water to meet the requirements of water quality monitoring and analysis.

  8. Spectrofluorimetric study on the inclusion behavior of p-sulfonated calix arene with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and analytical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chun [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Fu Zhong [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Yu, Huapeng [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Xu Hongwei [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Wang Lun [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Zhou Yunyou [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)]. E-mail: zy161299@mail.ahnu.edu.cn

    2007-10-15

    The characteristics of host-guest complexation between p-sulfonated calix [G. Arena, S. Gentile, F. G. Gulino, D. Sciotto, C. Sgarlata, Tetrahedron Lett. 45 (2004) 7091] arene (SC6A) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were studied by fluorescence spectrometry. A 1:1 stoichiometry for the complexation was established and the complex constant was also calculated by a deduced equation. It was found the fluorescence of the complex could be remarkably quenched by an appropriate amount of ceftriaxone sodium (CTRX). Based on the results, a novel spectrofluorimetric method for determination of CTRX was developed with a linear range of 9.2x10{sup -7}-8.5x10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} and a detection of 3.5x10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}. The proposed method was used to determine CTRX in their commercial preparations with satisfactory results. Moreover, the probable interaction mechanisms of the systems were also discussed.

  9. Detection, quantifications and pharmacokinetics of toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Yohn, R; Garrett, E F; Chakkath, T; Ferguson, D C

    2009-06-01

    Toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril) is a triazine-based anti-protozoal agent with highly specific actions against apicomplexan group of organisms, which are undergoing intensive investigation. Toltrazuril sulfone may have clinical application in the treatment of Neospora. caninum and other protozoal infections in cattle. To evaluate absorption, distribution, and elimination characteristics of toltrazuril sulfone in cattle, a sensitive validated quantitative high-pressure liquid chromatography method for toltrazuril sulfone in bovine biological fluids was developed. After a single oral dose of toltrazuril sulfone at 5 mg/kg (as 150 mg/g of Marquis; Bayer HealthCare, Shawnee Mission, KS, USA), samples from six cows showed good plasma concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone, which peaked at 4821 ng/mL +/- 916 (SD) at 48 h postadministration. Thereafter, plasma concentration declined to 1950 ng/mL +/- 184 (SD) at 192 h after administration with an average plasma elimination half-life of approximately 58 h. Following oral dose of toltrazuril sulfone, the observed peak plasma concentrations were in relatively close agreement ranging from the lowest 3925 ng/mL to the highest of 6285 ng/mL with the mean peak plasma concentration being 4821 ng/mL. This study shows that toltrazuril sulfone is relatively well absorbed after oral dose in cattle. These results are therefore entirely consistent with and support the reported clinical efficacy of toltrazuril sulfone in the treatment of experimentally induced clinical cases of N. caninum and other protozoal-mediated bovine diseases.

  10. Geochemical significance of alkylbenzene distributions in flash pyrolysates of kerogens, coals and asphaltenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of C0-C5 alkylbenzenes in flash pyrolysates of forty-seven immature kerogens and coals from different geographical locations and of different ages were studied using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) in order to decipher the origin of aromatic

  11. Analytical methodology for sulfonated lignins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need to characterize and classify lignins and sulfonated lignins. Lignins have so far received a good deal of attention, whereas this is not true for sulfonated lignins. There is a clear demand for a better understanding of sulfonated lignins on a chemical as well as physical

  12. Properties investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/polyacrylonitrile acid-base blend membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Yu, Lihong; Liu, Le; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-11-12

    Acid-base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-section morphology as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy images show. The acid-base interaction of ionic cross-linking and hydrogen bonding between SPEEK and PAN could effectively reduce water uptake, swelling ratio, and vanadium ion permeability, and improve the performance and stability of blend membrane. Because of the good balance of proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability, blend membrane with 20 wt % PAN (S/PAN-20%) showed higher Coulombic efficiency (96.2% vs 91.1%) and energy efficiency (83.5% vs 78.4%) than Nafion 117 membrane at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) when they were used in VRFB single cell. Besides, S/PAN-20% membrane kept a stable performance during 150 cycles at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) in the cycle life test. Hence the SPEEK/PAN acid-base blend membrane could be used as promising candidate for VRFB application.

  13. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium oxide nanocomposite film synthesized by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization for electrochromic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinlin; Song, Hua; Li, Suning; Wang, Lin; Han, Lu; Ling, Han; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report the facile synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium dioxide (PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 ) nanocomposite film by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization. The structure, morphology and composition of the films were investigated by different techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film was applied for electrochromic application. The results indicate that the PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film exhibits a higher optical contrast and a much better stability as compared to PEDOT:PSS film. The significant performance enhancement can be attributed to the nanoscale particle size and uniform size distribution of PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 and the synergistic effect between the inorganic nano-TiO 2 and organic PEDOT:PSS material. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film by electropolymerization • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film shows nano-scaled particle sizes and uniform size distribution. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film shows higher optical contrasts and faster switching speed. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film displays a good stability for electrochromic application

  14. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulfonated graphene; expanded porphyrins; heterogeneous catalysis; solid acid; non-covalent interaction. 1. Introduction. Graphene, an important allotropic member of carbon, has received much attention owing to its interest- ing properties in material science with wide range of applications in energy devices, electronics, ...

  15. Optimization of Co2+ ions removal from water solutions via polymer enhanced ultrafiltration with application of PVA and sulfonated PVA as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Niğmet; Jaworska, Agnieszka; Miśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grażyna; Cojocaru, Corneliu

    2011-10-15

    The paper presents the results of the studies of UF-complexation process applied for the removal of Co(2+) ions from water solutions. As binding agents for cobalt ions, the PVA polymer (M(w)=10,000) and its sulfonated form, synthesized in the laboratory, have been used. The method of experimental design and response surface methodology have been employed to find out the optimal conditions for the complexation process and to evaluate the interaction between the input variables, i.e., initial cobalt concentration, pH and amount of the polymer used, expressed as a polymer/Co(2+) ratio r. The data collected by the designed experiments showed that sulfonation of polymer has improved significantly the binding ability of PVA. The optimal conditions of cobalt ions complexation established by response surface model for non-sulfonated PVA polymer have been found to be as follows: the initial concentration of Co(2+)=5.70 mg L(-1), the ratio between polymer and metal ions, r=8.58 and pH=5.93. The removal efficiency of Co(2+) in these conditions was 31.81%. For sulfonated PVA polymer, the optimal conditions determined are as follows: initial concentration of [Co(2+)](0)=10 mg L(-1), r=1.2 and pH=6.5. For these conditions, a removal efficiency of 99.98% has been determined. The experiments showed that Co(2+) removal ability of sulfonated PVA was much higher than its non-sulfonated precursor. Although the polymer concentrations used in the tests with sulfonated PVA were approximately ten times lower than the non-sulfonated one, the removal efficiency of cobalt ions was significantly higher. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A semi-empirical approach to the modeling of the electrophoretic mobility in free solution: application to polystyrenesulfonates of various sulfonation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, H; Gareil, P; Theodoly, O; Williams, C E

    2000-11-01

    This work focuses on the understanding of the electrophoretic behavior of flexible chains of polystyrenesulfonates (PSSs) in free solution. It deals mainly with the variation of the electrophoretic mobility with (i) the polymerization degree (N) of fully sulfonated PSSs and (ii) the sulfonation rate of randomly sulfonated PSSs. In both cases, the electrophoretic mobility was modeled following a semi-empirical approach which involves parameters retaining a physical meaning. Fully sulfonated PSS oligomers, having a length smaller than or similar to the Debye length, exhibit a particular electrophoretic behavior, in-between that observed for multicharged small molecules and that for polyelectrolytes. The electrophoretic mobility of these oligomers increases strongly with N, which is attributed to a hydrodynamic coupling between monomers. Then the mobility is maximum for an N of about 10, for which the PSS oligomers are still in a rod-like conformation. Afterwards, as N increases and the PSSs are larger than the Debye length, the electrophoretic mobility decreases slowly until it reaches a constant value corresponding to the free-draining behavior. Next, the electrophoretic behavior of long PSS (N about 1,200) differing in their sulfonation rates was investigated. The effective charge rates were determined independently by conductimetric measurements and the mobilities were modeled as a function of the sulfonation rate. The PSS behavior observed was compared to the one previously reported for classical polyelectrolytes having hydrophilic backbones, such as copolymers of poly(acryamide-coacrylic acid). A specific behavior has been pointed out for these partially sulfonated PSSs, which is attributed to the hydrophobicity of their backbone. Finally, it is shown that separations of PSSs of different sulfonation rates can be obtained with electrolytes containing an anionic surfactant or methanol.

  17. Modification of Novel Conductive PEDOT:Sulfonated Polyimide Nano-Thin Films by Anionic Surfactant and Poly(vinyl alcohol) for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romyen, Nathavat; Thongyai, Supakanok; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Sotzing, Gregory A.

    2013-12-01

    Conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):sulfonated polyimide (PEDOT: SPI) nanoscale thin films were successfully developed by addition of anionic surfactant and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for potential application in electronic devices. In this work, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant was introduced into PEDOT:SPI aqueous suspensions to improve the dispersion stability of the particles in water, leading to high transparency and low contact angle of PEDOT:SPI thin films. All of the conducting polymer thin films showed high transparency of more than 85% transmission. Conductivity enhancement and good film-formation properties of PEDOT:SPI were achieved by adding various amounts of PVA to each polymer aqueous suspension because of the resulting conformational changes. The highest conductivity of 0.134 S/cm was achieved at 0.08 wt.% PVA in PEDOT:SPI2/SDS/PVA film, increased by a factor of 3.5 compared with the original material. In addition, PVA also improved the thermal stability of the conductive films, as verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The interactions between conducting polymers, PVA, and SDS surfactant affecting nano-thin film properties were revealed and investigated. Moreover, the interactions between SDS and SPI were proven to be different from those between SDS and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in conventional PEDOT:PSS solutions.

  18. Hydrophilic treatment poly(tetrafluoroethylene) reinforced sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) composite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Cheng; Zhang, Yu.; Xiao, Shaohua [Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin [Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2009-12-01

    A reinforced composite membrane based on SPEEK (sulfonated poly ether ether ketone) and porous PTFE substrate (polytetrafluoroethylene) is fabricated and investigated for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application. In order to improve the combination between SPEEK polymer and PTFE matrix, PTFE substrate is hydrophilically pretreated by naphthalene sodium solution. The experimental results indicate that SPEEK can impregnate into treated PTFE substrate (abbreviated as trPTFE) more easily. The variation of PTFE surface property before and after treatment is characterized by water contact angle experiment and ATR-FTIR technique. The impregnated status of SPEEK polymer in PTFE matrix is also characterized by ATR-FTIR. According to the appearance photo of two composite membranes, it is showed that SPEEK/trPTFE composite membrane has more uniform and homogeneous morphology. Moreover, the mechanical property of SPEEK/trPTFE composite membrane also has an advantage over pristine SPEEK membrane. Due to the reinforced effect of trPTFE substrate, thinner composite membrane can be applied in single cell evolution and achieves better performance as a result. (author)

  19. Preparation and properties of epoxy-based cross-linked sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Gang; Li, Hongtao; Shao, Ke; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Liu, Zhongguo; Han, Miaomiao; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China); Fei, Xu [Modern Education Technical Department, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing pendant carboxylic acid group (C-SPAEK) had been prepared for direct methanol fuel cell applications, and subsequently cross-linked by a thermal curing reaction using hexafluoro-bisphenol-A novolac epoxy resin (HFANER) as a cross-linker. The cross-linked network structure caused significant enhancement in the mechanical properties and oxidative stability. Meanwhile, water uptake, swelling ratio and methanol permeability substantially decreased with increasing the content of cross-linker. Notably, the water uptake of C-SPAEK was 506.9% at 80 C, but after cross-linking, Cr-SPAEK-17 exhibited a water uptake of 32.3%. Meanwhile, a 12.1% of swelling ratio was obtained which was lower than that of Nafion 117 (17.2%). Although the proton conductivities of the cross-linked membranes were lower than that of the pristine membrane, the higher selectivity defined as the proton conductivity to methanol permeability was obtained for the cross-linked membranes. (author)

  20. Optimization of gas chromatography using short glass capillary column with mass spectrometry for identification and evaluation of commercial heavy alkylbenzene structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, S M; Beiggy, M; Mazloum Ardekani, M

    2003-04-01

    Heavy alkylbenzene (HAB) is one of the by-products when producing linear alkylbenzene (LAB). Identification of the fine structures of HAB is difficult because of its complex structure and high boiling point. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique with a short glass capillary column is the best method applicable to analysis of high-boiling and thermally labile compounds. The column efficiency is evaluated on the basis of Van Deemter curves. The experimental results show that the reduction in the optimum column efficiency for a short glass capillary column occurs along with a reduction in effective theoretical plates. A second important result is that the shift in the value of the flow velocity is related to the optimum point in height equivalent theoretical plate (HETP). The flow velocity is higher than that of conventional gas chromatography(GC). The optimized conditions were used to analyse HAB produced through the hydrogen fluoride (HF) alkylation process. The results show acceptable relative separation of a product in an extended boiling point range. The optimized conditions were also used to analyse three other special samples supplied by BASF company's AlCl(3 )alkylation process and to approve the previous structures. The results also show that HAB from Iran Chemical Industries Investment Company (ICIIC) produced through LAB complex consists of an additional part and has more linearity than the other three samples of HAB obtained from BASF.

  1. Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing pyridine moiety for PEMFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hohyoun; Islam, Md Monirul; Lim, Youngdon; Hossain, Md Awlad; Cho, Younggil; Joo, Hyunho; Kim, Whangi; Jeon, Heung-Seok

    2014-10-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s with varied degree of sulfonation (DS) were prepared via post-sulfonation of synthesized pyridine based poly(ether sulfone) (PPES) using concentrated sulfuric acid as sulfonating agent. The DS was varied with different mole ratio of 4,4'-(2,2-diphenylethenylidene)diphenol, DHTPE in the polymer unit. PPES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of pyridine unit with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone, 4, 4'-sulfonyldiphenol and DHTPE. The structure of the resulting PPES copolymer membranes with different sulfonated units were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting membranes was in the range of 17-58%, compared to that of Nafion 211 28%. The membranes provided proton conductivities of 65-95 mS/cm in contrast to 103 mS/cm of Nafion 211.

  2. Effect of morphology and pore size of sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silicas in the preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hybrid nanocomposite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Bum; Kim, Hoyoung; Kim, Dukjoon

    2009-07-23

    Sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silicas were introduced into a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer matrix to act as a barrier for methanol crossover, to prepare composite electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Highly ordered 2D hexagonal mesoporous benzene-silicas were prepared using 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) organosilica precursor and two kinds of organic templates, such as an octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA) and a Pluronic P123 poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer, to investigate the effect of the morphology and the pore size on the methanol permeability and the proton conductivity of the membranes. The sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silica and PVA were mixed with a sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) cross-linker to improve the membrane stability from mechanical and conductive viewpoints. The physical and chemical characterization of the hybrid electrolyte membranes was performed by varying the contents of sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silicas and SSA. All the hybrid membranes studied showed good performance in lowering the methanol crossover (i.e., approximately 68% reduction in comparison with the Nafion117 membrane), and mesoporous benzene-silica with smaller particle morphology and pores (2-3 nm) was observed to be a more effective additive.

  3. Cationic mobility in polystyrene sulfone exchangers - Application to the elution of a cation on an exchange column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menin, Jean-Pierre

    1969-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve elutions and separations carried out on inorganic exchangers by selective electromigration of the ionic species to be displaced. To do this, it has been found indispensable to make a fundamental study of the mobility of cations in exchangers. As the field for this research we have chosen those organic exchangers whose structure and behaviour with respect to ion-exchange are much better known that in the case of their inorganic equivalents. We have related the idea of the equivalent conductivity to that of the cation mobility in the exchanger, and this has entailed determining the specific conductivity of the exchanger and the cation concentration in the resin. The results obtained have allowed us to draw up a hypothesis concerning the cation migration mechanism in the exchanger. The third part of our work has been the application of the preceding results to an operation on an ion-exchange column, viz. the elution by an acid solution of a single fixed ion, magnesium or strontium. This work has enabled us to show that the electromigration of a cation during its elution can markedly accelerate or retard this elution. (author) [fr

  4. Application of sulfonic acid functionalized nanoporous silica (SBA-Pr-SO3H in the green one-pot synthesis of triazoloquinazolinones and benzimidazoquinazolinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H with a pore size of 6 nm was proven to be an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst in the green one-pot synthesis of triazoloquinazolinones and benzimidazoquinazolinones from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (or 2-aminobenzimidazole and dimedone under solvent free conditions.

  5. Sulfonation in pharmacology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Frederick C

    2004-10-01

    Sulfonation has a major function in modulating the biological activities of a wide number of endogenous and foreign chemicals, including: drugs, toxic chemicals, hormones, and neurotransmitters. The activation as well as inactivation of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds occurs via sulfonation. The process is catalyzed by members of the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) superfamily consisting of at least ten functional genes in humans. The reaction in intact cells may be reversed by arylsulafatase present in the endoplasmic reticulum. Under physiological conditions, sulfonation is regulated, in part, by the supply of the co-substrate/donor molecule 3'-phosphadensoine-5-phosphosulfate (PAPS), and transport mechanisms by which sulfonated conjugates enter and leave cells. Variation in the response of individuals to certain drugs and toxic chemicals may be related to genetic polymorphisms documented to occur in each of the above pathways. Sulfonation has a major function in regulating the endocrine status of an individual by modulating the receptor activity of estrogens and androgens, steroid biosynthesis, and the metabolism of catecholamines and iodothyronines Sulfonation is a key reaction in the body's defense against injurious chemicals and may have a major function during early development since SULTs are highly expressed in the human fetus. As with many Phase I and Phase II reactions, sulfonation may also serve as the terminal step in activating certain dietary and environmental agents to very reactive toxic intermediates implicated in carcinogenesis.

  6. Sulfonation of curcuminoids: characterization and contribution of individual SULT enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyue; Jiang, Kunyu; Han, Long; Zhang, Maofan; Zhou, Yu; Ma, Yinglin; Zhou, Yiping; Meng, Shengnan

    2015-04-01

    Poor oral bioavailability of curcuminoids limited their various applications, and one of the main reasons is their rapid metabolism in vivo. Sulfonation via sulfotransferases (SULTs) is an important metabolic pathway for such compounds. The objective of this study is to determine the SULT-isoform-specific metabolic fingerprint, tissue-specific rate, and reaction kinetic profiles to describe the characterization and contribution of curcuminoids sulfonation. Sulfonation of curcuminoids was investigated by using nine expressed SULT isoforms and four pooled human tissue S9 fractions. The results showed that human small intestine is the predominant tissue responsible for sulfonation of curcuminoids. SULT1A3 is a major isoform catalyzing sulfonation of curcumin and demethoxycurcumin, but not for bisdemethoxycurcumin. SULT1B1 is only responsible for sulfonation of curcumin. Although SULT1C4 and 1E1 could highly catalyze the sulfate conjugations toward all the three compounds, the correlativities with human small intestine S9 fractions were much weaker (R(2) = 0.100-0.482). Almost all the kinetic profiles of the SULT isoforms for curcuminoids exhibited substrate inhibition kinetics. This investigation contributed to elucidate the SULT-mediated metabolism and detoxication of curcuminoids at molecular levels and in different organs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Hossain, Md. Awlad; Lee, Soonho; Lim, Jinseong; Jang, Hohyoun; Hong, Taehoon; Kim,; Kim, Whangi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  8. Sulfonate Functionalisation of Transition Metal Complexes: A Versatile Tool Towards Catalyst Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virboul, M.A.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837709

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and application of sulfonate-functionalised ligands in organometallic chemistry and (aqueous) catalysis. Due to their ability to trigger specific solubility, different NHC ligand precursors bearing a butyl-sulfonate chain were synthesised. The formation of

  9. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes based on sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene and polysiloxanes for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Barreto, M.; Acosta, J. L.; del Río, C.; Ojeda, M. C.; Muñoz, M.; Aguilar, J. C.; Rodríguez de San Miguel, E.; de Gyves, J.

    This paper describes the preparation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes (HMs) obtained by a solvent casting procedure using a solution containing sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene (HSBS-S) and an inorganic-organic mixture (polysiloxanes) previously prepared by a sol-gel route. HSBS-S copolymers with different sulfonation degrees were obtained and characterized by means of elemental analysis (EA), chemical titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). HSBS-S with the best properties in terms of proton conductivity and solubility for the casting procedure was selected to prepare the HMs. The solvent casting procedure permitted the two phases to be homogeneously distributed while maintaining a relatively high proton conductivity in the membrane. HMs with different blend ratios were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), electrical (EIS), physicochemical (water uptake, ion-exchange capacity) and thermal (TGA-MS) methods. Finally, the optimized HSBS-S membrane and HMs were tested in hydrogen single fuel cells to obtain the polarization and power curves at different cell temperatures and gas pressures. Results indicate that HMs show a considerable improvement in performance compared to the optimized HSBS-S membrane denoting the benefit of incorporating the inorganic-organic network in the hydrogenated styrene-butadiene matrix. A Nafion membrane was used as reference material throughout this work.

  10. Role of sulfonation in the stability, reactivity, and selectivity of poly(ether imide) used to develop ion exchange membranes: DFT study with application to fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chávez, Ernesto; Peña-Castañeda, Yésica A; de la Portilla-Maldonado, L César; Guzmán-Pantoja, Javier; Martínez-Magadán, José Manuel; Oviedo-Roa, Raúl; de Landa Castillo-Alvarado, Fray; Cruz-Torres, Armando

    2014-07-01

    The design of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells must satisfy two equally important fundamental principles: optimization of the reactivity and the selectivity in order to improve the ion transport properties of the membrane as well as its long-term stability in the hydrated state at high temperature (above 100 °C). A study utilizing density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the effect of the degree of sulfonation on the chemical stability, reactivity, and selectivity of poly(ether imide) (PEI), which allows the ionic transport properties of the membrane to be predicted, is reported here. Sulfonated poly(ether imide) (SPEI) structures with (-SO3H) n (n = 1-6) groups were built and optimized in order to calculate the above properties as functions of the number of sulfonyl groups. A comparative study demonstrated that the SPEI with four sulfonyl groups in its backbone is the polymer with the properties best suited for use in fuel cells.

  11. Sulfonated polyphenyl ether by electropolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Hongying; Vacandio, Florence; Di Vona, Maria Luisa; Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sulfonated polyphenyl ether was for the first time electropolymerized. ► This technique allows the economical preparation of ionomeric membranes for electrochemical energy technologies. ► The mechanism of electropolymerization was discussed in detail. - Abstract: Electropolymerization of sulfonated phenol was for the first time achieved and studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry on stainless steel substrates. The obtained sulfonated polyphenyl ether was characterized in terms of impedance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dense films of micrometer thickness can be obtained; the proton conductivity is about 3 mS/cm at room temperature.

  12. Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2001-01-01

    . It was found that lignin is very reactive, that is why the sulfonation chemistry alone does not necessarily determine its dissolution rate. It became evident that the ultrastructure dispersion of lignin in wood is beneficial for its dissolution. For W, the rate was much higher at pH 1.5 than at 6. MW lignin...... and MWL dissolved (after extraction of the "immediate" lignin) at higher rates than W lignin. For MWL, the rate difference between pH 1.5 and 6 was moderate, compared to W lignin. Borohydride reduction did not affect the lignin dissolution from W, but gave a large decrease of sulfonation rate for MWL...

  13. Sulfonated polyaniline: influence of sulfonation routes on its thermal and structural characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Luis Claudio; Falco,Ana Paula Santiago; Pinho,Magali Silveira; Marques,Priscila Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the influence of different sulfonation routes on its thermal and structural properties sulfonated polyaniline (SPAni) was prepared. FT-IR revealed that the formation of PAni salt or ring sulfonation depends on the route. UV-visible spectra pointed out that the level of the PAni protonation was dependent on the sulfonation route. A new approach was given for TG/DTG and DSC results correlating different energy levels with the distinguished sulfonation routes. The TG/DTG degrad...

  14. Safety assessment of xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Hill, Ronald; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-12-01

    Xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes used in cosmetics as surfactants, hydrotropes, were reviewed in this safety assessment. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these ingredients. The panel concluded that xylene sulfonic acid and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment, when formulated to be nonirritating.

  15. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci., Vol. 36, No. 4, August 2013, pp. 563–573. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell applications .... All data were collected from a second heating cycle and glass tran- sition temperatures (Tg) were calculated as a midpoint of thermogram. 2.5d FTIR studies: FTIR ...

  16. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt: synthesis, analytical detection, and pharmacokinetics in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Tobin, T

    2012-06-01

    Toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent with clinical application in the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalomyelitis (EPM). In this study, we synthesized and determined the bioavailability of a sodium salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone that can be used for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM in horses. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was rapidly absorbed, with a mean peak plasma concentration of 2400 ± 169 (SEM) ng/mL occurring at 8 h after oral-mucosal dosing and was about 56% bioavailable compared with the i.v. administration of toltrazuril sulfone in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The relative bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water compared with toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was 46%, indicating approximately 54% less oral bioavailability of this compound suspended in water. In this study, we also investigated whether this salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone can be used as a feed additive formulation without significant reduction in oral bioavailability. Our results indicated that toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt is relatively well absorbed when administered with feed with a mean oral bioavailability of 52%. Based on these data, repeated oral administration of toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt with or without feed will yield effective plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and other protozoal diseases of horses and other species. As such, toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt has the potential to be used as feed additive formulations for both the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other apicomplexan diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  18. Facile method for the preparation of water dispersible graphene using sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) and its application as energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuila, Tapas; Mishra, Ananta Kumar; Khanra, Partha; Kim, Nam Hoon; Uddin, Md Elias; Lee, Joong Hee

    2012-06-26

    A simple and effective method for the preparation of water dispersible graphene using sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (SPEEK) has been described. The SPEEK macromolecules are noncovalently adsorbed on the surface of graphene through π-π interactions. The SPEEK-modified graphene (SPG) forms an aqueous dispersion that is stable for more than six months. An analysis of the ultraviolet-visible spectra shows that the aqueous dispersion of SPG obeys Beer's law and the molar extinction coefficient has been found to be 149.03 mL mg(-1) cm(-1). Fourier transform infrared, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirm successful reduction and surface modification of graphene. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis reveals the formation of a single layer of functionalized graphene. Transmission electron microscopy results are also in good agreement with the AFM analysis and support the formation of single-layer graphene. SPG shows good electrochemical cyclic stability during cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge process when used as a supercapacitor electrode. A specific capacitance of 476 F g(-1) at a current density of 6.6 A g(-1) is observed for SPG materials.

  19. Biofilm behavior on sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (sPEEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Juan F.D.; Tajiri, Henrique A.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.; Fredel, Márcio C.; Benfatti, Cesar A.M.; Magini, Ricardo S.; Pimenta, Andréa L.; Souza, Júlio C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) has also shown to be very attractive for incorporating therapeutic compounds thanks to a sulfonation process which modifies the material structure resulting in a sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK). Concerning biomedical applications, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different sulfonation degree of sPEEK on the biofilm growth. PEEK samples were functionalized by using sulphuric acid (98%) and then dissolved into dimethyl-sulfoxide. A dip coating technique was used to synthesize sPEEK thin films. The sulfonation degree of the materials was analyzed by FT-IR, H NMR, TG and IEC. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, the biofilm formation on sulfonated-PEEK based on Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was measured by spectrophotometry, colony forming units (CFU mL −1 ) and SEM. Results obtained from thermal and chemical analyses showed an intensification in sulfonation degree for sPEEK at 2 and 2.5 h. The E. faecalis or S. mutans biofilm growth revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between 2 and 3 h sulfonation groups. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in CFU mL −1 was recorded for S. mutans or E. faecalis biofilm grown on 2.5 or 3 h sPEEK. Regarding the thermal-chemical and microbiologic analyses, the sulfonation degree of sPEEK ranging from 2 up to 3 h was successful capable to decrease the biofilm growth. That revealed an alternative strategy to embed anti-biofilm and therapeutic compounds into PEEK avoiding infections in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • PEEK can be dissolved to incorporate therapeutic compounds. • High sulfonation degree on sPEEK affected the biofilm growth. • The sulfonation degree must be controlled to maintain the properties of sPEEK.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol; Sintese e caracterizacao de poliesteres sulfonados obtidos a partir do glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fiuza, R.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  1. Preparation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing amino groups/epoxy resin composite membranes and their in situ crosslinking for application in fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Meimei; Liu, Baijun; Li, Long; Liu, Chang; Wang, Lifeng; Jiang, Zhenhua [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-01-01

    A series of amino-containing sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone)/4,4'-diglycidyl(biphenyl) epoxy resin (DGBP) composite membranes for proton exchange membranes fuel cells (PEMFCs) are prepared by solution blending and casting. The reaction kinetics and the effects of introduction of DGBP content on the properties of the composite membranes are thoroughly investigated. The crosslinked composite membranes after treatment at either 120 C or 200 C have improved oxidative and dimensional stability than those without crosslinking. Despite the fact that crosslinked membranes generally have lower proton conductivity in comparison with the original ones, the proton conductivities of the membranes treated at 120 C are above 2.22 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature and 9.42 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 100 C. Even for the samples treated at 200 C, their proton conductivities are still higher than 1.26 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature and higher than 8.67 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 100 C, which are well satisfied with elementary requirement of fuel cells. In addition, all the evaluated membranes have low methanol permeability. For example, the methanol permeability of AP6FSPEEK/DGBP1 cured at 200 C is 0.33 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, which is an order magnitude lower than Nafion 117. Therefore, these novel crosslinked composite membranes could be potential usage in fuel cells. (author)

  2. Cation permeable membranes from blends of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly (ether sulfone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone), S-PEEK, is blended with non-sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (PES) to adjust the properties of ion permeable and ion selective membranes. In this study, membranes are prepared from blends with (i) a S-PEEK content between 10 and 100 wt.% using one S-PEEK batch

  3. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aligned electrospun nanofibers as proton conductive channels through thickness of sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; He, Gaohong; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Shikai; Chen, Bo; Dai, Yan; Wu, Xuemei

    2017-08-01

    A novel approach is proposed to fabricate sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (SPPESK) proton exchange membranes with ordered through-plane electrospinning nanofibers, which provide nano-scale through-plane proton conductive channels along the thickness direction of the membranes, aiming to satisfy the challenging requirement of high through-plane proton conductivity in fuel cell operations. Induced by electrostatic attraction of strong electric field, the negatively charged sulfonic acid groups tend to aggregate towards surface of the electrospun fibers, which is evidenced by TEM and SAXS and further induces aggregation of the sulfonic acid groups in the SPPESK inferfiber voids filler along the surface of the nanofibers. The aligned electrospun nanofibers carries long-range ionic clusters along the thickness direction of the membrane and results in much higher total through-plane conductivity in the thickness aligned electrospun membranes, nearly twice as much as that of the cast SPPESK membrane. With smooth treatment, the thickness aligned electrospun SPPESK membranes exhibit higher single cell power density and tensile strength as compared with Nafion 115 (around 1.2 and 1.5 folds, respectively). Such a design of thickness aligned nano-size proton conductive channels provide feasibility for high performance non-fluorinated PEMs in fuel cell applications.

  5. Benzyltributylammonium 7-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mizuguchi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H34N+·C10H7O4S−, is a charge-control agent used for toners in electrophotography. The anions form one-dimensional chains by O—H...O hydrogen bonds in a zigzag fashion along the c axis between the OH group of one anion and the sulfonate O atom of a neighboring anion. One of the n-butyl chains of the cation is disordered over two sites in a 0.77:0.23 ratio.

  6. Effect of Organic Loading Rates on biodegradation of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, oil and grease in greywater by Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hadi; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar

    2017-05-15

    In this study, performance of Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system in treatment of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS), and oil & grease in synthetic greywater and effect of Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) on removal efficiency within a period of 105 days were investigated. Present study was carried out in a pilot scale under such conditions as temperature of 30 ± 1 °C, dissolved oxygen of 2.32 ± 0.91 mg/l, pH of 8.01 ± 0.95 and OLRs of 0.11-1.3gCOD/L.d. Also, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were employed to specify rate of the biofilm formed on the media inside the reactor IFAS. The best removal efficiency for COD, LAS and oil and grease were respectively obtained as 92.52%, 94.24% and 90.07% in OLR 0.44gCOD/L.d. The assessment of loading rate indicated that with increased OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, removal efficiency of COD, oil and grease was increased while with increased OLR, removal efficiency was decreased. In doing so, based on the statistical test ANOVA, such a difference between removal efficiencies in diverse OLRs was significant for COD (p = 0.003), oil and grease (p = 0.01). However, in terms of LAS, with increased value of OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, the removal efficiency was increased and then with higher OLRs, removal efficiency was slightly decreased that is insignificant (p = 0.35) based on the statistical test ANOVA. The SEM images also showed that the biofilm formed on the media inside IFAS reactor plays a considerable role in adsorption and biodegradation of LAS, and oil & grease in greywater. The linear relation between inlet COD values and rate of removed LAS indicated that the ratio of inlet COD (mg/L) to removed LAS (mg/L) was 0.4. Therefore, use of IFAS system for biodegradation of LAS, oil and grease in greywater can be an applicable option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulfonated polyaniline: influence of sulfonation routes on its thermal and structural characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Claudio Mendes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of different sulfonation routes on its thermal and structural properties sulfonated polyaniline (SPAni was prepared. FT-IR revealed that the formation of PAni salt or ring sulfonation depends on the route. UV-visible spectra pointed out that the level of the PAni protonation was dependent on the sulfonation route. A new approach was given for TG/DTG and DSC results correlating different energy levels with the distinguished sulfonation routes. The TG/DTG degradation steps and the amount of the released material corroborated the structural differences of the polyanilines. For each DSC first regime of heating, a broad and intense peak (from -30 to 250 ºC with different level of energy was noticed. That peak could be ascribed to the multiple relaxations and breaking of the PAni intra and inter hydrogen bonds after sulfonation.

  8. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA; Park, Ho Bum [Austin, TX; Freeman, Benny D [Austin, TX

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  9. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene membrane prepared by plasma polymerization process. BHABESH KUMAR NATH, AZIZ KHAN, JOYANTI CHUTIA. ∗. , ARUP RATAN PAL,. HEREMBA BAILUNG, NEELOTPAL SEN SARMA, DEVASISH CHOWDHURY and NIRAB CHANDRA ADHIKARY.

  10. Assembly of 1D Granular Structures from Sulfonated Polystyrene Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikkelsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Being able to systematically modify the electric properties of nano- and microparticles opens up new possibilities for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced materials such as the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D colloidal and granular materials. Fabricating 1D structures from individual particles offers plenty of applications ranging from electronic sensors and photovoltaics to artificial flagella for hydrodynamic propulsion. In this work, we demonstrate the assembly of 1D structures composed of individual microparticles with modified electric properties, pulled out of a liquid environment into air. Polystyrene particles were modified by sulfonation for different reaction times and characterized by dielectric spectroscopy and dipolar force measurements. We found that by increasing the sulfonation time, the values of both electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the particles increase, and that the relaxation frequency of particle electric polarization changes, causing the measured dielectric loss of the particles to shift towards higher frequencies. We attributed these results to water adsorbed at the surface of the particles. With sulfonated polystyrene particles exhibiting a range of electric properties, we showed how the electric properties of individual particles influence the formation of 1D structures. By tuning applied voltage and frequency, we were able to control the formation and dynamics of 1D structures, including chain bending and oscillation.

  11. Direct catalytic olefination of alcohols with sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2014-10-06

    The synthesis of terminal, as well as internal, olefins was achieved by the one-step olefination of alcohols with sulfones catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex. Furthermore, performing the reaction with dimethyl sulfone under mild hydrogen pressure provides a direct route for the replacement of alcohol hydroxy groups by methyl groups in one step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sulfonation of vulcanized ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso-Bujans, F.; Verdejo, R.; Lozano, A.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Lopez-Manchado, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, sulfonation of previously vulcanized ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) membranes was developed in a swelling solvent with acetyl sulfate. This procedure avoids the need to pre-dissolve the raw polymer. The reaction conditions were optimized in terms of solvent type, reaction time, acetyl sulfate concentration and film thickness to obtain the maximum degree of sulfonation of the polymer. The sulfonation procedure presented in this study yields a degree of sulfonation comparable to the chlorosulfonic acid procedure. Sulfonic acid groups were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantified by titrations. Proton conductivity and water uptake were measured by means of impedance spectroscopy and swelling measurements, respectively, and were correlated with the degree of sulfonation. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of sulfonated EPDM increased with the degree of sulfonation, while elongation at break remained constant. Thermal stability of the sulfonated EPDM was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy

  13. Potential contact and intraocular lenses based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zuppolini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline films of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS, a commercially available thermoplastic polymer, having a highly hydrophilic amorphous phase, were achieved by using a mild solid-state sulfonation procedure. Despite the used mild process conditions, an easy and uniform sulfonation of the phenyl rings of the amorphous phase is obtained. The crystallinity of the polymer was not affect by the sulfonation degree (S, at least at S less than 20%, and the obtained polymer films show the nanoporous crystalline form of s-PS. As widely reported in literature, the nanoporous nature of the polymer crystalline phase gives to these materials the ability to absorb and release organic molecules of appropriate size and polarity. This property, coupled to transparency, makes these materials potentially useful intraocular lens (IOLs and contact lens applications. Sulfonation procedure and sulfonated film samples characterization by using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy techniques and water sorption tests were reported. Furthermore, the biocompatibility study demonstrated no cytotoxicity and appropriate cell interaction properties for the specific applications.

  14. Solubility of disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate and sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate in aqueous organic solutions and its application feasibility in oxidation stage of DSD acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Wei; Xia, Qing; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Feng-Bao; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate in two aqueous organic solution were measured using dynamic method. • Solubility of disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate in corresponding solution were measured using dynamic method. • The experimental data were correlated with electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model. • A synergistic effect on disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate solubility was observed. • A suitable solvent for oxidation of 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic to 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic has been suggested. -- Abstract: Solid–liquid equilibrium (SLE) measurements for disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DNSNa) and sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate (NTSNa) in aqueous ethylene glycol monoethyl ether solution and aqueous ethylene glycol monobutyl ether solution were conducted using a dynamic method over the temperature range from (280 to 335) K. A synergistic effect on DNSNa solubility was observed with the maximum solubility at solute-free mass fraction of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether w 3 0 =0.4000 and solute-free mass fraction of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether w 4 0 =0.5999, respectively. The solubility data were correlated using the thermodynamic electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model and model parameters were determined simultaneously. Aqueous ethylene glycol monobutyl ether solution at solute-free mass fraction of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether w 4 0 =0.2000 was found to be suitable solvent medium for the oxidation of 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic acid (NTS) to 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DNS) and the conclusion was confirmed using the static analytical method combined with UV–VIS spectrophotometer

  15. Anaerobic biodegradation of alkylbenzenes and trichloroethylene in aquifer sediment down gradient of a sanitary landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James J.; Borden, Robert C.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta- and para-xylene (BTEX) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aquifer sediment down gradient of an unlined landfill. The major organic contaminants identified in the shallow unconfined aquifer are cis-dichloroethylene ( c-DCE) and toluene. The biodegradative potential of the contaminated aquifer was measured in three sets of microcosms constructed using anaerobic aquifer sediment from three boreholes down gradient of the landfill. The degradability of BTEX and TCE was examined under ambient and amended conditions. TCE was degraded in microcosms with aquifer material from all three boreholes. Toluene biodegradation was inconsistent, exhibiting biodegradation with no lag in one set of microcosms but more limited biodegradation in two additional sets of microcosms. TCE exhibited an inhibitory effect on toluene degradation at one location. The addition of calcium carbonate stimulated TCE biodegradation which was not further stimulated by nutrient addition. TCE was converted to ethylene, a harmless byproduct, in all tests. Benzene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers were recalcitrant in both ambient and amendment experiments. Biodegradation occurred under methanogenic conditions as methane was produced in all experiments. Bromoethane sulfonic acid (BES), a methanogenic inhibitor, inhibited methane and ethylene production and TCE biodegradation. The results indicate the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of TCE and toluene down gradient of the Wilder's Grove, North Carolina, landfill. The low concentrations of TCE in monitoring wells was consistent with its biodegradation in laboratory microcosms.

  16. Tetrahydrobiopterin regulates monoamine neurotransmitter sulfonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Leyh, Thomas S

    2017-07-03

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are among the hundreds of signaling small molecules whose target interactions are switched "on" and "off" via transfer of the sulfuryl-moiety (-SO 3 ) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and amines of their scaffolds. These transfer reactions are catalyzed by a small family of broad-specificity enzymes-the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). The first structure of a SULT allosteric-binding site (that of SULT1A1) has recently come to light. The site is conserved among SULT1 family members and is promiscuous-it binds catechins, a naturally occurring family of flavanols. Here, the catechin-binding site of SULT1A3, which sulfonates monoamine neurotransmitters, is modeled on that of 1A1 and used to screen in silico for endogenous metabolite 1A3 allosteres. Screening predicted a single high-affinity allostere, tetrahydrobiopterin (THB), an essential cofactor in monoamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis. THB is shown to bind and inhibit SULT1A3 with high affinity, 23 (±2) nM, and to bind weakly, if at all, to the four other major SULTs found in brain and liver. The structure of the THB-bound binding site is determined and confirms that THB binds the catechin site. A structural comparison of SULT1A3 with SULT1A1 (its immediate evolutionary progenitor) reveals how SULT1A3 acquired high affinity for THB and that the majority of residue changes needed to transform 1A1 into 1A3 are clustered at the allosteric and active sites. Finally, sequence records reveal that the coevolution of these sites played an essential role in the evolution of simian neurotransmitter metabolism.

  17. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with sulfonated calixarenes and sulfonated calixarene–fullerene complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitriu, Cristina; Mousavi, Zekra; Latonen, Rose-Marie; Bobacka, Johan; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PEDOT–C 60 composites were electrosynthesized from aqueous solution. • The surface morphology of PEDOT doped with sulfonated calixarene–C 60 complexes is very similar to that of PEDOT doped with the same sulfonated calixarenes without C 60 . • A remarkable increase in the electroactivity of PEDOT after contact with C 60 in organic solution was observed, which is interesting both from a fundamental point of view and for charge storage applications. -- Abstract: Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films were electrochemically deposited on glassy carbon (GC) disk electrodes using aqueous solutions containing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and sulfonated calixarenes or fullerene-sulfonated calixarene (C 60 –calixarene) complexes. The EDOT monomer was added to aqueous sulfonated calixarene solutions with and without C 60 and from these solutions PEDOT(calixarene) and PEDOT(C 60 –calixarene) films were electrochemically deposited on GC disk electrodes. The electrochemical properties of GC/PEDOT(C 60 –calixarene) were compared with those of GC/PEDOT doped with other ions, both in aqueous and organic electrolyte solutions using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CV measurements carried out on GC/PEDOT(C 60 –calixarene) in 0.1 M aqueous KCl solution showed a reduction peak at ca. −0.55 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl only during the first potential scan. This was attributed to the irreversible reduction of C 60 to C 60 − inside the PEDOT film. This additional reduction peak was, however, not observed when recording the CVs in organic solution, indicating that C 60 was dissolved from the PEDOT film into the organic electrolyte solution, that is a good solvent for C 60 . When performing CV measurements in an organic electrolyte solution containing C 60 , all GC/PEDOT electrodes with various doping ions and bare GC electrodes showed a reversible reduction peak characteristic for the C 60 /C 60 − redox

  18. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Dae Sik [CANADA NRC; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  19. High Ion-Exchange Capacity Semihomogeneous Cation Exchange Membranes Prepared via a Novel Polymerization and Sulfonation Approach in Porous Polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanxue; Ladewig, Bradley P

    2017-11-08

    Semihomogeneous cation exchange membranes with superior ion exchange capacity (IEC) were synthesized via a novel polymerization and sulfonation approach in porous polypropylene support. The IEC of membranes could reach up to 3 mmol/g because of high mass ratio of functional polymer to membrane support. Especially, theoretical IEC threshold value agreed well with experimental threshold value, indicating that IEC could be specifically designed without carrying out extensive experiments. Also, sulfonate groups were distributed both on membrane surface and across the membranes, which corresponded well with high IEC of the synthesized membranes. In addition, the semifinished membrane showed hydrophobic property because of the formation of polystyrene. In contrast, the final membranes demonstrated super hydrophilic property, indicating the adequate sulfonation of polystyrene. Furthermore, when sulfonation reaction time increased, the conductivity of membranes also showed a tendency to increase, revealing the positive relationship between conductivity and IEC. Finally, the final membranes showed sufficient thermal stability for electrodialysis applications such as water desalination.

  20. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  1. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 7. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene membrane prepared by plasma polymerization process. Bhabesh Kumar Nath Aziz Khan Joyanti Chutia Arup Ratan Pal Heremba Bailung Neelotpal Sen Sarma Devasish Chowdhury Nirab ...

  2. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  3. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature. Prepared for submission to Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) journal, Green Chemistry as a communication.

  4. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports the achievement of higher proton conductivity of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane synthesized in a continuous RF plasma polymerization process using two precursors, styrene (C8H8) and trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (CF3SO3H). The chemical composition of the developed membranes is ...

  5. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like proton transport, water uptake, sulfonation rate, ion exchange capacity and thermal behaviour. The proton conductivity of the ... Plasma polymerization process; ion exchange capacity; proton conductivity; thermal stability. 1. Introduction ... of low proton conductivity at operating temperature greater than 100. ◦. C due to ...

  6. Carbon dioxide sensing with sulfonated polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Bent, van der J.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of polyaniline and especially sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) is explored for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. Frequency-dependent AC measurements were carried out to detect changes in impedance of the polymer, drop casted on interdigitated electrodes, when exposed to CO2 gas.

  7. Sulindac Sulfide, but Not Sulindac Sulfone, Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Williams

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide, a metabolite of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac sulfoxide, is effective at reducing tumor burden in both familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in animals with colorectal cancer. Another sulindac sulfoxide metabolite, sulindac sulfone, has been reported to have antitumor properties without inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Here we report the effect of sulindac sulfone treatment on the growth of colorectal carcinoma cells. We observed that sulindac sulfide or sulfone treatment of HCA-7 cells led to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited HCA-7 and HCT-116 cell growth in vitro. Sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of either HCA-7 or HCT-116 xenografts, whereas the sulfide derivative inhibited HCA-7 growth in vivo. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth and prostaglandin production in vitro, but sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice.

  8. Tracing sewage pollution using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in surface sediments at the south end of the Southern California Bight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias-Zamora, J.V.; Ramirez-Alvarez, N.

    2004-01-01

    Distribution and isomeric composition of LABs in surface marine sediments were evaluated at the southern end of the southern California Bight. LABs are used as tracers of wastewater discharges. The area studied extends from the Mexico-USA border to the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California in the south. The area was partitioned into a northern, central and a southern stratum. GC-MS was used for the analysis of LABs concentration. The average value of total LABs concentration was 17.4, 32.0 and 24.9 ng/g for the north, central and southern strata, respectively. LABs were not correlated with either sediments grain size (% 10 , LAB 11 ) showed enrichment. It was found that 67 out of the 68 stations measured had concentrations above detection limits. This suggests extensive contact of wastewater discharges with marine sediments in the area. An estimate of the amount of LABs per year based on detergent consumption per capita is provided. - Linear alkylbenzenes were used to trace the distribution of sewage pollution of surface marine sediments

  9. Particle size effects of sulfonated graphene supported Pt nanoparticles on ethanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chia-Liang; Tang, Jui-Shiang; Brazeau, Nicolas; Wu, Jhing-Jhou; Ntais, Spyridon; Yin, Chung-Wei; Chou, Hung-Lung; Baranova, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pt colloidal nanoparticles with five mean diameters are synthesized. • Size-selected Pt nanoparticles are loaded on sulfonated graphene (sG). • Sulfonic acid functional groups atop graphene donate charge to Pt. • Pt-sG catalysts are used for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). • Pt-sG(2.5 nm) has the highest peak current density in EOR. - Abstract: Fuel cells are promising alternative in automobile and stationary power generation. Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) offer significant advantages due to the non-toxicity and renewability of ethanol as well as its high power density. Development of the efficient catalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) has attracted great attention and represents one of the major challenges in electrocatalysis. Graphene, one-atom thick nanocarbon materials, has attracted much attention recently in a variety of applications. The sulfonation of graphene is able to make it hydrophilic, which enhances its dispersibility in aqueous solvents. Furthermore, sulfonation increases the adsorption and uniform distribution of the Pt nanoparticles, which increases both the electrocatalytic activity and the durability. In this study, theoretical calculations demonstrated that the sulfonate functional group can donate charge to Pt, enhanced the adsorption energy of Pt, and then reduce the adsorption energy of CO on Pt. Then experimentally five kinds of Pt/sulfonated-graphene (Pt/sG) catalysts were synthesized via the control of pH values during the preparation of five-selected colloidal nanoparticles. Among all catalysts, Pt-sG(2.5 nm) has the highest peak current density in EOR

  10. Degradation of Imidazolium- and Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) Anion Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, DY; Hickner, MA

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by H-1 NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 degrees C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 degrees C but much lower stability at 80 degrees C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  11. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Polyaniline synthesized with functionalized sulfonic acids for blends manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Joelma Raupp Cardoso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PAni, an electronic conductive polymer, has poor mechanical properties, such as low tensile, compressive and flexural strength that render PAni a non-ideal material to be processed for practical applications. Desired properties of polyaniline can be enhanced by mixing it with a polymer that has good mechanical properties. In this work, PAni was synthesised using functionalized sulfonic acids like camphorsulfonic acid (CSA and dodecilbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA in order to promote PAni doping and improve its solubility, making possible conductive blends manufacture. The different forms of PAni were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and conductivity measurements. A conductive blend composed of PAni/DBSA and lower density polyethylene (LDPE was obtained via solubilization method and its thermal, morphological and electrical properties were investigated. Concentrations as low as 5 wt. (% of PAni was able to lead to electrical conductivities of PAni/LDPE blends in the range of 10-3 S.cm-1, showing great potential to be used in antistatic packing, electromagnetic shielding, anti-corrosion shielding or as a semiconductor.

  13. Proton-conducting membrane based on epoxy resin-poly(vinyl alcohol)-sulfosuccinic acid blend and its nanocomposite with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes for fuel-cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, Nitul; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A blend of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGB) in the presence of sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) was investigated as hydrolytically-stable proton-conducting membrane. The PVA modification was carried out by varying the DGB:SSA ratio (20:20, 10:20, and 5:20). A nanocomposite of the blend (20:20) was prepared with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes (viz., 1, 3 and 5 wt%). The water uptake behavior and the proton conductivity of the prepared membranes were evaluated. The ionic conductivity of the membranes and the water uptake behavior depended on the s-MWCNT and the DGB contents. The ionic conductivity showed an enhancement for the blend and for the nanocomposite membrane as compared to the pristine polymer.

  14. Ferrocene sulfonates as electrocatalysts for sulfide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Nathan S.; Tustin, Gary J.; Faulkner, Michael; Jones, Timothy G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of both the mono- and di-substituted forms of ferrocene sulfonate are given. The results show both species produce voltammograms consistent with quasi-irreversible diffusion controlled redox reactions. The FcSO 3 - species was found to be easier to oxidize than its Fc(SO 3 ) 2 2- counterpart, due to the electron withdrawing affect of the sulfonate group on the Fe centre. In the presence of sulfide, the voltammetric response of FcSO 3 - is shown to be consistent with the occurrence of an electrocatalytic EC' reaction. This analytical response was utilized as a means of determining sulfide and was found to be linear over the concentration 0.02-1 mM with a limit of detection of 14 μM

  15. Synthesis of Highly Sulfonated Poly(arylene ether Containing Multiphenyl for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chiang Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of sterically hindered, sulfonated, poly(arylene ether polymers were synthesized by nucleophilic polycondensation reaction using 4,4′′′′-difluoro-3,3′′′′-bistrifluoromethyl-2′′,3′′,5′′,6′′-tetraphenyl-[1,1′;4′,1′′;4′′,1′′′;4′′′,1′′′′]-pentaphenyl and 4,4′-biphenol and were prepared through postpolymerization sulfonation. The chemical structures were confirmed by 1H NMR. Subsequent to sulfonation, solvent-casting membranes were provided ion exchange capacity (IEC values ranging from 0.39 to 2.90 mmol/g. Proton conductivities of membranes ranged from 143 to 228 mS/cm at 80°C under fully humidified conditions which were higher than that of Nafion 117. The membrane also exhibited considerably dimension stability, oxidative stability, and hydrolytic stability. The microphase structure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and the ionic aggregation of sulfonic acid groups exhibited spherical ionic clusters with well-developed phase separated morphology. The results indicated that the membranes are promising candidates for application as proton exchange membranes. This investigation demonstrates introducing multiphenylated moieties to create a high free volume polymer that provides dimensionally stable and high proton conductivity membranes.

  16. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-11-20

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN), 1-butyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([BMIM]SCN), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc). The following polymer solution parameters were evaluated to optimize the manufacture: Gibbs free energy of mixing (G), intrinsic viscosity ([]) and hydrodynamic diameter. Membranes with sponge-like structure and narrow pore size distribution were obtained from solutions in [EMIM]SCN. They were tested for separation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Due to the polymer stability, we foresee that applications in more demanding chemical separations would be possible. [EMIM]SCN was 96 % purified and recovered after the membrane fabrication, contributing to the sustainability of the whole manufacturing process.

  17. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing sulfonated units were prepared by blending styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS), with both sulfonated PS and sulfonated SEBS in a Brabender mixer. Such a procedure was performed as an alter...

  18. Thermal and Dielectric Behavior Studies of Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfones with Sulfonated and Phosphonated Pendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoga D. Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the aspects of the synthesizing valeric acid based poly(ether sulfones with active carboxylic acid pendants (VALPSU from solution polymerization technique via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation reaction among 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (BHPA. The conditions necessary to synthesize and purify the polymer were investigated in some detail. The synthesized poly(ether sulfones comprise sulfone and ether linkages in addition to reactive carboxylic acid functionality; these active carboxylic acid functional groups were exploited to hold the phenyl sulphonic acid and phenyl phosphonic acid pendants. The phenyl sulphonic acid pendants in VALPSU were easily constructed by altering active carboxylic acid moieties by sulfanilic acid using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC mediated mild synthetic route, whereas the latter one was built in two steps. Initially, polyphosphoric acid condensation with VALPSU by 4-bromoaniline and next straightforward palladium catalyzed synthetic route, in both of which acidic pendants are clenched by polymer backbone via amide linkage. Without impairing the primary polymeric backbone modified polymers were prepared by varying the stoichiometric ratios of respective combinations. All the polymers were physicochemically characterized and pressed into tablets; electrical contacts were established to study the dielectric properties. Finally, the influence of the acidic pendants on the dielectric properties was examined.

  19. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dae Sik, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu Seung, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilles, Robertson [CANADA-NRC; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA-NRC

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  20. Synthesis of Sulfonated burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiguang; Chen, Kaoshan; Zhang, Pengying; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Zhe; Xue, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Burdock Fructooligosaccharide (BFO) were sulfated using SO3-Py complex. The maximal degree of sulfonation (DSsulf) was 1.56, which were obtained by varying reaction factor such molar ratio of SO3-Py to fructofuranans unit (FU). The FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra showed the introduction of sulfate group, and the reaction occurred at C-6, C-4 and C-3 in the fructofuranans unit of BFO. The molecular weight estimated by HPGPC were 6104.7-11003.3 g/mol for S-BFO (DS sulf=1.2).

  1. Fate of linear alkylbenzenes and benzothiazoles of anthropogenic origin and their potential as environmental molecular markers in the Pearl River Delta, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Shen Rulang; Zeng Hui; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2009-01-01

    The mass emissions of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), benzothiazole (BT), and 2-[4-morpholinyl]benzothiazole (24MoBT) from anthropogenic activities within one year were estimated according to the population and the number of automobiles in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Based on the estimation, the distribution of these compounds among various environmental media was simulated with a mass balance box model established in the present study. The results showed that 79% of LABs generated in the PRD was stored in sediment while only 1.3% of LABs was presumably transported to the adjacent South China Sea (SCS). On the contrary, 47% of BT and 77% of 24MoBT generated in the region were carried with riverine runoff to the coastal ocean. The results from the present study suggest that hydrophobic compounds tend to stay in the watershed of the PRD, whereas hydrophilic ones mainly outflow to the coastal ocean. - A simple mass balance box model examines the fate of linear alkylbenzenes and benzothiazoles in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

  2. A cut-off in ocular chemesthesis from vapors of homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones as revealed by concentration-detection functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Abraham, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of homologous series of environmental vapors have shown that their chemesthetic (i.e., sensory irritation) potency increases with carbon chain length (that is, their detection thresholds decrease) until they reach a homolog that fails to be detected, even at vapor saturation. All ensuing homologs cannot be detected either. In this investigation, we measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) functions for ocular chemesthesis from homologous alkylbenzenes (pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl benzene) and 2-ketones (undecanone, dodecanone, and tridecanone). Using a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against air blanks, we tested a total of 18 to 24 subjects, about half of them females, average age 31 years, ranging from 18 to 56 years. Stimuli were generated and presented by a computer-controlled, vapor delivery device whose output was quantified by gas chromatography. Exposure time was 6 s and delivery flow 2.5 L/min. Within the context of present and previous findings, the outcome indicated that the functions for heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone reached a plateau where further increases in concentration did not enhance detection. We conclude that: a) a cut-off point in ocular chemesthetic detection is reached along homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones at the level of heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone, respectively, and b) the observed effect rests on the homologs exceeding a critical molecular size (or dimension) rather than on them failing to achieve a high enough vapor concentration

  3. Polyether sulfone membrane modeling and construction for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyether sulfone membrane modeling and construction for the removal of nitrate from water using ion interference sulfate and iron nano-particle. ... The aim of this study was constructed the polyether sulfone membrane and modelling it, and for checking impact pressure, the amount of iron nanoparticles and sulfate iron ...

  4. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composite membranes were then prepared using S–C as fillers and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) as polymer matrix with three different sulfonation degrees (DS = 60, 70 and 82%). Structure and properties of the composite membranes were characterized by FTIR, TGA, scanning electron microscopy, proton ...

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-conducting membranes of organic–inorganic (sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/phosphated zirconia nanoparticles) composite were prepared by incorporating various ratios of phosphated zirconia nanoparticles (ZP) in sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). SPEEK/ZP showed an improvement of ...

  6. Convenient Regioselective mono-2-O-Sulfonation of Cyclomaltooctaose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, K; Tanabe, S; Hisamatsu, M; Yamada, T

    1998-01-01

    Regioselective mono-2-O-sulfonation of cyclomaltooctaose was conveniently achieved by using the combination of sulfonyl imidazole and molecular sieves in DMF. In this reaction, no 3-O- or 6-O-sulfonation products were produced. The reactions do not require strict anhydrous or basic conditions, or specific sulfonyl groups.

  7. Bisphenol A sulfonation is impaired in metabolic and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Emine B; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Slitt, Angela L; King, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and suspected endocrine disruptor to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. The liver metabolizes and facilitates BPA excretion through glucuronidation and sulfonation. The sulfotransferase enzymes contributing to BPA sulfonation (detected in human and rodents) is poorly understood. To determine the impact of metabolic and liver disease on BPA sulfonation in human and mouse livers. The capacity for BPA sulfonation was determined in human liver samples that were categorized into different stages of metabolic and liver disease (including obesity, diabetes, steatosis, and cirrhosis) and in livers from ob/ob mice. In human liver tissues, BPA sulfonation was substantially lower in livers from subjects with steatosis (23%), diabetes cirrhosis (16%), and cirrhosis (18%), relative to healthy individuals with non-fatty livers (100%). In livers of obese mice (ob/ob), BPA sulfonation was lower (23%) than in livers from lean wild-type controls (100%). In addition to BPA sulfonation activity, Sult1a1 protein expression decreased by 97% in obese mouse livers. Taken together these findings establish a profoundly reduced capacity of BPA elimination via sulfonation in obese or diabetic individuals and in those with fatty or cirrhotic livers versus individuals with healthy livers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Sulfonation modification-assisted enrichment and identification of histidine-containing peptides by strong cation exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong; Zhou, Chunxi; Zhang, Yangjun; Han, Chunguang; Deng, Yulin; Qian, Xiaohong

    2009-03-01

    By the sulfonation at the N-terminal of peptides, the charge state of histidine-containing peptides is different from that of other peptides in pH sulfonated histidine-containing peptides from tryptic digest of proteins by strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS). Using the standard proteins containing histidines as the model, the methodology was evaluated. The results show that sulfonated histidine-containing peptides were efficiently enriched by SCX, and the N-terminal sulfonation of the peptides simplifies the interpretation of the acquired mass spectra and facilitates the sequencing of histidine-containing peptides by producing consecutive and predominant ions in positive mode MS2 spectra, which is thought to be the result of the charge neutralization of b ions by the N-terminal sulfonic acid group. The discrimination of b ions and y ions can greatly enhance the confidence in peptide and subsequent protein identification. It is feasible to isolate and enrich the histidine-containing peptides by using this method which has the potential applications in proteomics.

  9. Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) copolymers bearing carboxylic or benzimidazole pendant groups for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Haidan; Zhao, Chengji; Ma, Wenjia; Fu, Tiezhu; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Cui, Zhiming; Xing, Wei [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2009-09-05

    A novel strategy in which the benzimidazole group and sulfonic group are simultaneously attached to an aromatic polymer has been reported in this paper. For this purpose, sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) copolymers containing carboxylic acid groups (SPAEK-x-COOH, x refers to the molar percentage of sulfonated repeating units) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation of sodium 5,5'-carbonyl-bis(2-fluobenzene-sulfonate) (SDFBP), 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone (DFBP) and phenolphthalin (PPL). Then the carboxylic acid groups attached to the SPAEK-x-COOH are transformed to benzimidazole units through condensation reactions (referred to as SPAEK-x-BI). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 1}H NMR measurements are used to characterize and confirm the structures of these copolymers. SPAEK-x-COOH membranes exhibit superior mechanical properties with maximum elongations at break up to 133%, meanwhile SPAEK-x-BI also shows good thermal and mechanical stability. The proton conductivity, swelling ratio and methanol permeability of the polymers with benzimidazole are lower than those with carboxylic groups, which indicated that there is an acid-base complex between benzimidazole and sulfonic acid groups. A balance of proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal and mechanical stabilities can be designed by incorporation of functional groups to meet the requirements for the applications in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  10. Sulfonation of alkyl phenyl ether self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katash, Irit; Luo, Xianglin; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2010-02-02

    The sulfonation of phenyl ether decorated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was studied with an eye toward creating surfaces with a particularly high negative charge density based on a close-packed array of phenyl rings with more than one sulfonic acid group per molecule. The product distribution and kinetics of this process were studied by ultraviolet, infrared, and photoelectron spectroscopies and by monitoring changes in the thickness and wetting properties of the SAM. The sulfonation chemistry could be effected without undermining monolayer integrity and the isomer distribution of ortho- and para-monosulfonated material, along with the percentages of mono- and disulfonated molecules could be established throughout the process. As doubly sulfonated molecules appeared, the reaction slowed drastically. Ultimately, sulfonation stops completely with approximately 60% of the molecules disulfonated and 20% each of the two monosulfonated isomers. This striking constraint on monolayer reactivity and the relationship between the surface chemistry and variations in SAM structure are discussed.

  11. Development and characterization of acid-doped polybenzimidazole/sulfonated polysulfone blend polymer electrolytes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasiotis, C.; Li, Qingfeng; Deimede, V.

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric membranes from blends of sulfonated polysulfones (SPSF) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) doped with phosphoric acid were developed as potential high-temperature polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and other electrochemical applications. The water uptake and acid doping of these polymeric...... membranes were investigated. Ionic conductivity of the membranes was measured in relation to temperature, acid doping level, sulfonation degree of SPSF, relative humidity, and blend composition. The conductivity of SPSF was of the order of 10/sup -3/ S cm/sup -1/. In the case of blends of PBI and SPSF...

  12. Bisphenol A sulfonation is impaired in metabolic and liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, Emine B.; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Slitt, Angela L.; King, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and suspected endocrine disruptor to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. The liver metabolizes and facilitates BPA excretion through glucuronidation and sulfonation. The sulfotransferase enzymes contributing to BPA sulfonation (detected in human and rodents) is poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the impact of metabolic and liver disease on BPA sulfonation in human and mouse livers. Methods: The capacity for BPA sulfonation was determined in human liver samples that were categorized into different stages of metabolic and liver disease (including obesity, diabetes, steatosis, and cirrhosis) and in livers from ob/ob mice. Results: In human liver tissues, BPA sulfonation was substantially lower in livers from subjects with steatosis (23%), diabetes cirrhosis (16%), and cirrhosis (18%), relative to healthy individuals with non-fatty livers (100%). In livers of obese mice (ob/ob), BPA sulfonation was lower (23%) than in livers from lean wild-type controls (100%). In addition to BPA sulfonation activity, Sult1a1 protein expression decreased by 97% in obese mouse livers. Conclusion: Taken together these findings establish a profoundly reduced capacity of BPA elimination via sulfonation in obese or diabetic individuals and in those with fatty or cirrhotic livers versus individuals with healthy livers. - Highlights: • Present study demonstrates that hepatic SULT 1A1/1A3 are primarily sulfonate BPA in mouse and human. • Hepatic BPA sulfonation is profoundly reduced steatosis, diabetes and cirrhosis. • With BPA-S detectable in urine under low or common exposures, these findings are novel and important.

  13. Controlled disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock copolymers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Chen, Yu; Rowlett, Jarrett R; McGrath, James E; Mack, Nathan H; Kim, Yu Seung

    2014-04-23

    Structure-property-performance relationships of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock copolymer membranes were investigated for their use in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. Multiple series of reactive polysulfone, polyketone, and polynitrile hydrophobic block segments having different block lengths and molecular composition were synthesized and reacted with a disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) hydrophilic block segment by a coupling reaction. Large-scale morphological order of the multiblock copolymers evolved with the increase of block size that gave notable influence on mechanical toughness, water uptake, and proton/methanol transport. Chemical structural changes of the hydrophobic blocks through polar group, fluorination, and bisphenol type allowed further control of the specific properties. DMFC performance was analyzed to elicit the impact of structural variations of the multiblock copolymers. Finally, DMFC performances of selected multiblock copolymers were compared against that of the industrial standard Nafion in the DMFC system.

  14. Proton-Conducting Sulfonated Ionomers by Chemical Modification and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller

    to the conservation of mechanical stability. The morphology of these blends is affected by the PVDF content. At 25 vol% ionomer macro-phase-separation occurs, while a 40 vol% ionomer content on top of the macro-phase-separation develops a repetitive patten of ion-rich domains in primarily PVDF-containing areas...... (PEM) and thereby optimizing their properties. Equally important has been the evolution of model systems that are part of a bigger research perspective as well as the application of unconventional strategies within the field. In the design of amphiphilic polymers, a commercially available polysulfone...... (PSU), Udel, is chosen as backbone due to its mechanical and thermal properties. Sulfonic acid functionalized, dendronised side chains are attached by click chemistry in the study of hydrocarbon structures with highly flexible spacers. Various degrees of sulfonation (DS) are used in the perspectivation...

  15. Sulfonated Styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene-styrene/Montmorillonite Clay Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Morphology, and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly Anirban

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSulfonated styrene-(ethylene-butylene-styrene triblock copolymer (SSEBS was synthesized by reaction of acetyl sulfate with SEBS. SSESB-clay nanocomposites were then prepared from hydrophilic Na-montmorillonite (MT and organically (quaternary amine modified hydrophobic nanoclay (OMT at very low loading. SEBS did not show improvement in properties with MT-based nanocomposites. On sulfonation (3 and 6 weight% of SEBS, hydrophilic MT clay-based nanocomposites exhibited better mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and thermal properties, and also controlled water–methanol mixture uptake and permeation and AC resistance. Microstructure determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy due to better dispersion of MT nanoclay particles and interaction of MT with SSEBS matrix was responsible for this effect. The resulting nanocomposites have potential as proton transfer membranes for Fuel Cell applications.

  16. Preparation of new proton exchange membranes using sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) modified by octylamine (SPESOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrouk, W.; Ogier, L.; Matoussi, F.; Sollogoub, C.; Vidal, S.; Dachraoui, M.; Fauvarque, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New, simple and cheap way to synthesize a membrane. → The membranes combine good proton conductivities with good mechanical properties. → The membrane performances in a fuel cell are similar to the Nafion 117. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) has received considerable attention in membrane preparation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). But such membranes are brittle and difficult to handle in operation. We investigated new membranes using SPES grafted with various degrees of octylamine. Five new materials made from sulfonated polyethersulfone sulfonamide (SPESOS) were synthetized with different grades of grafting. They were made from SPES, with initially an ionic exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.4 meq g -1 (1.3 H + per monomer unit). Pristine SPES with that IEC is water swelling and becomes soluble at 80 deg. C, its proton conductivity is in the range of 0.1 S cm -1 at room temperature in aqueous H 2 SO 4 1 M, similar to that of Nafion. After grafting with various amounts of octylamine, the material is water insoluble; membranes are less brittle and show sufficient ionic conductivity. Proton transport numbers were measured close to 1.

  17. 4-(4-Aminophenylsulfonylanilinium toluene-4-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title p-toluenesulfonate salt of the drug dapsone, C12H13N2O2S+·C7H7O3S−, the dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings of the dapsone monocation is 70.19 (17° and those between these rings and that of the p-toluenesulfonate anion are 72.34 (17 and 46.43 (17°. All amine and aminium H atoms are involved in intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations with sulfonyl O-atom acceptors as well as one of the sulfone O atoms, giving a three-dimensional structure.

  18. Fully Aromatic Block Copolymers for Fuel Cell Membranes with Densely Sulfonated Nanophase Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patrick; Lund, Peter Brilner

    Two multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with similar block lengths and ion exchange capacities (IECs) were prepared by a coupling reaction between a non-sulfonated precursor block and a highly sulfonated precursor block containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully...... tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The latter two precursor blocks were sulfonated via lithiation-sulfination reactions whereby the sulfonic acid groups were exclu- sively placed in ortho positions to the many sulfone bridges, giving these locks IECs of 4.1 and 4.6 meqg1, respectively. Copolymer...

  19. Propagation/depropagation equilibrium and structural factors in the radiation degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowmer, T.N.; O'Donnell, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The principal volatile products observed after γ irradiation of nine different poly(olefin sulfone)s in the solid state were the two comonomers, i.e., the respective olefin and sulfur dioxide. An exponential increase in yield, G (volatile products), with increasing irradiation temperature, T/sub irr/, was observed for each copolymer through the ceiling temperature, T/sub c/, for the corresponding propagation/depropagation equilibrium. Thus the G value increased by ca. 3 orders of magnitude from T/sub irr/ = 0.7 T/sub c/ to T/sub irr/ = 1.3 T/sub c/ for all of the poly(olefin sulfone)s. Depropagation sensitivity was considered to be best measured by G(SO 2 ) since radiation induced, cationic homopolymerization of the product olefin occurred to a variable extent. Five of the poly(olefin sulfone)s had similar rates of depropagation at their respective T/sub c's/ but the polysulfones of 1-hexene, cyclohexene and 2-butene showed anomalously high depropagation rates. This may be related to greater steric hinderance to segmental chain mobility in the polysulfones of the 1,2 disubstituted olefins. Poly(1-hexene sulfone) appears to be anomalous, as in other respects

  20. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...

  1. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, R. B. Nasir; Verma, Sanny; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  2. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  3. Cyclic Tetrapyrrole Sulfonation, Metals, and Oligomerization in Antiprion Activity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Winslow S.; Priola, Suzette A.; Kocisko, David A.; Raymond, Lynne D.; Ward, Anne; Caughey, Byron

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic tetrapyrroles are among the most potent compounds with activity against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; or prion diseases). Here the effects of differential sulfonation and metal binding to cyclic tetrapyrroles were investigated. Their potencies in inhibiting disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein were compared in several types of TSE-infected cell cultures. In addition, prophylactic antiscrapie activities were determined in scrapie-infected mice. The activity of phthalocyanine was relatively insensitive to the number of peripheral sulfonate groups but varied with the type of metal bound at the center of the molecule. The tendency of the various phthalocyanine sulfonates to oligomerize (i.e., stack) correlated with anti-TSE activity. Notably, aluminum(III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was both the poorest anti-TSE compound and the least prone to oligomerization in aqueous media. Similar comparisons of iron- and manganese-bound porphyrin sulfonates confirmed that stacking ability correlates with anti-TSE activity among cyclic tetrapyrroles. PMID:17709470

  4. Cyclic tetrapyrrole sulfonation, metals, and oligomerization in antiprion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Winslow S; Priola, Suzette A; Kocisko, David A; Raymond, Lynne D; Ward, Anne; Caughey, Byron

    2007-11-01

    Cyclic tetrapyrroles are among the most potent compounds with activity against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; or prion diseases). Here the effects of differential sulfonation and metal binding to cyclic tetrapyrroles were investigated. Their potencies in inhibiting disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein were compared in several types of TSE-infected cell cultures. In addition, prophylactic antiscrapie activities were determined in scrapie-infected mice. The activity of phthalocyanine was relatively insensitive to the number of peripheral sulfonate groups but varied with the type of metal bound at the center of the molecule. The tendency of the various phthalocyanine sulfonates to oligomerize (i.e., stack) correlated with anti-TSE activity. Notably, aluminum(III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was both the poorest anti-TSE compound and the least prone to oligomerization in aqueous media. Similar comparisons of iron- and manganese-bound porphyrin sulfonates confirmed that stacking ability correlates with anti-TSE activity among cyclic tetrapyrroles.

  5. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Rebecca S. L.; Zhang, Kaisong; Ladewig, Bradley P.

    2013-01-01

    A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:24956945

  6. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. L. Yee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK. This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems.

  7. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  8. The case of sulfonation in the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraszewski, A; Stawiński, J; Wiewiórowski, M

    1980-01-01

    The sulfonation of nucleosidic component, a side reaction during phosphotriester bond formation, as a function of the reactivity of the condensing agents and the kind of substituents in the starting phosphodiester is discussed. It was found that in the coupling reaction of nucleoside alkyl phosphodiesters, the degree of sulfonation of the nucleosidic component was very high; while under the same conditions when the aryl group was present in the corresponding phosphodiester, this side reaction...

  9. The case of sulfonation in the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewski, A; Stawiński, J; Wiewiórowski, M

    1980-01-01

    The sulfonation of nucleosidic component, a side reaction during phosphotriester bond formation, as a function of the reactivity of the condensing agents and the kind of substituents in the starting phosphodiester is discussed. It was found that in the coupling reaction of nucleoside alkyl phosphodiesters, the degree of sulfonation of the nucleosidic component was very high; while under the same conditions when the aryl group was present in the corresponding phosphodiester, this side reaction practically did not occur. PMID:6253882

  10. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h -1 from a 60 Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  11. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h{sup -1} from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Sulfonate-Based Collectors with Different Hydrophobic Tails for Flotation of Fluorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renji Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to demonstrate the effects of hydrophobic tails on the affinity and relevant flotation response of sulfonate-based collectors for fluorite. For this purpose, a series of alkyl sulfonates with different hydrophobic tails, namely sodium decanesulfonate (C10, sodium dodecylsulfate (C12, sodium hexadecanesulfonate (C16, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12B were applied. The flotation tests showed that C12 and C12B had a better collecting performance than C10 and C16 at pH < 10, and the flotation recovery of fluorite was higher when adopting C12B as a collector compared with C12 with a strong base. The adsorption behaviors of collectors on the fluorite surface were studied through zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. It was found that the affinity of alkyl sulfonates for fluorite was enhanced with the increase of the alkyl chain length from C10 to C16. The existence of phenyl in the hydrophobic tail of sulfonates could improve its activity for fluorite by reducing its surface tension. The abnormal phenomenon C16 with a high affinity for fluorite had a low collecting performance for fluorite mainly due to its overlong alkyl chain, resulting in low solubility in pulp, which restrained its interaction with fluorite. We concluded that C12B was the most applicable collector for fluorite among these reagents due to its high activity, high solubility, and low cost, which was further substantiated by calculating their molecular frontier orbital energy.

  13. Characterization of a Sulfonated Polycarbonate Resistive Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio L. Donnici

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work; resistive moisture sensors were obtained by dip coating sulfonated polycarbonate (SPC onto silver interdigitated electrodes. Commercial polycarbonate was sulfonated with acetyl sulphate at two different sulfonation degrees corresponding to 9.0 and 18.0 mole %. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the humidity sensing properties at controlled relative humidity (RH% environments generated from standard saline solutions in the range of 11–90 RH%. For the highest sulfonated sample; in the RH% range investigated (11 to 90%; the sensor impedance changed from 4.7 MΩ to 18 kΩ. Humidity sensors made from sulfonated polycarbonate showed exponential decay behavior of the impedance at constant frequency with the environmental relative humidity. Sample 9SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for environmental humidity between 58 and 90 RH% while sample 18SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for the entire measured range between 11 and 90 RH%. Sulfonated polycarbonate could be a promising material for the fabrication of simple and cheap humidity-sensing sensors for the assessment of relative humidity of the surrounding environment, as suggested by experimental results.

  14. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  15. Celecoxib affects estrogen sulfonation catalyzed by several human hepatic sulfotransferases, but does not stimulate 17-sulfonation in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambadapadi, Sriram; Wang, Peter L; Palii, Sergiu P; James, Margaret O

    2017-09-01

    Celecoxib is known to alter the preferred position of SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) and other estrogens from the 3- to the 17-position. Understanding the effects of celecoxib on estrogen sulfonation is of interest in the context of the investigational use of celecoxib to treat breast cancer. This study examined the effects on celecoxib on cytosolic sulfotransferases in human and rat liver and on SULT enzymes known to be expressed in liver. Celecoxib's effects on the sulfonation of several steroids catalyzed by human liver cytosol were similar but not identical to those observed previously for SULT2A1. Celecoxib was shown to inhibit recombinant SULT1A1-catalyzed sulfonation of 10nM estrone and 4μM p-nitrophenol with IC 50 values of 2.6 and 2.1μM, respectively, but did not inhibit SULT1E1-catalyzed estrone sulfonation. In human liver cytosol, the combined effect of celecoxib and known SULT1A1 and 1E1 inhibitors, quercetin and triclosan, resulted in inhibition of 17β-E2-3-sulfonation such that the 17-sulfate became the major metabolite: this is of interest because the 17-sulfate is not readily hydrolyzed by steroid sulfatase to 17β-E2. Investigation of hepatic cytosolic steroid sulfonation in rat revealed that celecoxib did not stimulate 17β-E2 17-sulfonation in male or female rat liver as it does with human SULT2A1 and human liver cytosol, demonstrating that rat is not a useful model of this effect. In silico studies suggested that the presence of the bulky tryptophan residue in the substrate-binding site of the rat SULT2A homolog instead of glycine as in human SULT2A1 may explain this species difference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Benzyltributylammonium 6,7-dihydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mizuguchi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C19H34N+·C10H7O5S−, is a charge-control agent used for toners in electrophotography. There are two formula units in the asymmetric unit. Both anions form inversion dimers connected by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the –OH group of one anion and a sulfonic O atom of the neighboring one. The two dimers A and B are characterized by a step between the least-squares planes of the naphthalene atoms of 0.85 and 2.30 Å. Further O—H...O bonds link the dimers into a two-dimensional network propagating in (110 such that dimer A is hydrogen-bonded to four B units and vice versa. One of the tert-butyl chains in one of the cations is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.56:0.44 ratio.

  17. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  18. Partially Fluorinated Sulfonated Poly(ether amide Fuel Cell Membranes: Influence of Chemical Structure on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsung Bae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated sulfonated poly (ether amides (SPAs were synthesized for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. A polycondensation reaction of 4,4’-oxydianiline, 2-sulfoterephthalic acid monosodium salt, and tetrafluorophenylene dicarboxylic acids (terephthalic and isophthalic or fluoroaliphatic dicarboxylic acids produced SPAs with sulfonation degrees of 80–90%. Controlling the feed ratio of the sulfonated and unsulfonated dicarboxylic acid monomers afforded random SPAs with ion exchange capacities between 1.7 and 2.2 meq/g and good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Their structures were characterized using NMR and FT IR spectroscopies. Tough, flexible, and transparent films were obtained with dimethylsulfoxide using a solution casting method. Most SPA membranes with 90% sulfonation degree showed high proton conductivity (>100 mS/cm at 80 °C and 100% relative humidity. Among them, two outstanding ionomers (ODA-STA-TPA-90 and ODA-STA-IPA-90 showed proton conductivity comparable to that of Nafion 117 between 40 and 80 °C. The influence of chemical structure on the membrane properties was systematically investigated by comparing the fluorinated polymers to their hydrogenated counterparts. The results suggest that the incorporation of fluorinated moieties in the polymer backbone of the membrane reduces water absorption. High molecular weight and the resulting physical entanglement of the polymers chains played a more important role in improving stability in water, however.

  19. Estimated pKa values for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated sulfonic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-10-14

    In order to estimate isomer-specific acidity constants (pKa) for the perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) environmental contaminants, the parameterization method 6 (PM6) pKa prediction method was extensively validated against a wide range of carbon oxyacids and related sulfonic/sulfinic acids. Excellent pKa prediction performance was observed for the carbon oxyacids using the PM6 method, but this approach was found to have a severe positive bias for sulfonic/sulfinic acids. To overcome this obstacle, a correlation was developed between non-adjusted PM6 pKa values and the corresponding experimentally obtained/estimated acidity constants for a range of representative alkyl, aryl and halogen-substituted sulfonic acids. Application of this correction to the PM6 values allows for extension of this computational method to a new acid functional group. When used to estimate isomer-specific pKa values for the C1 through C8 PFSAs, the modified PM6 approach suggests an adjusted pKa range from -5.3 to -9.0, indicating that all members of this class of well-known environmental contaminants will be effectively completely dissociated in aquatic systems.

  20. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cause alkyl chain length-dependent hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia mainly by impairing lipoprotein production in APOE*3-leiden CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Chang, S.C.; Ehresman, D.J.; Butenhoff, J.L.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive

  2. Sulfonation of environmental estrogens by zebrafish cytosolic sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkimoto, Kei; Sugahara, Takuya; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Yih; Carter, Glendora; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2003-09-12

    Environmental estrogen-like chemicals are increasingly recognized as a potential hazardous factor for wildlife as well as humans. We have recently embarked on developing a zebrafish model for investigating the role of sulfonation in the metabolism and adverse functioning of environmental estrogens. Here, we report on a systematic investigation of the sulfonation of representative environmental estrogens (bisphenol A, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nolylphenol, diethylstilbestrol, and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol) by zebrafish cytosolic sulfotransferases (STs). Of the seven enzymes tested, four zebrafish STs (designated ZF ST #2, ZF ST #3, ZF ST #4, and ZF DHEA ST) exhibited differential sulfonating activities toward the five environmental estrogens tested, with ZF ST #3 being more highly active than the other three. It was further demonstrated that bisphenol A, 4-n-octylphenol, and 4-n-nonylphenol exerted concentration-dependent inhibition of the sulfonation of 17 beta-estradiol, implying a potential role of these environmental estrogens in interfering with the sulfonation, and possibly homeostasis, of endogenous estrogens. Kinetic studies revealed that the mechanism underlying the inhibition by bisphenol A or 4-n-nonylphenol to be of the competitive type.

  3. Sulfonated Polyaniline Coated Mercury Film Electrodes for Voltammetric Analysis of Metals in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical polymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid with and without aniline has been carried by cyclic potencial sweep in sulfuric acid solution at the glassy carbon electrode. The polymer and copolymer formed have been characterized voltammetrically. The sulfonated polyaniline coated mercury thin-film electrodes have been evaluated for use with anodic stripping voltammetry. The electrodes were tested and compared with a conventional thin-film mercury electrode. Calibration plots showed linearity up to 10-7 mol L-1. Detection limits for zinc, lead and cadmium test species are very similar at around 12 nmol L-1. Applications to analysis of waters samples are demonstrated.

  4. Sulfonation pathway inhibitors block reactivation of latent HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Jeffrey P; Godoy, Joseph; Mukim, Amey; Swann, Justine; Bruce, James W; Ahlquist, Paul; Bosque, Alberto; Planelles, Vicente; Spina, Celsa A; Young, John A T

    2014-12-01

    Long-lived pools of latently infected cells are a significant barrier to the development of a cure for HIV-1 infection. A better understanding of the mechanisms of reactivation from latency is needed to facilitate the development of novel therapies that address this problem. Here we show that chemical inhibitors of the sulfonation pathway prevent virus reactivation, both in latently infected J-Lat and U1 cell lines and in a primary human CD4+ T cell model of latency. In each of these models, sulfonation inhibitors decreased transcription initiation from the HIV-1 promoter. These inhibitors block transcription initiation at a step that lies downstream of nucleosome remodeling and affects RNA polymerase II recruitment to the viral promoter. These results suggest that the sulfonation pathway acts by a novel mechanism to regulate efficient virus transcription initiation during reactivation from latency, and further that augmentation of this pathway could be therapeutically useful. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Thermochemical stability of Soviet macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukhlyada, N.N.; Plotnikova, V.P.; Roginskaya, B.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Zavodovskaya, A.S.; Dobrova, E.I.

    1988-10-20

    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of macroporosity on the thermochemical stability of sulfonated cation-exchangers. The investigations were carried out on commercial macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers based on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Study of the thermochemical stability of macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers in dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions showed that the type of macroporosity has virtually no influence on their stability. The determining factor in thermal stability of macroporous cation-exchangers, as of the gel type, is the degree of cross-linking of the polymer matrix. The capacity loss of macroporous cation-exchangers during oxidative thermolysis is caused by destruction of the macromolecular skeleton and elution of fragments of polar chains containing sulfo groups into the solution.

  6. Electrochemical detection of dopamine using water-soluble sulfonated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Su-Juan; He, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Rong-Xia; Lv, Xia-Lei; Li, Shao-Hua; Pang, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DPV responses of dopamine (DA) at sulfonated graphene based glassy carbon electrode in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA-DA, DA-UA and UA-AA was about 227 mV, 125 mV and 352 mV, which allowed selectively determining DA. -- Abstract: In the present study, a biosensor was prepared using the water-soluble sulfonated graphene with the aim of achieving the selective and sensitive determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The aromatic π–π stacking and electrostatic attraction between positively charged DA and negatively charged sulfonated graphene can accelerate the electron transfer whereas weakening AA and UA oxidation on the sulfonated graphene-modified electrode. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the successful synthesis of sulfonated graphene sheets. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for electrochemical detection, the separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA-DA, DA-UA and UA-AA was about 227 mV, 125 mV and 352 mV, which allowed selectively determining DA. A broad linear range, low detection limit, along with good ability to suppress the background current from large excess ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) were obtained. The as-prepared sulfonated graphene sheets exhibited superior performance over conventional negatively charged Nafion films, such as flexible film thickness, unique nanostructure, excellent anti-interference ability, high sensitivity and selectivity. The proposed method was used to detect DA in real hydrochloride injection sample, human urine and serum samples with satisfactory recovery results

  7. Evaluation of sulfonated carbon as catalyst in reactive distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Civetta, Nicolas; Rivera, Jairo; Boyaca, Alejandro; Diaz, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    A packed bed using sulfonated coal catalytic pellets was prepared using a Colombian anthracitic coal. Such pellets were introduced in a semi batch distillation column to which acetic acid and ethanol were fed in order to determine experimentally the feasibility of obtaining ethyl acetate by reactive distillation operation. The carbonaceous catalytic packing was characterized by total exchange capacity, potentiometric titration and BET area. Experimental tests were carried out using three acid/alcohol ratios. Results of such process are shown by reaction conversion and concentration in distillate and bottom products. The sulfonated coal showed catalytic activity in this esterification reaction, with conversions between 29-45%

  8. Ruthenium-catalyzed meta sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Ourida; Marafie, Jameel; Ledger, Araminta E W; Liu, Po Man; Mahon, Mary F; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Whittlesey, Michael K; Frost, Christopher G

    2011-12-07

    A selective catalytic meta sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridines was found to occur in the presence of (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes upon reaction with sulfonyl chlorides. The 2-pyridyl group facilitates the formation of a stable Ru-C(aryl) σ bond that induces a strong para-directing effect. Electrophilic aromatic substitution proceeds with the sulfonyl chloride to furnish a sulfone at the position meta to the chelating group. This new catalytic process offers access to atypical regioselectivity for reactions involving chelation-assisted cyclometalation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. ANALYSIS OF SULFONATES IN AQUEOUS SAMPLES BY ION-PAIR LC/ESI-MS/MS WITH IN-SOURCE CID FOR ADDUCT PEAK ELIMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OUYANG,S.; VAIRAVAMURTHY,M.A.

    1999-06-13

    Determination of low-molecular-weight organic sulfonates (e.g. taurine and cysteic acid) in aqueous solutions is important in many applications of biological, environmental and pharmaceutical sciences. These compounds are difficult to be determined by commonly used reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation combined with UV-Visible detection because of their high solubility and the lack chromophoric moieties. Here the authors report a method combining ion-pair liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IPLC/ESI-MS/MS)for determining sulfonates. The ability of low-molecular-weight sulfonates to form ion-pairs with quaternary ammonium cations in aqueous solutions allowed LC separation with a C{sub 18} column. Detection of the sulfonates was accomplished with ESI-MS that lends a universal mode of mass detection for polar, water soluble compounds. An in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) was applied to eliminate the adduct peaks in mass spectra. Characteristic marker ions showed in the second stage mass spectra lent a method for identifying sulfonates.

  10. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing

  11. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.824 Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates. The food additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates may be safely used in...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates...

  13. Grafting titanium nitride surfaces with sodium styrene sulfonate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Gilad; Migonney, Véronique; Castner, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of titanium nitride lies in its high hardness and its remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, which has led to its use as a coating for the heads of hip prostheses, dental implants and dental surgery tools. However, the usefulness of titanium nitride coatings for biomedical applications could be significantly enhanced by modifying their surface with a bioactive polymer film. The main focus of the present work was to graft a bioactive poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (pNaSS) thin film from titanium nitride surfaces via a two-step procedure: first modifying the surface with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and then grafting the pNaSS film from the MPS modified titanium through free radical polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used after each step to characterize success and completeness of each reaction. The surface region of the titanium nitride prior to MPS functionalization and NaSS grafting contained a mixture of titanium nitride, oxy-nitride, oxide species as well as adventitious surface contaminants. After MPS functionalization, Si was detected by XPS, and characteristic MPS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. After NaSS grafting, Na and S were detected by XPS and characteristic NaSS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. The XPS determined thicknesses of the MPS and NaSS overlayers were ∼1.5 and ∼1.7 nm, respectively. The pNaSS film density was estimated by the toluidine blue colorimetric assay to be 260 ± 70 ng/cm2. PMID:25280842

  14. Enhanced antifouling and antibacterial properties of poly (ether sulfone) membrane modified through blending with sulfonated poly (aryl ether sulfone) and copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xu, Ya'nan; Chen, Shouwen; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Sun, Xiuyun; Wu, Dihua; Hu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lianjun

    2018-03-01

    A series of novel blend ultrafiltration (UF) membranes have been successfully prepared from commercial poly (ether sulfone), lab-synthesized sulfonated poly (aryl ether sulfone) (SPAES, 1 wt%) and copper nanoparticles (0 ∼ 0.4 wt%) via immersion precipitation phase conversion. The micro-structure and separation performance of the membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-flow filtration experiments, respectively. Sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin and humic acid were chosen as model organic foulants to investigate the antifouling properties, while E. coil was used to evaluate the antibacterial property of the fabricated membranes. By the incorporation with SPAES and copper nanoparticles, the hydrophilicity, antifouling and antibacterial properties of the modified UF membranes have been profoundly improved. At a copper nanoparticles content of 0.4 wt%, the PES/SPAES/nCu(0.4) membrane exhibited a high pure water flux of 193.0 kg/m2 h, reaching the smallest contact angle of 52°, highest flux recovery ratio of 79% and largest antibacterial rate of 78.9%. Furthermore, the stability of copper nanoparticles inside the membrane matrix was also considerably enhanced, the copper nanoparticles were less than 0.08 mg/L in the effluent during the whole operation.

  15. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reference. Copies of the ASTM method may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  16. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Nahla N.; El Ries, Mohammed A.; Toubar, Safaa; Abd El Hamid, Maha; Walash, Mohammed I.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS), dimethylsulfone (MSM), and topiramate (TOP) in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (E a ), frequency factor (A), and r...

  17. Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate to carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Velzeboer, I.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To date, sorption of organic compounds to nanomaterials has mainly been studied for the nanomaterial in its pristine state. However, sorption may be different when nanomaterials are buried in sediments. Here, we studied sorption of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to sediment and to sediment with 4%

  18. Sulfonated polyimides containing triphenylphosphine oxide for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Arun Kumar; Bera, Debaditya; Banerjee, Susanta, E-mail: susanta@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-09-15

    A series of sulfonated co-polyimides (co-SPI) were prepared by one pot polycondensation reaction of a combination of diamines namely; 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSDSA) and prepared non-sulfonated diamine (DATPPO) containing triphenylphosphine oxide with 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA). All these soluble co-SPI gave flexible membranes with high thermal stability and showed good mechanical property. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the microphase separated morphology with well-dispersed hydrophilic (cluster size in the range of 5–55 nm) domains. The co-SPI membranes showed high oxidative and hydrolytic stability with higher proton conductivity. All these co-SPI membranes exhibited low water uptake and swelling ratio. The co-SPI membrane TPPO-60 (60% degree of sulfonation) with IEC{sub W} = 1.84 mequiv g{sup −1} showed high proton conductivity (99 mS cm{sup −1} at 80 °C and 107 mS cm{sup −1} at 90 °C) in water with high oxidative (20 h) and hydrolytic stability (only 5% degradation in 24 h). - Highlights: • Triphenylphosphine oxide containing sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) was synthesized. • The SPIs showed good oxidative and hydrolytic stability and high proton conductivity. • TEM analysis revealed well separated morphology of the SPIs.

  19. Homolytic C-O cleavage in phosphates and sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lanlan; Zheng, Wenrui; Wang, Yingxing

    2015-04-09

    The C-O homolytic bond dissociation enthalpies(BDEs) were calculated by high-level ab initio including G4, G3B3, G3, CBS-QB3 and a series of density function theory (DFT) methods. It is found that the wB97 method gave the most reliable C-O BDEs and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) is 7.6 kJ/mol. Therefore, the C(sp(2))-O BDE predictions and the substituent effects of alkenyl phosphates/sulfonates and aryl phosphates/sulfonates were investigated in detail by using the wB97 method. Interestingly, there exist different substituent effects in α- and β-substituted alkenyl phosphates/sulfonates. Excellent linear relationships between the C-O BDEs of β-substituted alkenyl phosphates/sulfonates with substituent constant σp(+) were found. In addition, the NBO analysis further disclosed the essence of the substituent effects on C-O BDEs.

  20. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  1. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Karchesy; L.Y. Foo; Richard W. Hemingway; E. Barofsky; D.F. Barofsky

    1989-01-01

    Condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives were studied by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) to assess the feasibility of using this technique for determining molecular weight and structural information about these compounds. Both positive- and negative-ion spectra provided useful data with regard to molecular weight, cation species present, and presence of...

  2. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  3. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ion exchange capacity of SPSU was determined as 3.05 mmol−1/g. The polymer electrolyte ... high temperature. In addition, they are also blended with polyvinyl imidazole9 and polyvinyl triazole.10. Sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) is one of the acid func- .... 700◦C under N2 atmosphere at a scanning rate of 10◦C min−1.

  4. Structure and properties of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutorskii, I.A.; Sultanova, A.S.; Belkina, E.V.; Fomin, A.G. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Colloidal characteristics of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids were studied. Neutralized heavy oil residue exhibits surface-active properties and contains an ultradisperse filler. Analysis of the compositions by size-exclusion-chromatography shows deep structural changes in the heavy acid residue upon neutralization with calcium carbonate.

  5. Petroleum sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones used as extragents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Yu.E.; Lyapina, N.K.; Murinov, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities of using petroleum sulfides, sulfoxides and sulfones for extraction and separation of wide range of elements are considered. It is shown that petroleum sulfides appear to be effective and selective extractants in extraction and separation of noble metals (Ru, Au, Pt, etc.). Petroleum sulfoxides are promising for solvent extraction of transition metals, actinides, rare earths etc

  6. Efficient synthesis and sulfonation of ordered mesoporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Keke; Zhang, Anfeng; Gu, Lin; Liu, Min; Guo, Xinwen

    2012-07-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with hexagonal structure were efficiently synthesized via cooperative self-assembly of phenol/formaldehyde resol and surfactant F127 under acidic aqueous conditions. Induced by HCl, a gel phase mainly containing phenol/formaldehyde resol and F127 was obtained within several hours. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption isotherms indicated that the synthesized samples possess 2-D hexagonal mesostructure. The influence of the synthesis conditions, including acid concentration and mass ratio of resol to F127, was investigated. When the acid concentration was fixed in the range of 0.6-2.0 M and the mass ratio of resol to F127 in the range of 3.5-4.0, highly ordered mesoporous carbon could be synthesized. The synthesized OMCs could be easily sulfonated in concentrated sulfuric acid at elevated temperature. The results indicate that the mesostructural stability and the content of the surface sulfonic acid (SO(3)H) groups depend mainly on the pyrolysis temperature of the OMCs and the sulfonation temperature, suggesting that the combination of pyrolysis and sulfonation temperature is essential for developing OMCs with high densities of SO(3)H groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  8. Molecular Design of Sulfonated Triblock Copolymer Permselective Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-03

    forcefields (interaction potentials) for the chemicals and functional groups present in the system. The forcefiled development requires quantum mechanical ab...molecules that form hydrogen bonds to the sulfonate group [2, 10] is somewhat higher in sPS solution. The geometrical analisys for hydrogen bonding

  9. Solid-supported sulfonic acid-containing catalysts efficiently ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silica-functionalized sulfonic acid (SFSA) and sulfuric acid-modified polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-OSO3H) efficiently catalysed one-pot multi-component condensation of enolizable ketones or alkyl acetoacetates with arylaldehydes, acetonitrile and acetyl chloride to afford the corresponding -acetamido ketone or ester ...

  10. Proton exchange membranes from sulfonated polyetheretherketone and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo blends: Conductivity, water sorption and permeation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongli; Nguyen, Quang Trong; Schaetzel, Pierre; Lixon-Buquet, Camille; Colasse, Laurent; Ratieuville, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Five blend membranes were prepared by solvent evaporation from solutions of the synthesized sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo (SPESc). Their ion exchange capacity and degree of sulfonation determined by acid–base titration and by thermogravimetric analysis were consistent. The blends glass transition behavior obtained by differential scanning calorimetry suggests that the two sulfonated polymers are compatible in the whole composition range. The values of the activation energy for proton transport determined by conductivity measurements on the SPEEK-based blend membranes were in the range of 13–34 kJ mol −1 , which suggest a mixed transport mechanism that involves both proton jumps on ionic sites and water of hydration and diffusion of proton–water complex in hydrophilic domains. The water vapor sorption in the membranes exhibits sigmoid-shape isotherms which were well fitted by the “new dual mode sorption” model, and the fitted parameters values were successfully used to model the change in the water permeation flux with the upstream water activity using the first Fick's diffusion equation. The fast increase in the permeation flux beyond a critical value of activity (0.5) was owing to the exponential concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. These modelings allowed us to show a strong increase in the limit diffusion coefficient of water and a decrease in the water-diffusion plasticization coefficient with the SPEEK content in the polymer blends

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) (SPEEK) Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ning; Zhou, Chaofan; Wang, Yong; Ju, Hong; Tan, Dongyang; Li, Jin

    2018-03-28

    As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion) membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG) was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone (SPEEK was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  13. Solvation molar enthalpies and heat capacities of n-alkanes and n-alkylbenzenes on stationary phases of wide-ranging polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Quintanilla-López, Jesús Eduardo; Santiuste, José María

    2010-12-03

    A comparison of the most usual gas chromatographic methods for the calculation of partial molar enthalpies of solvation (Δ(sol)H(o)) has been carried out. Those methods based on the fitting of lnV(g) or ln(k/T) vs. 1/T and ln(k/T) vs. (1/T and the temperature arrangement, T(a)) are the most adequate ones for obtaining Δ(sol)H(o) values. However, the latter is the only reliable option for Δ(sol)H(o) estimation when commercial WCOT capillary columns are used, since in this case the estimation of some variables involved in the V(g) determination is less accurate or even impossible. Consequently, in this paper, Δ(sol)H(o) obtained from ln(k/T) vs. (1/T+T(a)) fitting at 373.15 and 298.15K for n-alkanes and n-alkylbenzenes on 12 commercial capillary columns coated with stationary phases covering the 203-3608 McReynolds polarity range are reported. Moreover, molar heat capacities of solvation at constant pressure (Δ(sol)C(p)(o)) have also been calculated using this method. A clear influence on Δ(sol)H(o) of the type and content of the substitution group in the stationary phase was observed. In addition, a linear relationship of Δ(sol)C(p)(o) with the van der Waals volume of the n-alkanes and the temperature gradient of density of the stationary phase was found. The effect of the size of the hydrocarbon on both thermodynamic variables was also investigated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and cross-linked membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Han, Miaomiao; Lin, Haidan; Zhu, Jing; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) containing pendant carboxyl groups has been synthesized by a nucleophilic polycondensation reaction. Sulfonated polymers (SPEEKs) with different ion exchange capacity are then obtained by post-sulfonation process. The structures of PEEK and SPEEKs are characterized by both FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR. The properties of SPEEKs as candidates for proton exchange membranes are studied. The cross-linking reaction is performed at 140 C using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the cross-linker. In comparison with the non-cross-linked membranes, some properties of the cross-linked membranes are significantly improved, such as water uptake, methanol resistance, mechanical and oxidative stabilities, while the proton conductivity decreases. The effect of PVA content on proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, and methanol permeability is also investigated. Among all the membranes, SPEEK-C-8 shows the highest selectivity of 50.5 x 10{sup 4} S s cm{sup -3}, which indicates that it is a suitable candidate for applications in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly(Phenylene Containing a Non-Planar Structure and Dibenzoyl Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohyoun Jang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers for application as sulfonated polyphenylene membranes were prepared by nickel-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling reaction of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene (BCD and 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene (DCBP. Conjugated cis/trans isomer (BCD had a non-planar conformation containing four peripheral aromatic rings that facilitate the formation of π–π interactions. 1,4-Dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene was synthesized from the oxidation reaction of 2,5-dichloro-p-xylene, followed by Friedel-Crafts reaction with benzene. DCBP monomer had good reactivity in polymerization affecting the activity of benzophenone as an electron-withdrawing group. The polyphenylene was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid. These polymers without any ether linkages on the polymer backbone were protected from nucleophilic attack by hydrogen peroxide, hydroxide anion, and radicals generated by polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC operation systems. The mole fraction of the sulfonic acid groups was controlled by varying the mole ratio of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene in the copolymer. In comparison with Nafion 211® membrane, these SBCDCBP membranes showed ion exchange capacity (IEC ranging from 1.04 to 2.07 meq./g, water uptake from 36.5% to 69.4%, proton conductivity from 58.7 to 101.9 mS/cm, and high thermal stability.

  17. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  18. Brine-resistant sulfonate surfactants for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournas, S.

    1983-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations of surfactant waterflooding is the instability of the commonly employed surfactants in the usual ionic environments of oil reservoirs. A specific modification to the usual structure of sulfonate surfactants not only makes them immune to high concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations, but also enables them to act as stabilizer of the common surfactants and to displace tertiary oil in brines of high salinity and divalent ion content.

  19. Nucleophilic tetrafluoroethylation of carbonyl compounds with fluorinated sulfones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jiří; Chernykh, Yana; Jurásek, Bronislav; Beier, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2015), s. 24-31 ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0421 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * tetrafluoroethylation * sulfones * nucleophilic addition * carbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.213, year: 2015

  20. Effects of guandinoethane sulfonate on contraction of skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisinier, C; Gailly, Philippe; Francaux, Marc; Lebacq, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Guanidinoethane sulfonic acid (GES), a chemical and biological analog of taurine, decreases rat muscle taurine content when added to drinking water. Over the same period, GES appears in muscle. GES supplementation is often used to study the effect of taurine depletion on physiological mechanisms, without taking into account the possible actions of GES. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the specific actions of GES on contraction of skeletal muscle. In mice EDL muscle, the tim...

  1. Regioselective synthesis of chiral dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Pop

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enantiopure (R,R and (S,S-dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene monosulfones have been synthesized by the aerial oxidation of the chiral dithiolates generated from the propionitrile-protected precursors. Both enantiomers crystallize in the orthorhombic chiral space group P212121. They show a boat-type conformation of the TTF moiety, a rather rigid dithiin sulfone ring and the methyl groups in a bisequatorial conformation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate fully reversible oxidation in radical cation and dication species.

  2. Ultrasound assisted regioselective sulfonation of aromatic compounds with sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ziyauddin S; Deshmukh, Krishna M; Jagtap, Sachin R; Nandurkar, Nitin S; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2009-03-01

    A simple and convenient methodology for selective sulfonation of aromatic compounds using sulfuric acid under sonication is described. The present methodology shows a considerable enhancement in the reaction rate along with improved selectivity compared with the reactions performed under silent conditions. The effect of various parameters such as agitation speed, sulfuric acid concentration, and temperature on reaction system have been investigated and are explained on the basis of ultrasonically generated cavitational effects.

  3. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 (μA · cm−2·mM−1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM) with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity) after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. PMID:26346240

  4. Sulfonation Disposition of Acacetin: In Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisong; Zhu, Lijun; Gong, Xia; Ruan, Yanjiao; Yu, Jia; Jiang, Huangyu; Wang, Ying; Qi, XiaoXiao; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2017-06-21

    Acacetin, an important component of acacia honey, exerts extensive therapeutic effects on many cancers. However, the sulfonation disposition of acacetin has rarely been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the sulfonation disposition of acacetin systematically. The results showed that acacetin-7-sulfate was the main metabolite mediated primarily by sulfotransferases (SULT) 1A1. Dog liver S9 presented the highest formation rate of acacetin-7-sulfate. Compared with that in wild-type Friend Virus B (FVB) mice, plasma exposure of acacetin-7-sulfate decreased significantly in multidrug resistance protein 1 knockout (Mrp1 -/- ) mice vut increased clearly in breast cancer resistance protein knockout (Bcrp -/- ) mice. In Caco-2 monolayers, the efflux and clearance of acacetin-7-sulfate was reduced distinctly by the BCRP inhibitor Ko143 on the apical side and by the MRP1 inhibitor MK571 on the basolateral side. In conclusion, acacetin sulfonation was mediated mostly by SULT1A1. Acacetin-7-sulfate was found to be transported mainly by BCRP and MRP1. Hence, SULT1A1, BCRP, and MRP1 are responsible for acacetin-7-sulfate exposure in vivo.

  5. Uptake and utilization of sulfonic acids in the cyanobacterial strains Anabaena variabilis and Plectonema 73110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedlingmaier, S.; Schmidt, A.

    1987-01-01

    Growth of several cyanobacteria was examined on ethane sulfonate and taurine as only sulfur source. Comparing two strains with differential utilization of sulfonic acids (Anabaena variabilis and Synechococcus 6301) demonstrated that actual growth was coupled to the presence of an active sulfonate transport system due to species specific properties and nutritional conditions. Sulfonate uptake in Anabaena variabilis was characterized by a pH optimum of 6.5, a structural specificity for sulfonates, missing Na + dependence, and phosphate stimulation. Radiolabeled ethane sulfonate and taurine was metabolized to products of normal sulfur metabolism. Also considerable amounts of 35 S-labeled volatiles (mercaptanes and sulfide) could be detected, suggesting a degradation mechanism via reduction to mercaptanes and cleavage of the C-S bond. (orig.)

  6. Polymer sulfonation- a versatile route to prepare proton-conducting membrane material for advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfonation of polymers is a viable method for making proton exchange membranes used in electrochemical devices. Polyether-ether ketone was modified by using concentrated sulfuric acid (97.4%) to produce ion-containing polymers bearing HSO3 groups. The sulfonated polymer was characterized for IEC, HNMR, DSC and water uptake etc. The degree of sulfonation of sulfonated PEEK was found to vary from 40 to 80 mol%. The PEEK became amorphous after sufonation (as evidenced from DSC and WXRD), which enhanced its solubility in organic solvents such as DMF. The glass transition temperature, Tg increased from 151C for pure PEEK to 217C upon sulfonation. The water uptake was also increased with sulfonation level, which provides formation of water-mediated pathways for protons involving SO3H groups. The membranes from these polymers have a high potential for use in electrochemical devices such as polymer fuel cell and electrodialysis. (author)

  7. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  8. Proton Conduction in Sulfonated Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Monoliths with Hierarchical Pore Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lehr, Martin; Seidler, Christopher F; Taffa, Dereje H; Wark, Michael; Smarsly, Bernd M; Marschall, Roland

    2016-09-28

    Porous organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths with hierarchical porosity exhibiting macro- and mesopores are prepared via sol-gel process under variation of the mesopore size. Organic moieties in the pore walls are incorporated by substituting up to 10% of the silicon precursor tetramethylorthosilicate with bisilylated benzene molecules. After functionalization with sulfonic acid groups, the resulting sulfonated hybrid monoliths featuring a bimodal pore structure are investigated regarding proton conduction depending on temperature and relative humidity. The hierarchical pore system and controlled mesopore design turn out to be crucial for sulfonation and proton conduction. These sulfonated hybrid hierarchical monoliths containing only 10% organic precursor exhibit higher proton conduction at different relative humidities than sulfonated periodic mesoporous organosilica made of 100% bisilylated precursors exhibiting solely mesopores, even with a lower concentration of sulfonic acid groups.

  9. IR Laser Ablative Degradation of Poly(phenylene ether sulfone): Deposition of Films Containing Sulfone, Sulfoxide and Sulfide Groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Stopka, Pavel; Pola, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2009), s. 196-200 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : laser ablation * laser-induced degradation * poly(1,4-phenylene ether-sulfone) Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2009

  10. Two-step sulfonation process for the conversion of polymer fibers to carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Bryan E.; Patton, Jasson T.; Hukkanen, Eric J.; Bernius, Mark T.

    2017-11-14

    Disclosed herein are processes for preparing carbon fibers, comprising: sulfonating a polymer fiber with a sulfonating agent that is fuming sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, or a combination thereof; treating the sulfonated polymer with a heated solvent, wherein the temperature of the heated solvent is at least 95.degree. C.; and carbonizing the resulting product by heating it to a temperature of 501-3000.degree. C. Carbon fibers prepared according to these methods are also disclosed herein.

  11. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid and derivatives: Convenient reagents for reversible modification of arginine residues

    OpenAIRE

    Pande, Chandra S.; Pelzig, Michal; Glass, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid hydrate was prepared by the action of selenous acid on camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonylnorleucine was prepared either from the sulfonic acid via the sulfonyl chloride or by selenous acid oxidation of camphor-10-sulfonylnorleucine. These reagents are useful for specific, reversible modification of the guanidino groups of arginine residues. Camphorquinonesulfonic acid is a crystalline water-soluble reagent that is especially suitable for use w...

  12. Síntese de poliestireno sulfonado para aplicações no tratamento de água produzido a partir de copos e bandejas descartadas de poliestireno Synthesis of poly(styrene sulfonate from discarded polystyrene cups and expanded trays for application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the use of poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS, produced from discarded polystyrene materials through heterogeneous and homogeneous processes, was investigated. The use of PSS for water treatment, using a kaolin suspension as wastewater model, reduced water turbidity for all the employed materials when compared to the blank analysis, without PSS. The most efficient polyelectrolyte was PSS cups obtained by homogeneous route. The same behavior was observed for real system. The homogeneous PSS cups showed a balance between a moderate molecular weight and high anionic character that improved flocks formation and water removal turbidity.

  13. Measurements of photo-oxidation products from the reaction of a series of alkyl-benzenes with hydroxyl radicals during EXACT using comprehensive gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Photo-oxidation products from the reaction of a series of alkyl-benzenes, (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethyl-benzene with hydroxyl radicals in the presence of NOx have been investigated using comprehensive gas chromatography (GCxGC. A GCxGC system has been developed which utilises valve modulation and independent separations as a function of both volatility and polarity. A number of carbonyl-type compounds were identified during a series of reactions carried out at the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE, a large volume outdoor reaction chamber in Valencia, Spain. Experiments were carried as part of the EXACT project (Effects of the oXidation of Aromatic Compounds in the Troposphere. Two litre chamber air samples were cryo-focused, with a sampling frequency of 30 minutes, allowing the evolution of species to be followed over oxidation periods of 3-6 hours. To facilitate product identification, several carbonyl compounds, which were possible products of the photo-oxidation, were synthesised and used as reference standards. For toluene reactions, observed oxygenated intermediates found included the co-eluting pair a-angelicalactone/4-oxo-2-pentenal, maleic anhydride, citraconic anhydride, benzaldehyde and p-methyl benzoquinone. In the p-xylene experiment, the products identified were E/Z-hex-3-en-2,5-dione and citraconic anhydride. For 1,3,5-TMB reactions, the products identified were 3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde, 3,5-dimethyl-3H-furan-2-one and 3-methyl-5-methylene-5H-furan-2-one. Preliminary quantification was carried out on identified compounds using liquid standards. Comparison of FTIR and GCxGC for the measurement of the parent aromatics generally showed good agreement. Comparison of the concentrations observed by GCxGC to concentration-time profiles simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCMv3, demonstrates that this mechanism significantly over-predicts the concentrations of many product compounds and highlights the

  14. Measurements of photo-oxidation products from the reaction of a series of alkyl-benzenes with hydroxyl radicals during EXACT using comprehensive gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Lewis, A. C.; Bloss, C.; Wagner, V.; Henderson, A. P.; Golding, B. T.; Wirtz, K.; Martin-Reviejo, M.; Pilling, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    Photo-oxidation products from the reaction of a series of alkyl-benzenes, (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethyl-benzene) with hydroxyl radicals in the presence of NOx have been investigated using comprehensive gas chromatography (GCxGC). A GCxGC system has been developed which utilises valve modulation and independent separations as a function of both volatility and polarity. A number of carbonyl-type compounds were identified during a series of reactions carried out at the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE), a large volume outdoor reaction chamber in Valencia, Spain. Experiments were carried as part of the EXACT project (Effects of the oXidation of Aromatic Compounds in the Troposphere). Two litre chamber air samples were cryo-focused, with a sampling frequency of 30 minutes, allowing the evolution of species to be followed over oxidation periods of 3-6 hours. To facilitate product identification, several carbonyl compounds, which were possible products of the photo-oxidation, were synthesised and used as reference standards. For toluene reactions, observed oxygenated intermediates found included the co-eluting pair a-angelicalactone/4-oxo-2-pentenal, maleic anhydride, citraconic anhydride, benzaldehyde and p-methyl benzoquinone. In the p-xylene experiment, the products identified were E/Z-hex-3-en-2,5-dione and citraconic anhydride. For 1,3,5-TMB reactions, the products identified were 3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde, 3,5-dimethyl-3H-furan-2-one and 3-methyl-5-methylene-5H-furan-2-one. Preliminary quantification was carried out on identified compounds using liquid standards. Comparison of FTIR and GCxGC for the measurement of the parent aromatics generally showed good agreement. Comparison of the concentrations observed by GCxGC to concentration-time profiles simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCMv3, demonstrates that this mechanism significantly over-predicts the concentrations of many product compounds and highlights the uncertainties which exist in

  15. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.

    1984-09-04

    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  16. Cadmium ion sorption onto lignocellulosic biosorbent modified by sulfonation: the origin of sorption capacity improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun Woo; Rowell, Roger M

    2005-08-01

    Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), a small-diameter underutilized material, has been studied as a lignocellulosic biosorbent for removing heavy metals from water. In this study, juniper wood was modified by sulfonation to enhance sorption capacity for cadmium in water. The origin of the enhancement was investigated by observing the sorption behaviors and the change in surface functional group concentrations. Cadmium sorption by all juniper wood biosorbents studied was fast and the sorption capacity decreased with decreasing pH, similar to results found for other biosorbents. Sulfonated juniper was found to have at least twice the sorption capacity for cadmium removal from water compared to that of untreated juniper, though the sorption capacity increased with increasing pH. A slight increase in carboxylate content after sulfonation was likely responsible for a small portion of the enhancement. Elemental analysis showed an increase in sulfur content after sulfonation. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra showed a decrease in the band at 1660 cm(-1) in the range of carbonyl groups as a result of sulfonation. This indicates that coniferaldehyde groups in the lignin of juniper wood corresponding to this band were substituted into sulfonic acid groups after sulfonation. This interpretation was supported by both the color forming reaction with phloroglucinol-hydrochloric acid and the reaction mechanisms from the acid sulfite pulping process. Consequently, the enhancement of cadmium sorption capacity of juniper wood by sulfonation mainly originated from the production of sulfonic acid groups, which are binding sites for heavy metals.

  17. Lithiated short side chain perfluorinated sulfonic ionomeric membranes: Water content and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrini, Walter; Scrosati, Bruno; Panero, Stefania; Ghielmi, Alessandro; Sanguineti, Aldo; Geniram, Giuliana

    In view of possible applications as single-ion electrolyte for lithium batteries, some aspects of the lithium form of Hyflon Ion ionomer, a sulfonic short side chain (SSC) electrolyte, have been investigated. The synthesis of the ionomer and the successive membrane preparation is reported. An appropriate methodology for the direct salification of the ionomeric membrane from the SO 2F form to lithium salt, using lithium hydroxide in absence of organic solvent has been found. Utilizing these SSC lithium ionomer membranes and though a particular methodology for the dehydration of the lithium ion membrane in non-aqueous media, it has been possible to achieve an ionic conductivity of 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature [W. Navarrini, S. Panero, B. Scrosati, A. Sanguineti, European Patent 1,403,958 A1 (2003)]. Surprisingly it was observed that the membrane ionic conductivity depends on the dehydration methodologies adopted.

  18. Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS in Yazd Stabilization Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are organic chemicals with wide applications as detergents. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is an anionic surfactant most commonly used. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical into the environment causes major public health problems. In this study, 64 samples were taken from the effluent of Yazd Wastewater  Treatment Plant over a period of one year. The samples were analyzed according to standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest efficiency of anionic surfactant removal was achieved in the summer in the secondary facultative stabilization pond. The least efficiency was observed in the autumn in samples from the anaerobic stabilization pond. It was also found that treated wastewater discharged into surface waters, reused for agricultural irrigation, or discharged into absorbent wells had significant differences with Pvalue

  19. Novel cross-linked sulfonated poly (arylene ether ketone) membranes for direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chengji; Lin, Haidan; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    To prepare a cross-linked proton exchange membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity, poly (vinyl alcohol) is first blended with sulfonated poly (arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxylic acid groups (SPAEK-C) and then heated to induce a cross-linking reaction between the carboxyl groups in SPAEK-C and the hydroxyl groups in PVA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is used to characterize and confirm the structure of SPAEK-C and the cross-linked membranes. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membrane with 15% PVA in weight reaches up to 0.18 S cm{sup -1} at 80 C (100% relative humidity), which is higher than that of Nafion membrane, while the methanol permeability is nearly five times lower than Nafion. The ion-exchange capacity, water uptake and thermal stability are investigated to confirm their applicability in fuel cells. (author)

  20. Low-level Determination of Residual Methyl Methane Sulfonate and Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in Pharmaceuticals by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A capillary gas chromatographic method using mass spectrometric detection was developed and validated for the trace analysis (ppm level of methyl methane sulfonate and ethyl methane sulfonate in pharmaceutical drug substances. The method utilizes a capillary column (DB-624 with 6% cyanopropyl phenyl and 94% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase. A dissolve-and-injection approach was adopted for sample introduction in a split less mode. Mixture of (80:20 ratio of methanol and chloroform was used as a diluent or sample solvent. A limit of detection of about 0.17 μg/g (0.17 ppm for methyl methane sulfonate and 0.18 μg/g (0.18 ppm for ethyl methane sulfonate were achieved and limit of quantitation of 0.52 μg/g (0.52 ppm for methyl methane sulfonate and 0.54 μg/g (0.54 ppm for ethyl methane sulfonate were achieved for alkyl sulfonates in drug substance samples.

  1. Synthesis of highly branched sulfonated polymers and the effects of degree of branching on properties of branched sulfonated polymers as proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiong; Wang, Duan; Tao, Dan; Wang, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Branched sulfonated polymers exhibit excellent properties as proton exchange membranes (PEMs). However, very few highly branched sulfonated polymers are reported as PEMs. The highly branched polymer, including the method to increase degree of branching (DB) and the effects of DB on the properties of PEMs, should be further studied. In this work, novel branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s with different DB value are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions from bisphenol fluorene (A2), sulfonated 4,4‧-difluorobenzphenone, 1,3,5-tris(4-(4-fluorophenylsulfonyl)phenyl)benzene (B3-3) and 4,4‧-difluorodiphenyl sulfone. The highest DB with 10% branching agent is obtained using the B3-3 monomer. The method to increase the DB is discussed. It is found that B3 scaffold with long and hard arms can effectively increase the DB value. The effects of DB on the properties, including oxidative stability, proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, thermal stability, mechanical property and microstructure, are investigated. With increasing DB value, oxidative stability and proton conductivity of the membranes increase remarkably, but swelling ratio and tensile strength decrease slowly. The membrane with the highest DB value (10%) exhibits high proton conductivity (0.42 S cm-1) and oxidative stability (327 min), as well as relatively low swelling ratio (16.2%) at 80 °C.

  2. Sulfonation of the resolving cysteine in human peroxiredoxin 1: A comprehensive analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changgong; Dai, Huacheng; Yan, Lin; Liu, Tong; Cui, Chuanglong; Chen, Tong; Li, Hong

    2017-07-01

    Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) is an essential peroxidase that reduces cellular peroxides. It holds 2 indispensable cysteines for its activity: a peroxidatic cysteine (C P ) for peroxide reduction and a resolving cysteine (C R ) for C P regeneration. C P can be readily sulfonated to C P -SO 3 H by protracted oxidative stress, which inactivates Prx1 as a peroxidase. By comparison, sulfonation of C R to C R -SO 3 H in mammalian cells has only been reported once. The rare report of C R sulfonation prompts the following questions: "can C R -SO 3 H be detected more readily with the current high sensitivity mass spectrometers (MS)?" and "do C P and C R have distinct propensities to sulfonation?" Answers to these questions could shed light on how differential sulfonation of C P and C R regulates Prx1 functions in cells. We used a sensitive Orbitrap MS to analyze both basal and H 2 O 2 -induced sulfonation of C R and C P in either recombinant human Prx1 (rPrx1) or HeLa cell Prx1 (cPrx1). In the Orbitrap MS, we optimized both collision-induced dissociation and higher-energy collisional dissociation methods to improve the analytical sensitivity of cysteine sulfonation. In the basal states without added H 2 O 2 , both C P and C R were partially sulfonated in either rPrx1 or cPrx1. Still, exogenous H 2 O 2 heightened the sulfonation levels of both C P and C R by ~200-700%. Titration with H 2 O 2 revealed that C P and C R possessed distinct propensities to sulfonation. This surprising discovery of prevalent Prx1 C R sulfonation affords a motivation for future investigation of its precise functions in cellular stress response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Benzyl-tributyl-ammonium 7-hydroxy-naphthalene-1-sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yohei; Uta, Kazuya; Mizuguchi, Jin

    2009-01-17

    The title compound, C(19)H(34)N(+)·C(10)H(7)O(4)S(-), is a charge-control agent used for toners in electrophotography. The anions form one-dimensional chains by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds in a zigzag fashion along the c axis between the OH group of one anion and the sulfonate O atom of a neighboring anion. One of the n-butyl chains of the cation is disordered over two sites in a 0.77:0.23 ratio.

  4. Benzyl-tributyl-ammonium 6-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uta, Kazuya; Sato, Yohei; Mizuguchi, Jin

    2009-01-17

    The title compound, C(19)H(34)N(+)·C(10)H(7)O(4)S(-), is a charge-control agent for toners used in electrophotography. Inter-moleclar O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the OH group of one anion and the sulfonate O atom of a neighboring anion leads to the formation of one-dimensional chains along the b axis. In addition, C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. One of the n-butyl chains of the cation is disordered over two sites in a 0.88:0.12 ratio.

  5. Poly(oxyethylene) electrolytes based on lithium pentafluorobenzene sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillard, E.; Iojoiu, C.; Alloin, F.; Guindet, J.; Sanchez, J.-Y. [LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2007-03-01

    Lithium pentafluorobenzene sulfonate was synthesized by a protocol whereby pollution by aromatic nucleophilic substitutions on the perfluorinated ring was avoided. Its poly(oxyethylene) complexes, although less conductive than lithium imide complexes, provided cationic transference numbers higher than 0.5. Surprisingly, even at fairly low concentrations, this salt markedly increased the mechanical properties of the polymer electrolyte. This effect was attributed to telechelic interactions of the ion pairs with distinct polyether chains and is in agreement with the high cationic transference numbers. (author)

  6. Mechanocatalytic Depolymerization of Cellulose With Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Karam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated that the mechanocatalytic depolymerization of cellulose in the presence of Aquivion, a sulfonated perfluorinated ionomer. Under optimized conditions, yields of water soluble sugars of 90–97% were obtained using Aquivion PW98 and PW66, respectively, as a solid acid catalyst. The detailed characterization of the water soluble fraction revealed (i the selective formation of oligosaccharides with a DP up to 11 and (ii that depolymerization and reversion reactions concomitantly occurred during the mechanocatalytic process, although the first largely predominated. More importantly, we discussed on the critical role of water contained in Aquivion and cellulose on the efficiency of the mechanocatalytic process.

  7. Synthesis and Structure-Property Relationships of Poly(sulfone)s for Anion Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, JL; Moore, HD; Hibbs, MR; Hickner, MA

    2013-10-05

    Membranes based on cationic polymers that conduct anions are important for enabling alkaline membrane fuel cells and other solid-state electrochemical devices that operate at high pH. Anion exchange membranes with poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones are demonstrated by two routes: chloromethylation of commercially available poly(sulfone)s or radical bromination of benzylmethyl moieties in poly(sulfone)s containing tetramethylbisphenol A monomer residues. Polymers with tethered trimethylbenzyl ammonium moieties resulted from conversion of the halomethyl groups by quaternization with trimethyl amine. The water uptake of the chloromethylated polymers was dependent on the type of poly(sulfone) backbone for a given IEC. Bisphenol A-based Udel (R) poly(sulfone) membranes swelled in water to a large extent while membranes from biphenol-based Radel (R) poly(sulfone), a stiffer backbone than Udel, only showed moderate water uptake. The water uptake of cationic poly(sulfone)s was further reduced by synthesizing tetramethylbisphenol A and 4,4-biphenol-containing poly(sulfone) copolymers where the ionic groups were clustered on the tetramethylbisphenol A residues. The conductivity of all samples scaled with the bulk water uptake. The hydration number of the membranes could be increased by casting membranes from the ionic form polymers versus converting the halomethyl form cast polymers to ionic form in the solid state. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1790-1798, 2013

  8. Cationic and radical intermediates in the acid photorelease from aryl sulfonates and phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpolilli, Marco; Merli, Daniele; Protti, Stefano; Dichiarante, Valentina; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Albini, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The irradiation of a series of phenyl sulfonates and phosphates leads to the quantitative release of acidity with a reasonable quantum yield (≈0.2). Products characterization, ion chromatography analysis and potentiometric titration are consistent with the intervening of two different paths in this reaction, viz. cationic with phosphates and (mainly) radical with sulfonates.

  9. Reaction of arylsulfonylhydrazones of aldehydes with alpha-magnesio sulfones. A novel olefin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek-Tyrlik, A; Marczak, S; Michalak, K; Wicha, J; Zarecki, A

    2001-10-19

    Reactions of representative tosylhydrazones of aldehydes and ketones with alpha-metalated sulfones were examined in order to develop a practical olefination method. Treatment of aldehyde tosylhydrazone 2 with an excess of alpha-lithiated methyl phenyl or dimethyl sulfones yielded 3a. The reaction of 2 with sterically unhindered lithiated alkyl sulfones gave mixtures of the respective olefination products 3b-d along with the Shapiro fragmentation product 4. Sterically hindered lithiated sulfones afforded Shapiro products exclusively. In contrast, aldehyde tosylhydrazones 2 or 6 in reactions with a variety of alpha-magnesio primary or secondary alkyl sulfones gave olefination products 3a-j and 7a-c in high yields (Tables 1 and 2). beta-Branched alkyl sulfones afforded predominantly (E)-alkenes, whereas unhindered primary sulfones gave mixtures of (E)- and (Z)-alkenes with low selectivity. Reaction of the 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonylhydrazone (trisylhydrazone) of cyclodecanone 11c with alpha-magnesio methyl phenyl sulfone afforded the methylidene derivative 12a contaminated with the Shapiro product 13. Tosylhydrazone 2 resisted reaction with i-PrMgCl and gave only a small amount of the addition product in reaction with Bu(2)Mg. Some mechanistic aspects of the reaction of tosylhydrazones with organomagnesium compounds are discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  11. Post-sulfonation of cellulose nanofibrils with a one-step reaction to improve dispersibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jeffrey; Semenikhin, Nikolay; Chang, Huibin; Moon, Robert J; Kumar, Satish

    2018-02-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were sulfonated and the dispersion quality was compared to unfunctionalized and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) post-oxidation treatment of existing CNF (mechanically fibrillated pulp). A post-sulfonation treatment on existing CNF in chlorosulfonic acid and dimethylformamide (DMF) resulted in sulfonated CNF that retained a fibril-like morphology. There was a small decrease in the cellulose crystallinity index for the sulfonated CNF, but this was much lower than the reported regioselective oxidative bisulfite pretreatment method used to make sulfonated CNF. The current approach was extremely quick, and 5min of reaction time was sufficient to result in significant improvements in dispersibility compared to unfunctionalized CNF. The sulfonated CNF and TEMPO oxidized CNF had better dispersibility compared to the unfunctionalized CNF when dispersed in DMF and water, and in many cases the sulfonated CNF had better dispersibility than the TEMPO CNF. It was found that when CNF was dispersed in DMF the TEMPO CNF formed carboxyl dimethylammonium groups, while the sulfonated CNF formed formate groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene) : synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, F.; Tricoli, V.; Carretta, N.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was

  13. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali and amine salts. 721.2565 Section 721.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and alkylated...

  14. Radiation-chemical synthesis of polypropylene fabrics with sulfonic acid functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Kug; Park, Jung Soo; Han, Do Hung, E-mail: dhhan@yumail.ac.kr; Bondar, Iuliia, E-mail: juliavad@yahoo.co

    2011-04-01

    A sorption-active material carrying sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene monomer onto the surface of non-woven polypropylene fabric, followed by sulfonation of the grafted polystyrene chains. The effect of the main experimental parameters (absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time) on the styrene degree of grafting was investigated. The sulfonation process with 5% chlorosulfonic acid at room temperature was investigated in detail and the optimal sulfonation conditions for the samples with a medium degree of grafting (70-140%) were determined. Densities of 3.5-5 meq/g were obtained by applying those sorption-active PP fabrics with a sulfonic acid group.

  15. [Synthesis, solubility, lipids-lowering and liver-protection activities of sulfonated formononetin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-ya; Meng, Qing-hua; Zhang, Zun-ting; Tian, Zhen-jun; Liu, Hui

    2009-04-01

    A water-soluble compound, sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate with good lipid-lowering and liver-protection activities was synthesized. It was synthesized by sulfonation reaction, and its structure was characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analyses. The solubility of sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate in water and n-octanol/water partition coefficient were determined by UV spectrophotometry. The lipid-lowering and liver-protection activities of sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate were tested by using rat's high fat model induce by feeding with high fat food. The results showed that sodium formononetin-3'-sulfonate not only had favorable water, solubility but also had good lipid-lowering and liver-protection activities.

  16. New determination method for sulfonation degree of phthalic anhydride by RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Song, Lechun; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Yulu; Xiang, Yuzhi; Xia, Daohong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method was developed to monitor the reaction process and evaluate the sulfonation level in the sulfonation of phthalic anhydride by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The product peak was identified in chromatograms through product analysis and by comparing its retention time with that of standard compounds. By comparing the hydrolysis and alcoholysis methods, optimized pretreatment of the sample was found for RP-HPLC. Based on the determined percentages of phthalic anhydride and sulfonated phthalic anhydride in the mixture, the degree of sulfonation was calculated. When the sulfonation degree of phthalic anhydride was in the range of 2.8-71%, the recovery of 97-104% was achieved, and the procedure was rapid and accurate.

  17. Sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of botryosphaeran from Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Simone Ferreira; dos Santos, Osvaldo; Barbosa, Aneli M; Vasconcelos, Ana Flora D; Aranda-Selverio, Gabriel; Monteiro, Nilson K; Dekker, Robert F H; Sá Pereira, Mariana; Tovar, Ana Maria F; Mourão, Paulo A de Souza; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Corradi

    2009-10-01

    Botryosphaeran (EPS(FRU)), an exopolysaccharide of the beta-(1-->3,1-->6)-d-glucan type with 31% branching at C-6, is produced by the fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 when grown on fructose as carbon source. Botryosphaeran was derivatized by sulfonation to induce anticoagulant activity. The effectiveness of the sulfonation reaction by chlorosulfonic acid in pyridine was monitored by the degree of substitution and FT-IR analysis of the sulfonated EPS(FRU) (once sulfonated, EPS(FRUSULF); and re-sulfonated, EPS(FRURESULF)). Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) tests of EPS(FRURESULF) indicated significant in vitro anticoagulant activity that was dose-dependent. EPS(FRU) did not inhibit any of the coagulation tests.

  18. Sulfonation, an underexploited area: from skeletal development to infectious diseases and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ada W. Y.; Backstrom, Ian; Bally, Marcel B

    2016-08-23

    Sulfonation is one of the most abundant cellular reactions modifying a wide range of xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules which regulate important biological processes including blood clotting, formation of connective tissues, and functionality of secreted proteins, hormones, and signaling molecules. Sulfonation is ubiquitous in all tissues and widespread in nature (plants, animals, and microorganisms). Although sulfoconjugates were discovered over a century ago when, in 1875, Baumann isolated phenyl sulfate in the urine of a patient given phenol as an antiseptic, the significance of sulfonation and its roles in human diseases have been underappreciated until recent years. Here, we provide a current overview of the significance of sulfonation reactions in a variety of biological functions and medical conditions (with emphasis on cancer). We also discuss research areas that warrant further attention if we are to fully understand how deficiencies in sulfonation could impact human health which, in turn, could help define treatments to effect improvements in health.

  19. Sulfonated Poly(styrene) Chains Grafted on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Yevelev, Anton; Parra, Javier; Akcora, Pinar; Stevens Institute of Technology Team

    2014-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with poly(styrene) (PS) chains at various grafting densities and loadings present stable and ordered nanostructures for tuning the mechanical and conductive properties in polymer composites. Strings, spherical and anisotropic clusters and well-dispersed particles are achieved with PS-grafted Fe3O4 nanoparticles in PS matrices upon varying the system parameters. In this work, we report the effect of sulfonic group locations on the aggregation state of polymer-grafted nanoparticles. Structures formed by the random and diblock copolymers of PS-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) grafted particles will be discussed with small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements in solution and melts. The conformational changes in PS-grafted chains and ion-containing grafts will be also presented in small-angle neutron-scattering (SANS) results to understand the role of polymer on the assembly of particles at the low grafting density. We acknowledge support by NSF-CAREER-DMR (#1048865).

  20. Enhancing the phase segregation and connectivity of hydrophilic channels by blending highly sulfonated graft copolymers with fluorous homopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Ching-Ching Yang, Ami; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The influence of tuning the ionic content of membranes by blending, as opposed to varying the degree of sulfonation, is evaluated. Membranes of fully sulfonated poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)-g-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) blended with PVDF were prepared and investigated...

  1. Linear alkylbenzenes in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) and their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Lu Fenghui; Wang Jizhong; Guan Yufeng; Luo Xianlin; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2008-01-01

    The average concentrations of ΣLABs (sum of C 10 -C 13 -LABs) in runoff samples collected from the eight major riverine outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China ranged from 1.4 to 6124 ng/L in the dissolved phase and from 0.01 to 11.4 μg/g dry weight in the particulate phase during March 2005-February 2006. The annual riverine flux of ΣLABs from the PRD to the coastal ocean was estimated at approximately 14 tons/yr. The inventories of ΣLABs in agricultural lands of Guangdong Province ranged from 313 to 1825 kg/yr. The early and late rice fields were the major sink of LABs, accounting for approximately 68% of total LABs inventory in agricultural lands. The social-economically estimated annual discharge of LABs from household detergents in the PRD was ∼696 tons/yr, more than an order of magnitude higher than that estimated from field measurements (about 14 tons/yr), which was attributed to several factors. - Occurrence of LABs in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) was examined

  2. Linear alkylbenzenes in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) and their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Lu Fenghui; Wang Jizhong; Guan Yufeng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1131, Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Xianlin [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1131, Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: eddyzeng@gig.ac.cn

    2008-07-15

    The average concentrations of {sigma}LABs (sum of C{sub 10}-C{sub 13}-LABs) in runoff samples collected from the eight major riverine outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China ranged from 1.4 to 6124 ng/L in the dissolved phase and from 0.01 to 11.4 {mu}g/g dry weight in the particulate phase during March 2005-February 2006. The annual riverine flux of {sigma}LABs from the PRD to the coastal ocean was estimated at approximately 14 tons/yr. The inventories of {sigma}LABs in agricultural lands of Guangdong Province ranged from 313 to 1825 kg/yr. The early and late rice fields were the major sink of LABs, accounting for approximately 68% of total LABs inventory in agricultural lands. The social-economically estimated annual discharge of LABs from household detergents in the PRD was {approx}696 tons/yr, more than an order of magnitude higher than that estimated from field measurements (about 14 tons/yr), which was attributed to several factors. - Occurrence of LABs in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) was examined.

  3. Effect of N-Sulfonation on the Colloidal and Liquid Crystal Behavior of Chitin Crystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Revol; Marchessault

    1997-08-15

    Chitin crystallites were heterogeneously N-sulfonated in an aqueous medium using triethylamine/sulfur trioxide (TEA/SO3) or pyridine/sulfur trioxide. The extent of N-sulfonation of the crystallites has been controlled by the amount of TEA/SO3 added in the reaction. The concentration of sulfur in the crystallites after N-sulfonation was quantified using conductimetric titration and elemental analysis. The ratio of N-sulfonated amino groups to amino groups (S/N) was calculated based on the titration data. The presence of N-S bonds assumed to be at crystallite surfaces was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After N-sulfonation, the crystallites have two ionizable groups at their surface: -NH3+ and -NHSO3H(Na). The former is pH dependent. The colloidal properties of the N-sulfonated crystallites having different S/N were investigated by plotting the zeta potential as a function of the pH of the suspension. The isoelectric point was found to change with the level of N-sulfonation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the aggregation of crystallites depends strongly on the extent of N-sulfonation. Above a certain concentration, the original chitin crystallites form tactoids (chiral nematic domains) in an aqueous medium. This phenomenon was not observed for the crystallites with a low extent of surface N-sulfonation (below 70%). At about 80% N-sulfonation, the formation of tactoids was once again observed. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  4. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  5. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Merle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone (cSPEEK membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  6. State of the water in crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). Two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Lafi, Abdul G. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Hay, James N., E-mail: cscientific9@aec.org.sy [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • 2D-DSC mapping was applied to analyze the heat flow responses of hydrated crosslinked sPEEK. • Two types of loosely bond water were observed. • The first was bond to the sulfonic acid groups and increased with ion exchange capacity. • The second was attributed to the polar groups introduced by ions irradiation and increased with crosslinking degree. • DSC combined with 2D mapping provides a powerful tool for polymer structural determination. - Abstract: This paper reports the first application of two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping, 2D-DSC-CM to analyze the heat flow responses of sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone), sPEEK, films having different ion exchange capacity and degrees of crosslinks. With the help of high resolution and high sensitivity of 2D-DSC-CM, it was possible to locate two types of loosely bound water within the structure of crosslinked sPEEK. The first was bound to the sulfonic acid groups and dependent on the ion exchange capacity of the sPEEK. The second was bound to other polar groups, either introduced by irradiation with ions and dependent on the crosslinking degree or present in the polymer such as the carbonyl groups or terminal units. The results suggest that the ability of the sulfonic acid groups in the crosslinked sPEEK membranes to adsorb water molecules is increased by crosslinking, probably due to the better close packing efficiency of the crosslinked samples. DSC combined with 2D correlation mapping provides a fast and powerful tool for polymer structural determination.

  7. Effect of Al2O3 nanolubrication with Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) on surface roughness and tool wear under MQL during turning of Ti-6AL-4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M A M; Khalil, A N M; Azmi, A I

    2016-01-01

    The application of coolant reduces the friction and heat generation, which affect the surface finish and tool life, during machining. Recently, nanolubricant opens a new ways of coolant strategy in machining operation. It is well known that suspended nanoparticles without surfactant in base oil tend to agglomerate after a period of time. This paper presents the effects of AEO 3 nanolubricant with surfactant, Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) on surface roughness and tool wear during turning of titanium alloy, Ti-6AL-4T. The comparison of different coolant strategies, dry cutting, flooding, minimum quantity lubricant (MQL), nanolubricant with and without surfactant are also presented. The results showed that Al 2 O 3 nanolubricant with surfactant, Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) under MQL exhibits low surface roughness and tool wear rate compared to others. This proved that the addition of surfactant not only improved nanolubricant stability but also machining performance. (paper)

  8. Effect of Al2O3 nanolubrication with Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) on surface roughness and tool wear under MQL during turning of Ti-6AL-4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. A. M.; Khalil, A. N. M.; Azmi, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    The application of coolant reduces the friction and heat generation, which affect the surface finish and tool life, during machining. Recently, nanolubricant opens a new ways of coolant strategy in machining operation. It is well known that suspended nanoparticles without surfactant in base oil tend to agglomerate after a period of time. This paper presents the effects of AEO3 nanolubricant with surfactant, Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) on surface roughness and tool wear during turning of titanium alloy, Ti-6AL-4T. The comparison of different coolant strategies, dry cutting, flooding, minimum quantity lubricant (MQL), nanolubricant with and without surfactant are also presented. The results showed that Al2O3 nanolubricant with surfactant, Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) under MQL exhibits low surface roughness and tool wear rate compared to others. This proved that the addition of surfactant not only improved nanolubricant stability but also machining performance.

  9. Proton-conducting membranes based on benzimidazole-containing sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) compared with their carboxyl acid form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Xu, Dan; Lin, Haidan; Han, Miaomiao; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing pendant carboxyl (C-SPEEKs) have been synthesized using a nucleophilic polycondesation reaction. A condensation reaction between 1,2-diaminobenzene and carboxyl resulted in a new series of copolymers containing benzimidazole groups (SPEEK-BIms). The expected structures of the sulfonated copolymers are confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR. The dependence of ion exchange capacity, water uptake, proton conductivity and methanol diffusion coefficient of SPEEK-BIm membranes has been studied and compared with their carboxyl acid form. The results suggest that the introduction of benzimidazole groups may be responsible for many excellent properties of the membranes for fuel cell. It is noticeable that the markedly improved oxidative stability is benefit for the application of membrane. (author)

  10. The influence of time reaction to characteristic of methyl ester sulfonate from seed oil ketapang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to The Preparation of Methyl Ester Sulfonate From Ketapang Seed Oil As Surfactant. The research is to determine the optimum condition synthesis of methyl ester sulfonate surfactant with reaction time variations (3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5 hours. The methyl ester from ketapang seed oil were analysis by GC-MS and identified methyl ester sulfonate by using FTIR spectroscopy. The methyl ester from ketapang seed oil showed containing of methyl palmitoleic, methyl linoleic, methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleic, methyl palmitolenat and methyl eicosenoate. The optimum condition of methyl ester sulfonate at reaction time 4.5 hours with the mass of methyl ester sulfonate 34,85 g. For the FTIR spectra of sulfonate group is indicated by shifting of wave number at 1118.71cm-1 until 1029.1 cm-1. The characteristics of methyl ester sulfonate at the optimum reaction time have emulsion stability 71.684%, density 0.8714 g/mL, surface tension 36.232 dyne/cm, and maximum absorbance 1.428 at the maximum wavelength 660 nm.

  11. Celecoxib influences steroid sulfonation catalyzed by human recombinant sulfotransferase 2A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambadapadi, Sriram; Wang, Peter L; Palii, Sergiu P; James, Margaret O

    2015-08-01

    Celecoxib has been reported to switch the human SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) from the 3- to the 17-position. The effects of celecoxib on the sulfonation of selected steroids catalyzed by human SULT2A1 were assessed through in vitro and in silico studies. Celecoxib inhibited SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (AD), testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (Epi-T) in a concentration-dependent manner. Low μM concentrations of celecoxib strikingly enhanced the formation of the 17-sulfates of 6-dehydroestradiol (6D-E2), 17β-dihydroequilenin (17β-Eqn), 17β-dihydroequilin (17β-Eq), and 9-dehydroestradiol (9D-E2) as well as the overall rate of sulfonation. For 6D-E2, 9D-E2 and 17β-Eqn, celecoxib inhibited 3-sulfonation, however 3-sulfonation of 17β-Eq was stimulated at celecoxib concentrations below 40 μM. Ligand docking studies in silico suggest that celecoxib binds in the substrate-binding site of SULT2A1 in a manner that prohibits the usual binding of substrates but facilitates, for appropriately shaped substrates, a binding mode that favors 17-sulfonation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfonation of Tyrosine as a Method To Improve Biodistribution of Peptide-Based Radiotracers: Novel18F-Labeled Cyclic RGD Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskali, Mohammad B; Denoyer, Delphine; Noonan, Wayne; Culinane, Carleen; Rangger, Christine; Pouliot, Normand; Haubner, Roland; Roselt, Peter D; Hicks, Rodney J; Hutton, Craig A

    2017-04-03

    Control of the biodistribution of radiolabeled peptides has proven to be a major challenge in their application as imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). Modification of peptide hydrophilicity in order to increase renal clearance has been a common endeavor to improve overall biodistribution. Herein, we examine the effect of site-specific sulfonation of tyrosine moieties in cyclic(RGDyK) peptides as a means to enhance their hydrophilicity and improve their biodistribution. The novel sulfonated cyclic(RGDyK) peptides were conjugated directly to 4-nitrophenyl 2-[ 18 F]fluoropropionate, and the biodistribution of the radiolabeled peptides was compared with that of their nonsulfonated, clinically relevant counterparts, [ 18 F]GalactoRGD and [ 18 F]FPPRGD2. Site-specific sulfonation of the tyrosine residues was shown to increase hydrophilicity and improve biodistribution of the RGD peptides, despite contributing just 79 Da toward the MW, compared with 189 Da for both the "Galacto" and mini-PEG moieties, suggesting this may be a broadly applicable approach to enhancing biodistribution of radiolabeled peptides.

  13. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting Th1/Th17 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Guo, Lele; Gu, Yanhong; Cai, Peifen; Xie, Ning; Yang, Xiaoling; Shu, Yongqian; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting condition of inflammation involves overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and excessive functions of inflammatory cells. However, current treatments for IBD may have potential adverse effects including steroid dependence, infections and lymphoma. Therefore new therapies for the treatment of IBD are desperately needed. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on murine experimental colitis induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Andrographolide sulfonate was administrated through intraperitoneal injection to mice with TNBS-induced colitis. TNBS-induced body weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, shortening of the colon and colonic inflammation were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Both the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, CD4(+) T cell infiltration as well as the differentiation of Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)) and Th17 (CD4(+)IL17A(+)) subset were inhibited by andrographolide sulfonate. In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in mice through inhibiting Th1/Th17 response. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Young [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shul, Yong-Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • The c-SBS films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam. • The crosslinking degree of the c-SBS films were increased with the irradiation dose. • The prepared c-SBS films were sulfonated with various concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation of the c-SBS film is largely dependent on the concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation process is progressed from the surface to the inner part of c-SBS film. -- Abstract: Several crosslinked poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  15. Benzyl-tributyl-ammonium 4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uta, Kazuya; Mizuguchi, Jin

    2009-01-17

    The title compound, C(19)H(34)N(+)·C(10)H(7)O(4)S(-), is a charge-control agent used for toners in electrophotography. In the crystal structure, centrosymmetric anions associate through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds formed between the O-H group of one anion and the sulfonate O atom of a neighbor. The components of the dimer are offset with respect to each other so that the separation between the two parallel naphthalene skeletons is about 1.6 Å. The ethyl residues of two of the butyl groups are disordered and were modelled over two postions (site occupancies = 0.33/0.67 and 0.34/0.66).

  16. Characteristics of polyaniline electropolymerized in camphor sulfonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.R. Jr. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos/DFQ/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Malmonge, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Conceicao Silva, A.J.G. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Motheo, A.J. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos/DFQ/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mascarenhas, Y.P. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mattoso, L.H.C. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos/DFCM/USP, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    Polyaniline was electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetry in the presence of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), and the resulting film was characterized by solubility tests, UV-Vis absorption, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and conductivity measurements. The use of the functionalized acid - CSA - made it possible to obtain the as-electropolymerized polymer (in the doped state) soluble in organic solvents such as m-cresol and chloroform. The UV-Vis spectra of PAni-CSA in m-cresol presented a free-carrier tail commencing at 1000nm which may be attributed to secondary doping due to conformational changes of the polymer chains. After treatment with m-cresol the film exhibited an increase of conductivity reaching ca. 100S/cm. (orig.)

  17. A pair of sulfonated diarylheptanoid epimers from Kaempferia galanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Lin; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2013-03-01

    To discover new bioactive constituents from Kaempferia galanga L. (Zingiberaceae). The extract of K. galanga was divided into the chloroform and water-soluble portions. The latter fraction was successively subjected to column chromatography over a D101 macroporous adsorption resin, MCI, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC to obtain two compounds. Two novel sulfonated diarylheptanoid epimers, namely kaempsulfonic acids A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of K. galanga. Their structures were established by analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by the comparison of experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy and the computational calculation method, combined with Mo2(OAc)4 induced circular dichroism (ICD). The isolates 1 and 2 are new compounds and their absolute configurations were determined for the first time. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2004-01-01

    and therefore smaller hopping distances. This was supported by X-ray measurements. Synthesis at lower temperatures generally leads to higher conductivity. The conductivity is strongly dependent on the potential, being more than four magnitudes smaller for the reduced state where the number of electronic......The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic....... These investigations demonstrate that even minor differences in the dopant anion can cause significant changes in the physical properties of the electroactive polymer. The highest conductivities ($sigma$-25$/ = 39 Scm$+-1$/) are obtained by the (6D)BS isomer, perhaps because the branching leads to denser packing...

  19. Aromatic sulfonation with sulfur trioxide: mechanism and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Samuel L C; Deraet, Xavier; Van Assche, Guy; Geerlings, Paul; De Proft, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Electrophilic aromatic sulfonation of benzene with sulfur trioxide is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in gas phase, and in explicit noncomplexing (CCl 3 F) and complexing (CH 3 NO 2 ) solvent models. We investigate different possible reaction pathways, the number of SO 3 molecules participating in the reaction, and the influence of the solvent. Our simulations confirm the existence of a low-energy concerted pathway with formation of a cyclic transition state with two SO 3 molecules. Based on the simulation results, we propose a sequence of elementary reaction steps and a kinetic model compatible with experimental data. Furthermore, a new alternative reaction pathway is proposed in complexing solvent, involving two SO 3 and one CH 3 NO 2 .

  20. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonated polyimides are among the most interesting proton exchange membrane materials with high proton conductivity and good mechanical characteristics. As a major challenge the hydrolytic instability of the polymer backbone is addressed by introducing basic moieties in the polymer main chain....... A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...

  1. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    Formation of sulfonic anhydride S-O-S (from the condensation of sulfonic acids) was known one of the important degradation mechanisms [i] for Nafion membrane under hydrothermal aging condition, which is especially critical for hydrogen fuel cells. Similar mechanism would also have be desirable...... to the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment; instead...

  2. Derivatives of phenyl tribromomethyl sulfone as novel compounds with potential pesticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Borys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A halogenmethylsulfonyl moiety is incorporated in numerous active herbicides and fungicides. The synthesis of tribromomethyl phenyl sulfone derivatives as novel potential pesticides is reported. The title sulfone was obtained by following three different synthetic routes, starting from 4-chlorothiophenol or 4-halogenphenyl methyl sulfone. Products of its subsequent nitration were subjected to the SNAr reactions with ammonia, amines, hydrazines and phenolates to give 2-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenylhydrazine and diphenyl ether derivatives. Reduction of the nitro group of 4-tribromomethylsulfonyl-2-nitroaniline yielded the corresponding o-phenylenediamine substrate for preparation of structurally varied benzimidazoles.

  3. Celecoxib influences steroid sulfonation catalyzed by human recombinant sulfotransferase 2A1

    OpenAIRE

    Ambadapadi, Sriram; Wang, Peter L.; Palii, Sergiu P.; James, Margaret O.

    2015-01-01

    Celecoxib has been reported to switch the human SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of 17βestradiol (17β-E2) from the 3- to the 17-position. The effects of celecoxib on the sulfonation of selected steroids catalyzed by human SULT2A1 were assessed through in vitro and in silico studies. Celecoxib inhibited SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (AD), testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (Epi-T) in a concentration-dependent manner. Low μM concentrat...

  4. Experiment and simulation studies on SPEEK PEM with different sulfonation degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rujie; Li, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Effects of degrees of sulfonation (DS) on the cluster aggregation, proton conductivity and mechanical properties of sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were investigated by experiment and simulation studies. SPEEK materials with different DS and the corresponding PEMs had been prepared by sulfonation and solution casting. The water uptake, swelling ratio, proton conductivity and mechanical properties of SPEEK PEMs were greatly affected by DS. And the hydrophilic cluster aggregation in SPEEK of different DS was revealed by molecular simulation. The relationship between structure and performance of SPEEK membrane provides theoretical guidance for the preparation of high performance proton exchange membranes.

  5. Sulfonate-terminated carbosilane dendron-coated nanotubes: a greener point of view in protein sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Estefanía; Gutiérrez Ulloa, Carlos E; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción

    2017-09-01

    Reduction or removal of solvents and reagents in protein sample preparation is a requirement. Dendrimers can strongly interact with proteins and have great potential as a greener alternative to conventional methods used in protein sample preparation. This work proposes the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) functionalized with carbosilane dendrons with sulfonate groups for protein sample preparation and shows the successful application of the proposed methodology to extract proteins from a complex matrix. SEM images of nanotubes and mixtures of nanotubes and proteins were taken. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence intensity of proteins was monitored to observe the most significant interactions at increasing dendron generations under neutral and basic pHs. Different conditions for the disruption of interactions between proteins and nanotubes after protein extraction and different concentrations of the disrupting reagent and the nanotube were also tried. Compatibility of extraction and disrupting conditions with the enzymatic digestion of proteins for obtaining bioactive peptides was also studied. Finally, sulfonate-terminated carbosilane dendron-coated SWCNTs enabled the extraction of proteins from a complex sample without using non-environmentally friendly solvents that were required so far. Graphical Abstract Green protein extraction from a complex sample employing carbosilane dendron coated nanotubes.

  6. Nanocomposite Based on Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Venditti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles, capped by 3-mercapto propane sulfonate (Au-3MPS, were synthesized inside a swollen sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone membrane (sPEEK. The formation of the Au-3MPS nanoparticles in the swollen sPEEK membrane was observed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite containing the gold nanoparticles grown in the sPEEK membrane, showed the plasmon resonance λmax at about 520 nm, which remained stable over a testing period of three months. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was assessed, and the sPEEK membrane roughness, both before and after the synthesis of nanoparticles, was studied by AFM. The XPS measurements confirm Au-3MPS formation in the sPEEK membrane. Moreover, AFM experiments recorded in fluid allowed the production of images of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK composite in water at different pH levels, achieving a better understanding of the membrane behavior in a water environment; the dynamic hydration process of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK membrane was investigated. These preliminary results suggest that the newly developed nanocomposite membranes could be promising materials for fuel cell applications.

  7. Nanostructured bacterial cellulose-poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) composite membranes with high storage modulus and protonic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadim, Tiago D O; Figueiredo, Andrea G P R; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly C; Vilela, Carla; Gamelas, José A F; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R; Figueiredo, Filipe M L

    2014-05-28

    The present study reports the development of a new generation of bio-based nanocomposite proton exchange membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA), produced by in situ free radical polymerization of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker, followed by conversion of the ensuing polymer into the acidic form. The BC nanofibrilar network endows the composite membranes with excellent mechanical properties at least up to 140 °C, a temperature where either pure PSSA or Nafion are soft, as shown by dynamic mechanical analysis. The large concentration of sulfonic acid groups in PSSA is responsible for the high ionic exchange capacity of the composite membranes, reaching 2.25 mmol g(-1) for a composite with 83 wt % PSSA/PEGDA. The through-plane protonic conductivity of the best membrane is in excess of 0.1 S cm(-1) at 94 °C and 98% relative humidity (RH), decreasing to 0.042 S cm(-1) at 60% RH. These values are comparable or even higher than those of ionomers such as Nafion or polyelectrolytes such as PSSA. This combination of electric and viscoelastic properties with low cost underlines the potential of these nanocomposites as a bio-based alternative to other polymer membranes for application in fuel cells, redox flow batteries, or other devices requiring functional proton conducting elements, such as sensors and actuators.

  8. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing nitrile groups and their composite membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Meimei; Liu, Baijun; Guan, Shaowei; Li, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Yunhe; Jiang, Zhenhua [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-08-01

    A series of novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing a cyanophenyl group (SPEEKCNxx) are prepared based on (4-cyano)phenylhydroquinone via nucleophilic substitution polycondensation reactions. To further improve their properties, novel composite membranes composed of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing cyanophenyl group as an acidic component and aminated poly(aryl ether ketone) as a basic component are successfully prepared. Most of the membranes exhibit excellent thermal, oxidative and dimensional stability, low-swelling ratio, high proton conductivity, low methanol permeability and high selectivity. The proton conductivities of the membranes are close to Nafion 117 at room temperature. And especially, the values of SPEEKCN40 and its composite membranes are higher than Nafion 117 at 80 C (0.17 S cm{sup -1} of Nafion, 0.26 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40, 0.20 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40-1, and 0.18 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40-2). Moreover, the methanol permeability is one order magnitude lower than that of Nafion 117. All the data prove that both copolymers and their composite membranes may be potential proton exchange membrane for fuel cells applications. (author)

  9. Stereocontrolled glycoside synthesis by activation of glycosyl sulfone donors with scandium(iii) triflate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xolin, Amandine; Losa, Romain; Kaid, Aicha; Tresse, Cédric; Beau, Jean-Marie; Boyer, François-Didier; Norsikian, Stéphanie

    2018-01-03

    The activation of aryl glycosyl sulfone donors has been achieved using scandium(iii) triflate and has led to the selective preparation of α-mannosides resulting from a post-glycosylation anomerization.

  10. REVISITING NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF AZIDES, THIOCYANATES AND SULFONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A practical, rapid and efficient microwave (MW) promoted synthesis of various azides, thiocyanates and sulfones, is described in aqueous medium. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced nucleophilic substitution approach uses easily accessible starting materials such as halides o...

  11. Derivatization of enolic OH of piroxicam: a comparative study on esters and sulfonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaselli, J.; Cheemala, J. Manila Sagar; Geetha Rani, D.P.; Pal, Sarbani

    2008-01-01

    A number of ester and sulfonate derivatives of piroxicam were prepared via acylation/sulfonation of the enolic OH of piroxicam. All the compounds were evaluated for their chemical stability and cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties. Data suggested that esters could be useful for the development of potential prodrugs. The sulfonate derivatives prepared for the first time were found to be stable. One of them showed a moderately selective COX-2 inhibition over COX-1 and would have lower gastrointestinal side effects than piroxicam due to the masked enolic OH group. A plausible mechanism for the acylation/sulfonation process has been proposed that involves participation of the pyridine moiety of piroxicam. Molecular structure of one of the ester was established for the first time by the crystal structure analysis from X-ray powder data. (author)

  12. Derivatization of enolic OH of piroxicam: a comparative study on esters and sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaselli, J.; Cheemala, J. Manila Sagar; Geetha Rani, D.P.; Pal, Sarbani [MNR Post Graduate College, Kukatpally, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: sarbani277@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    A number of ester and sulfonate derivatives of piroxicam were prepared via acylation/sulfonation of the enolic OH of piroxicam. All the compounds were evaluated for their chemical stability and cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties. Data suggested that esters could be useful for the development of potential prodrugs. The sulfonate derivatives prepared for the first time were found to be stable. One of them showed a moderately selective COX-2 inhibition over COX-1 and would have lower gastrointestinal side effects than piroxicam due to the masked enolic OH group. A plausible mechanism for the acylation/sulfonation process has been proposed that involves participation of the pyridine moiety of piroxicam. Molecular structure of one of the ester was established for the first time by the crystal structure analysis from X-ray powder data. (author)

  13. Preparation of a Sulfonated Carbonaceous Material from Lignosulfonate and Its Usefulness as an Esterification Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%–29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications.

  14. Effect of sulfonation and diethanolamine addition on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of SEPS copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, D.; Correa, E.; Acevedo-Morantes, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modification techniques have been developed to achieve changes in the processing of polymers, and modification of their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties, as well as their hydrophobicity and conductivity. Sulfonation improves ion conductivity, antistatic behaviour, hydrophilicity and solubility of the polymers. These characteristics are related to the presence of sulfonic groups in the polymer matrix. This research project focuses on the evaluation of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of membranes that are based on a sulfonated Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS) copolymer. The membranes were functionalized with diethanolamine at 5, 15 and 30% w/w, to separate carbon dioxide. FTIR and XRD analyses were used to characterize the membranes. The sulfonated-loaded membrane with 15% of diethanolamine showed the best results in each characterization.

  15. Viscoelastic and Transport Properties of Sulfonated PS-PIB-PS Block Copolymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Napadensky, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    .... Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results confirmed that at a certain percent of sulfonation, a phase transition occurs from hexagonally packed cylinders to lamellar structure due to swelling of the styrene domains caused...

  16. A Modular Synthetic Approach to Isosteric Sulfonic Acid Analogues of the Anticoagulant Pentasaccharide Idraparinux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Mező

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heparin-based anticoagulants are drugs of choice in the therapy and prophylaxis of thromboembolic diseases. Idraparinux is a synthetic anticoagulant pentasaccharide based on the heparin antithrombin-binding domain. In the frame of our ongoing research aimed at the synthesis of sulfonic acid-containing heparinoid anticoagulants, we elaborated a modular pathway to obtain a series of idraparinux-analogue pentasaccharides bearing one or two primary sulfonic acid moieties. Five protected pentasaccharides with different C-sulfonation patterns were prepared by two subsequent glycosylation reactions, respectively, using two monosaccharide and four disaccharide building blocks. Transformation of the protected derivatives into the fully O-sulfated, O-methylated sulfonic acid end-products was also studied.

  17. Development of proton exchange membranes fuel cells with sulfonated HTPB-phenol; Desenvolvimento de membranas polimericas trocadoras de protons utilizando PBLH-fenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Fernando A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos], e-mail: ferraz@quimica.ufpr.br; Cantao, Mauricio P. [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico

    2007-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have been paid attention as promising candidates for vehicle and portable applications. PEMFC employ proton exchange polymer membrane which serves as an electrolyte between anode and cathode. Nafion{sup R} (DuPont), perfluorosulfonic acid/PTFE copolymer membranes are typically used as the polymer electrolyte in PEMFC due to their good chemical and mechanical properties as well as high proton conductivity. However, high cost of these materials is one of main obstacles for commercialization of PEMFC. Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop alternative polymer electrolyte membranes. Our group have investigated the development of proton exchange membranes fuel cells using sulfonated HTPB-Phenyl ether (HTPB-Phenol), making possible the formation of membranes with sulfonated groups amount of 2,4, 2,5 and 2,8 mmol/g of dry polymer from HTPB-Phenol 80, 98 and 117 respectively. These results mean a bigger values than those of the Nafion{sup R} membranes, that possess an ion exchange capacity of 0,67 up to 1,25 mmol/g of sulfonated groups. (author)

  18. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  19. Evaluation of Sulfonate-Based Collectors with Different Hydrophobic Tails for Flotation of Fluorite

    OpenAIRE

    Renji Zheng; Zijie Ren; Huimin Gao; Yupeng Qian

    2018-01-01

    This investigation aims to demonstrate the effects of hydrophobic tails on the affinity and relevant flotation response of sulfonate-based collectors for fluorite. For this purpose, a series of alkyl sulfonates with different hydrophobic tails, namely sodium decanesulfonate (C10), sodium dodecylsulfate (C12), sodium hexadecanesulfonate (C16), and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12B) were applied. The flotation tests showed that C12 and C12B had a better collecting performance than C10 and C1...

  20. High power generation and COD removal in a microbial fuel cell operated by a novel sulfonated PES/PES blend proton exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinadini, S.; Zinatizadeh, A.A.; Rahimi, M.; Vatanpour, V.; Rahimi, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, firstly sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) was synthesized from polyethersulfone (PES) with sulfonation by chlorosulfonic acid as a sulfonating agent dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid. PES/SPES blend proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared at four different compositions with the non-solvent induced phase separation technique as alternative materials to Nafion membrane for application in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The prepared PEMs were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, contact angle, water uptake and oxygen permeability. Performances of the fabricated PEMs and commercial Nafion 117 were evaluated in a dual chamber MFC for treating of wastewater and electricity generation. Maximum generated power and current of the fabricated membranes were 58.726 mWm −2  at current density of 317.111 mAm −2 , while it was 45.512 mWm −2  at 228.673 mAm −2 for Nafion 117 at the similar experimental condition. The observed properties of low biofouling, low oxygen permeability, high power generation, high COD removal and coulombic efficiency (CE) indicated that the SPES membrane has potential to improve significantly the productivity of MFCs. - Highlights: • Sulfonated PES (SPES) was synthesized by chlorosulfonic acid in concentrated H 2 SO 4 . • PES/SPES blend proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared for use in MFC. • Performance of PEMs and commercial Nafion 117 were tested to treat of wastewater. • Maximum generated power and current of SPES membrane was higher than Nafion 117.

  1. Sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of fungal exocellular β-(1→6)-D-glucan (lasiodiplodan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana Flora D; Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa, Aneli M; Carbonero, Elaine R; Silveira, Joana L M; Glauser, Bianca; Pereira, Mariana Sá; Corradi da Silva, Maria de Lourdes

    2013-02-15

    An exocellular β-(1→6)-D-glucan (lasiodiplodan) produced by a strain of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (MMLR) grown on sucrose was derivatized by sulfonation to promote anticoagulant activity. The structural features of the sulfonated β-(1→6)-D-glucan were investigated by UV-vis, FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the anticoagulant activity was investigated by the classical coagulation assays APTT, PT and TT using heparin as standard. The content of sulfur and degree of substitution of the sulfonated glucan was 11.73% and 0.95, respectively. UV spectroscopy showed a band at 261 nm due to the unsaturated bond formed in the sulfonation reaction. Results of FT-IR and (13)C NMR indicated that sulfonyl groups were inserted on the polysaccharide. The sulfonated β-(1→6)-D-glucan presented anticoagulant activity as demonstrated by the increase in dose dependence of APTT and TT, and these actions most likely occurred because of the inserted sulfonate groups on the polysaccharide. The lasiodiplodan did not inhibit the coagulation tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of nanofibrillation of softwood cellulosic fibers by oxidation and sulfonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaobo; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2014-10-13

    In this study, sulfonic acid groups were introduced to milled softwood (SW) bleached kraft fibers by oxidation and sulfonation with sodium periodate followed by sodium bisulfite under relatively mild conditions. The effect of variable amount of sulfonated groups on nanofibrillation of sulfonated cellulose samples was investigated. The cellulose samples, with contents of sulfonated groups of 371-501 μmol/g, were readily nanofibrillated by homogenization at relatively low pressure. These samples converted to viscous and transparent gels without clogging the homogenizer. By passing through the homogenizer one to four times, the transmittances of homogenized suspensions were up to 98%. SEM characterization of the homogenized and lyophilized fibril suspension indicates that the nanofibrillated fibrils are a network structure with lateral sizes of ∼ 15-45 nm and lengths ˃ 1 μm. The consecutive periodate oxidation and sulfonation with bisulfite was shown to be an effective pretreatment method to facilitate the nanofibrillation of softwood pulp cellulose and can be expectedly used with other cellulosic resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Review on Modification of Sulfonated Poly (-ether-ether-ketone Membranes Used as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin GAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is a type of modern power, but the traditional proton exchange membranes (PEM of PEMFC are limited by high methanol permeability and water uptake. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK is a widely used thermoplastic with good cost-effective property. Sulfonated poly (-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK has high electric conductivity and low methanol permeability, as well as comprehensive property, which is expected to be used as PEMs. However, the proton exchange ability, methanol resistance, mechanical property and thermal stability of SPEEK are closely related to the degree of sulfonation (DS of SPEEK membranes. Additionally, the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and stability of SPEEK membranes applied in various conditions need to be further improved. In this paper, the research into modification of SPEEK membranes made by SPEEK and other polymers, inorganic materials are introduced. The properties and modification situation of the SPEEK and the composite membranes, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of membranes prepared by different materials are summarized. From the results we know that, the methanol permeability of SPEEK/PES-C membranes is within the order of magnitude, 10-7cm2/s. The proton conductivity of the SPPESK/SPEEK blend membrane reaches 0.212 S cm-1 at 80 °C. The cross-linked SPEEK membranes have raised thermal and dimensional stability. The non-solvent caused aggregation of the SPEEK ionomers. The proton conductivity of SPEEK/50%BMIMPF6/4.6PA membrane maintains stable as 2.0 x 10-2S cm-1 after 600 h at 160 °C. Incorporation of aligned CNT into SPEEK increases the proton conductivity and reduces the methanol permeability of the composite membranes. The PANI improves the hydrothermal stability. More proton transfer sites lead to a more compact structure in the composite membranes. According to the results, the proton exchange capacity, water uptake, and conductivity of

  4. Structural and magnetic characterization of copper sulfonated phthalocyanine grafted onto treated polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, A., E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Orendac, M.; Cizmar, E. [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Monolayer of copper phthalocyanine was achieved. • ESR proved that CuPc coated PE surface exhibits magnetic properties. • The studied structures may have potential application in spintronics and data storage. - Abstract: This study focuses on high density polyethylene (HDPE) activated by Ar plasma treatment, subsequently grafted with copper sulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPc) especially pointing out to the surface and magnetic properties of those composites. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, zeta potential and by electron spin resonance (ESR). XPS analysis confirmed the successful grafting of phthalocyanine. The highest absorption was found for the sample grafted with {sup b}CuPc for 1 h. Electrokinetic analysis also confirmed the plasma treatment and also subsequent CuPc grafting influence significantly the surface chemistry and charge. These results correspond well with XPS determination. ESR studies confirmed the presence of CuPc grafted on HDPE. It was found, that grafting is mediated by magnetically inactive functional groups, rather than radicals. Magnetic properties of CuPc do not seem to change significantly after grafting CuPc on polyethylene surface.

  5. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate in utero reduces testosterone production in rat fetal Leydig cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghai Zhao

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a synthetic material that has been widely used in industrial applications for decades. Exposure to PFOS has been associated with decreased adult testosterone level, and Leydig cell impairment during the time of adulthood. However, little is known about PFOS effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC.The present study investigated effects of PFOS on FLC function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley female rats received vehicle (0.05% Tween20 or PFOS (5, 20 mg/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD 11-19. At GD20, testosterone (T production, FLC numbers and ultrastructure, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. The results indicate that exposures to PFOS have affected FLC function as evidenced by decreased T production, impaired FLC, reduced FLC number, and decreased steroidogenic capacity and cholesterol level in utero.The present study shows that PFOS is an endocrine disruptor of male reproductive system as it causes reduction of T production and impairment of rat fetal Leydig cells.

  6. Aquatic predicted no-effect-concentration derivation for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Wang, Ying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Juying

    2011-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), a representative perfluorinated surfactant, is an anthropogenic pollutant detected in various environmental and biological matrices. Some laboratory and field work has been conducted to assess the aquatic toxicity of PFOS, but little is known regarding its toxicity threshold to the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived by four different approaches. The interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) program and final acute-to-chronic ratio (FACR) were applied to the development of PNEC based on the toxic mode of action (MOA) of PFOS. By comparison of the different PNECs, the recommended aquatic toxicity thresholds for PFOS are in the range of 0.61 to 6.66 µg/L. Based on comparison of PNEC values, microcosm results, and reported environmental concentrations, PFOS appears not to pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. The present results demonstrate that MOA is an important consideration for the derivation of reliable PNECs; moreover, the ICE-based species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method can be used to derive PNECs when toxicological data are limited. The application of MOA and ICE for deriving PNEC values in the present study may facilitate studies on using a combination of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and ICE to estimate PNECs. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Modelling Sulfonation Kinetics On The Sodium Lignosulphonate Synthesis From Black Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsoro Aruno Aji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant is a compound that has the ability to lower the interfacial tension between the face of two phases (liquid. The need of surfactant has increased along with the development of the industrial sector. One example is sodium lignosulfonat (SLS which is useful to improve oil acquisition in its application for EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery. SLS is a result of the reaction between lignin, NaHSO3 (bisulfite and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The purpose of this research is to determining the reaction mechanism and determining the value of the reaction rate constant (k. The sulphonation kinetics of lignin was carried out in various temperature (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90°C. From this research obtained a positive (linear response between sulfonation temperature against reaction rate constants. The lowest k values obtained k50 = 2,05 x 10-4 minute-1 and the highest one is k90= 3,35 x 10-4. From graphycally calculation obtained the value of A is 0,015 and the energy activation (Ea is-11,708 kJ/mol with R2 = 95,69%. The correlation of the temperature influence to the constant of reaction rate espressed in arhenius equation as follows : k = 0,015 exp (-1408,3/T

  8. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Shi, Hongwei; Yan, Hao; Xu, Jian; Guo, Min; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Yiqun

    2017-10-01

    Sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) was synthesized by esterification reaction of PVA and sulfuric acid, and the structure was characterized by FTIR spectrum. Then a series of TFC membranes modified with cross-linked SPVA layer were fabricated by coating method, with glutaraldehyde as the cross-linker. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, XPS, streaming potential as well as static contact angle. The TFC membranes modified with SPVA exhibit decreased water flux and increased NaCl rejection with SPVA content increasing in the coating aqueous solution. The optimal PA-SPVA-0.5 sample exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.18%, which is higher than the 98.32% of the virgin PA membrane. More importantly, the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA and CTAB than virgin PA membrane and the TFC sample modified with PVA (PA-PVA-0.5). PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane loses about 8% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is much lower than those of virgin PA and PA-PVA-0.5 membranes (28% and 15%, respectively). Furthermore, the flux recovery of the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane reaches above 95% after cleaning. Thus, the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane shows potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  9. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  10. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Kimball S.

    2010-07-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels and the increasing impact of greenhouse gases on the environment lead to an extensive development of more efficient or renewable energy sources. The direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) as a portable energy source is a promising and fast growing technology which meets these demands. Up to now, methanol is mostly studied as a fuel for these devices, however, applying ethanol has some evident advantages over methanol. The major challenges in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) research on component level are the catalyst development and the electrolyte membrane development. The focus of this thesis lies on the development and characterization of proton conductive membranes for application in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC). Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) based organic-inorganic mixed-matrix membranes are developed and, in addition, the inorganic phase is modified with functional silanes carrying basic groups. The membranes are characterized with respect to fuel crossover, proton conductivity, membrane stability and direct ethanol fuel cell tests. (orig.)

  11. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla N. Salama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS, dimethylsulfone (MSM, and topiramate (TOP in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (Ea, frequency factor (A, and reaction order (n. The thermal degradation of dapsone and topiramate was followed a first-order kinetic behavior. The calculated data evidenced a zero-order kinetic for dimethylsulfone. The relative thermal stabilities of the studied drugs have been evaluated and follow the order DDS > TOP > MSM. The purity was determined using DSC for the studied compounds, in drug substances and products. The results were in agreement with the recommended pharmacopoeia and manufacturer methods. DSC curves obtained from the tablets suggest compatibility between the drugs, excipients and/or coformulated drugs. The fragmentation pathway of dapsone with mass spectrometry was taken as example, to correlate the thermal decomposition with the resulted MS-EI. The decomposition modes were investigated, and the possible fragmentation pathways were suggested by mass spectrometry.

  12. Toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate to Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hua Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study toxicological effects of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, and their mixtures (PFNA/PFOS on Daphnia magna (D. magna, a suite of comprehensive toxicity tests were conducted, including a 48-h acute toxicity test, a 21-day chronic test, a feeding experiment, and a biomarker assay. D. magna were exposed to aqueous solutions of PFNA and PFOS (alone and in combination at concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 5 mg/L. The survival, growth, and reproduction of D. magna were monitored over a 21-day life cycle. The biomarkers, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities, were determined after seven days of exposure. PFOS was more toxic than PFNA based on the results of the acute toxicity test. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs inhibited both growth and reproduction of D. magna during the testing period. The ingestion rates and the biomarkers, including AChE, SOD, and CAT activities, were significantly inhibited by PFCs in most cases. Moreover, the combined effects related to the growth and reproduction showed the antagonistic effects of PFCs.

  13. Chronic perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiangfei; Lv, Suping; Nie, Shangfei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shoufang; Kang, Ning; Xiao, Yanyan; Dong, Qiaoxiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Yang, Dongren, E-mail: yangdongren@yahoo.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • PFOS chronic exposure induces sex-dependent hepatic steotosis in zebrafish. • PFOS interferes with β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and lipid hepatic export process. • Zebrafish could be used as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and human. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by chronic PFOS exposure are still largely unknown. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings revealed a severe hepatic steatosis in the liver of males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS as evidenced by hepatosomatic index, histological assessment and liver lipid profiles. Quantitative PCR assay further indicated that PFOS significantly increase the transcriptional expression of nuclear receptors (nr1h3, rara, rxrgb, nr1l2) and the genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (acox1, acadm, cpt1a). In addition, chronic PFOS exposure significantly decreased liver ATP content and serum level of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein in males. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic PFOS exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish via disturbing lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and excretion of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein, and also demonstrate the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening.

  14. Chronic perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jiangfei; Lv, Suping; Nie, Shangfei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shoufang; Kang, Ning; Xiao, Yanyan; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Yang, Dongren

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PFOS chronic exposure induces sex-dependent hepatic steotosis in zebrafish. • PFOS interferes with β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and lipid hepatic export process. • Zebrafish could be used as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and human. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by chronic PFOS exposure are still largely unknown. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings revealed a severe hepatic steatosis in the liver of males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS as evidenced by hepatosomatic index, histological assessment and liver lipid profiles. Quantitative PCR assay further indicated that PFOS significantly increase the transcriptional expression of nuclear receptors (nr1h3, rara, rxrgb, nr1l2) and the genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (acox1, acadm, cpt1a). In addition, chronic PFOS exposure significantly decreased liver ATP content and serum level of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein in males. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic PFOS exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish via disturbing lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and excretion of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein, and also demonstrate the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening.

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreeyasunthorn, Phenpimuk; Boontanon, Suwanna K; Boontanon, Narin

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 µg m(-2) (0.02 to 0.61 µg m(-2)) and 2.74 µg m(-2) (0.31 to 14.14 µg m(-2)), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 µg m(-2). Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment.

  16. Preparation of 5-Bromo-2-naphthol: The Use of a Sulfonic Acid as a Protecting and Activating Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Abelt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of 5-bromo-2-naphthol (4 in three steps from 5-amino-2-naphthol (1 is described. A sulfonic acid group is introduced at the 1-position as an activating and protecting group for the Sandmeyer reaction. The sulfonate group allows for the use of only water and sulfuric acid as solvents. The sulfonic acid is introduced with three equivalents of sulfuric acid, and it is removed in 20% aq. sulfuric acid.

  17. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Richard L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate

  18. Room-Temperature High-Efficiency Solid-State Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Up-Conversion in Amorphous Poly(olefin sulfone)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turshatov, Andrey; Busko, Dmitry; Kiseleva, Natalia; Grage, Stephan L; Howard, Ian A; Richards, Bryce S

    2017-03-08

    Triplet-triplet annihilation up-conversion (TTA-UC) is a developing technology that can enable spectral conversion under sunlight. Previously, it was found that efficient TTA-UC can be realized in polymer hosts for temperatures above the polymer's glass transition (T > T g ). In contrast, TTA-UC with high quantum yield for temperatures below T g is rarely reported. In this article, we report new polymer hosts in which efficient TTA-UC is observed well below T g , when the polymer is in a fully solid state. The four poly(olefin sulfone) hosts were loaded with upconversion dyes, and absolute quantum yields of TTA-UC (η TTA-UC ) were measured. The highest value of η TTA-UC = 2.1% was measured for poly(1-dodecene sulfone). Importantly, this value was the same in vacuum and at ambient conditions, indicating that the host material acts as a good oxygen barrier. We performed time-resolved luminescence experiments in order to elucidate the impact of elementary steps of TTA-UC. In addition to optical characterization, we used magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments to estimate the T2 transverse relaxation time. Relatively long T2 times measured for poly(olefin sulfone)s indicate an enhanced nanoscale fluidity in the studied (co)polymers, which unexpectedly coexists with a rigidity on the macroscale. This would explain the exceptional triplet energy transfer between the guest molecules, despite the macroscopic rigidity.

  19. Anion exchange membranes based on terminally crosslinked methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sohyun; Rao, Anil H. N.; Kim, Tae-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Azide-assisted terminal crosslinking of methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone) block copolymers yields products (xMM-PESs) suitable for use as anion exchange membranes. By combining the advantages of bulky morpholinium conductors and our unique polymer network crosslinked only at the termini of the polymer chains, we can produce AEMs that after the crosslinking show minimal loss in conductivity, yet with dramatically reduced water uptake. Terminal crosslinking also significantly increases the thermal, mechanical and chemical stability levels of the membranes. A high ion conductivity of 73.4 mS cm-1 and low water uptake of 26.1% at 80 °C are obtained for the crosslinked membrane with higher amount of hydrophilic composition, denoted as xMM-PES-1.5-1. In addition, the conductivity of the crosslinked xMM-PES-1.5-1 membrane exceeds that of its non-crosslinked counterpart (denoted as MM-PES-1.5-1) above 60 °C at 95% relative humidity because of its enhanced water retention capacity caused by the terminally-crosslinked structure.

  20. A facile synthesis of a novel optoelectric material: a nanocomposite of SWCNT/ZnO nanostructures embedded in sulfonated polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Agrawalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs hybridized with freshly prepared zinc oxide (ZnO nanocrystals have been found to be good luminescent material with tuned emission properties. A three-phase nanocomposite of sulfonated polyaniline embedded with such SWCNT/ZnO nanostructures has been prepared by a simple solution mixing chemical process and characterized by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The study of UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies reveal that the ternary polymer nanocomposite is a luminescent material with enhanced emission intensity. Also an increase in DC conductivity indicates that the nanocomposite is also a good conductive material, satisfying Mott’s variable range hopping model for a two-dimensional conduction. Such a three-phase nanocomposite may find extensive application in dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors, and supercapacitors.

  1. Influence of Sulfonated-Kaolin On Cationic Exchange Capacity Swelling Degree and Morphology of Chitosan/Kaolin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozi Adi Saputra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of sulfonated-kaolin (sKao has been conducted and used as filler on chitosan matrix via solution casting method, namely chitosan/sKao (Cs/sKao. Swelling degree, cationic exchange capacity and thermal stability were evaluated to determine chitosan/sKao membranes performance as proton exchange membrane in fuel cell. Functional group analysis of chitosan, sKao and synthesized products were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy. In this study, swelling degree and swelling area of Cs/sKao are also studied to determine of membrane ability to swelling which compare to unmodified chitosan/kaolin (Cs/Kao. The presence of sKao in chitosan matrix was able to improve cationic exchange capacity (CEC which proved by morphological study of membrane surface after CEC test. Moreover, Thermal stability of Cs/sKao showed the membrane has meet requirement for PEM application.

  2. Efficient Crystalline Si/Poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate):Graphene Oxide Composite Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Tang, Zeguo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Gotou, Takuya; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2012-03-01

    Efficient crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells with conductive poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and graphene oxide (GO) composite are demonstrated using a structure of Ag/PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS:GO composite/c-Si (100)(ρ: 3-5 Ω.cm)/Al. The power-conversion efficiency η increased to 10.7% under illumination of AM1.5 100 mW/cm2 simulated solar light by adjusting the PEDOT:PSS and GO mixing concentration ratio. The GO addition to conductive PEDOT:PSS suppressed electron recombination and/or promoted the hole current at the anode. The soluble PEDOT:PSS:GO composite is promising as a hole-transporting transparent conducting layer for c-Si photovoltaic applications.

  3. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Rusdiana, Dadi [Department of Physical Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung (Indonesia); Nugroho, A. A. [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman, E-mail: iman.santoso@ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada,, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer’s method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  4. Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Kimball S.; Hirth, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schiestel, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Schiestel@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-25

    The present study reports on dihydrogenimidazole modified inorganic-organic mixed matrix membranes for possible application as a proton exchange membrane in direct ethanol fuel cells. The polymeric phase consisted mainly of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree of 55%. The inorganic phase was built up from hydrophilic fumed silica particles interconnected with partially hydrolyzed and condensed tetraethoxysilane with a total inorganic loading of 27.3%. This inorganic phase was further modified with N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole (DHIM), which consists of an hydrolyzable inorganic part and a functional organic group. The influence of the modifier on the mixed matrix system was studied by means of various modifier concentrations in various aqueous-ethanolic systems (water, 2 M and 4 M ethanol). Modifier concentration and ethanol concentration of the ethanol-water mixture exhibited significant but opposite effects on the liquid uptake of the mixed matrix membranes. The proton conductivity as well as the proton diffusion coefficient as a function of modifier content showed a linear decrease. The proton conductivity as a function of temperature showed Arrhenius behavior and the activation energy of the mixed matrix membranes was 43.9 {+-} 2.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. High selectivity of proton diffusion coefficient to ethanol permeability coefficient was obtained with high modifier concentrations. At low modifier concentrations, this selectivity was dominated by ethanol permeation and at high modifier concentrations by proton diffusion. The main electrolyte properties can be optimized by setting the DHIM content in mixed matrix membrane. With this approach, tailor-made membranes can be prepared for possible application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  5. Neurotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate to hippocampal cells in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a ubiquitous pollutant and found in the environment and in biota. The neurotoxicity of PFOS has received much concern among its various toxic effects when given during developing period of brain. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects and potential mechanisms of PFOS in the mature brain. Our study demonstrated the neurotoxicity and the potential mechanisms of PFOS in the hippocampus of adult mice for the first time. The impairments of spatial learning and memory were observed by water maze studies after exposure to PFOS for three months. Significant apoptosis was found in hippocampal cells after PFOS exposure, accompanied with a increase of glutamate in the hippocampus and decreases of dopamine (DA and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC in Caudate Putamen in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS group. By two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis, seven related proteins in the hippocampus that responded to PFOS exposure were identified, among which, Mib1 protein (an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, Herc5 (hect domain and RLD 5 isoform 2 and Tyro3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3 were found down-regulated, while Sdha (Succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit, Gzma (Isoform HF1 of Granzyme A precursor, Plau (Urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor and Lig4 (DNA ligase 4 were found up-regulated in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS-treated group compare with control group. Furthermore, we also found that (i increased expression of caspase-3 protein and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin proteins, (ii the increased glutamate release in the hippocampus. All these might contribute to the dysfunction of hippocampus which finally account for the impairments of spatial learning and memory in adult mice.

  6. Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate facilitates endocytic HMGB1 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yusong; Li, Wei; Zhu, Shu; Jundoria, Arvin; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Huan; Fan, Saijun; Wang, Ping; Tracey, Kevin J; Sama, Andrew E; Wang, Haichao

    2012-12-01

    Our seminal discovery of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation has prompted a new field of investigation for the development of experimental therapeutics. We previously reported that a major Danshen ingredient, tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSN-SS), selectively inhibited endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release and conferred protection against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. To investigate the underlying mechanisms by which TSN-SS effectively inhibits HMGB1 release, we examined whether TSN-SS stimulates HMGB1 uptake by macrophages and whether genetic depletion of HMGB1 receptors [e.g., toll-like receptors (TLR)2, TLR4, or the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE)] or pharmacological inhibition of endocytosis impairs TSN-SS-facilitated HMGB1 cellular uptake. TSN-SS stimulated internalization of exogenous HMGB1 protein into macrophage cytoplasmic vesicles that subsequently co-localized with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-positive punctate structures (likely amphisomes). Meanwhile, it time-dependently elevated cellular levels of internalized HMGB1, leading to elevated LC3-II production and aggregation. Although genetic depletion of TLR2, TLR4, and/or RAGE did not impair TSN-SS-mediated HMGB1 uptake, specific inhibitors of the clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis significantly impaired TSN-SS-mediated HMGB1 uptake. Co-treatment with a lysosomal inhibitor, bafilomycin A1, led to enhanced accumulation of endogenous LC3-II and internalized exogenous HMGB1 in TSN-SS/rHMGB1-treated macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TSN-SS may facilitate HMGB1 endocytic uptake, and subsequently delivered it to LC3-positive vacuoles (possibly amphisomes) for degradation via a lysosome-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct Olefination of Alcohols with Sulfones by Using Heterogeneous Platinum Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Touchy, Abeda Sultana; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2016-04-18

    Carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) were found to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the direct Julia olefination of alcohols in the presence of sulfones and KOtBu under oxidant-free conditions. Primary alcohols, including aryl, aliphatic, allyl, and heterocyclic alcohols, underwent olefination with dimethyl sulfone and aryl alkyl sulfones to give terminal and internal olefins, respectively. Secondary alcohols underwent methylenation with dimethyl sulfone. Under 2.5 bar H2, the same reaction system was effective for the transformation of alcohol OH groups to alkyl groups. Structural and mechanistic studies of the terminal olefination system suggested that Pt(0) sites on the Pt metal particles are responsible for the rate-limiting dehydrogenation of alcohols and that KOtBu may deprotonate the sulfone reagent. The Pt/C catalyst was reusable after the olefination, and this method showed a higher turnover number (TON) and a wider substrate scope than previously reported methods, which demonstrates the high catalytic efficiency of the present method. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Highly Sulfonated Diamine Synthesized Polyimides and Protic Ionic Liquid Composite Membranes Improve PEM Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel sulfonated diamine was synthesized from 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy benzene [pBAB]. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were synthesized from sulfonated pBAB, 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy-2-sulfonic acid benzenesulfonic acid [pBABTS], various diamines and aromatic dianhydrides. Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs made of novel SPIs and a protic ionic liquid (PIL 1-vinyl-3-H-imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [VIm][OTf] showed substantially increased conductivity. We prepared an SPI/PIL composite PEM using pBABTS, 4,4′-(9-fluorenylidene dianiline (9FDA as diamine, 3,3′,4,4′-diphenylsulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA as dianhydride and 40 wt % [VIm][OTf] with a high conductivity of 16 mS/cm at 120 °C and anhydrous condition. pBABTS offered better conductivity, since the chemical structure had more sulfonated groups that provide increased conductivity. The new composite membrane could be a promising anhydrous or low-humidity PEM for intermediate or high-temperature fuel cells.

  9. The host cell sulfonation pathway contributes to retroviral infection at a step coincident with provirus establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, James W; Ahlquist, Paul; Young, John A T

    2008-11-01

    The early steps of retrovirus replication leading up to provirus establishment are highly dependent on cellular processes and represent a time when the virus is particularly vulnerable to antivirals and host defense mechanisms. However, the roles played by cellular factors are only partially understood. To identify cellular processes that participate in these critical steps, we employed a high volume screening of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector. This approach identified a role for 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1), one of two enzymes that synthesize PAPS, the high energy sulfate donor used in all sulfonation reactions catalyzed by cellular sulfotransferases. The role of the cellular sulfonation pathway was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of PAPS synthases and cellular sulfotransferases. The requirement for sulfonation was mapped to a stage during or shortly after MLV provirus establishment and influenced subsequent gene expression from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Infection of cells by an HIV vector was also shown to be highly dependent on the cellular sulfonation pathway. These studies have uncovered a heretofore unknown regulatory step of retroviral replication, have defined a new biological function for sulfonation in nuclear gene expression, and provide a potentially valuable new target for HIV/AIDS therapy.

  10. [Dependence of the anticoagulant activity of starch and inulin on their degree of sulfonation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, N N; Torlopov, M A; Kuzhim, A A; Makarov, V A

    2012-01-01

    We have studied a relationship between the degree of sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of starch from Solanum tuberosum (molecular weight, 25000-30000 Da; sulfonation degree, 0.4-2.5) and inulin from Helianthus tuberosus (molecular weight, 7000-8000 Da; sulfonation degree, 0.6-1.6). Starch and inulin sulfates (i) increased the time of appearance of fibrin clots in plasma in coagulometric tests and (ii) reduced (via antithrombin) the rate of thrombin-induced hydrolysis of a chromogen substrate. The antithrombin (aIIa) activity of starch sulfates reached 16.8-70.0 IU/mg and the activity against factor Xa (aXa activity) was 2.3-16.6 IU/mg. The antithrombin activity of inulin sulfates was within 5.5-11.4 IU/mg and the activity against factor Xa (aXa activity) was within 0-1.4 IU/mg. An increase in the degree of sulfonation led to a growth in the anticoagulant activity of starch sulfates. The anticoagulant activity of starch sulfates and inulin sulfate with sulfonation degree 1.0 is mediated by antithrombin, which is the plasma inhibitor of serine proteases.

  11. The host cell sulfonation pathway contributes to retroviral infection at a step coincident with provirus establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Bruce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The early steps of retrovirus replication leading up to provirus establishment are highly dependent on cellular processes and represent a time when the virus is particularly vulnerable to antivirals and host defense mechanisms. However, the roles played by cellular factors are only partially understood. To identify cellular processes that participate in these critical steps, we employed a high volume screening of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV vector. This approach identified a role for 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1, one of two enzymes that synthesize PAPS, the high energy sulfate donor used in all sulfonation reactions catalyzed by cellular sulfotransferases. The role of the cellular sulfonation pathway was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of PAPS synthases and cellular sulfotransferases. The requirement for sulfonation was mapped to a stage during or shortly after MLV provirus establishment and influenced subsequent gene expression from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR promoter. Infection of cells by an HIV vector was also shown to be highly dependent on the cellular sulfonation pathway. These studies have uncovered a heretofore unknown regulatory step of retroviral replication, have defined a new biological function for sulfonation in nuclear gene expression, and provide a potentially valuable new target for HIV/AIDS therapy.

  12. Reactions of aromatic nitro compounds. LVI. Reaction of polynitrodiphenyl sulfones with acetone and potassium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhina, N.N.; Gitis, S.S.; Grudtsyn, Yu.D.; Kaminskii, A.Ya.

    1986-11-20

    The Yanovskii sigma complexes of 2,4-dinitrophenyl sulfone and 2,4-dinitro-, 2,4,4'-trinitro-, and 2,2',4,4'-tetranitrodiphenylsulfones were obtained and isolated in the crystalline form. It was established by PMR, IR, and electronic spectroscopy that they are all products from addition of the acetone residue to the fifth carbon atom of the dinitro-substituted ring; in contrast to polynitrodiphenyl sulfides, the isomeric adducts at the C/sup 3/ atom are not formed. Compared with the analogous complexes of sulfides, the synthesized products possess enhanced thermodynamic stability in an acetone-methanol medium. In DMSO they are rapidly decomposed by traces of water to dinitrophenolate and the corresponding arenesulfinic acids. The decomposition of the methyl dinitrophenyl sulfone complex takes place with preferential substitution of the para-nitro group and the formation of methyl 2-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl sulfone.

  13. Sulfonation degree effect on ion-conducting SPEEK-titanium oxide membranes properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Costa Marrero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK (sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone polymer matrix, containing titanium oxide (TiO2 (incorporated by sol-gel method. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees (SD: 63% and 50% were used. The influence of sulfonation degree on membrane properties was investigated. The thermal analysis (TGA and DTGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD were carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was carried out to evaluate the proton conductivity of the membranes. The proton conductivities in water were of 3.25 to 37.08 mS.cm-1. Experimental data of impedance spectroscopy were analyzed with equivalent circuits using the Zview software, and the results showed that, the best fitted was at 80 °C.

  14. Sulfonation degree effect on ion-conducting SPEEK-titanium oxide membranes properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline Costa; Gomes, Ailton de Souza; Dutra Filho, José Carlos, E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Hui, Wang Shu [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais; Oliveira, Vivianna Silva de [Escola Técnica Rezende Rammel (ETRR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK (sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)) polymer matrix, containing titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) (incorporated by sol-gel method). SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees (SD): 63% and 50% were used. The influence of sulfonation degree on membrane properties was investigated. The thermal analysis (TGA and DTGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluate the proton conductivity of the membranes. The proton conductivities in water were of 3.25 to 37.08 mS.cm{sup -1}. Experimental data of impedance spectroscopy were analyzed with equivalent circuits using the Zview software, and the results showed that, the best fitted was at 80 °C. (author)

  15. Synthesis of fully and partially sulfonated polyanilines derived from ortanilic acid: An electrochemical and electromicrogravimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano Marquez, Abraham Guadalupe; Torres Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Montes Rojas, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical polymerization of 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid, also called ortanilic acid (o-ASA), on a gold electrode precoated with polyaniline (PANI), has been carried out. We proved that the electropolymerization of o-ASA is enhanced on PANI electrodes, resulting in thicker films obtained in aqueous media at room temperature. The electrosynthesized film (P(o-ASA)) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance. The compensation of P(o-ASA) charge was evaluated using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance combined with cyclic voltammetry, which showed that the electroneutralization process mainly involves cations. Additionally, copolymers of aniline and o-ASA were electrosynthesized, using a metallic electrode modified with PANI also as a working electrode. The degree of sulfanation of copolymers has been modulated with the proportions of monomers in the electrosynthesis solution. The studies reveal a more important participation of cations in fully sulfonated polyaniline than in partially sulfonated polyaniline

  16. Synthesis and Process Optimization of Electrospun PEEK-Sulfonated Nanofibers by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Boaretti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study electrospun nanofibers of partially sulfonated polyether ether ketone have been produced as a preliminary step for a possible development of composite proton exchange membranes for fuel cells. Response surface methodology has been employed for the modelling and optimization of the electrospinning process, using a Box-Behnken design. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, has been focused on the analysis of the effect of both process (voltage, tip-to-collector distance, flow rate and material (sulfonation degree variables on the mean fiber diameter. The final model has been verified by a series of statistical tests on the residuals and validated by a comparison procedure of samples at different sulfonation degrees, realized according to optimized conditions, for the production of homogeneous thin nanofibers.

  17. Synthesis and Process Optimization of Electrospun PEEK-Sulfonated Nanofibers by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaretti, Carlo; Roso, Martina; Lorenzetti, Alessandra; Modesti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this study electrospun nanofibers of partially sulfonated polyether ether ketone have been produced as a preliminary step for a possible development of composite proton exchange membranes for fuel cells. Response surface methodology has been employed for the modelling and optimization of the electrospinning process, using a Box-Behnken design. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, has been focused on the analysis of the effect of both process (voltage, tip-to-collector distance, flow rate) and material (sulfonation degree) variables on the mean fiber diameter. The final model has been verified by a series of statistical tests on the residuals and validated by a comparison procedure of samples at different sulfonation degrees, realized according to optimized conditions, for the production of homogeneous thin nanofibers. PMID:28793427

  18. An electrochemical study in aqueous solutions on the binding of dopamine to a sulfonated cyclodextrin host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendy, Gillian M.; Breslin, Carmel B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DA and Sβ-CD form an Inclusion complex. ► Electrochemical techniques demonstrated this inclusion complex. ► The association constant, K, was computed as 331.3. ► 1:1 stoichiometry for the inclusion complex was deduced from a Job's plot analysis. ► NMR studies confirmed the structural information on the inclusion complex. - Abstract: Clear evidence for the formation of a weak inclusion complex between dopamine (DA) and a sulfonated β-CD host in aqueous solution was obtained using a combination of electrochemical approaches. Using cyclic voltammetry, a distinct increase in the oxidation potential of DA and a reduction in the peak oxidation current were observed on adding an excess concentration of the sulfonated β-CD to the electrolyte solution. Equally, a clear increase in the half-wave oxidation potential of DA was observed in the presence of the sulfonated β-CD using rotating disc voltammetry. The association constant, K, was computed as 331.3 ± 5.8, indicating the formation of a weak inclusion complex, while a 1:1 stoichiometry for the inclusion complex was deduced from a Job's plot analysis. The rate constant for the oxidation of DA was found to decrease on formation of the inclusion complex. This was attributed to higher reorganization energy for the oxidation of the included DA. These changes in the electrochemistry of DA were not observed when an excess of the smaller sulfonated α-CD was added to the electrolyte, indicating that these variations are not connected with simple electrostatic interactions between the protonated DA and the anionic sulfonated groups. It is proposed that the aromatic ring of the DA molecule includes within the cyclodextrin cavity, while the protonated amine group remains outside the cavity, bound electrostatically with the anionic sulfonated groups.

  19. Synthesis and detection of toltrazuril sulfone and its pharmacokinetics in horses following administration in dimethylsulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Hughes, C; Granstrom, D E; Tobin, T

    2009-08-01

    Triazine-based antiprotozoal agents are known for their lipophylic characteristics and may therefore be expected to be well absorbed following oral administration. However, although an increase in lipid solubility generally increases the absorption of chemicals, extremely lipid-soluble chemicals may dissolve poorly in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, and their corresponding absorption and bioavailability would be low. Also, if the compound is administered in solid form and is relatively insoluble in GI fluids, it is likely to have limited contact with the GI mucosa, and therefore, its rate of absorption will be low. Based on the above considerations, we sought a solvent with low or no toxicity that would maintain triazine agents in solution. As the oral route is most preferred for daily drug therapy, such a solvent would allow an increased rate of absorption following oral administration. In present study, it was demonstrated that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) increased the oral bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril) threefold, relative to oral administrations of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water. The cross-over study of toltrazuril sulfone formulated in DMSO indicated that the absolute oral bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone in DMSO is 71%. The high bioavailability of the DMSO-preparation suggests that its daily oral administration will routinely yield effective plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) concentrations in all horses treated. Also, this improved formulation would allow clinicians to administer loading doses of toltrazuril sulfone in acute cases of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis. Another option would involve administration of toltrazuril sulfone in DMSO mixed with feed (1.23 kg daily dose) meeting the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for the levels of DMSO permissible in pharmaceutical preparations.

  20. Formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles using sulfonated polystyrene as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Mousumi; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2010-11-15

    We report formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles from a new blend system consisting of an amorphous polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) and an ionomer sodium salt of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS-Na). The ionomer used for the blending is spherical in shape with sulfonate groups on the surface of the particles. An in depth investigation of the blends at various sulfonation degrees and compositions using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provides direct evidence of specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the N-H groups of PBI and the sulfonate groups of SPS-Na. The disruption of PBI chains self association owing to the interaction between the functional groups of these polymer pairs is the driving force for the blending. Thermodynamical studies carried out by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) establish partially miscible phase separated blending of these polymers in a wider composition range. The two distinguishable glass transition temperatures (T(g)) which are different from the neat components and unaltered with the blends composition attribute that the domain size of heterogeneity (d(d)) of the blends is >20 nm since one of the blend component (SPS-Na particle) diameter is ∼70 nm. The diminish of PBI chains self association upon blending with SPS-Na particles and the presence of invariant T(g)'s of the blends suggest the wrapping of PBI chains over the SPS-Na spherical particle surface and hence resulting a core-shell morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study provides direct evidence of core-shell nanoparticle formation; where core is the polystyrene and shell is the PBI. The sulfonation degree affects the blends phase separations. The higher degree of sulfonation favors the disruption of PBI self association and thus forms partially miscible two phases blends with core-shell morphology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Composite electrolytes composed of Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acid and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Song-Yul, E-mail: ms089203@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Go [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kurume National College of Technology, 1-1-1 Komorino, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-8555 (Japan); Sakai, Mototsugu [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Composite electrolytes composed of cesium hydrogen sulfate containing phosphotungstic acids (CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) (SPEEK) were prepared by casting the corresponding precursor for application in fuel cells. Partially Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acids (Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) were formed in the CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} system by mechanochemical treatment. SPEEK was prepared from PEEK by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. Flexible composite electrolytes were obtained and their electrochemical properties were markedly improved with the addition of Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, into the SPEEK matrix. A maximum power density of 213 mW cm{sup -2} was obtained from the single cell test for 50H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-50CsHSO{sub 4} in SPEEK (1/5 by weight) composite electrolyte at 80 deg. C and at 80 RH%. Electrochemical properties and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that three-dimensional cluster particles were formed and homogeneously distributed in the SPEEK matrix. The mechanochemically synthesized Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} incorporated into the SPEEK matrix increased the number of protonate sites in the electrolyte. The composite electrolytes were successfully formed with Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, which consist of hydrogen bonding between surface of inorganic solid acids and not only -HSO{sub 4}{sup -} dissociated from CsHSO{sub 4} but also -SO{sub 3}H groups in the SPEEK.

  2. Sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane with embedded silica rich layer and enhanced proton selectivity for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Han, Dongmei; Meng, Yuezhong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologie, The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A series of novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes with special microstructure, based on sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) ionomer (SFPEK, IEC = 1.92 mequiv. g{sup -1}) and SiO{sub 2} or sulfonic acid group containing SiO{sub 2} (SiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H), has been successfully designed and prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The SiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H is synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and {gamma}-propyl mercaptotrimethoxysilane via sol-gel process to control the same IEC with neat SPFEK. The hybrid membranes are prepared by simply adding the inorganic particles into the SPFEK solution in N,N'-dimethylacetamide, followed by ultrasonic dispersion, casting and profiled temperature drying process. The morphology is examined by SEM-EDX which is applied to the top surface, bottom surface and cross-section of the hybrid membranes. The water uptake, oxidative stability, thermal property, mechanical property, proton conductivity, VO{sup 2+} permeability and single cell performance are investigated in detail in order to understand the relationship between morphology and property of the membranes. All the hybrid membranes show dramatically improved proton selectivity at 20 C and 40 C when compared with Nafion117. The VRB assembled with the SPFEK/3%SiO{sub 2} and SPFEK/9%SiO{sub 2} membranes exhibit higher coulombic efficiency and average discharge voltage than the VRB assembled with the SPFEK membrane at all the tested current densities. (author)

  3. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer...... was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR...

  4. Construction of Functionalized Annulated Sulfone via SO2/I Exchange of Cyclic Diaryliodonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Chen, Shihao; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2017-09-15

    A straightforward protocol for diarylannulated sulfone construction is efficiently established via SO 2 /I exchange of iodonium(III) salts. Readily available inorganic Na 2 S 2 O 5 was served as a safe and convenient SO 2 surrogate. Diverse functionalized diarylannulated sulfones were smoothly achieved in good to excellent yields with great functional group compatibility. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) material molecules were subsequently established via this method in gram scale. The unsymmetrical conjugated systems with donor-acceptor groups and π-conjugation bridges motifs, which substantially communicate electron mobility in semiconductor material molecules, were successfully afforded under the facile conditions of the exchange strategy.

  5. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchill, C.E.; Smith, D.M.; Charlton, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The 60 Co γ-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate has been studied in acidic, unbuffered, and alkaline conditions and with addition of N 2 O and 2-propanol. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the yields of H 2 O 2 and hydroxylated anthraquinone sulfonates. In neutral solution, in the absence of O 2 , the OH and e - adducts undergo preferential cross termination. Reduction of the OH adduct leads to dehydration and regeneration of the quinone. (author)

  6. Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis of Holocellulose Catalyzed with Sulfonated Char Derived from Lignin-Rich Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave assisted green process has been developed for production of sugars through liquefying holocellulose catalyzed with sulfonated char derived from the lignin-rich residue produced during pretreatment of lignocellulose. Various reaction parameters including the hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, catalyst content, and the ratio of water to feedstock were evaluated. The maximum sugars yield of 82.6% (based on the dry mass of holocellulose was obtained under the optimum reaction conditions. The sulfonated char showed superior catalytic performance to that of dilute sulfuric acid in converting holocellulose into sugars under microwave irradiation.

  7. Removal of dyes from water using crosslinked aminomethane sulfonic acid based resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Damla; Saraç, Ayfer; Senkal, Bahire Filiz

    2010-08-01

    A new polymeric resin with amino sulfonic acid pendant functions has been prepared for the extraction of acidic and basic dyes from water. Beaded polymer supports were prepared by suspension polymerization of vinyl benzyl chloride (0.9 mol) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (0.1 mol). The resulting copolymer beads were modified with amino methane sulfonic acid. The dye adsorption capacity of the resin was found as 0.16 g dye/g resin for ramazol black and 0.15 g dye/g resin for crystal violet. The pH depending measurements and dye sorption kinetics of the resin were also investigated.

  8. A Facile and Mild Synthesis of Trisubstituted Allylic Sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%–99% with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1. Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  9. A facile and mild synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Li, Yong-Gen; Zhou, Jiang-Feng; Chuan, Yong-Ming; Li, Hong-Li; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2015-05-07

    An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%-99%) with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1). Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  10. Allylic C-S Bond Construction through Metal-Free Direct Nitroalkene Sulfonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xue; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Chuanxin; Shi, Xiaodong; Chen, Yunfeng

    2018-02-16

    A metal-free, open-flask protocol was developed for the preparation of allylic sulfones through direct condensation of sodium arylsulfinates and β,β-disubstituted nitroalkenes. The key step of this process was the Lewis base-promoted equilibrium between nitroalkenes and allylic nitro compounds. Through this process, the readily available conjugated nitroalkenes can be easily converted into allylic nitro compounds, which contain more reactive C═C bonds toward the sulfonyl radical addition. As a result, allylic sulfones were prepared in excellent yields with a broad substrate scope under mild conditions.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of sulfonate phthalocyanine to probe enzyme reactions for heavy metals detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaure, Shweta; Paul, Deepen; Vadagma, Pankaj; Ray, Asim K.

    2010-01-01

    Optical absorption and Raman spectra of the sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuTsPc) layer were exploited for detection of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in water. Acetylcholine esterase was immobilized by freely suspending them in calcium alginate microbeads and this gel was then spincoated on the drop cast sulfonated copper phthalocyanine film on a glass substrate to form a bilayer. The inhibition of catalytic reaction between acetylcholine chloride and enzyme due to Cd contaminants was monitored by recording changes in spectra of drop cast CuTsPc as an indicator. The detection limit of cadmium content in water was found to be 1 ppm.

  12. Andrographolide sulfonate improves Alzheimer-associated phenotypes and mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ji; Liu, Wen; Xiong, Yuyun; Ding, Hongqun; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Xiang; Elgehama, Ahmed; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with Amyloid-β plaques onset, synaptic damage, and cognitive decline. Aβ deposits cause pathological events including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuron death. In this study, APPswe/PSENΔ9 double transgenic mice model was used to imitate Alzheimer's disease and the effect and possible mechanism of Andrographolide sulfonate were examined. Andrographolide sulfonate was given to the mice for 7 months before the onset of Aβ plaque. Spatial memory test showed that Andrographolide sulfonate treatment prevented cognitive decline. Aβ deposits were not affected while hippocampus and synapse damage was significantly alleviated. Mechanism studies showed that oxidative stress and mitochondrial swelling was reduced after Andrographolide sulfonate administration. These findings suggest that Andrographolide sulfonate, which has been applied in clinical medicine, might be a promising therapeutic agent for AD therapy via mitochondria protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Sulfonated Resorcinarenes: A New Example of a Linear Array of Sodium Centers and Macrocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Sanabria

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two sulfonated resorcinarenes were synthesized by reacting C-tetra(butyl resorcinarene or C-tetra(2-(methylthioethylresorcinarene with formaldehyde in the presence of sodium sulfite. Their structures were determined via FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Thermal gravimetric analyses of the derivatives were also carried out and revealed the presence of water molecules in the solid state. The sulfonated product of C-tetra(butylresorcinarene was characterized by an X-ray crystal structure determination. The asymmetric unit contains eight molecules of water and two of acetone, and analysis indicated that sulfonated resorcinarene prefers a cone configuration (rccc conformation in the solid state. In the crystal array, classical hydrogen bond interactions O-H···O and intermolecular contacts were observed. In the crystal packing, a linear array of capsules of sulfonated resorcinarenes was generated for a chain of sodium atoms and sulfonate groups.

  14. Facile synthesis of 4H-chromene derivatives via base-mediated annulation of ortho-hydroxychalcones and 2-bromoallyl sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Thadkapally

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cesium carbonate-mediated reaction of 2-bromoallyl sulfones and ortho-hydroxychalcones furnished 3-arylsulfonyl-4H-chromene derivatives in 58–67% yield (18 examples. 2-Bromoallyl sulfones functioned as synthetic surrogates for allenyl sulfones in the reaction.

  15. Influence of degree of sulfonation of BDPP upon enantioselectivity in rhodium-BDPP catalyzed hydrogenation reactions in a two phase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Cornelis; Rijnberg, Evelien; Vries, Johannes G. de

    1997-01-01

    Asymmetric hydrogenation experiments were carried out with catalysts prepared in situ from [Rh(COD)Cl]2 and 2 eq. of a sulfonated (2S,4S)-bis-2,4-(diphenylphosphino)pentane carrying 0-4 sulfonate groups, in a two phase aqueous organic system. The effect of degree of sulfonation on enantioselectivity

  16. Fuel cell performance of pendent methylphenyl sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Stanis, Ronald J.; Song, Yang; Hu, Wei; Cornelius, Chris J.; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2017-11-01

    Meta- and para-linked homopolymers bearing 3-methylphenyl (Me) pendent groups were postsulfonated to create sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) backbone isomers, which are referred to as Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK. Their thermal and oxidative stability, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol permeability, and proton conductivity are characterized. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK proton conductivities at 100 °C are 116 and 173 mS cm-1, respectively. Their methanol permeabilities are 3.3-3.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, and dimensional swelling at 100 °C is 16.4-17.5%. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and electrochemical properties were evaluated within a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). When O2 is used as the oxidant at 80 °C and 100% RH, the maximum power density of Me-m-SPEEKK reaches 657 mW cm-2, which is higher than those of Nafion 115 (552 mW cm-2). DMFC performance is 85 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with 2.0 M methanol using Me-p-SPEEKK due to its low MeOH crossover. In general, these electrochemical results are comparable to Nafion. These ionomer properties, combined with a potentially less expensive and scalable polymer manufacturing process, may broaden their potential for many practical applications.

  17. Occurrence of alachlor and its sulfonated metabolite in rivers and reservoirs of the midwestern United States: The importance of sulfonation in the transport of chloroacetanilide herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Goolsby, D.A.; Aga, D.S.; Pomes, M.L.; Meyer, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    Alachlor and its metabolite, 2-[(2',6'-diethylphenyl)- (methoxymethyl)amino]-2-oxoethanesulfonate (ESA), were identified in 76 reservoirs in the midwestern United States using immunoassay, liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median concentration of ESA (0.48 ??g/L) exceeded the median concentration of alachlor (sulfonic acid metabolites of other chloroacetanilides, including acetochlor, butachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor, also occur in surface water.

  18. Can Early Life-Stages of the Marine Fish Sparus aurata be Useful for the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates Homologues (LAS C10-C14 and Commercial LAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hampel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial household cleaning agents and personal care products contain the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS as the active compound. After their use they are discharged, theoretically after adequate wastewater treatment, into receiving waters finally reaching estuaries and coastal waters. Laboratory toxicity tests are useful tools in determining at which concentration a certain wastewater compound becomes hazardous for an existing group of organisms. Early life-stage toxicity tests include exposure during the most sensitive development period of the organism. In fish, this type of assay has shown to predict accurately maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC values (comprised in the range defined by the NOEC and LOEC in fish early life-stage tests. For this reason, larvae of the seabream, Sparus aurata, were exposed to increasing concentrations of LAS homologues (C10-C14 and commercial LAS. Obtained LC50 values ranged between 0.1 and 3.0 mg l-1 and were compared with LC50 values of previous hatching experiments with the same species. Larvae proved to be more sensitive to LAS exposure of individual homologues than eggs, except in the case of commercial LAS. LC50 values can be directly employed to determine their potential risk in a concrete environment with known pollutant concentrations. Dividing the LC50 value with the found homologue concentration and extrapolating with certain security factors proposed by different environmental organisms, potentially hazardous pollutant concentrations may be detected. Average estuarine or coastal LAS concentrations are generally below toxicity limits for this kind of organism, considering that the average alkyl chain length of commercial LAS is 11.6 carbon atoms.

  19. Anionic-exchange membrane development for application in alcohol alkaline fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium quaternized polymers such as poly (arylene ether sulfones) are being developed and studied as candidates of ionomeric materials for application in alkaline fuel cells, due to their low cost and promising electrochemical properties...

  20. Gene expression profiling identifies mechanisms of protection to recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis mediated by probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, R.; Kremer, S.H.A.; Erk, M. van; Lagerweij, T.; Koning, F.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Host-microbiota interactions in the intestinal mucosa play a major role in intestinal immune homeostasis and control the threshold of local inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in the recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis

  1. Characterisation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a terrestrial ecosystem near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hollander, W.; De Bruyn, L.; Hagenaars, A; de Voogt, P.; Bervoets, L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a restricted terrestrial food chain was investigated with the omnivorous wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on top of the studied food chain. The levels detected are very high compared with literature as a result of the presence of fluorochemical

  2. Transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) from contaminated feed to dairy milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Kowalczyk, J.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Ehlers, S.; Fürst, P.; Lahrssen - Wiederholt, M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake is the predominant route for human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Single pollution events may thus affect human exposure if polluted ground and water is used to produce animal feed or food. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) model is

  3. Sulfonation of cPTFE Film grafted Styrene for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Yohan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonation of γ-ray iradiated and styrene-grafted crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene film (cPTFE-g-S film have been done. The aim of the research is to make hydropyl membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonation was prepared with chlorosulfonic acid in chloroethane under various conditions. The impact of the percent of grafting, the concentration of chlorosulfonic acid, the reaction time,and the reaction temperature on the properties of sulfonated film is examinated. The results show that sulfonation of surface-grafted films is incomplete at room  temperature. The increasing of concentration of chlorosulfonic acid and reaction temperature accelerates the reaction but they also add favor side reactions. These will lead to decreasing of the ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity but increasing the resistance to oxidation in a perhidrol solution. The cPTFE-g-SS membrane which is resulted has stability in a H2O2 30% solution for 20 hours.

  4. Sodium polyanethole sulfonate as an inhibitor of activation of complement function in blood culture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Vitved, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Sodium polyanethole sulfonate (SPS; trade name, Liquoid) is a constituent in culture media used to grow bacteria from blood samples from patients suspected of bacteremia. SPS prevents the killing of bacteria by innate cellular and humoral factors. We analyzed the effect of SPS on the three...

  5. Water contentwater of determination of cationic polystyrene sulfonate resins by infrared spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noki, V.

    1987-01-01

    A method of the determination of water content in polystyrene sulfonate ion-exchange resins in the presence of alkaline earth counter-ions by I.R. spectrophotometry is proposed. This method does not hold in the case of transition metal due to the formation of coordinated complexes with water molecules.

  6. Effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine on human skin fibroblasts for photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, IM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available of the study was to evaluate the effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcSmix) used as photosensitizers for PDT, determined by changes in cell morphology and cell viability of human skin fibroblasts (WS1). Methods. Cells incubated with 5, 10...

  7. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  9. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Cy H [Albuquerque, NM; Hibbs, Michael [Albuquerque, NM; Ambrosini, Andrea [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  10. FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

  11. Sulfonate-grafted porous polymer networks for preferential CO(2) adsorption at low pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, W.; Yuan, D.; Sculley, J.; Zhao, D.; Krishna, R.; Zhou, H.-C.

    2011-01-01

    A porous polymer network (PPN) grafted with sulfonic acid (PPN-6-SO3H) and its lithium salt (PPN-6-SO3Li) exhibit significant increases in isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption and CO2-uptake capacities. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and a 15/85 CO2/N2 ratio at 295 K and 1 bar

  12. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9674 Section 721.9674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye...

  13. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid and derivatives: convenient reagents for reversible modification of arginine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, C S; Pelzig, M; Glass, J D

    1980-02-01

    Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid hydrate was prepared by the action of selenous acid on camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonylnorleucine was prepared either from the sulfonic acid via the sulfonyl chloride or by selenous acid oxidation of camphor-10-sulfonylnorleucine. These reagents are useful for specific, reversible modification of the guanidino groups of arginine residues. Camphorquinonesulfonic acid is a crystalline water-soluble reagent that is especially suitable for use with small arginine-containing molecules, because the sulfonic acid group of the reagent is a convenient handle for analytical and preparative separation of products. Camphorquinonesulfonylnorleucine is more useful for work with large polypeptides and proteins, because hydrolysates of modified proteins may be analyzed for norleucine to determine the extent of arginine modification. The adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are stable to 0.5 M hydroxylamine solutions at pH 7, the recommended conditions for cleavage of the corresponding cyclohexanedione adducts. At pH 8-9 the adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are cleaved by o-phenylenediamine. The modification and regeneration of arginine, of the dipeptide arginylaspartic acid, of ribonuclease S-peptide, and of soybean trypsin inhibitor are presented as demonstrations of the use of the reagents. The use of camphorquinonesulfonyl chloride to prepare polymers containing arginine-specific ligands is discussed.

  14. Sulfonated graphene oxide as effective catalyst for conversion of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural into biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Margarida M; Russo, Patrícia A; Wiper, Paul V; Veiga, Jacinto M; Pillinger, Martyn; Mafra, Luís; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pinna, Nicola; Valente, Anabela A

    2014-03-01

    The acid-catalyzed reaction of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural with ethanol is a promising route to produce biofuels or fuel additives within the carbohydrate platform; specifically, this reaction may give 5-ethoxymethylfurfural, 5-(ethoxymethyl)furfural diethylacetal, and/or ethyl levulinate (bioEs). It is shown that sulfonated, partially reduced graphene oxide (S-RGO) exhibits a more superior catalytic performance for the production of bioEs than several other acid catalysts, which include sulfonated carbons and the commercial acid resin Amberlyst-15, which has a much higher sulfonic acid content and stronger acidity. This was attributed to the cooperative effects of the sulfonic acid groups and other types of acid sites (e.g., carboxylic acids), and to the enhanced accessibility to the active sites as a result of the 2D structure. Moreover, the acidic functionalities bonded to the S-RGO surface were more stable under the catalytic reaction conditions than those of the other solids tested, which allowed its efficient reuse. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Antibacterial surface modified of novel nanocomposite sulfonated polyethersulfone/polyrhodanine membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam, Abbas Babaei; Peyravi, Majid; Ghorbani, Mohsen; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    In this study, sulfonated-polyethersulfone/polyrhodanine (SPES/PRh) membranes with antibacterial behavior were fabricated. Polyethersulfone (PES) sulfonation was performed to enhance its hydrophilicity and next polyrhodanine nanoparticles (PRhNPs) were synthesized along with the sulfonated PES (SPES) by polyrhodanine (PRh) in situ polymerization. The sulfonation step also helps making composite membrane due to development of probable bondings and polymers engagements. The constructed membranes characterization was performed by FTIR, FESEM, contact angle, 1H NMR, TGA and EDS analyses. SPES/PRh membrane had enhanced hydrophilicity and consequently better fluxes for aqueous solutions. The composite SPES/PRh membrane flux was improved to 139/78 L/m2 h comparing 58.21 L/m2 h for SPES one. Membrane operational performances, antibacterial and antibiofouling tests showed improved flux, better rejection and appropriate antibacterial and antibiofouling properties for SPES/PRh membrane. The 100% bacteria mortality for specified concentrations and appropriate inhibition zones up to 9 mm have been achieved. It is generally a suitable membrane to provide proper performance beside antibacterial and antibiofouling behavior.

  16. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes for nanofiltration of acidic and alkaline media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, M.R.; Bargeman, Gerrald; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan; Schwan Hosseiny, Seyed; Boerrigter, M.E.; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Several thin film composite nanofiltration membranes have been prepared by spin coating a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) solution on a polyethersulfone support, followed by thermal treatment. The most optimal developed nanofiltration membrane shows a clean water permeance of ∼4.5 L m−2 h−1

  17. Copper(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Gao, Yunpeng; Chen, Ri; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-03-25

    The Cu(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones via metal carbene intermediates is reported. This reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of carbon-carbon double bonds. Mechanistically, Cu(I) carbene formation and subsequent carbene migratory insertion are proposed as the key steps.

  18. Major sulfonate transporter Soa1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and considerable substrate diversity in its fungal family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Sylvester; Kankipati, Harish; De Graeve, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    that also catalyses sulfonate and choline sulfate uptake. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal SOA1 orthologues and expression of 20 members in the sul1 Delta sul2 Delta soa1 Delta strain, which is deficient in inorganic and organic sulfur compound uptake, reveals that these transporters have diverse substrate...

  19. Condensed tannin-sulfonate derivatives in cold-setting wood-laminating adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland E. Kreibich; Richard W. Hemingway

    1987-01-01

    Extraction of southern pine bark with 4.0 percent sodium sulfite and 0.4-percent sodium carbonate(based on ovendry bark weight) gives epicatechin-(4β)-sulfonate and oligomeric procyanidin-4-sulfonatee that show great promise to replace about 50 percent of the phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in coldsetting wood-laminating adhesives. Bonds in Douglas-fir...

  20. Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Richau, K.; Mohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 198, 1-3 (2006), s. 256-264 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) sulfonated * ion-exchange membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  1. Synthesis of highly sulfonated polystyrene-based block copolymers soluble in tetrahydrofuran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janata, Miroslav; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Gromadzki, D.; Štěpánek, Petr; Nallet, F.; Diat, O.; Vlček, Petr; Toman, Luděk

    55, - (2006), 1-12 ISSN 1618-7229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GESON/03/E001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polystyrene-block-hydrogenated polyisoprene * sulfonation * acetyl sulfate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.934, year: 2006 www.e-polymers.org

  2. Optical anisotropy, molecular orientations, and internal stresses in thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, Beata; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The thickness, the refractive index, and the optical anisotropy of thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films, prepared by spin-coating or solvent deposition, have been investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. For not too high polymer concentrations (B5 wt%) and not too low spin speeds

  3. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... various components of the LCPFAC category definition. 5. Comment summary. A submitter suggested that 40... gathering information from suppliers along the supply chain, and/or testing samples of the article itself... 2070-AJ95 Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances...

  4. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s for direct methanol fuel cells usage: Synthesis, water uptake, methanol diffusion coefficient and proton conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Fu, Tiezhu; Shao, Ke; Li, Xianfeng; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui; Zhang, Hong

    A novel series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SPEEKKs) with different degrees of sulfonation (Ds) were synthesized from 1,3-bis(3-sodium sulfonate-4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene (1,3-SFBB-Na), 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene (1,3-FBB) and 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethyl-4,4‧-biphenol (TMBP) by aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation. The chemical structures of SPEEKKs were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and the Ds values of the polymers were calculated by 1H NMR and titration methods, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the SPEEKKs in acid and sodium forms were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which showed that SPEEKKs had excellent thermal properties at high temperatures. All the SPEEKK polymers were easily solution cast into tough membranes. Water uptakes, proton conductivities and methanol diffusion coefficients of the SPEEKK membranes were measured. Water uptake increased with Ds and temperature. Compared to Nafion, the SPEEKK-60, -70 and -80 membranes showed higher proton conductivities at 80 °C, while the other SPEEKK membranes showed relatively lower proton conductivities. This may be due to the different distribution of ion-conducting domains in membrane. However, these membranes showed lower methanol diffusions in the range of 8.32 × 10 -9 to 1.14 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 compared with that of Nafion (2 × 10 -6 cm 2 s -1) at the same temperature. The membranes also showed excellent mechanical properties (with a Young's modulus > 1 GPa and a tensile strength > 40 MPa). These results indicate that the SPEEKK membranes are promising materials for use in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications.

  5. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s for direct methanol fuel cells usage: Synthesis, water uptake, methanol diffusion coefficient and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Gang; Fu, Tiezhu; Shao, Ke; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Xianfeng [Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Faculty of Bioengineering Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zhang, Hong [Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2009-04-15

    A novel series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SPEEKKs) with different degrees of sulfonation (Ds) were synthesized from 1,3-bis(3-sodium sulfonate-4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene (1,3-SFBB-Na), 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene (1,3-FBB) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-biphenol (TMBP) by aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation. The chemical structures of SPEEKKs were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and the Ds values of the polymers were calculated by {sup 1}H NMR and titration methods, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the SPEEKKs in acid and sodium forms were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which showed that SPEEKKs had excellent thermal properties at high temperatures. All the SPEEKK polymers were easily solution cast into tough membranes. Water uptakes, proton conductivities and methanol diffusion coefficients of the SPEEKK membranes were measured. Water uptake increased with Ds and temperature. Compared to Nafion, the SPEEKK-60, -70 and -80 membranes showed higher proton conductivities at 80 C, while the other SPEEKK membranes showed relatively lower proton conductivities. This may be due to the different distribution of ion-conducting domains in membrane. However, these membranes showed lower methanol diffusions in the range of 8.32 x 10{sup -9} to 1.14 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} compared with that of Nafion (2 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}) at the same temperature. The membranes also showed excellent mechanical properties (with a Young's modulus > 1 GPa and a tensile strength > 40 MPa). These results indicate that the SPEEKK membranes are promising materials for use in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. (author)

  6. Sulfonation of environmental chemicals and their metabolites in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, James C; James, Margaret O

    2005-09-01

    Although its habitat comprises mostly remote regions of the Arctic, the polar bear is subject to bioaccumulation of persistent environmental pollutants. Along with their phase I metabolites, they are potential substrates for detoxification via sulfonation and glucuronidation. The capability of polar bear liver to sulfonate a structurally diverse group of environmental chemicals, that is, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH-B[a]P), triclosan, 4'-hydroxy-3,3',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (4'OH-PCB79), 4'-hydroxy-2,3,3',4,5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (4'-OH-PCB159), 4'-hydroxy-2,3,3',5,5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (4'-OH-PCB165), the methoxychlor metabolite 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (OHMXC), tris(4-chlorophenyl)-methanol (TCPM), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was investigated. The glucuronidation of 3-OH-B[a]P was also studied. Enzyme activity was assayed by incubation of liver cytosol or microsomes derived from three adult male polar bears with 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate or uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid and substrate, followed by fluorometric or radiochemical thin-layer chromatographic analysis. The efficiency of sulfonation decreased in the order 3-OH-B[a]P > triclosan > 4'-OH-PCB79 > OHMXC > 4'-OH-PCB165 > TCPM > 4'-OH-PCB159 > PCP, all of which produced detectable sulfate conjugates. The 3-OH-B[a]P substrate was readily sulfonated and glucuronidated (apparent K(m) 0.41, 1.4 microM, and apparent V(max) 0.50, 3.00 nmol/min/mg, respectively). UDP-glucuronic acid kinetics suggested the presence of multiple enzymes glucuronidating 3-OH-B[a]P. Substrate inhibition was observed for the sulfonation of 3-OH-B[a]P and 4'OH-PCB79 (K(i) 1.0 and 217 microM, respectively). Triclosan was the most rapidly sulfated (apparent V(max) 1008 pmol/min/mg) of the substrates tested. Since sulfonation of an acyclic tertiary alcoholic group, as in TCPM, has not previously been reported, we also examined TCPM conjugation in humans and catfish, both of which

  7. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Binbin, E-mail: changbinbin806@163.com; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng, E-mail: baochengyang@yahoo.com

    2015-01-15

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses

  8. Controllable sulfonation of aromatic poly(arylene ether ketone)s containing different pendant phenyl rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhiliang; Liu, Xincai; Chao, Danming; Zhang, Wanjin [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2009-09-05

    The sulfonation selectivity of various pendant phenyl groups in poly(arylene ether ketone) (Ph-3F-PAEK) is invested via the postsulfonation approach. The sulfonated Ph-3F-PAEKs with different degrees of sulfonation (DS) are quantitatively synthesized by controlling the length of the segments that cannot be sulfonated. In this study, {sup 1}H NMR and FT-IR are used to confirmed the structures of the polymers and the experimentally DS values were calculated by {sup 1}H NMR. The experimentally observed DSs are corresponding to the theoretical values expected from the monomer ratios. All the sulfonated membranes have excellent mechanical properties (with a Young's modulus >1.3 GPa, a tensile strength >55 MPa and the elongation >10%). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to characterized the thermal stability of these polymers, and all the polymers show excellent thermal properties at high temperatures. The methanol permeability values of Ph-3F-SPAEKs in the range of 0.37 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} to 4.12 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} are much lower than that of Nafion {sup registered} 117 (1.55 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). It should be noted that the polymer with highest DS, Ph-3F-SPAEK-100 with an ion exchange capacity of 2.16 mequiv. g{sup -1}, exhibits high proton conductivity of 0.187 S cm{sup -1} at 80 C, which is also higher than that of Nafion {sup registered} 117. (author)

  9. Identification of biotin sulfone, bisnorbiotin methyl ketone, and tetranorbiotin-l-sulfoxide in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempleni, J; McCormick, D B; Mock, D M

    1997-02-01

    In previous studies using the HPLC and avidin-binding assay, five unidentified avidin-binding substances were observed in human urine. The present study investigated the identity of these substances. Urine was collected before and after intravenous administration of 18.5 mumol biotin to healthy adults. Unknown substances 1 and 3 were initially identified as biotin sulfone and bisnorbiotin methyl ketone, respectively, by coelution with authentic standards on HPLC. Identities were confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and by derivatization with p-dimethyl-aminocinnamaldehyde. As expected for biotin metabolites, the urinary excretion of biotin sulfone and bisnorbiotin methyl ketone increased with biotin administration. The urinary excretion of biotin sulfone increased 21-fold from 0.2 nmol/h before to 4.2 nmol/h after administration; the excretion of bisnorbiotin methyl ketone increased 130-fold from 0.4 to 51.8 nmol/h. At presumed steady state in free-living subjects (n = 6), biotin sulfone and bisnorbiotin methyl ketone accounted for 3.6% and 7.9% of total biotin excretion, respectively. Traces of tetranorbiotin-l-sulfoxide were also identified by using thin-layer chromatography and derivatization with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde. However, tetranorbiotin-l-sulfoxide was not detectable in urine by the HPLC and avidin-binding assay because this metabolite has weak avidin-binding affinity. We conclude that biotin sulfone and bisnorbiotin methyl ketone are present in measurable quantities in human urine; their quantitation should allow more accurate studies on human biotin metabolism and turnover.

  10. Asymmetric Synthesis of Diarylmethyl Sulfones by Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Benzylic Substitution: A Remarkable Effect of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Atifah; Hirano, Koji; Miura, Masahiro

    2018-03-25

    A Pd/(R)-BINAP-catalyzed enantioselective benzylic sulfonation of diarylmethyl carbonates with sodium sulfinates proceeds to deliver the corresponding chiral diarylmethyl sulfones in good yields with high enantioselectivity. The reaction occurs in a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) manner and thus provides convergent access to optically active benzylic sulfones from racemic secondary benzylic carbonates. Additionally, the addition of H 2 O is found to be critical for high enantioselectivity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The taurine transporter substrate guanidinoethyl sulfonate mimics the action of taurine on long-term synaptic potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; González, José C; Bustamante, Julián; Del Río, Rafael Martín; Solís, José M

    2016-11-01

    Taurine is especially abundant in rodent brain where it appears to be involved in osmoregulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The demonstration of a physiological role for taurine has been hampered by the difficulty in modifying taurine levels in most tissues, including the brain. We used an experimental strategy to reduce taurine levels, involving treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a structural analogue of taurine that, among other properties, acts as a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport. GES delivered in the drinking water of rats for 1 month effectively reduced taurine levels in brain structures (hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex) and outside the brain (heart, muscle, kidney, liver and plasma) by between 50 and 80 %, depending on the tissue. This partial taurine depletion did not affect either basal synaptic transmission or the late phase of long-term potentiation (late-LTP) in hippocampal slices. In vivo microdialysis studies in the hippocampus revealed that GES treatment reduced extracellular taurine levels and the magnitude of taurine released in response to the application of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or a hypoosmotic solution, without affecting release mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated in hippocampal slices that a brief GES application can mimic taurine action on the conversion of a decremental LTP into a perdurable late-LTP, concluding that GES might replace taurine function in some mechanisms such as those implicated in synaptic plasticity.

  12. Catalytic performance of strong acid catalyst: Methyl modified SBA-15 loaded perfluorinated sulfonic acid obtained by the waste perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Huang, Qiuyan; Li, Yingying; Fang, Minglan; Zhao, Qian

    2018-02-01

    Mesoporous molecular sieve (SBA-15) was modified using the trimethylchlorosilane as functional agent and the silylation SBA-15 mesoporous material was prepared in this work. The alcohol solution of perfluorinated sulfonic acid dissolved from the waste perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion exchange membrane (PFSIEM) was loaded onto the resulting mesoporous material by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by FT-IR, N2-physisorption, XRD, TG-DSC and TEM. The catalytic activities of these synthesized solid acid catalysts were evaluated by alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The influence of reaction temperature, weight hour space velocity (WHSV) and reaction time on the phenol conversion and product selectivity were assessed by means of a series of experiments. The results showed that with the increase of the active component of the catalyst, these catalysts still remained good mesoporous structure, but the mesoporous ordering decreased to some extent. These catalysts exhibited good catalytic performance for the alkylation of phenol with tert-butanol. The maximum phenol conversion of 89.3% with 70.9% selectivity to 4-t-butyl phenol (4-TBP) was achieved at 120 °C and the WHSV is 4 h-1. The methyl group was loaded on the surface of the catalyst by trimethylchlorosilane. This is beneficial to retard the deactivation of the catalyst. In this work, the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol were carried out using the methyl modified SBA-15 mesoporous materials loaded perfluorinated sulfonic acid as catalysts. The results show that the resulting catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity.

  13. Sulfonate salts of the therapeutic agent dapsone: 4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]anilinium benzenesulfonate monohydrate and 4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]anilinium methanesulfonate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán-Barrientos, Nancy Sarahy; Morales-Morales, David; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Rivera-Islas, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Dapsone, formerly used to treat leprosy, now has wider therapeutic applications. As is the case for many therapeutic agents, low aqueous solubility and high toxicity are the main problems associated with its use. Derivatization of its amino groups has been widely explored but shows no significant therapeutic improvements. Cocrystals have been prepared to understand not only its structural properties, but also its solubility and dissolution rate. Few salts of dapsone have been described. The title salts, C12H13N2O2S(+)·C6H5O3S(-)·H2O and C12H13N2O2S(+)·CH3SO3(-)·H2O, crystallize as hydrates and both compounds exhibit the same space group (monoclinic, P21/n). The asymmetric unit of each salt consists of a 4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]anilinium monocation, the corresponding sulfonate anion and a water molecule. The cation, anion and water molecule form hydrogen-bonded networks through N-H...O=S, N-H...Owater and Owater-H...O=S hydrogen bonds. For both salts, the water molecules interact with one sulfonate anion and two anilinium cations. The benzenesulfonate salt forms a two-dimensional network, while the hydrogen bonding within the methanesulfonate salt results in a three-dimensional network.

  14. Highly informative proteome analysis by combining improved N-terminal sulfonation for de novo peptide sequencing and online capillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Kim, Min-Sik; Choie, Woo-Suk; Min, Hye-Ki; Lee, Sang-Won

    2004-06-01

    Recently, various chemical modifications of peptides have been incorporated into mass spectrometric analyses of proteome samples, predominantly in conjunction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS), to facilitate de novo sequencing of peptides. In this work, we investigate systematically the utility of N-terminal sulfonation of tryptic peptides by 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (SPITC) for proteome analysis by capillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (cRPLC/MS/MS). The experimental conditions for the sulfonation were carefully adjusted so that SPITC reacts selectively with the N-terminal amino groups, even in the presence of the epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues. Mass spectrometric analyses of the modified peptides by cRPLC/MS/MS indicated that SPITC derivatization proceeded toward near completion under the experimental conditions employed here. The SPITC-derivatized peptides underwent facile fragmentation, predominantly resulting in y-series ions in the MS/MS spectra. Combining SPITC derivatization and cRPLC/MS/MS analyses facilitated the acquisition of sequence information for lysine-terminated tryptic peptides as well as arginine-terminated peptides without the need for additional peptide pretreatment, such as guanidination of lysine amino group. This process alleviated the biased detection of arginine-terminated peptides that is often observed in MALDI MS experiments. We will discuss the utility of the technique as a viable method for proteome analyses and present examples of its application in analyzing samples having different levels of complexity.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) copolymers with pendant carboxylic acid groups for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Chengji; Shao, Ke; Li, Hongtao; Fu, Tiezhu; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Cui, Zhiming; Xing, Wei [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2009-06-15

    A series of novel side-chain-type sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone)s with pendant carboxylic acid groups copolymers (C-SPAEKs) were synthesized by direct copolymerization of sodium 5,5'-carbonyl-bis(2-fluorobenzenesulfonate), 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone and 4,4'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (DPA). The expected structure of the sulfonated copolymers was confirmed by FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR. Membranes with good thermal and mechanical stability could be obtained by solvent cast process. It should be noted that the proton conductivity of these copolymers with high sulfonatation degree (DS > 0.6) was higher than 0.03 S cm{sup -1} and increased with increasing temperature. At 80 C, the conductivity of C-SPAEK-3 (DS = 0.6) and C-SPAEK-4 (DS = 0.8) reached up to 0.12 and 0.16 S cm{sup -1}, respectively, which were higher than that of Nafion 117 (0.10 S cm{sup -1}). Moreover, their methanol permeability was much lower than that of Nafion 117. These results showed that the synthesized materials might have potential applications as the proton exchange membranes for DMFCs. (author)

  16. Nafion-assisted cross-linking of sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxylic acid groups and their composite membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Haidan; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-06-01

    In this study, a new type of cross-linked composite membrane is prepared and considered for its potential applications in direct methanol fuel cell. Nafion and sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxylic acid groups (SPAEK-C) are blended and subsequently cross-linked by a Friedel-Craft reaction using the carboxylic acid groups in the SPAEK-C to achieve lower methanol permeability. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid groups of Nafion act as a benign solid catalyst, which assist the cross-linking of SPAEK-C. The physical and chemical characterizations of the cross-linked composite membranes are performed by varying the contents of SPAEK-C. The c-Nafion-15% membrane exhibits appropriate water uptake (10.49-25.22%), low methanol permeability (2.57 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}), and high proton conductivity (0.179 S cm{sup -1} at 80 C). DSC and FTIR analyze suggest the cross-linking reaction. These results show that the self-cross-linking of SPAEK-C in the Nafion membrane can effectively reduce methanol permeability while maintaining high proton conductivity. (author)

  17. Sulfonation and phosphorylation of regions of the dioxin receptor susceptible to methionine modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Keyur A; Whelan, Fiona; Bindloss, Colleen; Furness, Sebastian G B; Chapman-Smith, Anne; Whitelaw, Murray L; Gorman, Jeffrey J

    2009-04-01

    Tagged murine dioxin receptor was purified from mammalian cells, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by capillary HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and -MS/MS. Several chromatographically distinct semitryptic peptides matching two regions spanning residues Glu(409)-Arg(424) and Ser(547)-Arg(555) of the dioxin receptor were revealed by de novo sequencing. Methionine residues at 418 and 548 were detected in these peptides as either unmodified or modified by moieties of 16 (oxidation) or 57 amu (S-carboxamidomethylation) or in a form corresponding to degradative removal of 105 amu from the S-carboxamidomethylated methionine. MS/MS spectra revealed that the peptides containing modified methionine residues also existed in forms with a modification of +80 amu on serine residues 411, 415, and 547. The MS/MS spectra of these peptide ions also revealed diagnostic neutral loss fragment ions of 64, 98, and/or 80 amu, and in some instances combinations of these neutral losses were apparent. Taken together, these data indicated that serines 411 and 547 of the dioxin receptor were sulfonated and serine 415 was phosphorylated. Separate digests of the dioxin receptor were prepared in H(2)(16)O and H(2)(18)O, and enzymatic dephosphorylation was subsequently performed on the H(2)(16)O digest only. The digests were mixed in equal proportions and analyzed by capillary HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and -MS/MS. This strategy confirmed assignment of sulfonation as the cause of the +80-amu modifications on serines 411 and 547 and phosphorylation as the predominant cause of the +80-amu modification of serine 415. The relative quantitation of phosphorylation and sulfonation enabled by this differential phosphatase strategy also suggested the presence of sulfonation on a serine other than residue 411 within the sequence spanning Glu(409)-Arg(424). This represents the first description of post-translational sulfonation sites and identification of a new phosphorylation site of the latent dioxin receptor

  18. Analysis of perfluorinated phosponic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water, sludge and sediment by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esperza, X.; Moyano, E.; de Boer, J.; Galceran, M.T.; van Leeuwen, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Residues of perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in various Dutch surface waters, sludge and sediments. For this purpose, a liquid chromatographic (LC) method was optimized by testing several columns with different mobile phases.

  19. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Oktapodas, M.; Palkovičová Murinová, L.; Babjaková, J.; Verner, M.A.; DeWitt, J.C.; Babinská, K.; Thevenet-Morrison, K.; Čonka, K.; Drobná, B.; Thurston, S.W.; Lawrence, B.P.; Dozier, A.M.; Jarvinen-Seppo, K.M.; Patayová, H.; Trnovec, T.; Legler, J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184

  20. Destruction of gel sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type under the influence of hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roginskaya, B.S.; Zavadovskaya, A.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Paskhina, N.A.; Dobrova, E.I.

    1988-10-20

    The purpose of this work was to study the mechanism of interaction of Soviet sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type with hydrogen peroxide. It is shown that under the influence of hydrogen peroxide sulfonated cation-exchangers begin, after a certain induction period, to lose capacity and to release destruction products into water; the length of the induction period increases with the degree of cross-linking. In a given time of contact between the resin and the solution the degree of destruction falls with increase of cross-linking. The principal product of destruction of sulfonated cation-exchangers is an aromatic sulfonic acid containing oxidized groups in the side chains.

  1. Beta,beta-Disilylated Sulfones as Versatile Building Blocks in Organic Chemistry – A New Sulfonyl Carbanion Transmetalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puget, Bertrand; Jahn, Ullrich

    -, č. 17 (2010), s. 2579-2582 ISSN 0936-5214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carbanions * transmetalation * silanes * sulfones * Julia olefination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2010

  2. Surface Structural Studies of Methane Sulfonic Acid at Air/Aqueous Solution Interfaces using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, H

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric gas phase species such as methane sulfonic acid (MSA) are adsorbed and accommodated into atmospheric aqueous-phase aerosols and in some cases MSA is thought to be produced via aerosol surface chemistry...

  3. Mixed-component sulfone-sulfoxide tagged zinc IRMOFs:In situ ligand oxidation, carbon dioxide, and water sorption studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Macguire R; Burrows, Andrew D; Kepert, Cameron J; Southon, Peter D; Qazvini, Omid T; Telfer, Shane G; Richardson, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Reported here are the syntheses and adsorption properties of a series of single- and mixed-component zinc IRMOFs derived from controlled ratios of sulfide and sulfone functionalized linear biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) ligands. During MOF synthesis the sulfide moieties undergo in situ oxidation, giving rise to sulfoxide functionalized ligands, which are incorporated to give mixed-component sulfoxide–sulfone functionalized MOFs. The single- and mixed-component systems all share the IRMOF-9 stru...

  4. Enzymatic treatment of sulfonated aromatic amines generated from reductive degradation of reactive azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mousumi Mani; Taylor, Keith E; Bewtra, Jatinder K; Biswas, Nihar

    2007-04-01

    Anaerobic degradation, an effective treatment process of textile industry effluent, generates sulfonated aromatic amines, which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and resistant to microbial degradation. These aromatic amines can be effectively removed by oxidative polymerization catalyzed by peroxidase enzyme. The amines, generated in this study from the anaerobic reduction by zero-valent iron of two reactive azo dyes (Reactive Red 2 [RR2] and Reactive Black 5 [RB5]), were successfully removed (90%) by Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP). For better understanding of the process, enzymatic treatment of two model compounds, diphenylamine (DPA) and 2-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid (ANDSA), were also studied. Diphenylamine has a similar diarylamine bond as RR2. The ANDSA has a similar structure as the dye reduction products. The secondary amine bond in DPA and RR2 were oxidized by ARP. Enzymatic reaction of sulfonated aromatic amines generated soluble colored compounds, which were removed by coagulant. Optimum reaction parameters were also determined.

  5. Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

  6. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  7. Direct esterification of olive-pomace oil using mesoporous silica supported sulfonic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alrouh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 containing propyl sulfonic acid groups were synthesized according to the literature and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and the H+ exchange capacities of the sulfonic acid groups were titrated. The esterification reaction of glycerol with olive-pomace oil has been carried out by using prepared functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41 and SBA-15 as catalysts. It has been monitored by GC two fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acids as reactants in olive-pomace oil and their related monoacylglycerols (Glycerol monopalmitate GMP and monooleate GMO as reaction product. The catalytic activities of the functionalized mesoporous silica were compared with commercial catalysts, these included homogeneous catalysts (p-toluenesulfonic acid and heterogeneous catalysts (Amberlyst-15. The total yield of monoacylglycerols (GMO + GMP was nearly 40%. Remarkably, we found that MCM-41-SO3H was recycled at least 3 times without any loss of activity.

  8. Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on Sulfonated and Non-Modified Chitosan Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Campos, Enrique; Civantos, Ana; Redondo, Juan Alfonso; Guzmán, Rodrigo; Pérez-Perrino, Mónica; Gallardo, Alberto; Ramos, Viviana; Aranaz, Inmaculada

    2017-05-01

    Three types of chitosan-based films have been prepared and evaluated: a non-modified chitosan film bearing cationizable aliphatic amines and two films made of N-sulfopropyl chitosan derivatives bearing both aliphatic amines and negative sulfonate groups at different ratios. Cell adhesion and proliferation on chitosan films of C2C12 pre-myoblastic cells and B16 cells as tumoral model have been tested. A differential cell behavior has been observed on chitosan films due to their different surface modification. B16 cells have shown lower vinculin expression when cultured on sulfonated chitosan films. This study shows how the interaction among cells and material surface can be modulated by physicochemical characteristics of the biomaterial surface, altering tumoral cell adhesion and proliferation processes.

  9. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure: Studies of zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.S.; Yarusso, D.J.; Pan, H.K.D.; Cooper, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed on a series of zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers and the local structure around the zinc atom was determined. An interference effect in the EXAFS signal between sulfur and oxygen atoms was found to be significant in these materials. A model for the local structure in the zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers is proposed which suggests a highly ordered tetrahedral coordination of oxygen around the zinc atoms at a distance of 1.97 +- 0.02 A. In addition there are four sulfur atoms and four oxygen atoms at a distance of 3.15 +- 0.05 A. No zinc-zinc coordination within 5 A was detected in this study

  10. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Baijun [JILIN UNIV.; Hu, Wei [JILIN UNIV.; Jiang, Zhenhua [JILIN UNIV.; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  11. Electrochemiluminescence sensor based on partial sulfonation of polystyrene with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Yuanhong; Wei, Hui; Huo, Ting; Wang, Erkang

    2007-07-15

    Herein, homogenously partial sulfonation of polystyrene (PSP) was performed. An effective electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on PSP with carbon nanotube (CNTs) composite film was developed. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy were applied to characterize this composite film. The PSP was used as an immobilization matrix to entrap the ECL reagent Ru(bpy)3(2+) due to the electrostatic interactions between sulfonic acid groups and Ru(bpy)3(2+) cations. The introduction of CNTs into PSP acted not only as a conducting pathway to accelerate the electron transfer but also as a proper matrix to immobilize Ru(bpy)3(2+) on the electrode by hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, the results indicated the ECL intensity produced at this composite film was over 3-fold compared with that of the pure PSP film due to the electrocatalytic activity of the CNTs. Such a sensor was verified by the sensitive determinations of 2-(dibutylamino)ethanol and tripropylamine.

  12. Stabilized sulfonated aromatic polymers by in situ solvothermal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eDi Vona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-link reaction via sulfone bridges of sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK by thermal treatment at 180 °C in presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO is discussed. The modifications of properties subsequent to the cross-linking are presented. The mechanical strength as well as the hydrolytic stability increased with the thermal treatment time, i.e., with the degree of cross-linking. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. The memory effect, which is the membrane ability to remember the water uptake reached at high temperature also at lower temperature, is exploited in order to achieve high values of conductivity. Membranes swelled at 110 °C can reach a conductivity of 0.14 S/cm at 80°C with a hydration number ( of 73.

  13. Quinolinium 8-hy-droxy-7-iodo-quinoline-5-sulfonate 0.8-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham

    2012-12-01

    In the crystal structure of the title hydrated quinolinium salt of ferron (8-hy-droxy-7-iodo-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), C9H7N(+)·C9H5INO4S(-)·0.8H2O, the quinolinium cation is fully disordered over two sites (occupancy factors fixed at 0.63 and 0.37) lying essentially within a common plane and with the ferron anions forming π-π-associated stacks down the b axis [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.462 (6) Å]. The cations and anions are linked into chains extending along c through hy-droxy O-H⋯O and quinolinium N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to sulfonate O-atom acceptors which are also involved in water O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions along b, giving a two-dimensional network.

  14. Quinolinium 8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonate 0.8-hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title hydrated quinolinium salt of ferron (8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, C9H7N+·C9H5INO4S−·0.8H2O, the quinolinium cation is fully disordered over two sites (occupancy factors fixed at 0.63 and 0.37 lying essentially within a common plane and with the ferron anions forming π–π-associated stacks down the b axis [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.462 (6 Å]. The cations and anions are linked into chains extending along c through hydroxy O—H...O and quinolinium N—H...O hydrogen bonds to sulfonate O-atom acceptors which are also involved in water O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions along b, giving a two-dimensional network.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation from 60Co on dilute aqueous solutions of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants and other organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    This study is the result of research findings and operational experiences gained by the author in over four years of work associated with the use of 60 Co for the treatment of waste-water. The effects of 60 Co are discussed with regard to radiochemical destruction of specific organic pollutant species. The study deals specifically with the effects of gamma radiation from a 30,000 Ci 60 Co source upon aqueous solutions of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants. The new Linear Alkyl Sulfonate (LAS) Surfactants, the major surfactant produced in the United States of America since June 1965, was developed to replace the old Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (ABS) Surfactants. The reason for the removal of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate Surfactants was their extreme environmental stability and the associated appearance of foam in waste-water treatment plants and receiving streams. Although the Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants are considered 'bio-degradable', the time required for 'bio-degradation' is impractical within the present environmental guidelines. This led to research into alternate techniques of treatment for the destruction of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants. Consideration is also given to similar effects of gamma radiation upon pesticides and to the practical aspects of the use of gamma radiation for the treatment of waste-water. Included are discussions of the general experimental procedures used, the sources and their calibration, and sampling techniques to ensure the accuracy of the data. (author)

  16. Effects of 17β-oestradiol and norethisterone acetate on sulfonation and sialylation of gonadotrophins in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naessén, Tord; Eriksson, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Background The number of terminal sialic acid and sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SO3-GalNAc) on gonadotrophins in serum varies during the menstrual cycle and changes at menopause, suggesting that gonadal steroids modify their oligosaccharide synthesis. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-oestradiol (E2) and a progestogen, norethisterone acetate (NETA), on the sulfonation and sialylation of gonadotrophins in post-menopausal women. Methods Serum samples were obtained from eight post-menopausal women treated with 20 mg E2 implants every 6 months, from four women who in addition were treated daily with 5 mg NETA orally for a 2-week period, and from four women who got this NETA treatment during a 4-week period. Sera from 11 non-treated post-menopausal women served as a reference group. The gonadotrophin serum concentrations, the number of SO3-GalNAc and sialic acid residues per serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) molecule, and the distributions of molecules with 0-1-2-3-4 sulfonated residues were measured. Results The E2-treated post-menopausal women had considerably less (P sulfonation of LH (P sulfonation of LH and FSH. The primary effect of the NETA therapy was an increase in the sulfonation of LH and FSH concomitantly with secondary and consequentially decreases in sialylation of LH. PMID:20141368

  17. Sulfonation Process and Desalination Effect of Polystyrene/PVDF Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Cation Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-lin Lei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based strongly acidic cation exchange resins, polystyrene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF alloy particles were sulfonated to obtain a cation exchange resin, which was then directly thermoformed to prepare a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN cation exchange membrane. The effects of the swelling agent, sulfonation time and temperature and the relative contents of polystyrene and divinylbenzene (DVB in the alloy particles on the feasibility of the membrane formation are discussed. The results indicate that a favorable sulfonation degree above 80% and a suitable ion exchange capacity of 1.5–2.4 mmol/g can be gained, with concentrated sulfuric acid as the sulfonation agent and 1,2-dichloroethane as the swelling agent. The running electrical resistance and desalination effect of the prepared cation exchange membrane were measured in a pilot-scale electrodialyser and not only obviously exceeded a commercial heterogeneous cation exchange membrane, but was also very close to a commercial homogenous membrane. In this way, the authors have combined the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based cation exchange resins with the traditional thermoforming manufacturing process of heterogeneous cation exchange membranes, to successfully develop a novel, low-price, but relatively high-performance polystyrene/PVDF cation exchange membrane with the semi-IPN structure.

  18. Effects of 17beta-oestradiol and norethisterone acetate on sulfonation and sialylation of gonadotrophins in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Leif; Naessén, Tord; Eriksson, Karin

    2010-05-01

    The number of terminal sialic acid and sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SO(3)-GalNAc) on gonadotrophins in serum varies during the menstrual cycle and changes at menopause, suggesting that gonadal steroids modify their oligosaccharide synthesis. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) and a progestogen, norethisterone acetate (NETA), on the sulfonation and sialylation of gonadotrophins in post-menopausal women. Serum samples were obtained from eight post-menopausal women treated with 20 mg E(2) implants every 6 months, from four women who in addition were treated daily with 5 mg NETA orally for a 2-week period, and from four women who got this NETA treatment during a 4-week period. Sera from 11 non-treated post-menopausal women served as a reference group. The gonadotrophin serum concentrations, the number of SO(3)-GalNAc and sialic acid residues per serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) molecule, and the distributions of molecules with 0-1-2-3-4 sulfonated residues were measured. The E(2)-treated post-menopausal women had considerably less (P sulfonation of LH (P sulfonation of LH and FSH. The primary effect of the NETA therapy was an increase in the sulfonation of LH and FSH concomitantly with secondary and consequentially decreases in sialylation of LH.

  19. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pristine and composite membranes prepared from SPEEK82 decomposed completely in <1 h, which is undesirable for fuel cell applications. SPEEK60 membrane having wt% of 0.25–0.5 with S–C particles led to higher proton conductivity than that of pristine membrane. No positive effect was observed on the properties of ...

  20. Syntheses, structures, thermal stabilities and luminescence of two new lead sulfonates with phosphonate, carboxylate and pyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Ruibiao; Hu, Shengmin; Wu, Xintao

    2014-01-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of Pb 2+ ion with disodium 4,4'-bis(2-sulfonatostyryl)biphenyl (Na 2 L1), 4-pyridyl-CH 2 N(CH 2 COOH)(CH 2 PO 3 H 2 ) (H 3 L2) and 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bipy) afforded two new lead sulfonates, namely, [Pb 4 (L1) 2 (HL2) 2 (H 2 O)

  1. Polyalkoxy sulfonate, CO/sub 2/ and brine drive process for oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellington, S. L.; Bright, D. B.; Lutz, E. F.; Reisberg, J.

    1985-03-05

    Oil is displaced within a subterranean reservoir by injecting a combination of substantially liquefied CO/sub 2/, brine and surfactant material into the reservoir, with the surfactant material being a polyalkoxy aliphatic sulfonate surfactant material which has specified dispersing and partitioning properties in contact with the brine and the fluids in the reservoir at the reservoir temperature and a pressure sufficient to substantially liquefy the CO/sub 2/ within the reservoir.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Effcient and Selective Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts with Sulfonate and Phosphate Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Peili; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    A series of novel, air-stable ruthenium NHC catalysts with sulfonate and phosphate anions have been prepared easily in one pot at high yields using commercially available precursors. The catalysts were found to be effective for ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing metathesis, and cross-metathesis. The catalysts showed higher cis-selectivity in olefin cross-metathesis reactions as compared to earlier known ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts, with allylbenzene and cis-1...

  3. The design and synthesis of novel spirocyclic heterocyclic sulfone ROMK inhibitors as diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanian, Harry R; Guo, Yan; Pio, Barbara; Tang, Haifeng; Teumelsan, Nardos; Clements, Matthew; Frie, Jessica; Ferguson, Ronald; Guo, Zach; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande S; Felix, John P; Liu, Jessica; Kohler, Martin; Priest, Birgit; Hampton, Caryn; Pai, Lee-Yuh; Corona, Aaron; Metzger, Joseph; Tong, Vincent; Joshi, Elizabeth M; Xu, Ling; Owens, Karen; Maloney, Kevin; Sullivan, Kathleen; Pasternak, Alexander

    2017-02-15

    A spirocyclic class of ROMK inhibitors was developed containing a structurally diverse heterocyclic sulfone moiety and spirocyclic core starting from lead 1. These compounds not only displayed exquisite ROMK potency but significantly improved selectivity over hERG. The lead compounds were found to have favorable pharmacokinetic properties and displayed robust diuretic, natriuretic and blood pressure lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrooxidative Tandem Cyclization of Activated Alkynes with Sulfinic Acids To Access Sulfonated Indenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jiangwei [The; Center; Shi, Wenyan [The; Zhang, Fan [The; Liu, Dong [The; Tang, Shan [The; Wang, Huamin [The; Lin, Xiao-Min [Center; Lei, Aiwen [The

    2017-05-25

    An,electrooxidative direct arylsulfonlylation of yones sulfintc acids via a radical tandem cyclization strategy has been developed for the construction of sulfonated ilicIenones:under oxidant, free conditions. This method provides a simple and efficient approach to prepare various sulfonylindenones in good to,excellent:Tyidds,, demonstrating the tremendous prospect of utilizing electrocatalysis in oxidative coupling, Notably, this reaction could Be easily scaled up with good, efficiency.

  5. Morphological studies and ionic transport properties of partially sulfonated diblock copolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gromadzki, D.; Černoch, Peter; Janata, Miroslav; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Nallet, F.; Diat, O.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2006), s. 2486-2496 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GESON/03/E001 Grant - others:Marie Curie Research and Training Network(XE) HPMT-CT-2001-00396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : sulfonated polystyrene-block-hydrogenated polyisoprene * ionomer * morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2006

  6. Efficient conversion of levulinic acid into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic mesostructured silicas

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, J.A.; Morales, G.; Iglesias, J.; Paniagua, M.; Hernández, B.; Penedo, S.

    2013-01-01

    Línea Investigación: Línea 8. Producción de biocombustibles Sulfonic mesoporous silicas have demonstrated an outstanding catalytic performance in the esterification of levulinic acid with different alcohols to produce alkyl levulinates, a family of chemicals considered to be excellent oxygenated fuel extenders for gasoline, diesel and biodiesel. Catalyst screening indicated that propylsulfonic acid-modified SBA-15 material was the most active one, among tested materials, due to a combinati...

  7. Design and synthesis of aryl ether and sulfone hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabba, Chittari; Gregg, Brian T; Kitchen, Douglas B; Chen, Zhen Jia; Judkins, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors with aryl ether and aryl sulfone residues at the terminus of a substituted, unsaturated 5-carbon spacer moiety have been synthesized for the first time and evaluated. Compounds with meta- and para-substitution on the aryl ring of ether hydroxamic acids 19c, 20c, 19e, 19f and 19g are potent HDAC inhibitors with activities at low nanomolar levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrophilic aromatic sulfonation with SO3: concerted or classic S(E)Ar mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Gergana; Galabov, Boris; Kong, Jing; Schaefer, Henry F; Schleyer, Paul von R

    2011-11-30

    The electrophilic sulfonation of several arenes with SO(3) was examined by electronic structure computations at the M06-2X/6-311+G(2d,2p) and SCS-MP2/6-311+G(2d,2p) levels of theory. In contrast to the usual interpretations, the results provide clear evidence that in nonpolar media and in the absence of catalysts the mechanism of aromatic sulfonation with a single SO(3) is concerted and does not involve the conventionally depicted 1:1 σ complex (Wheland) intermediate. Moreover, the computed activation energy for the 1:1 process is unrealistically high; barriers for alternative 2:1 mechanisms involving attack by two SO(3) molecules are 12-20 kcal/mol lower! A direct 2:1 sulfonation mechanism, involving a single essential transition state, but no Wheland type intermediate, is preferred generally at MP2 as well as at M06-2X in isolation (gas phase) or in noncomplexing solvents (such as CCl(4) or CFCl(3)). However, in polar, higher dielectric SO(3)-complexing media, M06-2X favors an S(E)Ar mechanism for the 2:1 reaction involving a Wheland-type arene-(SO(3))(2) dimer intermediate. The reaction is slower in complexing solvents, since the association energy, e.g., with nitromethane, must be overcome. But, in accord with the experimental kinetics (second-order in SO(3)), attack by two sulfur trioxide molecules is still favored energetically over reaction with a single SO(3) in CH(3)NO(2). The theoretical results also reproduce the experimental reactivity and regioselectivity trends for benzene, toluene, and naphthalene sulfonation accurately.

  9. Direct sulfonation of methane to methanesulfonic acid with SO2 using Ca salts as promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudip; Bell, Alexis T

    2003-04-16

    Direct liquid-phase sulfonation of methane to methanesulfonic acid (MSA) with SO2 has been achieved in triflic acid using K2S2O8 as the oxidant and a small amount of a Ca salt as the promoter. The effects of reaction conditions on the conversion of SO2 to MSA were examined. Included were the influence of solvent acidity, reaction duration, reaction temperature, amount of K2S2O8, and composition and amount of promoters.

  10. Distinct sulfonation activities in resveratrol-sensitive and resveratrol-insensitive human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Hong; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Qing-You; Wu, Mo-Li; Liu, Jia

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells show different responses to resveratrol, for unknown reasons. Our data from human medulloblastoma cells and primary cultures of rat brain cells revealed an inverse correlation of sulfonation activity with resveratrol sensitivities, providing a clue to the underlying mechanisms of the variable sensitivities of GBM cells to resveratrol. In this study, we found that U251 cells were sensitive and LN229 cells were insensitive to resveratrol. Thus, these two cell lines were taken as comparable models for elucidating the influence of sulfonation activities on resveratrol sensitivity. HPLC showed identical resveratrol metabolic patterns in both cell lines. LC/MS and high-resolution mass MS analyses further demonstrated that resveratrol monosulfate generated by sulfotransferases (SULTs) was the major metabolite of human GBM cells. The levels of brain-associated SULT (SULT1A1, SULT1C2, and SULT4A1) expression in U251 cells were lower than those in LN229 cells, suggesting the inverse relationship of SULT-mediated sulfonation activity with high intracellular resveratrol bioavailability and resveratrol sensitivity of human GBM cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in expression of the three brain-associated SULTs in 72.8%, 47.5% and 66.3% of astrocytomas, respectively. Therefore, the levels of brain-associated SULTs and sulfonation activity mediated by them could be important parameters for evaluating the potential response of human GBM cells to resveratrol, and may have value in the personalized treatment of GBMs with resveratrol. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  11. The acid-base character of interactions between xenon and selected carboxylic and sulfonic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąszowski, Dawid; Ilczyszyn, Marek

    2017-05-01

    Interactions of Xe atoms with RCO2H and RSO3H (R = CH3 and CF3) acids in different solvents are examined by analysis of 129Xe chemical shifts extrapolated to zero solvent concentration. Obtained results are very sensitive to the Xe contacts with the methyl and trifluoromethyl groups as well as with the carboxylic and sulfonic groups of different acidity. The acid-base character of these acid-Xe interactions is considered.

  12. Sulfonation of maternal steroids is a conserved metabolic pathway in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M

    2013-12-01

    All vertebrate embryos develop in the presence of maternally derived steroids, and maternal steroids have been hypothesized to link phenotype of the offspring to maternal physiology. In placental vertebrates, it is known that maternally derived steroids are metabolized during development via the sulfonation pathway. We used eggs from the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) to determine whether the same metabolic pathway is used to metabolize maternally derived steroids in an oviparous vertebrate. To examine the relationship between estradiol and estrogen sulfates during development, levels of maternally derived estradiol were compared with levels of estradiol sulfate, estrone sulfate, and estriol sulfate at oviposition and after 20 days of embryonic development. Estrone sulfate was the only detectable estrogen sulfate. At oviposition, levels of both estradiol and estrone sulfate varied seasonally with clutches from later in the nesting season having significantly higher concentrations of both steroids. Levels of estrone sulfate increased during development, demonstrating that the sulfonation of maternally derived steroids occurs in oviparous vertebrates as well as in placental vertebrates. We also found that exogenous estrone sulfate increases the production of female hatchlings, thereby demonstrating the ability of this metabolite to influence embryonic development. To examine the role of sulfonation in the metabolism of maternal progesterone and testosterone, we characterized the metabolic fate of both steroids by applying tritiated forms of each steroid at oviposition and characterizing metabolites after 20 days of incubation. Similar to what was demonstrated for estradiol, both progesterone and testosterone are converted to sulfonated metabolites during embryonic development. These data suggest that steroid sulfates, both those that are maternally derived and those resulting from the metabolism of maternal steroids, are a key component of the mechanism

  13. In silico approach to investigating the adsorption mechanisms of short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid on hydrated hematite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongru; Lin, Yuan; Sun, Yuzhen; Cao, Huiming; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Ke; Zhang, Aiqian

    2017-05-01

    Short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) that were introduced as alternatives for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been widely produced and used. However, few studies have investigated the environmental process of short chain PFSAs, and the related adsorption mechanisms still need to be uncovered. The water-oxide interface is one of the major environmental interfaces that plays an important role in affecting the adsorption behaviour and transport potential of the environmental pollutant. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of five PFSAs and their adsorption on hydrated hematite surface as well. Different to the vertical configuration reported for PFOS on titanium oxide, all PFSAs share the same adsorption configuration as the long carbon chains parallel to the surface. The formation of hydrogen bonds between F and inter-surface H helps to stabilize the unique configuration. As a result, the sorption capacity increases with increasing C-F chain length. Moreover, both calculated adsorption energy and partial density of states (PDOS) analysis demonstrate a PFSAs adsorption mechanism in between physical and chemical adsorption because the hydrogen bonds formed by the overlap of F (p) orbital and H (s) orbital are weak intermolecular interactions while the physical adsorption are mainly ascribed to the electrostatic interactions. This massive calculation provides a new insight into the pollutant adsorption behaviour, and in particular, may help to evaluate the environmental influence of pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Influence of aromatic sulfonation on the geometry of [2.2]paracyclophane: crystal structures of one sulfonate, one disulfonic anhydride and five disulfonimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, D J; Goubitz, K; Fontijn, M; Capková, P; Dova, E; Schenk, H

    2001-12-01

    The crystal structures of potassium [2.2]paracyclophane-4-sulfonate (1), [2.2]paracyclophane-4,15-disulfonic anhydride (2), [2.2]paracyclophane-4,15-disulfonimide (3), N-n-propyl-[2.2]paracyclophane-4,15-disulfonimide (4), N-isopropyl-[2.2]paracyclophane-4,15-disulfonimide (5), N-cyclopropyl-[2.2]paracyclophane-4,15-disulfonimide (6) and N-phenyl-[2.2]paracyclophane-4,15-disulfonimide (7) were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structural changes caused by sulfonation are discussed with respect to the parent [2.2]paracyclophane (tricyclo[8.2.2.2(4,7)]hexadeca-4,6,10,12,13,15-hexaene). The main features are a change in the non-bonding distances between the para-phenylene rings and a rotation of these rings with respect to the molecular symmetry plane. The rings are rotated away from each other in the case of monosulfonation (1), but are rotated in the opposite way in the case of the disulfonic anhydride (2) or the disulfonimide compounds (3)-(7). The results are also discussed in terms of the parameters proposed by Keehn [(1983), Organic Chemistry, A Series of Monographs 45, edited by P. H. Keehn & S. M. Rosenfeld, Vol. 1, pp. 69-238. New York: Academic Press] showing that (bonded and non-bonded) angles involving the para-phenylene rings are mainly affected.

  15. Polystyrene sulfonate-porphyrin assemblies: influence of polyelectrolyte and porphyrin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthard, Christian; Maskos, Michael; Kolb, Ute; Gröhn, Franziska

    2011-05-19

    In this study, electrostatic self-assembly of different polystyrene sulfonates and a set of tetravalent cationic porphyrins is investigated. It is shown that association of linear polystyrene sulfonates of different molar masses yields finite size nanoscale assemblies that are stable in aqueous solution. Aggregates are compared to the ones of cylindrical brushes, revealing that both form assemblies in the 100 nm range with the charge ratio (molar ratio of porphyrin charges to polyelectrolyte charges) being determining, while the morphology of the resulting network-like assemblies is different for both polyelectrolyte architectures. For the smallest 8k polystyrene sulfonate, in addition, stoichiometric conditions differ. The influence of the molecular porphyrin structure was investigated by comparing meso-tetrakis(4-(trimethyl-ammonium)phenyl)porphyrin (TAPP) with its Cu(II) and Zn(II) loaded analogues and meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridinium)porphyrin (TMPyP), revealing differences in stacking tendency and geometry. Additionally, the TMPyP accumulates more in the inside of the brush than the other porphyrins, likely due to the different position of its charged groups. The supramolecular nanostructures formed were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, light scattering, atomic force microscopy, cryo transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering. Results may build a valuable basis for the use of polyelectrolyte-porphyrin assemblies in medicine, catalysis, or energy conversion. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Study of Synthesis Polyethylene glycol oleate Sulfonated as an Anionic Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampora, Yulianti; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Haryono, Agus; Irawan, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) through chemical injection is using an anionic surfactant to improve the recovery of oil residues, particularly in a reservoir area that has certain characteristics. This case led the authors to conduct research on the synthesis of an anionic surfactant based on oleic acid and polyethylene glycol 400 that could be applied as a chemical injection. In this work, we investigate the sulfonation of Polyethylene glycol oleate (PDO) in a sulfuric acid agent. PDO in this experiment was derived from Indonesian palm oil. Variation of mole reactant and reaction time have been studied. The surfactant has been characterized by measuring the interfacial tension, acid value, ester value, saponification value, iodine value, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and particle size analyzer. There is a new peak at 1170-1178 cm-1 indicating that S=O bond has formed. PDO sulfonate exhibits good surface activity due to interfacial tension of 0,003 mN/m. Thus, polyethylene glycol oleate sulfonate was successfully synthesized and it could be useful as a novel an anionic surfactant.

  17. Efficient and selective adsorption of multi-metal ions using sulfonated cellulose as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cuihua; Zhang, Fulong; Pang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Guihua

    2016-10-20

    Contamination of heavy metal in wastewater has caused great concerns on human life and health. Developing an efficient material to eliminate the heavy metal ions has been a popular topic in recent years. In this work, sulfonated cellulose (SC) was explored as efficient adsorbent for metal ions in solution. Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) first analyzed the characterizations of SC. Subsequently, effects of solution pH, adsorbent loading, temperature and initial metal ion concentration on adsorption performance were investigated. The results showed that sulfonated modification of cellulose could decrease the crystallinity and thermostability of cellulose. Due to its excellent performance of adsorption to metal ions, SC could reach adsorption equilibrium status within as short as 2min. In multi-component solution, SC can orderly removes Fe(3+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) with excellent selectivity and high efficiency. In addition, SC is a kind of green and renewable adsorbent because it can be easily regenerated by treatment with acid or chelating liquors. The mechanism study shows that the sulfonic group play a major role in the adsorption process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. QENS investigation of proton confined motions in hydrated perfluorinated sulfonic membranes and self-assembled surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrod Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on QuasiElastic Neutron Scattering (QENS investigations of the dynamics of protons and water molecules confined in nanostructured perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA materials, namely a commercial Aquivion membrane and the perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS surfactant. The former is used as electrolyte in low-temperature fuel cells, while the latter forms mesomorphous self-assembled phases in water. The dynamics was investigated as a function of the hydration level, in a wide time range by combining time-of-flight and backscattering incoherent QENS experiments. Analysis of the quasielastic broadening revealed for both systems the existence of localized translational diffusive motions, fast rotational motions and slow hopping of protons in the vicinity of the sulfonic charges. The characteristic times and diffusion coefficients have been found to exhibit a very similar behaviour in both membrane and surfactant structures. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the proton motion mechanisms and the dynamics of confined water in model and real PFSA nanostructures.

  19. A cell-based screen reveals that the albendazole metabolite, albendazole sulfone, targets Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Serbus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia endosymbionts carried by filarial nematodes give rise to the neglected diseases African river blindness and lymphatic filariasis afflicting millions worldwide. Here we identify new Wolbachia-disrupting compounds by conducting high-throughput cell-based chemical screens using a Wolbachia-infected, fluorescently labeled Drosophila cell line. This screen yielded several Wolbachia-disrupting compounds including three that resembled Albendazole, a widely used anthelmintic drug that targets nematode microtubules. Follow-up studies demonstrate that a common Albendazole metabolite, Albendazole sulfone, reduces intracellular Wolbachia titer both in Drosophila melanogaster and Brugia malayi, the nematode responsible for lymphatic filariasis. Significantly, Albendazole sulfone does not disrupt Drosophila microtubule organization, suggesting that this compound reduces titer through direct targeting of Wolbachia. Accordingly, both DNA staining and FtsZ immunofluorescence demonstrates that Albendazole sulfone treatment induces Wolbachia elongation, a phenotype indicative of binary fission defects. This suggests that the efficacy of Albendazole in treating filarial nematode-based diseases is attributable to dual targeting of nematode microtubules and their Wolbachia endosymbionts.

  20. Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resin: Experimental and kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yuwang; Lu, Jie; Sun, Kaian; Ma, Lingling; Ding, Jincheng

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol was investigated in the presence of sulfonated cation exchange resin. • We studied kinetic model of the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol according to experimental data. • The proposed kinetic model can well predict oleic acid conversion. - Abstract: This paper investigated the effects of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst loading, water content and catalyst recycling on sulfonated cation exchange resin in a stirred batch reactor under atmospheric pressure. When the esterification was carried out with an ethanol to oleic acid (42.4 g) molar ratio of 9:1, reflux of ethanol at 82 °C, 20 g of catalyst and 8 h of reaction time, the oleic acid conversion rate reached approximately 93%. A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model for describing the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol by the sulfonated cation exchange resin was developed on the basis of laboratorial results. The kinetic model can well predict the oleic acid conversion

  1. Synthesis, structural, solubility and anticancer activity studies of salts using nucleobases and sulfonic acids coformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Singh, Udai P.; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Singh, Hariji

    2017-10-01

    The reactions of natural and unnatural nucleobases (cytosine (Cyt), adenine (Ade), 5-aminouracil (AU) and caffeine (Caff)) with sulfonic acids coformer (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, NDSA; 5-sulfosalicylic acid, SSA) resulted in the formation of salts viz. [NDSA.Cyt] (1), [NDSA.Ade] (2), [NDSA.AU] (3), [NDSA.Caff] (4), [SSA.Cyt] (5), [SSA.Ade] (6), [SSA.AU] (7), and [SSA.Caff] (8). The structural analysis revealed that salts 1, 4, 6 and 7 have intermolecular interactions between adjacent nucleobases which form two different homodimer shown in R22 (8) motif and assembled via complementary Nsbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯N interactions. However, in all other salts an intermediate supramolecular synthon pattern was observed between nucleobases and sulfonic acids. The lattice energy was also calculated by DFT to investigate whether salts were thermodynamically more stable than its coformer. The same was further confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric (DSC-TG) analysis. The anticancer activity study of individual nucleobases and their NDSA salts were also performed on human breast (MCF-7) and lung (A 549) cancer cell. The salts formation of nucleobases with sulfonic acids improved their solubility, thereby demonstrating up to 8-fold increase in solubility of nucleobases.

  2. Nanocasting Design and Spatially Selective Sulfonation of Polystyrene-Based Polymer Networks as Solid Acid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Felix H; Sahraoui, Laila; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-09-12

    Nanocasting is a general and widely applied method in the generation of porous materials during which a sacrificial solid template is used as a mold on the nanoscale. Ideally, the resulting structure is the inverse of the template. However, replication is not always as direct as anticipated, so the influences of the degree of pore filling and of potential restructuring processes after removal of the template need to be considered. These apparent limitations give rise to opportunities in the synthesis of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PSD) polymer networks of widely varying porosities (BET surface area=63-562 m(2)  g(-1) ; Vtot =0.18-1.05 cm(3)  g(-1) ) by applying a single synthesis methodology. In addition, spatially selective sulfonation on the nanoscale seems possible. Together, nanocasting and sulfonation enable rational catalyst design. The highly porous nanocast and predominantly surface-sulfonated PSD networks approach the activity of the corresponding molecular catalyst, para-toluenesulfonic acid, and exceed those of commercial ion-exchange polymers in the depolymerization of macromolecular inulin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Prepared by Blending of Sulfonated Polystyrene-Lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Tandi Gonggo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyte polymer membrane widely used in PEMFC and DMFC is a perfluorosulfonated membrane such as Nafion. This membrane material exhibits good chemical stability and proton conductivity, but it is very expensive and difficult to recycle. It has high cross-over methanol in DMFC that causes the decrease efficiency and performance of fuel cell, so that the electrolyte polymer membrane with low cross-over methanol has been needed to substitute Nafion membrane. One of the materials used as a polymer electrolyte membrane is polyblends of a sulfonated polystyrene-lignosulfonate (SPS-LS. These polyblends have been prepared by casting polymer solution and characterized as a polyelectrolyte membrane for DMFC. SPS was prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene with acetyl sulfate used as a sulfonating agent. The membranes of SPS-LS were characterized by analysis of functional groups, mechanical properties, and methanol permeability. The maximum mechanical properties of the SPS-LS membrane were observed in LS ratio of 7.5%. However, the methanol permeability of membrane increases as the increase of LS ratio in SPS-LS membranes. The properties of membranes, especially the mechanical property and methanol permeability close to that of Nafion® 117 membrane, so the SPS-LS membrane is highly potential used as the electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cell.

  4. Simple surface sulfonation retards plasticiser migration and impacts upon blood/material contact activation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Terence; Shedden, Laurie; Horne, David; Stefanou, Demetrios M

    2010-01-01

    The use of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) plasticised polyvinyl chloride (DEHPPPVC) in medical devices persists despite evidence suggesting that DEHP migration can be harmful. Researchers have shown that a simple surface sulfonation process can retard the migration of DEHP, which may reduce the associated inflammatory response. The present study is designed to investigate the effects of surface sulfonation on DEHP migration and blood contact activation using in vitro and rodent models. The study was carried out in two phases: phase 1, in which the migration rate of DEHP from DEHPPPVC and sulfonated DEHP plasticised PVC (SDEHPPPVC) was measured; phase 2 of the study, in which the materials were incorporated into a rat recirculation biomaterial test model and blood samples taken to assess CD11b expression on neutrophils, IL-6 and Factor XIIa. The initial DEHP concentration washed from the surface after storage was 37.19 +/- 1.17 mg/l in the PPVC group and 5.89 +/- 0.81 mg/l in the SPPVC group (psulfonation process significantly retards the migration of DEHP and is associated with the moderation of contact activation processes.

  5. Highly Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells With Sulfonated Lignin Doped PEDOT as Hole Extract Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Junyi; Qiu, Xueqing; Yang, Renqiang; Lou, Hongming; Bao, Xichang; Li, Yuan

    2016-05-18

    Sulfonated-acetone-formaldehyde (SAF) was grafted with alkali lignin (AL) to prepare grafted sulfonated-acetone-formaldehyde lignin (GSL). Considering the rich phenolic hydroxyl groups in GSL, we detected a hole mobility of 2.27 × 10(-6) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with GSL as a hole transport material by space-charge-limited current model. Compared with nonconjugated poly(styrene sulfonic acid), GSL was applied as p-type semiconductive dopant for PEDOT to prepare water-dispersed GSL. GSL shows enhanced conductivity compared with that of PSS. Simultaneously, the enhanced open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor are achieved using GSL as a hole extract layer (HEL) in sandwich-structure inverted perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency is increased to 14.94% compared with 12.6% of PSS-based devices. Our results show that amorphous GSL is a good candidate as dopant of PEDOT, and we provide a novel prospective for the design of HEL based on lignin, a renewable biomass and phenol derivatives.

  6. Laser deposition of sulfonated phthalocyanines for gas sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitl, Přemysl; Vrňata, M.; Kopecký, D.; Vlček, J.; Škodová, J.; Bulíř, Jiří; Novotný, Michal; Pokorný, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 302, MAY (2014), s. 37-41 ISSN 0169-4332. [European-Materials-Research-Society Symposium on Laser Material Interactions for Micro- and Nano- Applications /5./. Strasbourg, 27.05.2013-31.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation * substituted phthalocyanines * gas sensors * impedance measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  7. Effect of atomic composition on the compressive strain and electrocatalytic activity of PtCoFe/sulfonated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrasbi, Elaheh; Javanbakht, Mehran; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is improvement of the stability and durability of sulfonated graphene supported PtCoFe electrocatalyst (PtCoFe/SG) for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The durability investigation of PtCoFe/SG is evaluated by a repetitive potential cycling test. The compressive strain in the lattice of PtCoFe/SG towards the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction is studied. The synthesized electrocatalysts are examined physically and electrochemically for their structure, morphology and electrocatalytic performance. It is shown that presence of SO3sbnd groups on the graphene cause better adsorption of PtCoFe nanoparticles on the support and increase stability of electrocatalysts. Also, it is shown that Co:Fe atomic ratio in the synthesized electrocatalysts plays important role in their electrocatalytic performance. In the optimum Co:Fe atomic ratio, the compressive strain goes through the ideal value of the binding energy; further increase in Co/Fe atomic fraction introduces the excessive compressive strain and the activity of electrocatalyst decreases. The electrocatalyst synthesized in the optimum conditions is utilized as cathode in PEMFC. The power density of the PEMFC in low metal loading (0.1 mg cm-2 Pt) reaches to a maximum of 530 mW cm-2 at 75 °C. It suggests that PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio promises to improve the power density of PEMFCs.

  8. Enhanced Proton Conductivity and Methanol Permeability Reduction via Sodium Alginate Electrolyte-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Bio-membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Basri, S.; Shyuan, L. K.; Masdar, M. S.; Nordin, D.

    2018-03-01

    The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane. The optimum properties and performances were presented by the SA/SGO membrane with a loading of 0.2 wt% SGO, which gave a proton conductivity of 13.2 × 10-3 Scm-1, and the methanol permeability was 1.535 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 25 °C, far below that of Nafion (25.1 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C. The mechanical properties of the sodium alginate polymer in terms of tensile strength and elongation at break were improved by the addition of SGO.

  9. Electrospun non-woven membrane of poly(ethylene covinyl alcohol) end-capped with potassium sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yujun; Huang Yudong; Wang Lei; Li Fengfu; Gong Guifen

    2005-01-01

    Electrospinning is a technique used to produce micron to submicron diameter polymeric fibers. The low density of electrospun fibers is important when considering end-use applications as use on filtration material and lightweight wings for micro-air vehicles (MAV). A polymer of poly(ethylene covinyl alcohol) end-capped with sulfonate (EVOH-g-PSN) is synthesized by sulfonification of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) with 1,3-propane sultone (PSN) and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The polymer is soluble in water when the ratio of hydroxyl in EVOH versus PSN is more than 2.5 and insoluble in water when the ratio is less than 2.5. The EVOH-g-PSN non-woven membrane is prepared by electrospinning and the morphology of the membrane is examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify any conformational changes that occur due to electrospinning voltage. The molar ratio of sulfur/potassium on the EVOH-g-PSN non-woven membranes were determined using a point scanning analysis with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The EDS result show that the S/K molar ratios is almost equal to 1.0 indicating that the element of sulfur and potassium in the polymer could exist as the -SO 3 K. The SEM shows that the high voltage makes the beaded filaments get into finer fibers

  10. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on toxicity and cell uptake of other compounds with different hydrophobicity in green alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yao-Bin; Quan, Xie; Jin, Yi-He; Chen, Shuo

    2009-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was evaluated alone and in binary mixtures with pentachlorophenol, atrazine and diuron, respectively to investigate the effects of interactions between PFOS and other compounds on the growth rate in Scenedesmus obliquus. Single application of PFOS showed no inhibition on the growth of S. obliquus below 40 mg L(-1), whereas PFOS acting with pentachlorophenol resulted in higher algal growth inhibition in comparison with pentachlorophenol alone. A maximum increase of 45% in the growth inhibition was observed at a pentachlorophenol concentration of 2.56 mg L(-1) together with a PFOS concentration of 40 mg L(-1). On the contrary, the algal growth inhibition of atrazine and diuron was depressed by PFOS. Furthermore, cell uptake was examined to gain some insights into the mechanisms of the effects of PFOS on the toxicity of the other compounds. Cell uptake of pentachlorophenol increased while that of atrazine and diuron was reduced in cells that have been exposed to PFOS. The effects of PFOS on the toxicity of pentachlorophenol, atrazine and diuron were possibly related to the influence of PFOS on the cell uptake of these hydrophobic compounds. Results suggested that PFOS influenced the cell uptake and toxicity of structurally different compounds in dissimilar manners and potentially increased the accessibility and toxicity of more hydrophobic compounds to algal cells.

  11. Effects of pH and coexisting chemicals on photolysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate using an excited xenon dimer lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Doda, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis at the wavelength of 172 nm in a sulfate solution was introduced as a more efficient process for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation than ultraviolet (UV) photolysis at 254 nm. The effects of pH and coexisting chemicals on VUV photolysis under the coexistence of 100 mM sulfate were investigated. VUV irradiation successfully degraded PFOS, and the degradation rate was 5.5 times higher than by UV photolysis. Direct VUV photolysis was inferred to mainly contribute to PFOS degradation. PFOS degradation by VUV irradiation was enhanced at pH less than 2 due to sulfate radicals generated via VUV photolysis of sulfate ions. Consequently, VUV photolysis was superior to UV photolysis for PFOS removal on both the removal rate and energy efficiency. However, the inorganic chemicals phosphoric acid and nitric acid strongly inhibited PFOS degradation, probably by masking PFOS from VUV rays by their VUV absorption. Accordingly, PFOS separation from inorganic materials such as phosphate and nitrate will be recommended for the application of VUV techniques for PFOS removal. In this research, organic solvent abstraction was inferred to be one of candidates for PFOS separation.

  12. Direct laser interference patterning of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasagni, Andres F.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Shaw, Charles M.; Yuan, Dajun; Martin, David C.; Das, Suman

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a patterning procedure based on selective ablation using interference patterns with ns-laser pulses to fabricate periodic arrays on large areas of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS) thin films over a metallic gold-palladium layer. Single pulse laser-ablation experiments were performed to study the ablation characteristics of the thin films as a function of the film thickness. The ablation threshold fluence of the PEDOT-PSS films was found to be dependent on thickness with values ranging from 43 mJ/cm 2 to 252 mJ/cm 2 . Additionally, fluences at which the PEDOT-PSS films could be ablated without inducing damage in the underlying metallic films were observed (128 mJ/cm 2 and 402 mJ/cm 2 for film thicknesses of 70 nm and 825 nm, respectively). Linear periodic arrays with line spacings of 7.82 μm and 13.50 μm were also fabricated. The surface topography of these arrays was analyzed using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. For thicker polymeric layers, several peeled sub-layers of the conjugated polymer with average thicknesses of about 165-185 nm were observed in the ablation experiments. The size and scale of structures produced by this technique could be suitable for several biomedical applications and devices in which controlling cell adhesion, promoting cell alignment, or improving biocompatibility are important.

  13. Sulfonation of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) studied by combined time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng; Wong; Ho; Wang; Zeng; Yang

    2000-10-15

    A series of sulfonated poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) samples have been systematically studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Negative TOF-SIMS results provided unambiguous evidence that sulfonate groups are chemically attached to the carbazole moiety of PVK. The positive SIMS spectrum of PVK was, however, little affected by the sulfonation reaction. The degree of sulfonation was quantitatively determined by XPS. Therefore, the combination of TOF-SIMS and XPS is useful to follow the sulfonation reaction, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The SIMS intensities of some characteristic fragments are linearly related to the degree of sulfonation, suggesting that quantitative analysis is possible from TOF-SIMS data.

  14. Unexpected interactions between gold and N-morpholino-sulfonates

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Frederick Stappen; Engelbrekt, Christian; Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Junor, Glen; Sørensen, Kasper; Jensen, Knud J.; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Zhang, Jingdong

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) has a high surface area and excellent conductivity. It is an ideal supporting material for the electrocatalysis, e.g. in fuel cell applications. NPG is traditionally produced by etching a gold/silver alloy. This method has significant drawbacks, such as the introduction of silver into your NPG, and its multi-step fabrication. A method has been discovered for producing NPG as a thin film chemically. This bottom-up approach entails reduction of Au3+ precursor using morphol...

  15. Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estradiol and estrone sulfonation in sheep placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Margaret O; Li, Wenjun; Summerlot, David P; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Wood, Charles E

    2010-11-01

    The personal care product Triclosan, 5-chloro-2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol, is widely used in consumer products as an antibacterial agent and is increasingly found in the environment as a contaminant of sewage sludge and wastewater. This compound has been identified in plasma and urine of people in the United States, Sweden and Australia. Triclosan is known to inhibit sulfonation of phenolic xenobiotics and is structurally related to inhibitors of estrogen sulfotransferase, such as polychlorobiphenylols. In pregnancy, the placenta is an important source of estrogen, which is needed for normal fetal development and successful parturition, and estrogen sulfotransferase is thought to play an important role in regulation of estrogen availability. In this study, we examined the effect of Triclosan on sheep placental cytosolic sulfotransferase activity with 17-beta-estradiol and estrone as substrates. For comparison, we studied the effects of 4-hydroxy-3,3',4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2'-hydroxytriclocarban on estradiol sulfonation. The apparent K(m) for placental cytosolic sulfotransferase activity with estradiol as substrate was 0.27 ± 0.06 nM (mean ± S.D., n = 3 individuals) and with estrone as substrate was 1.86 ± 0.22 nM. Partial substrate inhibition was observed with estradiol at concentrations higher than 10-20 nM, as is typical of estrogen sulfotransferases (SULT1E1) in other species. Studies of the effect of Triclosan on estrogen sulfotransferase activity were conducted with several concentrations (0.1-6 nM) of estradiol and with 2 nM estrone. Triclosan was a very potent inhibitor of both estradiol and estrone sulfonation. For estradiol the inhibition was shown to be mixed competitive/uncompetitive, with K(ic) of 0.09 ± 0.01 nM and K(iu) of 5.2 ± 2.9 nM. The IC(50) for inhibition of estrone sulfonation was 0.60 ± 0.06 nM. At an environmentally relevant concentration of 1 µM, Triclosan was not a substrate for glucuronidation in sheep placental microsomes

  16. Vacuum thermal evaporation of polyaniline doped with camphor sulfonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyne, Devon; Menegazzo, Nicola; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Rosenthal, Joel; Booksh, Karl S., E-mail: kbooksh@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Intrinsically conducting polymers belong to a class of organic polymers with intriguing electronic and physical properties specifically for electro-optical applications. Significant interest into doped polyaniline (PAni) can be attributed to its high conductivity and environmental stability. Poor dissolution in most solvents has thus far hindered the successful integration of PAni into commercial applications, which in turn, has led to the investigations of various deposition and acidic doping methods. Physical vapor deposition methods, including D.C. magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, have shown exceptional control over physical film properties (thickness and morphology). However, resulting films are less conductive than films deposited by conventional methods (i.e., spin and drop casting) due to interruption of the hyperconjugation of polymer chains. Specifically, vacuum thermal evaporation requires a postdoping process, which results in incorporation of impurities and oxidation of surface moieties. In this contribution, thermally evaporated films, sequentially doped by vacuum evaporation of an organic acid (camphorsulfonic acid, CSA) is explored. Spectroscopic evidence confirms the successful doping of PAni with CSA while physical characterization (atomic force microscopy) suggests films retain good morphology and are not damaged by the doping process. The procedure presented herein also combines other postpreparation methods in an attempt to improve conductivity and/or substrate adhesion.

  17. Serum half-life of pituitary gonadotropins is decreased by sulfonation and increased by sialylation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Leif; Eriksson, Karin; Sluss, Patrick M; Hall, Janet E

    2009-03-01

    The gonadotropins are secreted from the human pituitary as spectra of isoforms with different degrees of sulfonation and sialylation of the oligosaccharides, modifications suspected to determine their half-lives in the circulation. Our objectives were to determine the isoform composition of the serum gonadotropins during GnRH receptor blockade, and to estimate the half-lives in circulation of isoforms with 0-1-2-3 sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SO(3)-GalNAc) residues. Serum samples were collected in seven healthy women before and up to 20 h after administration of the NAL-GLU GnRH antagonist. The number of sialic acid and SO(3)-GalNAc residues per LH and FSH molecule and the distribution of molecules with 0-1-2-3 sulfonated residues were measured. The half-lives were estimated by monoexponential decay. More sialylated and less sulfonated gonadotropin isoforms remain longer in circulation during GnRH receptor blockade. LH isoforms with two and three sulfonated residues per molecule had shorter half-lives compared with those with zero and one (109 and 80 vs. 196 and 188 min; P sulfonated residues had shorter half-lives than those with zero (485 and 358 vs. 988 min; P sulfonated and increase in sialylated residues. The rapid disappearance of LH isoforms with two and three SO(3)-GalNAc residues suggests their removal by hepatic SO(3)-GalNAc-receptors similar to those in rodents. Episodical secretion of spectra of isoforms with different half-lives is expected to lead to continuous changes in gonadotropin isoform compositions in blood.

  18. S-sulfonation of transthyretin is an important trigger step in the formation of transthyretin-related amyloid fibril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Masanori; Moriuchi, Kazuyoshi; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Tsuji, Motomu; Takubo, Takayuki

    2010-07-01

    Senile systemic amyloidosis and familial amyloid polyneuropathy are caused by oxidative deposition of conformationally altered transthyretin (TTR). We identified oxidative modification of the 10th cysteine of TTR through S-sulfonation in vitro. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, we determined the spectrophotometric, western blotting, and fluorescent microscopic properties of TTR incubated with and without cysteine-S-sulfonate in acidic (pH 4) and alkaline (pH 8) conditions at 37 degrees. The absorption of the aggregated TTR molecules increased more with incubation time and the concentration of cysteine-S-sulfonate at pH 4 than at pH 8. The Congo red binding to the S-sulfonated TTR at pH 4 was saturated with an apparent Bmax of 2.01 mol per mole of the S-sulfonated TTR and apparent KD of 7.75x10(-6) M. On the other hand, the Bmax of cysteinyl TTR was 1.38, and its KD was 3.52x10(-6) M while the Bmax of reduced TTR was 0.86, and its KD was 2.86x10(-6) M. Moreover, we detected positive amyloid fibril staining using Thioflavin T and Congo red with the S-sulfonated TTR but not with untreated or reduced TTR by microscopic fluorescent analysis. After modification of TTR in vitro, oligomers resisted reduction and denaturation was irreversibly induced, and which contributed differences in the Western blotting patterns obtained with four anti-TTR antibodies. In conclusion, this study showed that the formation of S-sulfonation of TTR through oxidative modifications of the thiol residue on the 10th cysteine of TTR is an important trigger step in the formation of transthyretin-related amyloid fibril. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isotope-coded N-terminal sulfonation of peptides allows quantitative proteomic analysis with increased de novo peptide sequencing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Han, Hoon; Chang, Seok-Bok; Lee, Sang-Won

    2004-01-01

    Recently various methods for the N-terminal sulfonation of peptides have been developed for the mass spectrometric analyses of proteomic samples to facilitate de novo sequencing of the peptides produced. This paper describes the isotope-coded N-terminal sulfonation (ICenS) of peptides; this procedure allows both de novo peptide sequencing and quantitative proteomics to be studied simultaneously. As N-terminal sulfonation reagents, 13C-labeled 4-sulfophenyl[13C6]isothiocyanate (13C-SPITC) and unlabeled 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (12C-SPITC) were synthesized. The experimental and reference peptide mixtures were derivatized independently using 13C-SPITC and 12C-SPITC and then combined to generate an isotopically labeled peptide mixture in which each isotopic pair differs in mass by 6 Da. Capillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry experiments on the resulting peptide mixtures revealed several immediate advantages of ICenS in addition to the de novo sequencing capability of N-terminal sulfonation, namely, differentiation between N-terminal sulfonated peptides and unmodified peptides in mass spectra, differentiation between N- and C-terminal fragments in tandem mass spectra of multiply protonated peptides by comparing fragmentations of the isotopic pairs, and relative peptide quantification between proteome samples. We demonstrate that the combination of N-terminal sulfonation and isotope coding in the mass spectrometric analysis of proteomic samples is a viable method that overcomes many problems associated with current N-terminal sulfonation methods. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  1. Synthesis of Graphene Oxide-Based Sulfonated Oligoanilines Coatings for Synergistically Enhanced Corrosion Protection in 3.5% NaCl Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Zhang, Shengtao; Li, Weihua; Cui, Yanan; Yang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    As a vital derivative of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) is widely applied in various fields, such as transparent electrodes, solar cells, energy storage, and corrosion protection due to the large specific surface area and abundant active sites. However, compared with graphene, the application of GO has been less reported in metal corrosion protection field. Therefore, in our study, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid was selected to combine with oligoanilines to fabricate the GO-based sulfonated oligoanilines coatings for marine corrosion protection application. The obtained composite coatings were covered on the surface of Q235 steel, which is one of the most important structural marine materials. Fourier transform infrared spectra were utilized to prove the existence of different bonds and functional groups of aniline trimer and sulfonated aniline trimer (SAT). Scanning electron microscopy was applied to verify the combination of GO and SAT. What's more, transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the surface appearance of the obtained GO-SAT composite material. Besides, the results of electrochemical measurements performed in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution showed excellent corrosion-protective properties of GO/SAT-coated epoxy resin with a dosage of 10 mg of GO compared with the pure epoxy resin. Moreover, the enhancement of surface hydrophobic property, to some extent, is in favor of preventing the absorption of corrosive medium and water molecules revealed by contact angle test. The addition of GO can make the diffusion pathway of the corrosive medium longer and more circuitous, while SAT has displayed excellent solvent solubility while maintaining corrosion-protective properties similar to those of polyanilines so that the corrosion-protective properties of the modified coatings improve significantly due to the synergistically enhanced corrosion protection of GO and SAT.

  2. Thiophene-degrading Escherichia coli mutants possess sulfone oxidase activity and show altered resistance to sulfur-containing antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhl, M.J.; Clark, D.P. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The authors have previously isolated mutants of Escherichia coli which show increased oxidation of heterocyclic furan and thiophene substrates. They have now found that strains carrying the thdA mutation express a novel enzyme activity which oxidizes a variety of substrates containing a sulfone (e.g., ethyl sulfone) were oxidized. The thdA mutants were more resistant than wild-type strains to aromatic sulfone antibiotics such as dapsone. In contrast they showed increased susceptibility to thiolutin, a cyclic antibiotic containing sulfur at the sulfide level of oxidation. Several new thdA mutant alleles were isolated by selecting for increased oxidation of various aliphatic sulfur compounds. These new thdA mutants showed similar sulfone oxidase activity and the same map location (at 10.7 min) as the original thdA1 mutation. The constitutive fadR mutation was required for the phenotypic expression of thdA-mediated oxidation of sulfur compounds. However, the thdA-directed expression of sulfone oxidase activity was not fadR dependent. The thdC and thdD mutations probably protect against the toxicity of thiophene derivatives rather than conferring improved metabolic capability.

  3. Improving the Conductivity of Sulfonated Polyimides as Proton Exchange Membranes by Doping of a Protic Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were doped by protic ionic liquid (PIL to prepare composite PEMs with substantially improved conductivity. SPIs were synthesized from diamine, 2,2-bis[4-(4-amino-phenoxyphenyl]propane (BAPP, sulfonated diamine, 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether-2,2'-disulfonic acid (ODADS and aromatic anhydride. BAPP improved the mechanical and thermal properties of SPIs, while ODADS enhanced conductivity. A PIL, 1-vinylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate ([VIm][OTf], was utilized. [VIm][OTf] offered better conductivity, which can be attributed to its vinyl chemical structure attached to an imidazolium ring that contributed to ionomer-PIL interactions. We prepared sulfonated polyimide/ionic liquid (SPI/IL composite PEMs using 50 wt% [VIm][OTf] with a conductivity of 7.17 mS/cm at 100 °C, and in an anhydrous condition, 3,3',4,4'-diphenyl sulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA was used in the synthesis of SPIs, leading to several hundred-times improvement in conductivity compared to pristine SPIs.

  4. THE USE OF CHLOROSULFONIC ACID ON SULFONATION OF cPTFE FILM GRAFTED STYRENE FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Yohan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonation of g-ray iradiated and styrene-grafted crosslinked polytetrafluoro ethylene film (cPTFE-g-S film have been done. The aim of the research was to make hydrophyl membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonation was prepared by using chlorosulfonic acid in chloroethane under various conditions. The impact of the percentage of grafting, the concentration of chlorosulfonic acid, the reaction time,and the reaction temperature on the properties of sulfonated film were examined. The results show that sulfonation of surface-grafted films was incomplete at room temperature. Increasing concentration of chlorosulfonic acid and reaction temperature accelerate the reaction but they also favor side reactions. These lead to the decrease of the ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity but the increase of the resistance to oxidation in a perhydrol solution. The resulted cPTFE-g-SS membraneis stabile in a H2O2 30% solution for 20 h.   Keywords: Chorosulfonic acid, sulfonation, PTFE film, proton excange membrane.

  5. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of New Sulfone Derivatives Containing 2-Aroxymethyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole/Thiadiazole Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihu Su

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfones are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new lead compounds with high antibacterial activity, a series of new sulfone derivatives were designed and synthesized by introducing the aroxymethyl moiety into the scaffold of 1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole sulfones. Antibacterial activities against three phytopathogens (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. were assayed in vitro. As compared to the control of commercial fungicides and some reported sulfone fungicides, seven compounds 5I-1–5I-7 exerted remarkably higher activities with EC50 values ranging from 0.45–1.86 μg/mL against X. oryzae and 1.97–20.15 μg/mL against R. solanacearum. Exhilaratingly, 5I-1, 5I-2 and 5I-4 displayed significant in vivo activity against X. oryzae with protective effect of 90.4%, 77.7%, and 81.1% at 200 μg/mL, respectively, much higher than that exhibited by Bismerthiazol (25.6% and Thiadiazole-copper (32.0%. And the differential phytotoxicity of active derivatives was preliminarily checked. The results demonstrated that derivative of 2-aroxymethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole sulfone can serve as potential alternative bactericides for the management of plant bacterial diseases.

  6. Arylsulfatase B Mediates the Sulfonation-Transport Interplay in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells Overexpressing Sulfotransferase 1A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengjing; Wang, Shuai; Li, Feng; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationships between metabolic and transport pathways contributes to improved predictions of in vivo drug disposition and drug-drug interactions. Here we reported that inhibited excretion of conjugative metabolites [i.e., hesperetin 3'-O-sulfate (H3'S) and hesperetin 7-O-sulfate (H7S)] by MK-571 led to reduced metabolism of hesperetin (a maximal 78% reduction) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing sulfotransferase 1A3 (named SULT293 cells). The strong dependence of cellular sulfonation on the efflux transport of generated sulfated metabolites revealed an interplay of sulfonation metabolism with efflux transport (or sulfonation-transport interplay). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analyses demonstrated that SULT293 cells expressed multiple sulfatases such as arylsulfatase A (ARSA), ARSB, and ARSC. Of these three desulfonation enzymes, only ARSB showed significant activities toward hesperetin sulfates. The intrinsic clearance values for the hydrolysis of H3'S and H7S were estimated at 0.6 and 0.5 μl/h/mg, respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of ARSB attenuated the regulatory effect of efflux transporter on cellular sulfonation, whereas overexpression of ABSB enhanced the transporter effect. Taken together, the results indicated that ARSB mediated the sulfonation-transport interplay in SULT293 cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Heparin antiproliferative activity on bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells requires both N-acetylation and N-sulfonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longas, María O; Garg, Hari G; Trinkle-Pereira, Jennifer M; Hales, Charles A

    2003-01-31

    The antiproliferative activity of Heparin (HP) on bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (BPASMC) in vitro requires both N-acetylation and N-sulfonation. This was demonstrated by quantifying the relative N-acetylation of three commercial heparins of known antiproliferative activities, using their Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) band areas at 1381-1378 and 1320-1317 cm(-1), which combined resulted in 1.0, 1.0 and 1.3 cm2 for Choay, Elkins-Sinn and Upjohn HP, respectively. These results show that Upjohn HP, which is at least 44% more antiproliferative than the other two, is 30% more N-acetylated. Upjohn HP was also N-desulfonated chemically, and its antiproliferative activity was determined. Its total sulfonate (--SO 3 -) content (O- and N-sulfonate) was quantified using the FTIR band area at 1260-1200 cm(-1) for the S=O stretching; a drop in sulfonate content from 21.87% (w/w) before N-desulfonation to 16.51% (w/w) after N-desulfonation, resulted in a 67% decrease in its inhibitory potency. In addition to the requirement that approximately 24% of the sulfonate content be bonded to N, the data show a direct correlation between the extent of Upjohn HP N-acetylation and its antiproliferative activity on BPASMC.

  8. [Effect of sulfonation of polyethersulfone sheets on the adsorption of beta2-microglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liping; Sun, Shudong; Yue, Yilun; Huang, Jia; Mao, Huayi; Liang, Bo

    2005-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the adsorption of beta2-microglobulin(beta2 M) by blood dialysis membrane materials which are polyethersulfone (PES), sulfonated polyethersulfones, (PES-SO3Na-I and PES-SO3Na-I ) in vitro incubated in human serum and radiolabeled beta2M (125I-beta2 M) solution respectively. In these experiments, the materials were incubated in 125I-beta2 M solution and human serum at the appointed time ranging from 15 minutes to four hours at 37 degrees C, and then the amounts of 125I-beta2M and serum beta2M adsorbed by materials were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In the 125I-beta2 M system, amounts of 125I-beta2M adsorbed by the materials decreased in sequence of PES-SO3 Na-II > PES-SO3Na-I > PES. In the serum system, amounts of beta2M adsorbed reached maximums at 30 minutes and the final adsorptions decreased in sequence of PES-SO3Na-II > PES-SO3Na-I > PES. Sulfonated PES removes beta2M more than PES does and the adsorption of beta2M increases with the increase in the degree of sulfonation. Its ability to remove significant amount of beta2M may result in less beta2M available for incorporation into amyloid. The use of PES-SO3Na membranes lessens the likelihood of dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) development, which remains a major source of morbidity for patients treated with long-term hemodialysis.

  9. Chondrogenesis on sulfonate-coated hydrogels is regulated by their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that sulfur-containing acidic groups induce chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Recently, it is increasingly clear that mechanical properties of cell substrates largely influence cell differentiation. Thus, the present study investigated how mechanical properties of sulfonate-coated hydrogels influences chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Sulfonate-coated polyacrylamide gels (S-PAAm gels) which have the elastic modulus, E, of about 1, 15 and 150 kPa, were used in this study. MSCs cultured on the high stiffness S-PAAm gels (E=∼150 kPa) spread out with strong expression of stress fibers, while MSCs cultured on the low stiffness S-PAAm gels (E=∼1 kPa) had round shapes with less stress fibers but more cortical actins. Importantly, even in the absence of differentiation supplements, the lower stiffness S-PAAm gels led to the higher mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers such as Col2a1, Agc and Sox9 and the lower mRNA levels of an undifferentiation marker Sca1, indicating that the mechanical properties of S-PAAm gels strongly influence chondrogenesis. Blebbistatin which blocks myosin II-mediated mechanical sensing suppressed chondrogenesis induced by the low stiffness S-PAAm gels. The present study demonstrates that the soft S-PAAm gels effectively drive MSC chondrogenesis even in the absence of soluble differentiation factors and thus suggests that sulfonate-containing hydrogels with low stiffness could be a powerful tool for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoguang; Hou Jun; Kerr, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by (1) sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li + salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li); (2) sulfonation of chloride end groups grafted on to prepolymers of polyacrylate ethers (PAE 8 -g-E n SO 3 Li, n = 2, 3). The highest conductivity at 25 deg. C of 2.0 x 10 -7 S cm -1 was obtained for the PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li with a salt concentration of EO/Li = 40. The conductivity of PAE 8 -g-E 3 SO 3 Li is lower than that of PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li at similar salt concentrations, which is related to the incomplete sulfonation of the grafted polymer that leads to a lower concentration of Li + . The addition of 50 wt.% of plasticizer, PC/EMC (1/1, v/v), to PAE 8 -g-E 2 SO 3 Li increases the ambient conductivity by three orders of magnitude, which is due to the increased ion mobility in a micro-liquid environment and an increase concentration of free ions as a result of the higher dielectric constant of the solvent. A symmetrical Li/Li cell with an electrolyte membrane consisting of 75 wt.% PC/EMC (1/1, v/v) was cycled at a current density of 100 μA cm -2 at 85 deg. C. The cycling profile showed no concentration polarization after a break-in period during the first few cycles, which was apparently due to reaction of the solvent at the lithium metal surface that reacted with lithium metal to form a stable SEI layer

  11. The Role of Moderate Static Magnetic Fields on Biomineralization of Osteoblasts on Sulfonated Polystryene Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X Ba; M Hadjiargyrou; E DiMasi; Y Meng; M Simon; Z Tan; M Rafailovich

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the effects of moderate static magnetic fields (SMFs) on murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, and found that they enhance proliferations and promote differentiation. The increase in proliferation rates in response to SMFs was greater in cultures grown on partially sulfonated polytstyrene (SPS, degree of sulfonation: 33%) than in cultures grown on tissue culture plastic. We have previously shown that when the degree of sulfonation exceeded a critical value (12%) [1], spontaneous fibrillogenesis occured which allowed for direct observation of the ECM fibrillar organization under the influence of external fields. We found that the ECM produced in cultures grown on the SPS in the presence of the SMFs assembled into a lattice with larger dimensions than the ECM of the cultures grown in the absence of SMFs. During the early stages of the biomineralization process (day 7), the SMF exposed cultures also templated mineral deposition more rapidly than the control cultures. The rapid response is attributed to orientation of diamagnetic ECM proteins already present in the serum, which could then initiate further cellular signaling. SMFs also influenced late stage osteoblast differentiation as measured by the increased rate of osteocalcin secretion and gene expression beginning 15 days after SFM exposure. This correlated with a large increase in mineral deposition, and in cell modulus. GIXD and EDXS analysis confirmed early deposition of crystalline hydroxyapatite. Previous studies on the effects of moderate SMF had focused on cellular gene and protein expression, but did not consider the organization of the ECM fibers. Our ability to form these fibers has allowed us explore this additional effect and highlight its significance in the initiation of the biomineralization process.

  12. Xenobiotic action on steroid hormone synthesis and sulfonation the example of lead and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Catalani, S; Pasini, F; Bergonzi, R; Perbellini, L; Apostoli, P

    2009-04-01

    In the present study, the metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated to determine whether and how xenobiotics like lead (Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interfere with steroid hormone biotransformation in humans. Three groups of subjects were tested for concentration of urinary total steroids, 17-ketosteroids (n = 5), pregnane derivates (n = 6), 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (n = 11) and their sulfonated compounds: 14 workers exposed to lead, with a mean Pb blood concentration (PbB) of 29.21 microg/dl; 15 subjects exposed to PCBs, with a mean PCB blood concentration (PCBB) of 61.69 microg/l; a control group (n = 25). The urinary concentrations of 17-ketosteroids and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids were significantly lower in the PCB-exposed groups. There were significantly fewer sulfonated 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in the subjects exposed to PCBs as compared to the controls, while the percentage of sulfonated steroids was lower for both 17-ketosteroids and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in the PCB-exposed subjects, but only for the 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in the group of subjects exposed to Pb (P < 0.05). Pregnane derivate urinary concentrations did not differ between the three groups. Our results suggest that PCBs and Pb act on steroid hormone metabolism with different effects and only partially using the same hormone pathways; they may cause changes in endogenous hormone homeostasis and interfere with the xenobiotic phase II of detoxification. PCBs interfere on a larger number of steroids and cause more significant effects than Pb. It is likely that different mechanisms are involved in steroid hormone metabolism interference.

  13. Benzyl­tributyl­ammonium 7-hydroxy­naphthalene-1-sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yohei; Uta, Kazuya; Mizuguchi, Jin

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C19H34N+·C10H7O4S−, is a charge-control agent used for toners in electrophotography. The anions form one-dimensional chains by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in a zigzag fashion along the c axis between the OH group of one anion and the sulfonate O atom of a neighboring anion. One of the n-butyl chains of the cation is disordered over two sites in a 0.77:0.23 ratio. PMID:21581926

  14. Syntheses, structures, thermal stabilities and luminescence of two new lead sulfonates with phosphonate, carboxylate and pyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ruibiao, E-mail: furb@fjirsm.ac.cn; Hu, Shengmin; Wu, Xintao

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of Pb{sup 2+} ion with disodium 4,4'-bis(2-sulfonatostyryl)biphenyl (Na{sub 2}L1), 4-pyridyl-CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}COOH)(CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3} H{sub 2}) (H{sub 3}L2) and 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bipy) afforded two new lead sulfonates, namely, [Pb{sub 4}(L1){sub 2}(HL2){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)

  15. Structural, vibrational, thermal and optical studies of organic single crystal: Benzotriazolium p-toluene sulfonate (BTPTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R. Ramesh; Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R., E-mail: krgkrishnan@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai-600 025 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Benzotriazolium p-toluene sulfonate (BTPTS) was grown by solution growth technique. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to evaluate crystal system of the compound. LeBail Profile fitting analysis was performed to extract the individual peak intensities. FTIR spectrum analysis was recorded to study vibration frequencies of the prepared organic salt. Thermal studies were carried out using TG-DSC analysis. Optical absorption and energy band gap of the title compound was evaluated by UV-Vis spectral study.

  16. Indole alkaloid sulfonic acids from an aqueous extract of Isatis indigotica roots and their antiviral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Meng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Six new indole alkaloid sulfonic acids (1–6, together with two analogues (7 and 8 that were previously reported as synthetic products, were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Isatis indigotica root. Their structures including the absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data analysis, combined with enzyme hydrolysis and comparison of experimental circular dichroism and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. In the preliminary assay, compounds 2 and 4 showed antiviral activity against Coxsackie virus B3 and influenza virus A/Hanfang/359/95 (H3N2, respectively.

  17. Effect of Poly (Sodium 4-Styrene Sulfonate) on the Morphology of Hydroxyapatite Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilian Tari, Nesa; Kashani Motlagh, Mohammad Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    Nanorods hydroxyapatite, (HAP) C a 1 0 ( P O 4 ) 6 ( O H ) 2 is successfully prepared by water in oil microemulsion using, C a C L 2 and H 3 P O 4 (water phase), poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSSS) as template and cyclohexane as oil phase. The nano-structure of the product was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). With this system, we could synthesize nano-part...

  18. Synthesis of Sulfones and Sulfonamides via Sulfinate Anions: Revisiting the Utility of Thiosulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Pranab K; Jang, Hye-Young

    2017-02-03

    Simple and high-yielding strategies for the production of a variety of sulfones and sulfonamides, using thiosulfonates synthesized by copper-catalyzed aerobic dimerization, are reported. Although thiosulfonates are an old class of compound, practical methods for their synthesis and utilization have not been rigorously developed. In this study, we revisit the reactions of easily accessible thiosulfonates to form sulfinate anions. Because of the similar reactivity of thiosulfonates and metal sulfinates derived from toxic SO 2 , thiosulfinates are proposed to be stable, nontoxic alternatives to metal sulfinate salts.

  19. Electrodeposition of polypyrrole films on aluminum surfaces from a p-toluene sulfonic acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Santos Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of polypyrrole films on aluminum from aqueous solutions containing p-toluene sulfonic acid and pyrrole was performed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic technique. The influence of applied current density on the morphology of the films was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The films displayed a cauliflower-like structure consisting of micro-spherical grains. This structure is related to dopand intercalation in the polymeric chain. Films deposited at higher current density were more susceptible to the formation of pores and defects along the polymeric chain than films deposited at lower current density. These pores allow the penetration of aggressive species, thereby favoring the corrosion process.

  20. Simple and sensitive method for spectrofluorimetric determination of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinshui; Liu, Yan; Li, Peng; Wang, Lun

    2006-12-01

    The interaction of poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid sodium (DBS) has been studied by fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence of DBS can be greatly enhanced by addition of PDDA, owing to the interaction between PDDA and DBS. The enhancement intensity of fluorescence was proportional to the concentration of DBS over the range 2.5 × 10 -7 to 9.6 × 10 -5 mol L -1. Its detection limit is 3.5 × 10 -7 mol L -1. The method has high sensitivity and selectivity and was applied to the determination of trace amounts of DBS in water samples with satisfactory result.