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Sample records for alkaline treatment conditions

  1. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Abbas, B.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Muyzer, G.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at

  2. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Graaff; M.F.M. Bijmans; B. Abbas; G.J.W. Euverink; G. Muijzer; A.J.H. Janssen

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na+ = 0.8 M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at

  3. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, Marco de; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Abbas, Ben; Euverink, Gert-J.W.; Muyzer, Gerard; Janssen, Albert J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na+ = 0.8 M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80–90% saturation) at

  4. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    activity which converted cyanate (CNO-) to ammonia and CO2. On the other hand, cyanase activity either was absent or was present at very low levels in the autotrophic strains grown on thiocyanate as the sole energy and N source. As a result, large amounts of cyanate were found to accumulate in the media during utilization of thiocyanate at pH 10 in batch and thiocyanate-limited continuous cultures. This is a first direct proof of a "cyanate pathway" in pure cultures of thiocyanate-degrading bacteria. Since it is relatively stable under alkaline conditions, cyanate is likely to play a role as an N buffer that keeps the alkaliphilic bacteria safe from inhibition by free ammonia, which otherwise would reach toxic levels during dissimilatory degradation of thiocyanate.

  5. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  6. Prebiotic Synthesis of Protobiopolymers Under Alkaline Ocean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rivas, Luis A.; Palacín, Arantxa; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana

    2011-08-01

    Clasically, prebiotic chemistry has focused on the production and identification of simple organic molecules, many of them forming part of "intractable polymers" named tholins. In a previous work, we demonstrated that in experiments using an external energy source and inorganic carbon the aqueous aerosols improved the formation of hydrophilic tholins. Herein, we elucidate the role of pH (from 4 to 12) in prebiotic experiments using saline aqueous aerosols, spark discharges and an atmosphere containing CH4. At all values of pH, the saline aqueous aerosols increased the production of a significant variety of carboxylic acids that could have been present in a primitive Krebs cycle. Moreover, the study for the first time of hydrophilic tholins by 2-D electrophoresis revealed that these are formed by a set of unexpected heavy polymeric species. The initial alkaline conditions significantly increased both the apparent molecular weight of polymeric species up to 80 kDa and their diversity. We propose the term of protobiopolymers to denote those polymeric species fractionated by 2-D electrophoresis since these are formed by biomolecules present in living systems and show diversity in length as well as in functional groups. Thus, aerosols formed in simulated alkaline ocean conditions could provide an optimal medium for the formation of the primeval materials that could be precursors to the emergence of life.

  7. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical conditions of TRU waste repository were estimated as alkaline conditions effected by cementitious materials. And, some TRU wastes include soluble nitrate salt, we have to consider the repository conditions might be high ionic strength condition leaching of nitrate salt. In this study, experimental studies were carried out to evaluate hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. The followings results were obtained for bentonite. 1) In the immersion experiments of bentonite in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, the disappearance of montmorillonite of bentonite was observed and CSH formation was found after 30 days. In hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate, minerals at θ=37 nm by XRD was identified. 2) Significant effects of hyper alkaline on hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite were not observed. However, hydraulic conductivities of hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate and ion exchanged bentonite increased. In hyper alkaline with nitrate, more higher hydraulic conductivities of exchanged bentonite were measured. The followings results were obtained for rock. 1) In the immersion experiments of crushed tuff in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, CSH and CASH phases were observed. 2) The hydraulic conductivity of tuff in hyper alkaline fluids decreased gradually. Finally, hyper alkaline flow in tuff stopped after 2 months and hyper alkaline flow with nitrate stopped shorter than without nitrate. In the results of analysis of tuff after experiment, we could identified secondary minerals, but we couldn't find the clogging evidence of pores in tuff by secondary minerals. (author)

  8. Adsorptive desulfurization over hierarchical beta zeolite by alkaline treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping Tian; Xiaojian Yang; Yanchun Shi; Cuiying Jia; Yongying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical beta zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios of 16 to 25 were obtained by alkaline treatment in NaOH solution.The effects of treatment temperature on crystallinity,textural properties and chemical composites were studied by XRD,N2 sorption,FT-IR and XRF techniques.The desulfurization performance of parent and alkaline-treated beta zeolites was investigated by static absorption in four model fuels,containing four sulfur compounds of different molecular sizes like thiophene (TP),3-methylthiophene (3-MT),benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT),respectively.The crystallinity was observed to be successfully maintained when the treatment temperature was below 50℃.Mesoporosity of beta zeolite was evidently developed with alkaline treatment.The formation of mesopore remarkably improved the desulfurization performance for TP,3-MT,BT and DBT,especially for DBT with larger molecular diameter.Though the addition of toluene in the model fuels resulted in a significant drop of the desulfurization performance of mesoporous beta zeolite,the introduction of cerium ions to some extent mitigated the effect of toluene,which means that both the adsorbents porous structure and the adsorption mode are responsible for the desulfurization performance.The adsorbent of cerium ion-exchanged mesoporous beta showed about 80% recovery of desulfurization after the first regeneration.

  9. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. PMID:26048926

  10. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  11. Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST--An Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Capable of Electricity Generation under Alkaline-Saline Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available A great challenge in wastewater bioremediation is the sustained activity of viable microorganisms, which can contribute to the breakdown of waste contaminants, especially in alkaline pH conditions. Identification of extremophiles with bioremediation capability can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Here, we report the discovery of an electrochemically active alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium, Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST (=CICC10485T=NCCB 100412T, which is capable of generating bioelectricity in alkaline-saline conditions. A. andensis ANESC-ST was shown to grow in alkaline conditions between pH 7.0-11.0 and also under high salt condition (up to 4 wt% NaCl. Electrical output was further demonstrated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs with an average current density of ~0.5 µA/cm2, even under the harsh condition of 4 wt% NaCl and pH 9.0. Subsequent introduction of secreted extracellular metabolites into MFCs inoculated with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded enhanced electrical output. The ability of A. andensis ANESC-ST to generate energy under alkaline-saline conditions points towards a solution for bioelectricity recovery from alkaline-saline wastewater. This is the first report of A.andensis ANESC-ST producing bioelectricity at high salt concentration and pH.

  12. Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST--An Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Capable of Electricity Generation under Alkaline-Saline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Victor Bochuan; Zhao, Cui-E; Zhang, Qichun; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Yang, Liang; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge in wastewater bioremediation is the sustained activity of viable microorganisms, which can contribute to the breakdown of waste contaminants, especially in alkaline pH conditions. Identification of extremophiles with bioremediation capability can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Here, we report the discovery of an electrochemically active alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium, Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST (=CICC10485T=NCCB 100412T), which is capable of generating bioelectricity in alkaline-saline conditions. A. andensis ANESC-ST was shown to grow in alkaline conditions between pH 7.0-11.0 and also under high salt condition (up to 4 wt% NaCl). Electrical output was further demonstrated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with an average current density of ~0.5 µA/cm2, even under the harsh condition of 4 wt% NaCl and pH 9.0. Subsequent introduction of secreted extracellular metabolites into MFCs inoculated with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded enhanced electrical output. The ability of A. andensis ANESC-ST to generate energy under alkaline-saline conditions points towards a solution for bioelectricity recovery from alkaline-saline wastewater. This is the first report of A.andensis ANESC-ST producing bioelectricity at high salt concentration and pH. PMID:26171779

  13. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen. PMID:26855359

  14. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  15. Anaerobic digestion of poplar processing residues for methane production after alkaline treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiqing; He, Mulan; Ren, Yubing; Ma, Liying; Luo, Yang; Sheng, Hongmei; Xiang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Li, Qien; An, Lizhe

    2013-04-01

    Poplar processing residues were used for methane production by anaerobic digestion after alkaline treatment and methane production was measured. The highest methane production of 271.9 L/kg volatile solid (VS) was obtained at conditions of 35 g/L and 5.0% NaOH, which was 113.8% higher than non-alkaline treated samples, and 28.9% higher than that of corn straw, which is the conventional anaerobic digestion material in China. The maximal enhancement of 275.5% obtained at conditions of 50 g/L and 7.0% NaOH. Degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after treatment increased by 4.0-9.0%, 3.3-6.2%, and 11.1-20.5%, respectively, with NaOH dose ranged from 3.0% to 7.0%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR spectra and Crystallinity measurements showed that the lignocellulosic structures were disrupted by NaOH. The results indicate poplar processing residues might be an efficient substrate for methane production after alkaline treatment.

  16. Enhanced decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in water by ozonation under alkaline condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gui-Peng; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Li, Ang; Wang, Wen-Long; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogenic and refractory substance that is widely detected in aquatic environments. Traditional wastewater treatment processes, including activated sludge, cannot remove 1,4-dioxane. Removing 1,4-dioxane with a reaction kinetic constant of 0.32 L/(mol·s) by using ozone, a strong oxidant, is difficult. However, under alkaline environment, ozone generates a hydroxyl radical (•OH) that exhibits strong oxidative potential. Thus, the ozonation of 1,4-dioxane in water under different pH conditions was investigated in this study. In neutral solution, with an inlet ozone feed rate of 0.19 mmol/(L·min), the removal efficiency of 1,4-dioxane was 7.6% at 0.5 h, whereas that in alkaline solution was higher (16.3-94.5%) within a pH range of 9-12. However, the removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon was considerably lower than that of 1,4-dioxane. This result indicates that several persistent intermediates were generated during 1,4-dioxane ozonation. The pseudo first-order reaction further depicted the reaction of 1,4-dioxane. The obvious kinetic constants (kobs) at pH 9, 10, 11 and 12 were 0.94, 2.41, 24.88 and 2610 L/(mol·s), respectively. Scavenger experiments on radical species indicated that •OH played a key role in removing 1,4-dioxane during ozonation under alkaline condition.

  17. Dissolution of Uranium Oxides Under Alkaline Oxidizing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.C.; Peper, S.M.; Douglas, M.; Ziegelgruber, K.L. [PNNL, PO Box 999, MS P8-08, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Understanding the dissolution of uranium oxides is critical for designing and optimizing next-generation spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing methods. Bench scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimal dissolution parameters for size-fractionated aliquots of UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 3}, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders in aqueous peroxide-carbonate solutions. Experimental parameters included; peroxide and carbonate concentrations, and temperature. Solution pH was varied with ammonium hydroxide. We will present details of the dissolution experiment set-up as well as information on the kinetics of dissolution of the various U-oxides as a function of the above variables. We will also discuss efforts to characterize solution and solid-state complexes in peroxide-carbonate systems. This study will demonstrate the applicability of peroxide-containing alkaline solutions for effectively dissolving SNF, and will enhance the current level of understanding of actinide behavior in peroxide-containing alkaline solutions. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circumstance of TRU waste repository shows alkaline condition due to leaching of cementitious materials. The waste containing significant soluble nitrate may changes ground water chemistry to high ion strength. Several experimental studies have been carried out in this study in order to assess quantitatively water conductivity of bentonite which is altered by hyper alkaline and nitrate. Modeling for previous results is carried out and several requirements to be defined are proposed. The conclusion of this study is summarized as below. Secondary minerals of bentonite alteration due to hyper alkaline with nitrate: 1) CSH and CAH were observed corresponding to solving montmorillonite in AWN solution. 2) Na2O Al2O3 1.68SiO2 generated from 90 days in batch experiment and it was observed in 360 days. Assessment of swelling and water conductivity changing by hyper alkaline with nitrate: 1) Little changing of water conductivity of bentonite was observed by saturated Ca(OH)2 solution and hyper alkaline solution. The conductivity significantly increased by penetrating sodium nitrate solution. 2) Water conductivity of ion exchanged bentonite by hyper alkaline solution significantly increased. It increased more by penetrating AWN solution. Modeling of tuff alteration by hyper alkaline solution: 1) Flow through test is proposed since soluble velocity to hyper alkaline solution should be defined. (author)

  19. Bacterial degradation of cyanide and its metal complexes under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Huertas, María-J; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M Dolores; García-Gil, L Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-02-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Coleccion Espanola de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded.

  20. M4FT-15OR03100421: Status Report on Alkaline Conditioning Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Suree [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the role of alkaline conditioning of polyethylene-fiber adsorbent, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is demonstrated in this report, which is essentially a manuscript prepared for publication in the journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research of the American Chemical Society. The manuscript describes the influence of various parameters involved in adsorbent alkaline conditioning, including base concentration and duration and temperature of conditioning, on the uranium uptake history by the adsorbent. Various solutions have been used to determine the influence of conditioning parameters including (i) a screening solution containing uranyl nitrate at approximately 8 ppm and sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride at concentrations similar to those found in seawater, (ii) seawater spiked with approximately 75 ppb uranium, and (iii) natural seawater. In addition to concentration measurements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy to determine the uranium uptake capacity and kinetics, spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the effect of base treatment on the various chemical bonds of the adsorbent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been employed to determine structural effects of the alkali on the adsorbent. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Alkali conditioning is necessary to prepare the adsorbent for uranium uptake. ICP analysis showed that without alkali conditioning, no appreciable uranium adsorption occurs. 2. FTIR showed that the base converts amidoxime to carboxylate groups. 3. FTIR showed that formation of carboxylate groups is irreversible and reduces the selectivity of the adsorbent toward uranium. 4. NMR showed that alkali conditioning leads also to the formation of cyclic imidedioxime, which is suspected to bind uranium, vanadium, iron, copper, and

  1. Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia coli Viability Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Vanhauteghem; Geert Paul Jules Janssens; Angelo Lauwaerts; Stanislas Sys; Filip Boyen; Eric Cox; Evelyne Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometr...

  2. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  3. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  4. Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST - An Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Capable of Electricity Generation under Alkaline-Saline Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Shi; Victor Bochuan Wang; Cui-E Zhao; Qichun Zhang; Say Chye Joachim Loo; Liang Yang; Chenjie Xu

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge in wastewater bioremediation is the sustained activity of viable microorganisms, which can contribute to the breakdown of waste contaminants, especially in alkaline pH conditions. Identification of extremophiles with bioremediation capability can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Here, we report the discovery of an electrochemically active alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium, Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST (=CICC10485T=NCCB 100412T), which is capable of generating...

  5. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mengke Qian,1 Zhicen Lu,1 Chen Chen,2 Huaiqin Zhang,1 Haifeng Xie1 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Department of Endodontics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogen­phosphate (MDP conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH4. A shear bond strength (SBS test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were -583.892 (NaOH, -569.048 [Ca(OH2], -547.393 (MgO, and -530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH2 > MgO > Zr(OH4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH4 or -Mg

  6. Investigation on application of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for alkaline waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilization of neptunium(IV) in alkaline solution by chemical reductants under various conditions was studied. Testing showed that neptunium(V) is slowly reduced to Np(IV) by V(IV) at room temperature in alkaline solutions. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction. Complete reduction of 2 x 10-4 M Np(V) occurs in three hours at 80 degrees C in 1 M NaOH with 0.02 M VOSO4-. Under similar conditions, but in 5 M NaOH, only 15 to 20% of the Np(V) was reduced in 5 hours. In all cases, about 98 % of the initial neptunium was found in the precipitate. Thus V(IV) acts both as a reductant and as a precipitation carrier. Tests showed Np(V) reduction by hydrazine hydrate could be catalyzed by Pd(II). Reduction increased with temperature and catalyst concentration and decreased with hydroxide concentration. Reduction of Np(V) also takes place in 1 M NaOH solutions containing 1 M sodium formate and palladium. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction; with three hours' treatment in 5 M NaOH solution at 90 degrees C, about 95 % of the initial 2 x 10-4 M neptunium(V) is transformed to Np(IV). Organic complexants and organic acid anions hinder the decontamination of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium by coprecipitation with d-element hydroxides (the Method of Appearing Reagents). It was found that ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetate (HEDTA) are decomposed by H2O2 in alkaline solution in the presence of cobalt compounds with heating and by Na2S208 at moderate temperatures. Citrate, glycolate, and oxalate are decomposed by Na2S2O8 with heating. Oxidant amounts must be increased when NaNO2 also is present in solution. 8 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Alternative Alkaline Conditioning of Amidoxime Based Adsorbent for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Liao, W. -P.; Flicker Byers, M.; Tsouris, C.; Janke, C. J.; Mayes, R. T.; Schneider, E.; Kuo, L. -J.; Wood, J. R.; Gill, G. A.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    Alkaline conditioning of the amidoxime based adsorbents is a significant step in the preparation of the adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. The effects of various alkaline conditioning parameters such as the type of alkaline reagent, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated with respect to uranium adsorption capacity from simulated seawater (spiked with 8 ppm uranium) and natural seawater (from Sequim Bay, WA). An adsorbent (AF1) was prepared at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) with acrylonitrile and itaconic acid onto high-surface-area polyethylene fibers. For the AF1 adsorbent, sodium hydroxide emerged as a better reagent for alkaline conditioning over potassium hydroxide, which has typically been used in previous studies, because of higher uranium uptake capacity and lower cost over the other candidate alkaline reagents investigated in this study. Use of sodium hydroxide in place of potassium hydroxide is shown to result in a 21-30% decrease in the cost of uranium recovery.

  8. Screening of Strains Producing Alkaline Protease from Soil and Study on the Conditions for Enzyme Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to screen strains producing alkaline protease from soil and study the conditions for enzyme production.[Method] Eight strains producing alkaline protease were isolated from soil through plate isolation,and the ability of enzyme production was measured by filter paper and Folin-phenol method.The strain with the strongest ability of enzyme production was screened as a candidate strain,then the factors influencing the ability of enzyme production was studied,finally the conditions for e...

  9. Alkaline degradation of organic materials contained in TRU wastes under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline degradation tests for 9 organic materials were conducted under the conditions of TRU waste disposal: anaerobic alkaline conditions. The tests were carried out at 90degC for 91 days. The sample materials for the tests were selected from the standpoint of constituent organic materials of TRU wastes. It has been found that cellulose and plastic solidified products are degraded relatively easily and that rubbers are difficult to degrade. It could be presumed that the alkaline degradation of organic materials occurs starting from the functional group in the material. Therefore, the degree of degradation difficulty is expected to be dependent on the kinds of functional group contained in the organic material. (author)

  10. Surface-treatment of Alkaline Earth Sulfides Based Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chong-feng; CHU Ben-li; XU Jian; SU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A series of alkaline earth sulfides based phosphors Ca0.8Sr0.2S∶Eu2+, Tm3+ were covered with a layer of protective coating with alkaline earth fluorides by heating the mixture of phosphor and NH4HF2 at elevated temperatures. The coatings were characterized by means of XRD and SEM. The optical properties of the coated phosphors and the influences of the coating on their properties have been discussed extensively. The stabilities of the coated and uncoated phosphors have been compared.

  11. Sulfide oxidation at halo-alkaline conditions in a fed-batch bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den P.L.F.; Beusekom, van O.C.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    A biotechnological process is described to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from high-pressure natural gas and sour gases produced in the petrochemical industry. The process operates at halo-alkaline conditions and combines an aerobic sulfide-oxidizing reactor with an anaerobic sulfate (SO) and thiosul

  12. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions (3) (Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the summary of JNC-TJ--8400-2005-002. 1) Circumstance of TRU waste repository shows alkaline condition due to leaching of cementitious materials. The waste containing significant soluble nitrate may changes ground water chemistry to high ion strength. Consolidation test and permeability test are carried out in order to as. exchanged with nitrate. It is noted that permeability of bentonite increased at from 40 to 200 times by cation exchange. 2) Permeability of hyper alkaline solution is almost same to water. Permeability of hyper alkaline solution with nitrates increased corresponding to rising ion strength. 3) The results of batch of column test were simulated. The model can explain clearly the results in short period. This can estimate leaching ratio and secondary minerals. The model can simulate the experimental results by two types of velocity theory on altering bentonite. (author)

  13. Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST - An Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Capable of Electricity Generation under Alkaline-Saline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Victor Bochuan; Zhao, Cui-E; Zhang, Qichun; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Yang, Liang; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge in wastewater bioremediation is the sustained activity of viable microorganisms, which can contribute to the breakdown of waste contaminants, especially in alkaline pH conditions. Identification of extremophiles with bioremediation capability can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Here, we report the discovery of an electrochemically active alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium, Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST (=CICC10485T=NCCB 100412T), which is capable of generating bioelectricity in alkaline–saline conditions. A. andensis ANESC-ST was shown to grow in alkaline conditions between pH 7.0–11.0 and also under high salt condition (up to 4 wt% NaCl). Electrical output was further demonstrated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with an average current density of ~0.5 µA/cm2, even under the harsh condition of 4 wt% NaCl and pH 9.0. Subsequent introduction of secreted extracellular metabolites into MFCs inoculated with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded enhanced electrical output. The ability of A. andensis ANESC-ST to generate energy under alkaline–saline conditions points towards a solution for bioelectricity recovery from alkaline–saline wastewater. This is the first report of A.andensis ANESC-ST producing bioelectricity at high salt concentration and pH. PMID:26171779

  14. Influence of alkalinity and VFAs on the performance of an UASB reactor with recirculation for the treatment of Tequila vinasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Alberto; León-Becerril, Elizabeth; Rosales-Contreras, María Elena; Villegas-García, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    The main problem linked to the stability of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors during the treatment of Tequila vinasse is the high acidity and the null alkalinity present in this effluent. This research evaluates the effect of alkalinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration on the performance of an UASB reactor with recirculation of the effluent for removing organic matter and biogas production from Tequila vinasses. Recirculation of the effluent reduces the impact of VFAs and organic matter concentration present in the influent, inducing the stability of the reactor. The UASB reactor was operated during 235 days at organic loading rates from 2.5 to 20.0 kg m(-3) d(-1), attaining a removal efficiency of COD greater than 75% with a methane yield of 335 ml CH4 g(-1) COD at SPT, maintaining a ratio of VFAs/Alk ≤ 0.5. Therefore, an optimal ratio of VFAs/Alk was established for the system operating in stable conditions for the treatment of Tequila vinasses. Under these conditions, the alkalinity was recuperated by the system itself, without the addition of external alkalinity.

  15. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circumstance of TRU waste repository shows alkaline condition due to leaching of cementitious materials. The waste containing significant soluble nitrate may changes ground water chemistry to high ion strength. Consolidation test and permeability test are carried out in order to assess quantitatively permeability of bentonite altered by hyper alkaline and nitrate. Modeling is progressed based on experimental results. The following results are obtained. 1) Consolidation test was carried out in 3 types of bentonite and 30 % sand mixture in which cation exchanged with nitrate. It is noted that permeability of bentonite increased at from 40 to 200 times by cation exchange. 2) Permeability of hyper alkaline solution is almost same to water. Permeability of hyper alkaline solution with nitrates increased corresponding to rising ion strength. 3) The results of batch of column test were simulated. The model can explain clearly the results in short period. This can estimate leaching ratio and secondary minerals. The model can simulate the experimental results by two types of velocity theory on altering bentonite. (author)

  16. Investigation on application of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for alkaline waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilov, V.P.; Bessonov, A.A.; Garnov, A.Y.; Gelis, A.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The stabilization of neptunium(IV) in alkaline solution by chemical reductants under various conditions was studied. Testing showed that neptunium(V) is slowly reduced to Np(IV) by V(IV) at room temperature in alkaline solutions. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction. Complete reduction of 2 x 10{sup -4} M Np(V) occurs in three hours at 80{degrees}C in 1 M NaOH with 0.02 M VOSO{sub 4-}. Under similar conditions, but in 5 M NaOH, only 15 to 20% of the Np(V) was reduced in 5 hours. In all cases, about 98 % of the initial neptunium was found in the precipitate. Thus V(IV) acts both as a reductant and as a precipitation carrier. Tests showed Np(V) reduction by hydrazine hydrate could be catalyzed by Pd(II). Reduction increased with temperature and catalyst concentration and decreased with hydroxide concentration. Reduction of Np(V) also takes place in 1 M NaOH solutions containing 1 M sodium formate and palladium. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction; with three hours` treatment in 5 M NaOH solution at 90{degrees}C, about 95 % of the initial 2 x 10{sup -4} M neptunium(V) is transformed to Np(IV). Organic complexants and organic acid anions hinder the decontamination of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium by coprecipitation with d-element hydroxides (the Method of Appearing Reagents). It was found that ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetate (HEDTA) are decomposed by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in alkaline solution in the presence of cobalt compounds with heating and by Na2S208 at moderate temperatures. Citrate, glycolate, and oxalate are decomposed by Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} with heating. Oxidant amounts must be increased when NaNO{sub 2} also is present in solution. 8 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M.; Huertas, María-J.; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M. Dolores; García-Gil, L. Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) ...

  18. Alkaline hydrolysis process for treatment and disposal of Purex solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of spent Purex solvent (30% TBP-70% n-dodecane mixture) from reprocessing plants by alkaline hydrolysis process was investigated using inactive 30% TBP solvent as well as actual radioactive spent solvent. Complete conversion of TBP to water-soluble reaction products was achieved in 7 hours reaction time at 130 deg C using 50%(w/v) NaOH solution at NaOH to TBP mole ratio of 3:2. Addition of water to the product mixture resulted in the complete separation of diluent containing less than 2 and 8 Bg./ml. of α and β activity respectively. Silica gel and alumina were found effective for purification of the separated diluent. Aqueous phase containing most of the original radioactivity was found compatible with cement matrix for further conditioning and disposal. (author). 17 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Effect of alkaline treatment on the characterization of zalacca midrib wastes fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, Wahyu Purwo; Soenoko, Rudy; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Choiron, Mochammad Agus; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the need for new materials is urgent due to the scarcity of conventional materials and energy resources. The environmental issue requires materials which are biodegradable. There are many composites, arranged from synthetic fibers and matrix, which cannot be recyclable after their lifetime. In this research, the utilization potency of zalacca midrib wastes for their fibers as composite reinforcement were investigated, especially after the alkaline treatment to improve their characteristics. The influence of alkaline treatment on the density, functional groups of the fiber surface, thermal stability and crystallinity were measured and/or analyzed by linear-density-and-diameter-calculation, FTIR, TGA-DTA and XRD, respectively. The result showed that the zalacca midrib fibers had lower density than synthetic fibers and several natural fibers. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that the alkaline treatment of NaOH slightly raised their density because it removed several functional groups which attributed to the hemicellulose and lignin. TGA-DTA analysis indicated that zalacca fibers had good thermal stability until temperature of 220°C and it was improved by alkaline treatment. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of zalacca fibers was higher than several natural fibers like rice straw, sorghum stem and wheat straw fibers. Their crystallinity index was higher than wheat straw fiber. The alkaline treatment increases the crystallinity and crystallinity index rather than untreated fibers.

  20. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined. PMID:27335764

  1. Alkaline treatment of template containing zeolites: introducing mesoporosity while preserving acidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laak, A.N.C.; Zhang, L.; Parvulescu, A.N.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; de Jong, K.P.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline treatment (desilication) is an effective treatment to increase mesoporosity. However, the concomitant decrease in Si/Al ratio affects the strengths of the acidic sites and hence catalytic activity and selectivity. Therefore instead we subjected template containing zeolites to 1 M NaOH to in

  2. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  3. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vanhauteghem

    Full Text Available Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG, but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine, under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.

  4. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity under alkaline conditions found in intermediate-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the bituminous waste, a mixture of bitumen and insoluble salts, mainly of nitrate and sulphate carrying low and intermediate level radioactivity. The re-saturation of the disposal cells after closure will likely lead to the development of microbial activity. One of the most critical aspects limiting bacterial activity is the high alkalinity prevailing in the barrier concrete system and at the concrete-clay rock interface (pH = 11-13.5). The objective of this work is to evaluate the possible activity of nitrate reducing bacteria under these alkaline conditions, building on knowledge for alkaliphilic bacteria gained from similar conditions. Alkaliphilic bacteria develop optimally at pH values above 9, often between 10 and 12, in some cases above 12. They are likely to be predominant under alkaline conditions, but they will be replaced by neutrophilic bacteria as soon as local zones of near-neutral pH develop. In the case of a waste cell this could be at the interface to the clay rock or in the vicinity of organic matter releasing bituminous waste. Two sets of experiments have been carried out, bringing nitrate in contact with a solution containing organic matter (acetate) and a culture of alkaliphilic microbes, one focuses on the influence of nitrate concentrations, the other on the impact of changes in pH (10.0 and 12.4). The results indicate a low microbial activity at pH 12.4 whereas a significant nitrate reduction is obtained at pH 10.0. Furthermore, nitrite is the main product of nitrate reduction; traces of ammonium have also been measured. (authors)

  5. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García; García, Marta Elena Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanom...

  6. Chemical equilibria model of strontium-90 adsorption and transport in soil in response to dynamic alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, B P; Spalding, I R

    2001-01-15

    Strontium-90 is a major hazardous contaminant of radioactive wastewater and its processing sludges at many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. In the past, such contaminated wastewater and sludge have been disposed in soil seepage pits, lagoons, or cribs often under highly perturbed alkaline conditions (pH > 12) where 90Sr solubility is low and its adsorption to surrounding soil is high. As natural weathering returns these soils to near-neutral or slightly acidic conditions, the adsorbed and precipitated calcium and magnesium phases, in which 90Sr is carried, change significantly in both nature and amounts. No comprehensive computational method has been formulated previously to quantitatively simulate the dynamics of 90Sr in the soil-groundwater environment under such dynamic and wide-ranging conditions. A computational code, the Hydrologic Utility Model for Demonstrating Integrated Nuclear Geochemical Environmental Responses (HUMDINGER), was composed to describe the changing equilibria of 90Sr in soil based on its causative chemical reactions including soil buffering, pH-dependent cation-exchange capacity, cation selectivity, and the precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, and magnesium hydroxide in response to leaching groundwater characteristics including pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, dissolved cations, and inorganic carbonate species. The code includes a simulation of one-dimensional transport of 90Sr through a soil column as a series of soil mixing cells where the equilibrium soluble output from one cell is applied to the next cell. Unamended soil leaching and highly alkaline soil treatments, including potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, and sodium aluminate, were simulated and compared with experimental findings using large (10 kg) soil columns that were leached with 90Sr-contaminated groundwater after treatment. HUMDINGER's simulations were in good agreement with dynamic experimental observations of soil exchange capacity

  7. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Cui; Muyang Yang; Liping Wang; Xian, Cory J.

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated....

  8. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Cui

    Full Text Available While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  9. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production. PMID:26716833

  10. Stabilisation of acid generating waste rock with fly ash : immobilization of arsenic under alkaline conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, M. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Sartz, L. [Bergslagen, Kopparberg (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential for using fly ash as an alkaline material for increasing the pH and decreasing arsenic leaching from highly acidic mine waste. A wood ash sample known to contain high concentrations of both calcium and barium was tested with highly acidic mine waste samples that leached approximately 200 mg/L of arsenic at a liquid/solid ratio of 2. Samples were mixed with the fly ash. Control samples consisted of only mine waste, while the amended samples contained 10 g of mine waste and 10 g of wood ash. Ultra pure water was used as a leachant for both systems until the liquid-solid ratio that corresponded to 900 years of drainage for a waste pile that was 3 m high with an annual run-off of 300 mm. Results of the experimental study showed that the pH in the control increased from 1.7 to 2.7, while the pH in the amended system decreased from 12.6 to 11.5. Initial concentrations of arsenic decreased by almost 3 orders of magnitude in the amended systems. Co-precipitation with the iron, and the calcium arsenate precipitation process were identified as the principal arsenic immobilization mechanisms. The study demonstrated that under the right chemical conditions, alkaline amendments can be used to reduce arsenic leaching from mine wastes. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Odeta S.

    2004-07-01

    Over 1.6 million liters of radioactive, high-temperature, Al-rich, alkaline and saline high-level waste (HLW) fluids were accidentally discharged from tank leaks onto the sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington. In order to better understand processes that might occur during the migration of HLW through sediments and to estimate their extents, we studied the effects of Al-rich, alkaline and saline solutions on soil mineral dissolution and precipitation during reactive transport. Metal- and glass-free systems were used to conduct miscible-displacement experiments at 50 °C under CO 2 and O 2 free conditions. Results showed significant release of Si, K, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Ba into the aqueous phase. The transport-controlled release of these elements was time dependent as evidenced by its extent varying with the fluid residence time. Silica initial dissolution rates (6.08 × 10 -11 and 5.38 × 10 -13 mol m -2 s -1) increased with base concentration, decreased with Al concentration, and decreased with fluid residence time. Aluminum precipitation rates varied in the range from 0.44 to 1.07 × 10 -6 mol s -1 and were faster in these column experiments than in previous batch studies. The initial rate constant of Al precipitation reaction was 0.07 h -1 (half-life of 9.9 h at about 3 PV); it increased up to 0.137 h -1 (half-life of 5.1 h at about 20 PV). The precipitates identified with SEM and suggested from the modeling results were mainly NO 3-cancrinite. SEM analyses also indicated the formation of sodalite when Al was not present in the leaching solution. In addition, results from modeling suggested the precipitation of brucite, goethite and gibbsite; the latter may precipitate in the presence of high Al concentrations. Aqueous and solid phase transformations caused by base-induced dissolution and subsequent secondary phases precipitation should be important determinants of the fate of contaminants and radionuclides in the vadose zone under alkaline and saline

  12. Transcriptome exploration in Leymus chinensis under saline-alkaline treatment using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvel. is a high saline-alkaline tolerant forage grass genus of the tribe Gramineae family, which also plays an important role in protection of natural environment. To date, little is known about the saline-alkaline tolerance of L. chinensis on the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanism of saline-alkaline tolerance in L. chinensis, 454 pyrosequencing was used for the transcriptome study. RESULTS: We used Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology to sequence two different cDNA libraries that were built from the two samples of control and under saline-alkaline treatment (optimal stress concentration-Hoagland solution with 100 mM NaCl and 200 mM NaHCO(3. A total of 363,734 reads in control group and 526,267 reads in treatment group with an average length of 489 bp and 493 bp were obtained, respectively. The reads were assembled into 104,105 unigenes with MIRA sequence assemable software, among which, 73,665 unigenes were in control group, 88,016 unigenes in treatment group and 57,576 unigenes in both groups. According to the comparative expression analysis between the two groups with the threshold of "log2 Ratio ≥1", there were 36,497 up-regulated unegenes and 18,218 down-regulated unigenes predicted to be the differentially expressed genes. After gene annotation and pathway enrichment analysis, most of them were involved in stress and tolerant function, signal transduction, energy production and conversion, and inorganic ion transport. Furthermore, 16 of these differentially expressed genes were selected for real-time PCR validation, and they were successfully confirmed with the results of 454 pyrosequencing. CONCLUSIONS: This work is the first time to study the transcriptome of L. chinensis under saline-alkaline treatment based on the 454-FLX massively parallel DNA sequencing platform. It also deepened studies on molecular mechanisms of saline-alkaline in L. chinensis, and

  13. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  14. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores by alkaline hydrolysis applied to medical waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Sílvia C; Nunes, Olga C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Almeida, Manuel F

    2015-09-15

    Although alkaline hydrolysis treatment emerges as an alternative disinfection/sterilization method for medical waste, information on its effects on the inactivation of biological indicators is scarce. The effects of alkaline treatment on the resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were investigated and the influence of temperature (80 °C, 100 °C and 110 °C) and NaOH concentration was evaluated. In addition, spore inactivation in the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, used as surrogate of medical waste, was also assessed. The effectiveness of the alkaline treatment was carried out by determination of survival curves and D-values. No significant differences were seen in D-values obtained at 80 °C and 100 °C for NaOH concentrations of 0.5 M and 0.75 M. The D-values obtained at 110 °C (2.3-0.5 min) were approximately 3 times lower than those at 100 °C (8.8-1.6 min). Independent of the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, 6 log10 reduction times varied between 66 and 5 min at 100 °C-0.1 M NaOH and 110 °C-1 M NaOH, respectively. The alkaline treatment may be used in future as a disinfection or sterilization alternative method for contaminated waste.

  15. Extraction of Continuous Fiber from Mengkuang Leaves: The Influence of Process Parameters during Alkaline Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamizol Muhammad Syahmi; Binti Megat Yusoff Puteri Sri Melor; Bin Abdul Latif Muhamad Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, natural cellulose fiber composite is a promising prospect in the composite world. However, achieving uniform strength in natural fiber composite is a challenge due to limited fiber length and its random orientation in the composite. Thus, the focus of this paper was to obtain a continuous cellulose fiber from mengkuang leaves using chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction involved alkaline treatment of the mengkuang leave followed by bleaching. This paper focused on ext...

  16. Optimization and partial characterization of culture conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Palash Kumar; Talukdar, Saimon Ahmad; Deb, Promita; Sayem, SM Abu; Mohsina, Kaniz

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes have occupied a pivotal position for their practical applications. The present study was carried out under shake flask conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003 in basal medium containing glucose, peptone, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and Na2CO3 at pH 10. The effect of culture conditions and medium components for maximum production of alkaline protease was investigated using one factor constant at a time method along with its characterization. Ma...

  17. Cellulose Degradation at Alkaline Conditions: Long-Term Experiments at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M.A.; Van Loon, L.R

    2004-04-01

    The degradation of pure cellulose (Aldrich cellulose) and cotton cellulose at the conditions of an artificial cement pore water (pH 13.3) has been measured at 60{sup o} and 90{sup o}C for reaction times between 1 and 2 years. The purpose of the experiments is to establish a reliable relationship between the reaction rate constant for the alkaline hydrolysis of cellulose (mid-chain scission), which is a slow reaction, and temperature. The reaction products formed in solution are analysed for the presence of the two diastereomers of isosaccharinic acid using high performance anion exchange chromatography combined with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), other low-molecular weight aliphatic carboxylic acids using high performance ion exclusion chromatography (HPIEC) and for total organic carbon. The remaining cellulose solids are analysed for dry weight and degree of polymerisation. The degree of cellulose degradation as a function of reaction time is calculated based on total organic carbon and on the dry weight of the cellulose remaining. The degradation of cellulose observed as a function of time can be divided in three reaction phases observed in the experiments: (i) an initial fast reaction phase taking a couple of days, (ii) a slow further reaction taking - 100 days and (iii) a complete stopping of cellulose degradation levelling-off at -60 % of cellulose degraded. The experimental findings are unexpected in several respects: (i) The degree of cellulose degradation as a function of reaction time is almost identical for the experiments carried out at 60 {sup o}C and 90 {sup o}C, and (ii) the degree of cellulose degradation as a function of reaction time is almost identical for both pure cellulose and cotton cellulose. It can be concluded that the reaction behaviour of the materials tested cannot be explained within the classical frame of a combination of the fast endwise clipping of monomeric glucose units (peeling-off process) and the slow alkaline

  18. Thermodynamics of Np(IV) complexes with gluconic acid under alkaline conditions. Sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, H.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Sorption, Migration and Colloids Lab.; Tits, J.; Wieland, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Gaona, X. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung

    2013-05-01

    The complexation of Np(IV) with gluconic acid (GLU) under alkaline conditions was investigated in the absence of Ca by carrying out a series of sorption experiments. The decrease of Np(IV) sorption on the sorbing material at increasing concentrations of GLU was interpreted as the formation of Np(IV)-GLU aqueous complexes. The modelling of experimental data according to the Schubert method [1] confirmed the formation of a complex with a Np:GLU ratio 1: 1. The stoichiometry of the complex Np(OH){sub 4}GLU{sup -} was proposed based on the experimental observation that no proton exchange occurred during the course of the complexation reaction and that Np(OH){sub 4}(aq) was the predominant hydrolysis product in the absence of GLU. A log *{beta}{sup 0}{sub 1,4,1} = -2.92 {+-} 0.30 for the formation reaction Np{sup 4+} + 4H{sub 2}O + GLU{sup -} <=> Np(OH){sub 4}GLU{sup -} + 4H{sup +} was calculated based on the conditional stability constants determined from sorption experiments and using the Np(IV) thermodynamic data selected in the NEA reviews [2]. Linear free energy relationships (LFER) confirmed that the stoichiometry and stability of the Np(IV)-GLU complex characterized in this work are consistent with data available for Th(IV)-, U(IV)- and Pu(IV)-GLU complexes. (orig.)

  19. Porcine skin as a source of biodegradable matrices: alkaline treatment and glutaraldehyde crosslinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana T. Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the modifications promoted by alkaline hydrolysis and glutaraldehyde (GA crosslinking on type I collagen found in porcine skin have been studied. Collagen matrices were obtained from the alkaline hydrolysis of porcine skin, with subsequent GA crosslinking in different concentrations and reaction times. The elastin content determination showed that independent of the treatment, elastin was present in the matrices. Results obtained from in vitro trypsin degradation indicated that with the increase of GA concentration and reaction time, the degradation rate decreased. From thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis it can be observed that the collagen in the matrices becomes more resistant to thermal degradation as a consequence of the increasing crosslink degree. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that after the GA crosslinking, collagen fibers become more organized and well-defined. Therefore, the preparations of porcine skin matrices with different degradation rates, which can be used in soft tissue reconstruction, are viable.

  20. Mild alkaline pre-treatments loosen fibre structure enhancing methane production from biomass crops and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three ligno-cellulosic substrates representing varying levels of biodegradability (giant reed, GR; fibre sorghum, FS; barley straw, BS) were combined with mild alkaline pre-treatments (NaOH 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 N at 25 °C for 24 h) plus untreated controls, to study pre-treatment effects on physical-chemical structure, anaerobic digestibility and methane output of the three substrates. In a batch anaerobic digestion (AD) assay (58 days; 35 °C; 4 g VS l−1), the most recalcitrant substrate (GR) staged the highest increase in cumulative methane yield: +30% with NaOH 0.15 N over 190 ml CH4 g−1 VS in untreated GR. Conversely, the least recalcitrant substrate (FS) exhibited the lowest gain (+10% over 248 ml CH4 g−1 VS), while an intermediate behaviour was shown by BS (+15% over 232 ml CH4 g−1 VS). Pre-treatments speeded AD kinetics and reduced technical digestion time (i.e., the time needed to achieve 80% methane potential), which are the premises for increased production capacity of full scale AD plants. Fibre components (cellulose, hemicellulose and acid insoluble lignin determined after acid hydrolysis) and substrate structure (Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) outlined reductions of the three fibre components after pre-treatments, supporting claims of loosened binding of lignin with cellulose and hemicellulose. Hence, mild alkaline pre-treatments were shown to improve the biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic substrates to an extent proportional to their recalcitrance. In turn, this contributes to mitigate the food vs. fuel controversy raised by the use of whole plant cereals (namely, maize) as feedstocks for biogas production. - Highlights: • Three ligno-cellulosic substrates were pre-treated with mild alkaline methods. • Giant reed pre-treated with NaOH 0.15 N showed highest increase in CH4 yield (30%). • Alkaline pre-treatments speeded process kinetics, cutting technical digestion time. • Changes

  1. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity related to phosphorus stress of microphytoplankton in different trophic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančić, Ingrid; Pfannkuchen, Martin; Godrijan, Jelena; Djakovac, Tamara; Marić Pfannkuchen, Daniela; Korlević, Marino; Gašparović, Blaženka; Najdek, Mirjana

    2016-08-01

    The northern Adriatic (NA) is a favorable basin for studying the adaptive strategies of plankton to a variety of conditions along the steep gradients of environmental parameters over the year. Earlier studies identified phosphorus (P)-limitation as one of the key stresses within the NA that shape the biological response in terms of biodiversity and metabolic adjustments. A wide range of reports supports the notion that P-limitation is a globally important phenomenon in aquatic ecosystems. In this study P stress of marine microphytoplankton was determined at species level along a trophic gradient in the NA. In P-limitation all species with considerable contributions to the diatom community expressed alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), compared to only a few marginal dinoflagellate species. Nevertheless, APA expressing species did not always dominate the phytoplankton community, suggesting that APA is also an important strategy for species to survive and maintain active metabolism outside of their mass abundances. A symbiotic relationship could be supposed for diatoms that did not express APA themselves and probably benefited from APA expressed by attached bacteria. APA was not expressed by any microphytoplankton species during the autumn when P was not limiting, while most of the species did express APA during the P-limitation. This suggests that APA expression is regulated by orthophosphate availability. The methods employed in this study allowed the microscopic detection of APA for each microphytoplankton cell with simultaneous morphologic/taxonomic analysis. This approach uncovered a set of strategies to compete in P-limited conditions within the marine microphytoplankton community. This study confirms the role of P-limitation as a shaping factor in marine ecosystems.

  3. Computational design of a pH stable enzyme: understanding molecular mechanism of penicillin acylase's adaptation to alkaline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Suplatov

    Full Text Available Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties.

  4. Effects of Various Mixed Salt-Alkaline Stress Conditions on Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Leymus chinensis from Songnen Grassland of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang LIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization and alkalization always co-occur in grassland ecosystem, but little information exists concerning the mixed effects of salt-alkaline stresses on plants.Leymus chinensis is considered as one of the most promising grass species in Songnen Grassland of Northern China. In this study, we investigated the effects of 30 mixed salt-alkaline conditions (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3; pH 7.10-10.18 and salinity 50-250 mM on seed germination and seedling growth of L. chinensis. The results showed that germination percentage and rate were both decreased with increasing salinity and pH. Nongerminated seeds germinated well after being transferred to distilled water from treatment groups. Shoot and radicle growth were also affacted by salinity, pH and their interactions. However, radicle length decreased more markedly with increasing salinity and pH, and was strongly inhibited when pH reached 8.05. Stepwise regression analysis results showed that salinity was the dominant factor for seed germination under mixed salt-alkaline stress conditions. However, once radicle break through the seed coat, and pH changed into the dominant factor for seedling establishment. These results indicated that mixed salt-alkaline stresses had different impacts on germination and early seedling stages of L. chinensis. A better understanding of the germination and seedling processes should facilitate the effective utilization of this species under such complex environment.

  5. The regulators of yeast PHO system participate in the transcriptional regulation of G1 cyclin under alkaline stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Masafumi

    2015-03-01

    The yeast Pho85 kinase oversees whether environmental conditions are favourable for cell growth and enables yeast cells to express only genes that are appropriate for the conditions. Alkaline stress perturbs transport of molecules across the plasma membrane that is vital for cell survival. Progression through the cell cycle is halted until the cells can adapt to the stress conditions. I found that Pho85 is required for CLN2 expression and that overproduction of the transcription factors Pho4, Rim101 and Crz1, all targets of Pho85, inhibited CLN2 expression. CLN2 expression in the absence of Pho85 could be recovered only when all the three transcription factors were deleted. Whi5, a functional homologue of the mammalian Rb protein, represses CLN2 expression and is inactivated when phosphorylated by either of the CDK-cyclin complexes, Cdc28-Cln3 or Pho85-Pcl9. Under alkaline conditions, the absence of Whi5 caused an increase in CLN2 expression but failed to do so when Pho85 was also absent, or when Pho4 was overproduced. The expression level of CLN2 in a Δpho85 Δpho4 Δrim101 Δcrz1 quadruple mutant was stimulated when the Whi5 activity was repressed by overproduction of Pho85-Pcl9. These results indicate that Whi5 is also under control of alkaline stress. The inhibitory function of Whi5 on CLN2 is dependent on Rpd3 HDAC, and the absence of Rpd3 could also suppress the inhibitory effect of Pho4 overproduction. Based on these findings, a model is presented in which Pho85 and Pho4 functions in CLN2 regulation under alkaline conditions.

  6. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism

  7. Treatment with bortezomib in multiple myeloma is associated with only a transient and brief increase of bone specific alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haidl, Felix; Plesner, Torben; Lund, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There are indications of a bone anabolic effect associated with bortezomib treatment. We present a study with long follow up, measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) for a year during and after treatment in an unselected cohort of myeloma patients treated with bortezomib, and assess...

  8. Rapid Formation of 1D Titanate Nanotubes Using Alkaline Hydrothermal Treatment and Its Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D titanate nanotubes (TNT were successfully synthesized using alkaline hydrothermal treatment of commercial TiO2 nanopowders in a Teflon lined stainless steel autoclave at 150°C. The minimum time required for the formation of the titanate nanotubes was 9 h significantly. After the hydrothermal processing, the layered titanate was washed with acid and water in order to control the amount of Na+ ions remaining in the sample solutions. In this study, the effect of different reaction durations in a range of 3 h to 24 h on the formation of nanotubes was carried out. As the reaction duration is extended, the changes in structure from particle to tubular shapes of alkaline treated TiO2 were obtained via scanning electron microscope (SEM. Also, the significant impact on the phase transformation and crystal structure of TNT was characterized through XRD and Raman analysis. Indeed, the photocatalytic activity of TNT was investigated through the degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution under the ultraviolet light irradiation. As a result, TNT with reaction duration at 6 h has a better photocatalytic performance than other samples which was correlated to the higher crystallinity of the samples as shown in XRD patterns.

  9. Search for optimum conditions of wheat straw hemicelluloses cold alkaline extraction process

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús; García Domínguez, M. T.; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; Gómez Lozano, D. M.; López Baldovín, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A method for the selective extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw involving cold alkaline extraction and subsequent separation by precipitation with ethanol is proposed. Wheat straw affords selective separation of the hemicellulose fraction from the cellulose and lignin fractions with the proposed method. The hemicellulose yield was optimized by using a 2n factor design to examine the influence of temperatures (temperature was designed between 20 and 40 ◦C), operation times ...

  10. The variation of yield components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in response to stressful growing conditions of alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experiments with 11 varieties of wheat grown in alkaline soil stressful conditions. The experiment was set up at the site in the Banat, on the non-ameliorated solonetz soil, as control variante, and with ameliorative measures using phosphogypsum. The phenotypic variability and genotype by environment interaction for the grain number and weight per spike, using AMMI model in three vegetation seasons were studied. The analysis of the results revealed that the tested varieties responded differently to external, stressful conditions and ameliorative measures. Based on the AMMI analysis results the significance of PCA axis was observed.

  11. Treatment of a high-strength sulphate-rich alkaline leachate using an anaerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research looks at the feasibility of treating an alkaline sulphate-rich leachate arising from the co-disposal of municipal solid waste with cement kiln dust by means of an anaerobic filter (AF). This type of leachate with a high sulphate concentration is commonly prohibited for discharge to sewer and requires an on-site treatment solution. The AF used had a working volume of 4 l and contained reticulated polyurethane foam as the biomass support material. The filters were operated over a 152 day experimental period during which the COD loading onto the filter was increased from 0.76 to 7.63 kg COD m-3 d-1. In the early stages of operation at low loading, soluble sulphides accumulated that inhibited methanogenic activity. This was restored by dosing FeCl3 to the reactor. The continued dosing allowed efficient COD removal of between 75% and 90% until the nominal retention time in the reactor was 3 days, at which point reactor performance declined significantly. The main mechanism for COD removal was by sulphate-reducing bacteria, which also resulted in up to 88% sulphate removal from the leachate. The average methane generation rate was 0.10 l g-1 COD removed. The results indicate the potential for using this approach as a pre-treatment that could significantly reduce the COD load to a second stage treatment process, but problems associated with the implementation of the technology at a larger scale have been identified

  12. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H2O2 reaction achieve titania microspheres. → Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. → Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. → The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m2/g. → The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 μm in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 oC possessed a surface area of 45.4 m2/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  13. Optimal Surface Amino-Functionalization Following Thermo-Alkaline Treatment of Nanostructured Silica Adsorbents for Enhanced CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obdulia Medina-Juárez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Special preparation of Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA-15, mesoporous silica with highly hexagonal ordered, these materials have been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and partially selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica surface, via a thermo-alkaline treatment to increase the population of silanol species on it. CO2 adsorption is only reasonably achieved when the SiO2 surface becomes aminated after put in contact with a solution of an amino alkoxide compound in the right solvent. Unfunctionalized and amine-functionalized substrates were characterized through X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, and NH3 thermal programmed desorption. These analyses proved that the thermo-alkaline procedure desilicates the substrate and eliminates the micropores (without affecting the SBA-15 capillaries, present in the original solid. NMR analysis confirms that the hydroxylated solid anchors more amino functionalizing molecules than the unhydroxylated material. The SBA-15 sample subjected to hydroxylation and amino-functionalization displays a high enthalpy of interaction, a reason why this solid is suitable for a strong deposition of CO2 but with the possibility of observing a low-pressure hysteresis phenomenon. Contrastingly, CH4 adsorption on amino-functionalized, hydroxylated SBA-15 substrates becomes almost five times lower than the CO2 one, thus giving proof of their selectivity toward CO2. Although the amount of retained CO2 is not yet similar to or higher than those determined in other investigations, the methodology herein described is still susceptible to optimization.

  14. Study of Topical Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum in the Treatment of Alkaline Corneal Epithelial Wounds in Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sharifi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important functions of the cornea is to maintain normal vision by refracting light onto the lens and retina. This property is dependent in part on the ability of the corneal epithelium to undergo continuous renewal. Ocular surface failure which follows a variety of endogenous and exogenous precipitating factors, the most common being: chemical trauma, infection, alkaline burn, inflammation and hereditary conditions, lid or lash abnormalities, tear deficiency or reduced sensation. The core principal underpinning management strategy for ocular surface failure is establishing or promoting new growth of healthy conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. This process is mediated by many proteins that are inducers of corneal cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The current study was performed to investigate the efficacy of umbilical cord serum on alkaline corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit model. Materials & Methods: In this study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, thirty two rabbits were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Central corneal alkali wound was formed in one eye of the rabbits by applying a 6-mm round filter paper, soaked in 1 N NaOH, for 60 seconds. Group one of animals received umbilical cord blood serum and group two received Sno*Tear in the eyes. The treatment was dosed 4 times a day with the eye drops, and epithelial wound closure was recorded using slit lamp. The data were analyzed to determine the rate of wound closure. Results: The mean wound radius closure rate was 0.77 mm/day (SD=0.013 for umbilical cord blood serum-treated eyes, 0.73 mm/day (SD=0.018 for artificial tear-treated eyes. Conclusion: This study shows that alkali-injured corneal epithelial wound heal faster when treated with umbilical cord blood serum than with artificial tear in rabbit model.

  15. Experimentale Study of Alkaline Precipitation on Thermal Process SeaWater Desalination Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment of alkaline precipitation by separated method has beencarry out. Experiment took please by heating sea water simulation with eachother consist of a).142 ppm bicarbonate and 400 ppm calcium ion b). 142 ppmbicarbonate and magnesium ion at temperature 40,50,60,70,80,90,100,110 and120 oC respectively by using autoclave. Sampling has been done periodicalfor 30 minute in interval 300 minute for each temperature. The calculation ofalkaline precipitation on each step calculated through the decreasing ofcalcium and magnesium concentration with analysis by AAS. From experimentdata have the information that alkaline precipitation have been formed since40 oC. From time variable have been the information that the precipitationformed at 30th minute rapidly. Whether at further time the increasing ofprecipitation are not significant. This phenomena can explained that at eachheating step from 40 oC bicarbonate ion be come decomposition with theresult carbonate and hydroxide ion and react with calcium and magnesium formcalcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide. From this information could beimplemented as base for avoiding using chemical material in desalinationthermal process. (author)

  16. Acclimatization of microbial consortia to alkaline conditions and enhanced electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Zhai, Wenjing; Luo, Yue; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2016-07-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), obtained by inoculating with an aerobic activated sludge, were activated over a one month period, at pH 10.0, to obtain alkaline MFCs. The alkaline MFCs produced stable power of 118mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 213mWm(-2) at pH 10.0, using glucose as substrate. The performance of the MFCs was enhanced to produce a stable power of 140mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 235mWm(-2) by increasing pH to 11.0. This is the highest pH for stably operating MFCs reported in the literature. Power production was found to be suppressed at higher pH (12.0) and lower pH (9.0). Microbial analysis indicated that Firmicutes phylum was largely enriched in the anodic biofilms (88%), within which Eremococcus genus was the dominant group (47%). It is the first time that Eremococcus genus was described in bio-electrochemical systems. PMID:27061261

  17. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2002-01-01

    treatment gave a more reactive surface than alkaline wet oxidation for wheat straw, whereas the opposite was observed for beech. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed an almost complete loss of the ester carbonyl stretching signal and the corresponding C-C-O stretching in wet...

  18. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  19. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Ming, E-mail: msewjm@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Xiao-Mei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction achieve titania microspheres. {yields} Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. {yields} Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. {yields} The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 {mu}m in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 {sup o}C possessed a surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  20. Extraction of Continuous Fiber from Mengkuang Leaves: The Influence of Process Parameters during Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamizol Muhammad Syahmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, natural cellulose fiber composite is a promising prospect in the composite world. However, achieving uniform strength in natural fiber composite is a challenge due to limited fiber length and its random orientation in the composite. Thus, the focus of this paper was to obtain a continuous cellulose fiber from mengkuang leaves using chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction involved alkaline treatment of the mengkuang leave followed by bleaching. This paper focused on extraction using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and its process parameters. The process parameters of the extraction were varied in terms of concentration of NaOH solution and also the soaking time. The texture and structure of the chemically purified continuous cellulose fiber were observed by visual inspection. Detailed microstructural analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM while chemical composition analysis in term of cellulose percentage was conducted using Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI; TAPPI T203. Preliminary results showed that increment in cellulose percentage when the concentration of NaOH and soaking time were increased.

  1. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Lima, Luis; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline-saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l(-1) NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 °C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cells and allowed 85-100 % dye decolourisation. The immobilisation conditions for the biomass and the additional supply of carbon sources improved the decolourisation performance during a long-term trial of 40 days. Lignin peroxidase, laccase and glyoxal oxidase activities were detected during the experiments. The laccase activity varied depending on carbon source utilized and glycerol-enhanced laccase activity compared to sucrose during extended growth. PMID:23982200

  2. The production of glucose from corn stalk using hydrothermal process with pre-treatment ultrasound assisted alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, Dora; Prasutiyo, Indry; Trisanti, P. N.; Sumarno

    2015-12-01

    The production of glucose from corn stalk by using subcritical hydrothermal technology is studied in this work. Ultrasound-assisted alkaline delignification methods are used as pre-treatment. The corn stalk powder were pretreated with ultrasound-assisted alkaline (NaOH 2% w/w, solid to liquid ratio 1:22 w/v) at room temperature and 30 minutes. After pre-treatment, solid residue and liquid fractions are separated by filtration. Pretreated solids are further submitted to hydrothermal process for glucose production. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 Bar and 120°C in various times. The solid product was characterized by SEM and XRD. And liquid product was analysis using DNS method to determine percentage of glucose. From XRD analysis showed that crystallinity of material was lower than delignification product.

  3. Enhancing Uranium Uptake by Amidoxime Adsorbent in Seawater: An investigation for optimum alkaline conditioning parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Zhang, C.; Kim, J.; Brown, S.; Oyola, Yatsandra; Janke, C.; Mayes, R. T.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Gill, Gary A.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-20

    A high-surface-area polyethylene-fiber adsorbent (AF160-2) has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid. The grafted nitriles were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with potassium hydroxide (KOH) by varying different reaction parameters such as KOH concentration (0.2, 0.44, and 0.6 M), duration (1, 2, and 3 h), and temperature (60, 70, and 80 ºC). Adsorbent screening was then performed with simulated seawater solutions containing sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate, at concentrations found in seawater, and uranium nitrate at a uranium concentration of ~ 7-8 ppm and pH 8. FTIR and solid state NMR indicated that a fraction of amidoxime groups was hydrolyzed to carboxylate during KOH conditioning. The uranium adsorption capacity in the simulated seawater screening solution gradually increased with conditioning time and temperature for all KOH concentrations. It was also observed that the adsorption capacity increased with an increase in concentration of KOH for all the conditioning times and temperatures. AF160-2 adsorbent samples were also tested with natural seawater using flow-through experiments to determine uranium adsorption capacity with varying KOH conditioning time and temperature. Based on uranium loading capacity values of several AF160-2 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning time from 3 to 1 h at 60, 70, and 80 ºC resulted in increase of the uranium loading capacity in seawater, which did not follow the trend found in laboratory screening with stimulated solutions. Longer KOH conditioning times lead to significantly higher uptake of divalent metal ions, such as calcium and magnesium, which is a result of amidoxime conversion into less selective carboxylate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that long conditioning times may also lead to adsorbent degradation

  4. Alkalinity to calcium flux ratios for corals and coral reef communities: variances between isolated and community conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana J.A. Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcification in reef corals and coral reefs is widely measured using the alkalinity depletion method which is based on the fact that two protons are produced for every mole of CaCO3 precipitated. This assumption was tested by measuring the total alkalinity (TA flux and Ca2+ flux of isolated components (corals, alga, sediment and plankton in reference to that of a mixed-community. Experiments were conducted in a flume under natural conditions of sunlight, nutrients, plankton and organic matter. A realistic hydrodynamic regime was provided. Groups of corals were run separately and in conjunction with the other reef components in a mixed-community. The TA flux to Ca2+ flux ratio (ΔTA: ΔCa2+ was consistently higher in the coral-only run (2.06 ± 0.19 than in the mixed-community run (1.60 ± 0.14, p-value = 0.011. The pH was higher and more stable in the mixed-community run (7.94 ± 0.03 vs. 7.52 ± 0.07, p-value = 3 × 10−5. Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag was also higher in the mixed-community run (2.51 ± 0.2 vs. 1.12 ± 0.14, p-value = 2 × 10−6. The sediment-only run revealed that sediment is the source of TA that can account for the lower ΔTA: ΔCa2+ ratio in the mixed-community run. The macroalgae-only run showed that algae were responsible for the increased pH in the mixed-community run. Corals growing in a mixed-community will experience an environment that is more favorable to calcification (higher daytime pH due to algae photosynthesis, additional TA and inorganic carbon from sediments, higher Ωarag. A paradox is that the alkalinity depletion method will yield a lower net calcification for a mixed-community versus a coral-only community due to TA recycling, even though the corals may be calcifying at a higher rate due to a more optimal environment.

  5. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H; Aaby, P;

    1990-01-01

    Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could be trans......Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could...

  6. Multi-technique approach for qualitative and quantitative characterization of furazidin degradation kinetics under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bērziņš, Kārlis; Kons, Artis; Grante, Ilze; Dzabijeva, Diana; Nakurte, Ilva; Actiņš, Andris

    2016-09-10

    Degradation of drug furazidin was studied under different conditions of environmental pH (11-13) and temperature (30-60°C). The novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR-ALS) method was applied to UV-vis spectral data to determine a valid kinetic model and kinetic parameters of the degradation process. The system was found to be comprised of three main species and best characterized by two consecutive first-order reactions. Furazidin degradation rate was found to be highly dependent on the applied environmental conditions, showing more prominent differences between both degradation steps towards higher pH and temperature. Complimentary qualitative analysis of the degradation process was carried out using HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS. Based on the obtained chromatographic and mass spectrometric results, as well as additional computational analysis of the species (theoretical UV-vis spectra calculations utilizing TD-DFT methodology), the operating degradation mechanism was proposed to include formation of a 5-hydroxyfuran derivative, followed by complete hydrolysis of furazidin hydantoin ring.

  7. Optimizing operating conditions and electrochemical characterization of glucose-gluconate alkaline fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica ' ' Lamberto Malatesta' ' , Via Venezian 21, 20133 Milano (Italy); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); La Mantia, F. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ruffo, R.; Mari, C.M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartmento di Scienza dei Materiali, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Peri, F. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Biotecnologia e Bioscienze, P.zza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pina, C. Della [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica ' ' Lamberto Malatesta' ' , Via Venezian 21, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    The direct oxidation of glucose to produce electrical energy has been widely investigated because of renewability, abundance, high energy density and easy handling of the carbohydrate. Most of the previous studies have been conducted in extreme conditions in order to achieve complete glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2}, neglecting the carbohydrate chemical instability that generally leads to useless by-products mixtures. The partial oxidation to gluconate, originally studied for implantable fuel cells, has the advantage of generating a commercially valuable chemical. In the present paper we optimized fuel composition and operating conditions in order to selectively oxidize glucose to gluconate, maximizing the power density output of a standard commercial platinum based anode material. A deep electrochemical characterization concerning reversible potential, cyclic voltammetry and overpotential measurements have been carried out at 25 C in the D-(+)-glucose concentration range 1.0 x 10{sup -2} to 1.0 M. NMR and EIS investigation clarify the role of the buffer in enhancing the electrochemical performance. (author)

  8. Modelling of transformation and deposition of alkaline compounds under combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, Silvia-Ioana

    2012-07-01

    In coal fired power plants the mineral matter in coal can lead to operational difficulties, i.e. fouling, slagging and corrosion. In this work, the release and reactions of alkali during combustion of several coals are investigated by modelling at conditions that resemble pulverised coal combustion. The aim is to asses the extent of alkali dependence upon fuel ash composition, combustion temperature and secondary reactions, and to propose sub-models for alkali estimation. Two models for alkali release, based on alkali leaching analysis and chemical form of alkali are proposed. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of interactions between ash compounds show that aluminosilicates have a ''buffering'' effect on alkali, thus reducing their release. Ca and Mg enhance alkali release, because they compete for silicates, leaving alkali as more volatile compounds. In absence of kinetic data, the effect of Ca and Mg over alkali-aluminosilicate reactions is taken into account by equilibrium factors. Kinetic and equilibrium calculations suggest that uncertainties in alkali initial form have little effect on alkali flame and post-flame chemistry. Thus, the alkali post-flame chemistry can be estimated based on the char conversion rate, temperature and molar ratios of alkali, chlorine and sulphur within fuel. Equilibrium and kinetic data agree well, with the exception of Na2SO4(g) formation - not predicted in significant amount by kinetic modelling for typical post-flame pulverised coal combustion conditions. The speciation data are used as input for calculations of gas-to-particle formation during cooling in the convective pass. Under studied conditions heterogeneous condensation occurring on heat exchanger tubes or particles is much higher than homogeneous condensation. The sub-models are combined into an Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis tool. A large scale power plant is simulated. Three film formation models from literature are used to compute

  9. THE EFFECT OF CHARGE AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS ON LASER TONER AGGLOMERATION UNDER ALKALINE PULPING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale agglomeration experiments followed by image analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different cationic surfactants on the 1-octadecanol agglomeration of a negatively charged laser toner. Various types of surfactants with different geometric structures were investigated. It was found that this toner became agglomerated under neutral pulping conditions, but it did not agglomerate under alkaline conditions at all. A small amount of the cationic surfactant compensated for the agglomeration disruption caused by the negative surface charge of the toner and made this toner agglomerate very well. These cationic surfactants consist of a chemical structure of C12 to C18 saturated alkyl hydrophobic chains. The positive charge of these surfactants played the major role in alleviating agglomeration disruption. Additionally, an extra phenol group on these surfactants contributed only minor advantages for toner agglomeration in the presence of 1-octadecanol. The best co-agglomeration performance occurred within a very narrow range of similar total positive charge densities based on the total toner weight. It was also found that this positive charge effect could not be applied to the chemical compounds of high molecular weight polymeric materials.

  10. Whiteness improvement of citric acid crosslinked cotton fabrics: H2O2 bleaching under alkaline condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peixin; Ji, Bolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-08-20

    Polycarboxylic acids have been employed as formaldehyde-free crosslinking agents in anti-wrinkle treatment for cotton fabrics. Cotton fabrics treated by citric acid (CA) catalyzed with effective catalysts have shown satisfactory anti-wrinkle properties. Meanwhile, CA is a natural-based and environmental friendly compound. However, the yellowing of CA treated fabrics is a stumbling block for its practical application. Due to the fact that CA firstly forms aconitic acid (AA) before forming anhydrides, the cause of the yellowing, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) bleaching was adopted to treat the CA treated fabrics in order to break the CC bond structure and reduce the yellow color but retaining the desired anti-wrinkle properties. Thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were employed to investigate the reactions. The results revealed that the H2O2 bleaching can effectively improve the whiteness and also maintain a good anti-wrinkle performance of the CA treated fabrics under an appropriate bleaching temperature and time. PMID:27178918

  11. Chemical transition of nitrate ions accompanied with corrosion of carbon steel under alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steel was immersed in an aqueous solution of NaNO3 in a closed system for observing both the chemical interaction between metal and NO3-, and the effect of nitrate on the generation rate of H2 gas. The experimental pH range of the solution was 10.0-13.5 which corresponds to that of pore fluid in cementitious material. The cathodic current density showed a 'Tafel equation type' potential dependency in aqueous solution containing NO3- or NO2-. In spite of the accelerated cathodic reaction due to the existence of nitrate, the corrosion rate of carbon steel was not accelerated in the nitrate solutions. This fact suggests that the system is controlled by the anodic reaction. The nitrate reduction accompanied by the corrosion of carbon steel is considered to be a series reaction such as NO3-→NO2-→NH3. The nitrate reduction reaction competes with the water reduction reaction (hydrogen evolution reaction) within the anodic controlled condition, therefore nitrate strongly reduces the hydrogen generation rate (1/100-1/500 of the cases without nitrate in 1.0 mol dm-3 NaNO3 cases). The generation rates of NH3 were independent of the concentration of NO3- over the range of 1.0 x 10-3 - 1.0 mol dm-3. (author)

  12. Optimization and partial characterization of culture conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Palash Kumar; Talukdar, Saimon Ahmad; Deb, Promita; Sayem, Sm Abu; Mohsina, Kaniz

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes have occupied a pivotal position for their practical applications. The present study was carried out under shake flask conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003 in basal medium containing glucose, peptone, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and Na2CO3 at pH 10. The effect of culture conditions and medium components for maximum production of alkaline protease was investigated using one factor constant at a time method along with its characterization. Maximum level of enzyme production was obtained after 48h of incubation with 2% inoculum size at 42°C, under continuous agitation at 150 rpm, in growth medium of pH 9. Highest enzyme production was obtained using 1% rice flour as carbon source and 0.8% beef extract as organic nitrogen source. Results indicated that single organic nitrogen source alone was more suitable than using in combinations and there was no significant positive effect of adding inorganic nitrogen sources in basal medium. After optimization of the parameters, enzyme production was increased about 20 fold than that of in basal medium. The crude enzyme was highly active at pH 10 and stable from pH 7-11. The enzyme showed highest activity (100%) at 50°C, and retained 78% relative activity at 70°C. Stability studies showed that the enzyme retained 75% of its initial activity after heating at 60°C for 1h. The enzyme retained about 66% and 46% of its initial activity after 28 days of storage at 4°C and room temperature (25°C) respectively. Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) increased the residual activity of the enzyme, whereas Fe(2+) moderately inhibited its residual activity. When pre-incubated with Tween-20, Tween-80, SDS and H2O2, each at 0.5% concentration, the enzyme showed increased residual activity. These characteristics may make the enzyme suitable for several industrial applications, especially in leather industries. PMID:24133650

  13. Strong-Coupled Cobalt Borate Nanosheets/Graphene Hybrid as Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation Under Both Alkaline and Neutral Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengzuo; Xu, Kun; Zhou, Tianpei; Tong, Yun; Wu, Junchi; Cheng, Han; Lu, Xiuli; Ding, Hui; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-02-12

    Developing highly active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of paramount importance for designing various renewable energy storage and conversion devices. Herein, we report the synthesis of a category of Co-Pi analogue, namely cobalt-based borate (Co-Bi ) ultrathin nanosheets/graphene hybrid by a room-temperature synthesis approach. Benefiting from the high surface active sites exposure yield, enhanced electron transfer capacity, and strong synergetic coupled effect, this Co-Bi NS/G hybrid shows high catalytic activity with current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at overpotential of 290 mV and Tafel slope of 53 mV dec(-1) in alkaline medium. Moreover, Co-Bi NS/G electrocatalysts also exhibit promising performance under neutral conditions, with a low onset potential of 235 mV and high current density of 14.4 mA cm(-2) at 1.8 V, which is the best OER performance among well-developed Co-based OER electrocatalysts to date. Our finding paves a way to develop highly active OER electrocatalysts. PMID:26757358

  14. Effect of treatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide associated with extrusion on color and hydration properties of oat hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An incomplete factorial design with three independent variables at three levels of variation was used to evaluate the effect of the treatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide concomitant with extrusion on some properties of oat hulls. The independent variables were hydrogen peroxide level, feed moisture and extrusion temperature. The dependent variables were water retention capacity (WRC, swollen volume (SV and color. The analysis of variance showed that temperature was the most important variable for the hydration properties. The highest values of WRC and SV were obtained when oat hulls were processed in the condition of 7% hydrogen peroxide, 32% feed moisture and 90ºC extrusion temperature. Modified hulls had a WRC 70% higher and SV 55% higher than the untreated material. The instrumental measure of color was conducted to analyze the modifications promoted due to the treatment in this parameter. The highest value of brightness was obtained with 7% hydrogen peroxide. The modifications in the fibers were accompanied indirectly through hydration properties.Um delineamento fatorial incompleto 3³ foi utilizado para estudar o efeito do tratamento com peróxido de hidrogênio alcalino associado à extrusão sobre algumas propriedades funcionais da fibra da casca de aveia. As variáveis do tratamento avaliadas incluíram teor de peróxido de hidrogênio (%, umidade da amostra (% e temperatura de extrusão (ºC. A análise de variância (ANOVA mostrou que a temperatura foi a variável mais importante para as propriedades de hidratação. Os maiores valores de capacidade de retenção de água (CRA e volume de intumescimento foram obtidos na condição de 7% de peróxido de hidrogênio, 32% de umidade e 90ºC de temperatura, obtendo um incremento de 70% na CRA e 55% no volume de intumescimento. A medida instrumental de cor foi usada para analisar as modificações ocorridas neste parâmetro. O mais alto valor de luminosidade foi alcançado com maior n

  15. Effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on cell wall composition and digestion kinetics of sugarcane residues and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjed, M; Jung, H G; Donker, J D

    1992-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize changes in cell wall composition and digestibility of sugarcane bagasse, pith from bagasse, and wheat straw after treatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP). The AHP treatment solution contained 1% H2O2 (wt/vol) maintained at pH 11.5 with NaOH. The H2O2 in solution amounted to 25% of the quantity of substrate treated. After treatment, residues were washed and dried. Detergent fiber composition, total fiber components (neutral sugars, uronic acids, Klason lignin, and noncore lignin phenolic acids), IVDMD, in vitro digestion kinetics of NDF, and monosaccharide digestibilities (24 and 120 h) were determined. Total fiber (TF) and NDF concentrations of all treatment residues were increased (P less than .05) over control substrates by AHP because of greater losses of cell solubles than of cell wall constituents. Hemicellulose:cellulose ratio in NDF of treatment residues was decreased (P less than .05) by AHP for all substrates, but the neutral sugar composition of TF did not agree with this preferential loss of hemicellulose components. Klason lignin, ADL, and esterified noncore lignin, especially ferulic acid, were reduced (P less than .05) by AHP, whereas etherified noncore lignin composition was unchanged. Treatment increased (P less than .05) IVDMD, extent of NDF digestion, and monosaccharide digestibilities of all crop residues. The rate of NDF digestion was increased (P less than .05) for the sugarcane residues but not for wheat straw. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide improved crop residue digestibility, probably as a result of the removal of core and noncore lignin fractions. PMID:1328129

  16. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  17. Drilling the Mediterranean Messinian Evaporites to Answer Key Questions Related to Massive Microbial Dolomite Formation under Hypersaline Alkaline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Judith A.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2014-05-01

    Deep-sea drilling in the Mediterranean during DSSP Leg 13 in 1970 revealed the basin-wide occurrence of a Messinian evaporite formation. This spectacular discovery was pursued further during a subsequent drilling program, DSDP Leg 42A, in 1975, which was designed, in part, to obtain continuous cores to study the evolution of the salinity crisis itself (Hsü, Montadert, et al., 1978). Specifically, drilling at a water depth of 4,088 m in the Ionian Sea, DSDP Site 374: Messina Abyssal Plain, penetrated about 80 m into the uppermost part of the Messinian upper evaporite formation. The sedimentary sequence comprises dolomitic mudstone overlying dolomitic mudstone/gypsum cycles, which in turn overlie anhydrite and halite. The non-fossiliferous dolomitic mudstone is generally rich in organic carbon, with TOC values ranging from 0.9% to 5.3%, of possible marine origin with a good source rock potential. Commonly laminated dolomitic mudstones contain preserved filamentous cyanobacterial remains suggesting that conditions were conducive for microbial mat growth. The Ca-dolomite, composed of fine-grained anhedral crystals in the size range of 2-4 μm, is probably a primary precipitate. The unusual interstitial brines of the dolomitic mudstone units have very high alkalinities with a low pH of 5 to 6. The Mg concentration (2250 mmoles/l) is extremely elevated, whereas the Ca concentration is nearly zero. Finally, the drilled evaporite sedimentary sequence was interpreted as being deposited in an alkaline lake/sea ("Lago Mare"), which covered the area during the latest Messinian. Projecting forward 40 years since the DSDP Leg 42A drilling campaign, research into the factors controlling dolomite precipitation under Earth surface conditions has led to the development of new models involving the metabolism of microorganisms and associated biofilms to overcome the kinetic inhibitions associated with primary dolomite precipitation. Together with laboratory experiments, microbial

  18. Influence of Alkaline Treatment on Chloroform Extract of China-Hemp%碱处理对汉麻皮氯仿萃取物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小泷; 杨力生; 金彪; 李荣霞; 周文龙

    2013-01-01

    运用气质联用技术,对汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物进行了测定分析.研究表明,汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物中仍然明显有大麻中的特殊化学成分——四氢大麻酚(THC)存在.四氢大麻酚会在汉麻的普通化学脱胶处理(碱处理)中被有效去除,这说明在汉麻纺织商品中不会含有大麻酚物质,汉麻纺织产品是安全的,同时也说明四氢大麻酚物质可能与汉麻皮的胶类物质有一定的关系.在一定条件下,碱处理60 min后纤维中将不会存在四氢大麻酚.汉麻皮氯仿萃取物中主要还含有十六酸和十八烷酸等物质.%This paper tests and analyzes chloroform extract of China-hemp using gas chromatography-mass spectrography technology. The research shows that the special chemical component in hemp-THC still exists in chloroform extract of China-hemp. THC will be effectively removed in general chemical de-gumming treatment (alkaline treatment) of China-hemp, indicating that China-hemp textile goods do not contain Cannabinol and China-hemp textile products are safe and that THC might have certain relationship with gum substance of China-hemp. Under certain conditions, fiber subject to alkaline treatment for 60 min will not have THC. Chloroform extract of China-hemp also contains hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid etc.

  19. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications. PMID:26113394

  20. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications.

  1. Effects of soil water conditions and organic and chemical fertilizers on growth characteristics and water use efficiency of rice in an alkaline non-calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse research, the effects of soil water conditions, sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers on growth characteristics and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Ali Kazemi were studied in a loamy sand alkaline non-calcareous soil. The study was performed as a factorial experiment in a randomized complete blocks design including soil water conditions in three levels (continuous submergence, alternate submergence and alternate saturation and source and amount of organic and chemical fertilizers in 10 levels [control, 100% chemical fertilizers (434.8 mg urea, 66.1 mg KH2PO4, 40 mg KCl, 50 mg FeSO4.7H2O, 38.5 mg FeSO4.7H2O, 21.3 mg ZnSO4.7H2O and 7.9 mg CuSO4.5H2O per kg of soil, 20 g sewage sludge per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers, 40 g sewage sludge per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers, 20 g poultry manure per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers and 40 g poultry manure per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers] with three replications. At the end of growth period, tiller and leaf number per plant, length and diameter of stem, length and volume of roots, and shoot and root dry matter were measured and water use efficiency (WUE was calculated. The results showed that application of 20 and 40 g poultry manure per kg of soil prevented the growth of rice due to increase of soil salinity. Application of 20 and 40 g sewage sludge per kg of soil increased significantly tiller and leaf number per plant, length and diameter of stem, length and volume of roots, shoot and root dry matter and WUE compared to control and 100% chemical fertilizers treatments. Addition of 50% chemical fertilizers to 40 g sewage sludge per kg of soil did not significantly affect tiller and leaf number per plant, stem length, volume of roots, shoot dry matter and WUE of rice. The highest tiller number per plant, stem diameter, root length and the ratio of shoot dry matter to

  2. Charge-Discharge Properties of the Surface-Modified ZrNi Alloy Electrode with Different Degrees of Boiling Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Matsuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge-discharge properties of the surface-modified ZrNi negative electrodes with different degrees of boiling alkaline treatment were investigated. The boiling alkaline treatment was performed by immersing the ZrNi electrode in a boiling 6 M KOH aqueous solution for 2 h or 4 h. The initial discharge capacity for the untreated ZrNi negative electrode was 21 mAh·g−1, but it was increased to 114 mAh·g−1 and 308 mAh·g−1 after the boiling alkaline treatments for 2 h and 4 h, respectively. The discharge capacity for the ZrNi negative electrode after the treatment for 2 h steadily increased with repeating charge-discharge cycles as well as that of the untreated electrode, whereas that for the ZrNi negative electrode after the 4 h treatment greatly decreased. The high rate of dischargeability was improved with an increase in the treatment period of time, and the charge-transfer resistance was drastically decreased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated the ZrO2 passive layer on the ZrNi alloy surface was removed by the boiling alkaline treatment to form a porous morphology containing Ni(OH2, which can be reduced to Ni during charging, leading to the reduction of a barrier for the charge-discharge reactions.

  3. Production of class a biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Orf, M.M.; Brewster, J.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Reimers, R.S.; Lagasse, P.; Amy, B.; Glindemann, D.

    2003-07-01

    The feasibility of full-scale anoxic disinfection of dewatered and digested sludge from Winnipeg, Manitoba with low lime doses and lagoon fly ash was investigated to determine if a class A product could be produced. Lime doses of 50g, 100g, and 200g per kg of biosolids (dry) were used along with fly ash doses of 500g. 1000g. and 1500g per kg of biosolids (dry). The mixed product was buried in eight-10 cubic meter trenches at the West End Water Pollution Control Center In Winnipeg. The trenches were backfilled with dirt and trapped to simulate anoxic conditions. Sampling cages were packed with the mixed product and pathogens non-indigenous to Winnipeg's biosolids. The cages were buried amongst the mixed biosolids in the trench. The non-indigenous pathogens spiked in the laboratory were the helminth Ascaris suum and the enteric virus reovirus. Samples were removed at days 12, 40, 69, 291, and 356 and were tested for the presence of fecal Coliform, Clostridium perfringens spores, Ascaris suum eggs, and reovirus. The pH, total solids, and free ammonia content of the mixed product were also determined for each sample. Odor was quantified for samples at both 291 and 356 days. Fecal Coliform bacteria and reovirus were completely inactivated for doses as low as 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) and 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry). Spores of the bacteria C. perfringens experienced a 4-log reduction when treated with 100g lime per kg biosolids and a 5-log reduction when treated with doses as low as 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Ascaris eggs were completely inactivated in 5 gram packets for all treatments involving 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Class A pathogen requirements were met for all treatments involving a lime dose of at least 100g per kg biosolids. The odor potential from the produced biosolids is also assessed. (author)

  4. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.

  5. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  6. Saccharification of microalgae biomass obtained from wastewater treatment by enzymatic hydrolysis. Effect of alkaline-peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Juárez, Judit; Lorenzo Hernando, Ana; Muñoz Torre, Raúl; Blanco Lanza, Saúl; Bolado Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    An enzymatic method for the carbohydrate hydrolysis of different microalgae biomass cultivated in domestic (DWB) and pig manure (PMWB) wastewaters, at different storage conditions (fresh, freeze-dried and reconstituted), was evaluated. The DWB provided sugars yields between 40 and 63%, although low xylose yields (acids. For PMWB, a high fraction of the sugars (up to 87%) was extracted, but mainly converted into acetic, butyric and formic acids, which was attributed to the bacterial action. In addition, the performance of an alkaline-peroxide pretreatment, conducted for 1h, 50°C and H2O2 concentrations from 1 to 7.5% (w/w), was essayed. The hydrolysis of pretreated microalgae supported a wide range of sugars extraction for DWB (55-90%), and 100% for PMWB. Nevertheless, a large fraction of these sugars (∼30% for DWB and 100% for PMWB) was transformed to byproducts. PMID:27372005

  7. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  8. An amorphous CoSe film behaves as an active and stable full water-splitting electrocatalyst under strongly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Qian; Asiri, Abdullah M; Luo, Yonglan; Sun, Xuping

    2015-12-01

    It is attractive but still remains a big challenge to develop non-noble metal bifunctional electrocatalysts efficient for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under alkaline conditions. Herein, an amorphous CoSe film electrodeposited on a Ti mesh (a-CoSe/Ti) is demonstrated to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and stability for both reactions in 1.0 M KOH. It needs overpotentials of 292 and 121 mV to drive 10 mA cm(-2) for OER and HER, respectively. The two-electrode alkaline water electrolyzer affords a water-splitting current of 10 mA cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 1.65 V. This work offers an attractive cost-effective catalytic material toward full water splitting applications.

  9. An amorphous CoSe film behaves as an active and stable full water-splitting electrocatalyst under strongly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Qian; Asiri, Abdullah M; Luo, Yonglan; Sun, Xuping

    2015-12-01

    It is attractive but still remains a big challenge to develop non-noble metal bifunctional electrocatalysts efficient for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under alkaline conditions. Herein, an amorphous CoSe film electrodeposited on a Ti mesh (a-CoSe/Ti) is demonstrated to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and stability for both reactions in 1.0 M KOH. It needs overpotentials of 292 and 121 mV to drive 10 mA cm(-2) for OER and HER, respectively. The two-electrode alkaline water electrolyzer affords a water-splitting current of 10 mA cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 1.65 V. This work offers an attractive cost-effective catalytic material toward full water splitting applications. PMID:26431349

  10. Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the results of a continuous 4.5-day laboratory aeration experiment and the first year of passive, aerobic treatment of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) from a typical flooded underground anthracite mine in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. During 1991-2006, the AMD source, locally known as the Otto Discharge, had flows from 20 to 270 L/s (median 92 L/s) and water quality that was consistently suboxic (median 0.9 mg/L O2) and circumneutral (pH ??? 6.0; net alkalinity >10) with moderate concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese and low concentrations of dissolved aluminum (medians of 11, 2.2, and alkalinity; the initial Fe2+ concentration of 16.4 mg/L decreased to less than 0.5 mg/L within 24 h; pH values increased rapidly from 5.8 to 7.2, ultimately attaining a steady-state value of 7.5. The increased pH coincided with a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) from an initial value of 10 -1.1atm to a steady-state value of 10-3.1atm. From these results, a staged aerobic treatment system was conceptualized consisting of a 2 m deep pond with innovative aeration and recirculation to promote rapid oxidation of Fe2+, two 0.3 m deep wetlands to facilitate iron solids removal, and a supplemental oxic limestone drain for dissolved manganese and trace-metal removal. The system was constructed, but without the aeration mechanism, and began operation in June 2005. During the first 12 months of operation, estimated detention times in the treatment system ranged from 9 to 38 h. However, in contrast with 80-100% removal of Fe2+ over similar elapsed times during the laboratory aeration experiment, the treatment system typically removed less than 35% of the influent Fe2+. Although concentrations of dissolved CO2 decreased progressively within the treatment system, the PCO2 values for treated effluent remained elevated (10-2.4 to 10-1.7atm). The elevated PCO 2 maintained the pH within the system at values less than 7 and hence slowed the rate

  11. Alkaline phosphatase predicts relapse in chronic hepatitis C patients with end-of-treatment response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerd; Bodlaj; Rainer; Hubmann; Karim; Saleh; Tatjana; Stojakovic; Georg; Biesenbach; Jrg; Berg

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate relapse predictors in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with end-of-treatment response (ETR), after pegylated interferon-α (PegIFN-α) and ribavirin treatment. METHODS: In a retrospective study we evaluated a spectrum of predictors of relapse after PegIFN-α and ribavirin treatment in 86 CHC patients with ETR. Viral loads were determined with real-time reverse transcrip-tion polymerase chain reaction. Hepatitis C virus geno-typing was performed by sequencing analysis. Patients with genoty...

  12. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48 h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30 days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5 days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25 mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15 days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  13. The potential of alkaline phosphatase as a treatment for sepsis-associated acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Esther; Masereeuw, R.; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a high attributable mortality and an increased risk of developing chronic kidney failure in survivors. As a successful therapy is, as yet, unavailable, a pharmacological treatment option is clearly warranted. Recently, two small phase II

  14. Alkaline unfolding and salt-induced folding of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase under high pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, W P; Yan, S X; Li, S; Zhong, H N; Zhou, H M

    1996-06-01

    The conformational changes of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase during unfolding at alkaline pH have been followed by fluorescence emission and circular dichroism spectra. A result of comparison of inactivation and conformational changes shows that much lower values of alkaline pH are required to bring about inactivation than significant conformational change of the enzyme molecule. At pH 9.5, although the enzyme has been completely inactivated, no marked conformational changes can be observed. Even at pH 12, the apparently fully unfolded enzyme retains some ordered secondary structure. After removal of Zn2+ from the enzyme molecule, the conformational stability decreased. At pH 12 by adding the salt, the relatively unfolded state of denatured enzyme changes into a compact conformational state by hydrophobic collapsing. Folded states induced by salt bound ANS strongly, indicating the existence of increased hydrophobic surface. More extensive studies showed that although apo-YADH and holo-YADH exhibited similar behavior, the folding cooperative ability of apo-enzyme was lower than that of holo-enzyme. The above results suggest that the zinc ion plays an important role in helping the folding of YADH and in stabilizing its native conformation.

  15. Improved Anaerobic Fermentation of Wheat Straw by Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Addition of Alkali-Tolerant Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Sträuber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential of two alkali-tolerant, lignocellulolytic environmental enrichment cultures to improve the anaerobic fermentation of Ca(OH2-pre-treated wheat straw was studied. The biomethane potential of pre-treated straw was 36% higher than that of untreated straw. The bioaugmentation of pre-treated straw with the enrichment cultures did not enhance the methane yield, but accelerated the methane production during the first week. In acidogenic leach-bed fermenters, a 61% higher volatile fatty acid (VFA production and a 112% higher gas production, mainly CO2, were observed when pre-treated instead of untreated straw was used. With one of the two enrichment cultures as the inoculum, instead of the standard inoculum, the VFA production increased by an additional 36% and the gas production by an additional 110%, again mainly CO2. Analysis of the microbial communities in the leach-bed processes revealed similar bacterial compositions in the fermenters with pre-treated straw, which developed independently of the used inoculum. It was suggested that the positive metabolic effects with the enrichment cultures observed in both systems were due to initial activities of the alkali-tolerant microorganisms tackling the alkaline conditions better than the standard inocula, whereas the latter dominated in the long term.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED TITANATE-BASED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS UNDER STRONGLY ALKALINE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Peters, T.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-18

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes at SRS include the sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction of {sup 137}Cs. The MST and separated {sup 137}Cs is encapsulated along with the sludge fraction of high-level waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass waste form for eventual entombment at a federal repository. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu; {sup 237}Np; and uranium isotopes, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. This paper describes recent results evaluating the performance of an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST.

  17. A multi-scale model of the oxygen reduction reaction on highly active graphene nanosheets in alkaline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge; Ramos-Sanchez, Guadalupe; Franco, Alejandro A.

    2016-10-01

    A multi-scale model based on a mean field approach, is proposed to describe the ORR mechanism on N-GN catalysts in alkaline media. The model implements activation energies calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the atomistic level, and scales up them into a continuum framework describing the cathode/electrolyte interface at the mesoscale level. The model also considers mass and momentum transports arising in the region next to the rotating electrode for all ionic species and O2; correction of potential drop and electrochemical double-layer capacitance. Most fitted parameters describing the kinetics of ORR elementary reactions are sensitive in the multi-scale model, which results from the incorporation of activation energies using the mean field method, unlike single-scale modelling Errors in the deviations from activation energies are found to be moderate, except for the elementary step (2) related to the formation of O2ads, which can be assigned to the inherent DFT limitations. The consumption of O2ads to form OOHads is determined as the rate-determining step as a result of its highest energy barrier (163.10 kJ mol-1) in the system, the largest error obtained for the deviation from activation energy (28.15%), and high sensitivity. This finding is confirmed with the calculated surface concentration and coverage of electroactive species.

  18. Effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on some soil hydraulic properties and nutrient uptake by spring barley in an alkaline soil under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on some soil hydraulic properties and nutrients uptake by spring barley, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized blocks design with four replications, using two mycorrhizl fungi including Glomus intraradices (GI and Glomus etunicatum (GE and non-mycorrhizal (control treatments, in an alkaline coarse-textured soil. Results showed that GE and GI significantly increased (P< 0.01 field capacity (FC water content by 24.7 and 12.6%, permanent wilting point (PWP water content by 20.1 and 11.1%, available water capacity (AWC by 27.1 and 13.3%, micropores by 14.1 and 5%, mesopores by 27.8 and 20.8% and decreased macropores by 17.3 and 9.5% and saturated hydraulic conductivity by 88.2 and 68.8% relative to the control, respectively. Also, GE and GI fungi significantly increased (P< 0.01 uptake of phosphorus in barely seeds by 44.1 and 20.3% and in stem by 181 and 50.6% and potassium in seeds by 290.8 and 167.9%, respectively. It is concluded that mycorrhizal symbiosis, as a biological and sustainable method, improved hydraulic and chemical quality of the alkaline coarse-textured soil.

  19. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic investigation of the role of alkaline pre-treatment in corrosion resistance of a silane coating on magnesium alloy, ZE41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty Banerjee, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Hawthorn, VIC-3122 (Australia); Singh Raman, R.K., E-mail: raman.singh@eng.monash.edu.a [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The protective performance of the coatings of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) on ZE41 magnesium alloy with different surface pre-treatments were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. Electrical equivalent circuits were developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and cross section of the alloy subjected to different pre-treatments and coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscope. A specific alkaline pre-treatment of the substrate prior to the coating has been found to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  20. Superhydrophilic surface modification of fabric via coating with nano-TiO2 by UV and alkaline treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We reported a rapid, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient method for PET fabric surface modification. • The modified PET fabric became superhydrophilic and the water contact angles were decreased to 0° via coating with nano-TiO2 by UV and alkaline treatment. • The excellent mechanical and physical properties of modified PET fabric were retained. - Abstract: Increasing the hydrophilicity of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric has been an ongoing research goal. In this study, a rapid, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient method for modifying the surface of PET fabric is presented. In a solution of 30 g/L nano-TiO2, 50 g/L H2O2, and 30 g/L NaOH, PET fabric was modified to become superhydrophilic by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (1000 W) for only 30–40 min. The water contact angle of the modified PET fabric was decreased to 0°, and the water absorption rate of the modified PET fabric was increased from 85% to 104%. The capillary rise height increased from 0.2 cm to 6.2 cm, and the spraying rating decreased from 4 to 1. The crease recovery angles of modified PET fabrics were reduced by only 1.2–8.8%. The mechanical and physical properties of the modified PET fabric remained good. Compared to the surface of unmodified PET fabric, scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of the modified PET fiber was rough and covered by a layer of other materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the materials on the surface of modified PET fibers likely included -COOH and -OH groups. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of crystalline material. Finally, differential scanning calorimetry thermograms showed that the modification process slightly improved the thermostability of PET fibers

  1. Superhydrophilic surface modification of fabric via coating with nano-TiO{sub 2} by UV and alkaline treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Deng, Tingting [College of Textile and Garment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Liu, Shuxian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu, E-mail: zhangfx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Textile and Garment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We reported a rapid, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient method for PET fabric surface modification. • The modified PET fabric became superhydrophilic and the water contact angles were decreased to 0° via coating with nano-TiO{sub 2} by UV and alkaline treatment. • The excellent mechanical and physical properties of modified PET fabric were retained. - Abstract: Increasing the hydrophilicity of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric has been an ongoing research goal. In this study, a rapid, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient method for modifying the surface of PET fabric is presented. In a solution of 30 g/L nano-TiO{sub 2}, 50 g/L H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and 30 g/L NaOH, PET fabric was modified to become superhydrophilic by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (1000 W) for only 30–40 min. The water contact angle of the modified PET fabric was decreased to 0°, and the water absorption rate of the modified PET fabric was increased from 85% to 104%. The capillary rise height increased from 0.2 cm to 6.2 cm, and the spraying rating decreased from 4 to 1. The crease recovery angles of modified PET fabrics were reduced by only 1.2–8.8%. The mechanical and physical properties of the modified PET fabric remained good. Compared to the surface of unmodified PET fabric, scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of the modified PET fiber was rough and covered by a layer of other materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the materials on the surface of modified PET fibers likely included -COOH and -OH groups. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of crystalline material. Finally, differential scanning calorimetry thermograms showed that the modification process slightly improved the thermostability of PET fibers.

  2. About the tactics of treatment and visual rehabilitation in case of an acute severe alkaline burn injury of the eye. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Chernysh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To acquaint ophthalmologists with tactics of treatment of a victim with an acute severe chemical burn injury of the eye i n one of follow-up cases fr om practice. Material and methods. The female patient of 31 years old had a severe alkaline burn injury with total limbal stem cell deficiency in the right eye. до (до After an emergency aid an ischemia of a limbus zone, a total corneal erosion and its moderate edema, a deepithelization of conjunctiva up to the fornices were observed. Visual acuity was 0.3 (before the burn it was 1.0. At 8 days after the burn the covering of ocular surface structures without epithelium was performed using a fresh amnion transplant which edges were sutured closely to the edges of intact bulbar conjunctiva. The total epithelization of the ocular surface (including the cornea was noted at 39 days after the operation. Visual acuity was 0.2. One year later the visual acuity was 0.07 and the total fibrovascular pannus with the effects of corneal epitheliopathy was detected. The сonjunctival limbal autograft was carried out. Six months later the visual acuity w as 0.9. Conclusion. During the early periods of ocular burn disease with the total limbal stem cell deficiency, the covering of the ocular surface using amnion in a variant of conjunctival plasty reduced the healing time, stabilized the condition of the corneal stroma after the burn, prevented the corneal opacity and an inevitable vascular in-growth creating favorable conditions for the limbal stem cell transplantation.

  3. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months of GH treatment (p alkaline phosphatase increased significantly from 38.6 to 92.9 U/l during GH therapy in male patients (p ...-derived alkaline phosphatase was unaltered by GH. In the females, the increase in bone alkaline phosphatase did not reach statistical significance (19.1 vs 40.0 U/l, p = 0.06). The GH-induced increase in bone alkaline phosphatase correlated significantly with the increase in serum IGFBP-3 (r = 0.46, p = 0...

  4. Selection of alkalinity regulator for water supply treatment%给水处理碱性调节剂的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江华; 邵寿强

    2013-01-01

    为提高原水的pH值,强化混凝、沉淀效果,优化出水水质,在给水处理过程中需投加碱性调节剂.研究对比了食品级氢氧化钠和碳酸钠调节pH值的效果,以及对出水水质的影响.分析了2种碱性调节剂的投加成本,结果表明,采用食品级固体氢氧化钠作为碱性调节剂时效果良好,生产成本更低.%Abstraet:In order to increase the pH value of the raw water,strengthen the coagulation and sedimentation effect,improve the effluent water quality,alkalinity regulator should be added during the water supply treatment.The adjusting effects of food-grade NaOH and Na2CO3 to pH value,and the influences of them on effluent water quality were compared and studied.Furthermore,the costs of the said two alkalinity regulators were analyzed,and the results indicated that,using food-grade solid NaOH as the alkalinity for water supply treatment could obtain a good effect and the production cost was lower.

  5. Free energy distribution and hydrothermal mineral precipitation in Hadean submarine alkaline vent systems: Importance of iron redox reactions under anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Takazo; Russell, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of mixing between hypothetical seawater and hydrothermal fluid in the Hadean deep ocean were carried out to predict saturation states of mineral precipitates and redox reactions that could occur in Hadean submarine alkaline hydrothermal systems associated with the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. In the calculations, the seawater was assumed to be weakly acidic (pH = 5.5) and to include carbon dioxide, ferrous iron and silica, with or without nitrate, while the Hadean hydrothermal fluid was assumed to be highly alkaline (pH = 11) and to contain abundant molecular hydrogen, methane and bisulfide, based on the Archean geologic record, the modern low-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vent fluid (Lost City field), and experimental and theoretical considerations. The modeling indicates that potential mineral precipitates in the mixing zone (hydrothermal chimney structures) could consist mainly of iron sulfides but also of ferrous serpentine and brucite, siderite, and ferric iron-bearing minerals such as goethite, hematite and/or magnetite as minor phases. The precipitation of ferric iron-bearing minerals suggests that chemical iron oxidation would be made possible by pH shift even under anoxic condition. In the mixing zone, comprising an inorganic barrier precipitated at the interface of the two contrasting solutions, various redox reactions release free energy with the potential to drive endergonic reactions, assuming the involvement of coupling inorganic protoenzymes. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis - long considered the most ancient forms of biological energy metabolisms - are able to achieve higher maximum energy yield (>0.5 kJ/kg hydrothermal fluid) than those in the modern serpentinization-associated seafloor hydrothermal systems (e.g., Kairei field). Furthermore, the recently proposed methanotrophic acetogenesis pathway was also thermodynamically investigated. It is known that methanotrophic acetogenesis would

  6. Full, Reactive Solubilization of Humin Byproducts by Alkaline Treatment and Characterization of the Alkali-Treated Humins Formed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandvoort, Ilona; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; de Peinder, Peter; Heeres, Hero J.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    The valorization of the humin byproducts that are formed during hydrothermal, acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates is hampered by the insolubility of these byproducts. Here, we report on an alkaline pretreatment method that allows for the insolubility of this highly recalcitrant and structura

  7. Sequential Synergy of Alkaline Peroxide Treatment and Refining in Co-generating Filler for Pulp Web Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arniza Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desired pulp-based product properties can be achieved by addition of filler in the pulp network. In exploring this, fines co-generated upon refining the alkaline peroxide treated oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB were collected based on their passage and retention capacities when subjected to varying mesh-sizes stainless-steel square mesh wires. Pulp network incorporating fines produced from the synergy of low alkaline peroxide (AP and low energy refining effects shows that blending 12% of the 400-mesh fines (P300/R400 with the normal 200-mesh pulp fraction enhanced paper tensile strength by 100% due to their favourable dimensions. This defines the usefulness of fibrillar particles whose cell wall collapsibility increases the web density by increasing bonding ability and thus, strength of pulp-based products. Fines produced from more extreme synergy between alkaline peroxide and degree of refining, exhibit unique submicron fibrils and ‘nano-CGF’ also responsible for further augmentation of EFB alkaline peroxide pulp network. Whether from the simple (low-AP and low energy refining or the extreme synergy of AP and refining, the co-generated fines are apparently suitable materials for use as natural filler for augmentation of pulp network. Particularly for the simple AP and refining synergy, the introduced recovery and utilization of the co-generated filler (CGF was found to reduce 74% turbidity and this improvement will help reduce the complexity of whitewater generation in the pulping system.

  8. Toward stable nickel catalysts for aqueous phase reforming of biomass-derived feedstock under reducing and alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasterecht, van T.; Ludding, C.C.I.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers (CNF) can be stabilized in aqueous phase processes at elevated temperatures and pressures by tuning the reaction conditions to control Ni oxidation and leaching. As a showcase, Ni/CNF was used for the production of hydrogen via aqueous phase reform

  9. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmel Michael E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on the digestibility of the celluloses by a cellulase complex. Results From X-ray diffractograms and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, it was revealed that treatment with liquid ammonia produced the cellulose IIII allomorph; however, crystallinity depended on treatment conditions. Treatment at a low temperature (25°C resulted in a less crystalline product, whereas treatment at elevated temperatures (130°C or 140°C gave a more crystalline product. Treatment of cellulose I with aqueous sodium hydroxide (16.5 percent by weight resulted in formation of cellulose II, but also produced a much less crystalline cellulose. The relative digestibilities of the different cellulose allomorphs were tested by exposing the treated and untreated cellulose samples to a commercial enzyme mixture (Genencor-Danisco; GC 220. The digestibility results showed that the starting cellulose I samples were the least digestible (except for corn stover cellulose, which had a high amorphous content. Treatment with sodium hydroxide produced the most digestible cellulose, followed by treatment with liquid ammonia at a low temperature. Factor analysis indicated that initial rates of digestion (up to 24 hours were most strongly correlated with amorphous content. Correlation of allomorph type with digestibility was weak, but was strongest with cellulose conversion at later times. The cellulose IIII samples produced at higher temperatures had comparable crystallinities to the initial cellulose I

  10. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ottoni, C. A.; Lima, Luís; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline–saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l-1 NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cel...

  11. What Are the Treatments for Spina Bifida and Related Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spina bifida & related conditions? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Open Spina Bifida An infant with open spina bifida (myelomeningocele), in ...

  12. Ni-MoO2 cathodes for hydrogen evolution in alkaline solutions. Effect of the conditions of their electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    GVOZDEN TASIĆ; BORKA JOVIĆ; UROŠ LAČNJEVAC; NEDELJKO KRSTAJIĆ; VLADIMIR JOVIĆ

    2013-01-01

    The electrodeposition of Ni-MoO2 composite coatings is a specific process taking place under defined hydrodynamic conditions. In this work the influence of hydrodynamics, current density, and MoO2 concentration on the electrodeposition of Ni-MoO2 coatings from a suspension of MoO2 particles in a Watt’s type bath were investigated by com-parison of their polarization characteristics for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 1 M NaOH at room temperature. It was shown that electrolyte and air...

  13. Investigation with slow traction conditions of the stress corrosion of carbon steels in alkaline media. Role of passivating inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (S.C.C.) sensitivity of carbon steels in basic media, such as carbonates, is well known. A constant strain-rate test have allowed to observe two steels (A42 [E26] and XC38) behaviour in such conditions at pH 9. The S.C.C. potentials susceptibility range has been found. Inter and Trans-granular cracking have been revealed and measured with micrographic methods. A crack growth rate has been studied as a function of strain rate: an experimental rate has been compared to calculated values from methods which have proposed previously, and methods which have been elaborated in this work. These last permit a best approach of cracking in our case. The chromates use, as inhibitor ions, has permit to decrease the corrosive attack and to cancel the crack growth rate. (author)

  14. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu2+ and Ni2+ showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu3+ showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs

  15. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu{sup 3+} showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs.

  16. Ni-MoO2 cathodes for hydrogen evolution in alkaline solutions. Effect of the conditions of their electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GVOZDEN TASIĆ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrodeposition of Ni-MoO2 composite coatings is a specific process taking place under defined hydrodynamic conditions. In this work the influence of hydrodynamics, current density, and MoO2 concentration on the electrodeposition of Ni-MoO2 coatings from a suspension of MoO2 particles in a Watt’s type bath were investigated by com-parison of their polarization characteristics for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER in 1 M NaOH at room temperature. It was shown that electrolyte and air flow rates influence the process of coating electrodeposition at low concentrations of MoO2. With increases in MoO2 concentration the current density became the main parameter influencing the coatings’ properties. The best coating, with the lowest over-voltage for the HER, was obtained from the suspension containing 3 g dm-3 of MoO2 particles. The over-voltage of this coating was 57 mV lower for the HER at j = –0.3 A cm-2 (the current density used in industrial applications than that for the commercial De Nora’s Ni + RuO2 electrode.

  17. Conditioned learning in alcohol dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, D C; Cooper, T; Glautier, S P

    1990-06-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to cue exposure treatment in alcohol dependence is presented. Psychological models of relapse, based on conditioning and social learning theories, are critically evaluated. In particular, attention is drawn to the potential implications for cue exposure research and treatment of an interaction between Pavlovian and operant conditioning, problems with the application of the concepts of arousal and craving and the importance of a systems model to understand physiological responses. It is concluded that no study has so far demonstrated a link between conditioned responses to alcohol-related cues and relapse, an assumption on which cue exposure treatment is based. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of cue exposure as a treatment is lacking. Promising research directions are identified.

  18. Understanding and modeling of chemical transition of nitrate accompanied with corrosion of carbon steel under hyper-alkaline and high nitrate concentration conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical reactions between metal and nitrate ion have been studied to determine their roles in chemical conditioning of a radioactive waste disposal repository and its surrounding environment. Immersion tests and rest potential measurements under hyper-alkaline and high NaNO3 concentration conditions were conducted to elucidate and improve model predictions of chemical interactions between carbon steel and NO3- in highly concentrated solutions of nitrate salts. Potentiostatic electrolysis experiments in the concentrated solution with a carbon steel electrode, as the working electrode, were also conducted to determine the electrochemical rate equation for NO3- reduction to NO2-. Experimental results of potentiostatic electrolysis of the concentrated solutions showed that a linear electrochemical rate equation for NO3- reduction to NO2-, as used in the previous model, gave too high a rate under the conditions of high NaNO3 concentration (≥1 mol dm-3). To ameliorate this effect, a non-linear equation was derived assuming a Langmuir type adsorption process of NO3- as a precursor process of discharge, and the parameter for the equation was determined by curve fitting using the data acquired under the conditions of potential -0.85 V vs. SHE and pH 12.5. The equation was incorporated in the model, and was used to analyze the results of ampul tests and rest potential measurements. The modified model can estimate the tendency of time dependent variation of chemical species and of rest potentials in the highly concentrated solution of NaNO3. (author)

  19. Influence of the redox state on the neptunium sorption under alkaline conditions. Batch sorption studies on titanium dioxide and calcium silicate hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, Jan; Laube, Andreas; Wieland, Erich [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Gaona, Xavier [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2014-07-01

    Wet chemistry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the redox state and aqueous speciation on the uptake of neptunium by titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) under alkaline conditions. TiO{sub 2} was chosen as a reference sorbent to determine the surface complexation behaviour of neptunium under alkaline conditions. C-S-H phases are important constituents of cement and concrete. They may contribute significantly to radionuclide retention due to their high recrystallization rates making incorporation the dominating sorption mechanism for many radionuclides (e.g. the actinides) on these materials. The sorption of neptunium on both solids was found to depend strongly on the degree of hydrolysis. On TiO{sub 2}R{sub d} values for Np(IV), Np(V) and Np(VI) are identical at pH = 10 and decrease with progressing hydrolysis in case of Np(V) and Np(VI). On C-S-H phases, R{sub d} values for the three redox states are also identical at pH = 10. While the R{sub d} values for Np(VI) sorption on C-S-H phases decrease with progressing hydrolysis, the R{sub d} values for Np(IV) and Np(V) sorption are not affected by the pH. In addition to the effect of hydrolysis, the presence of Ca is found to promote Np(V) and Np(VI) sorption on TiO{sub 2} whereas on C-S-H phases, the present wet chemistry data do not give unambiguous evidence. Thus, the aqueous speciation appears to have a similar influence on the sorption of the actinides on both types of solids despite the different sorption mechanism. The similar R{sub d} values for Np(IV,V,VI) sorption at pH = 10 can be explained qualitatively by invoking inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion between OH groups in the coordination sphere of Np(V) and Np(VI). This mechanism was proposed earlier in the literature for the prediction of actinide complexation constants with inorganic ligands. A limiting coordination number for each Np redox state, resulting from the inter-ligand electrostatic

  20. Influence of the redox state on the neptunium sorption under alkaline conditions. Batch sorption studies on titanium dioxide and calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet chemistry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the redox state and aqueous speciation on the uptake of neptunium by titanium dioxide (TiO2) and by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) under alkaline conditions. TiO2 was chosen as a reference sorbent to determine the surface complexation behaviour of neptunium under alkaline conditions. C-S-H phases are important constituents of cement and concrete. They may contribute significantly to radionuclide retention due to their high recrystallization rates making incorporation the dominating sorption mechanism for many radionuclides (e.g. the actinides) on these materials. The sorption of neptunium on both solids was found to depend strongly on the degree of hydrolysis. On TiO2Rd values for Np(IV), Np(V) and Np(VI) are identical at pH = 10 and decrease with progressing hydrolysis in case of Np(V) and Np(VI). On C-S-H phases, Rd values for the three redox states are also identical at pH = 10. While the Rd values for Np(VI) sorption on C-S-H phases decrease with progressing hydrolysis, the Rd values for Np(IV) and Np(V) sorption are not affected by the pH. In addition to the effect of hydrolysis, the presence of Ca is found to promote Np(V) and Np(VI) sorption on TiO2 whereas on C-S-H phases, the present wet chemistry data do not give unambiguous evidence. Thus, the aqueous speciation appears to have a similar influence on the sorption of the actinides on both types of solids despite the different sorption mechanism. The similar Rd values for Np(IV,V,VI) sorption at pH = 10 can be explained qualitatively by invoking inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion between OH groups in the coordination sphere of Np(V) and Np(VI). This mechanism was proposed earlier in the literature for the prediction of actinide complexation constants with inorganic ligands. A limiting coordination number for each Np redox state, resulting from the inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion, allows the weaker sorption of the highest

  1. CoxC encased in carbon nanotubes: an efficient oxygen reduction catalyst under both acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lisong; Cui, Xiangzhi; Wang, Qingsong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wan, Gang; Cui, Fangming; Wei, Chenyang; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-12-21

    The design of a non-precious metal oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst of high activity and long durability in acidic electrolyte is of great importance for the development and commercialization of low-temperature fuel cells, which remains a great challenge to date. Here, we demonstrate a facile, scalable protocol for the controlled synthesis of CoxC encapsulated in carbon nanotubes as a novel kind of efficient electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The synthesized CoxC/carbon nanotube features a high BET surface area, large pore volume and high graphitic content, which greatly favors enhanced ORR properties. The resultant composite electro-catalyst shows high ORR activity which is comparable with that of 20 wt% Pt/C in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, it also exhibits a high ORR activity in 0.1 M HClO4 with a near-complete 4e pathway. More attractively, compared to the most investigated FexC, CoxC as the proposed main catalytically active center shows much enhanced activity in acidic electrolyte, which will pave the way towards the rational design of an advanced electro-catalyst for an efficient ORR process especially under acidic conditions. Moreover, a fuel cell using the synthesized CoxC/carbon nanotube as a cathode catalyst showed a large open-circuit potential, high output power density and long durability, which make it a promising alternative to Pt/C as a non-precious metal ORR catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  2. 锅炉设备碱性腐蚀原因分析及水处理工艺改进%Analysis on the causes of boiler equipment alkaline corrosion and improvements on water treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 霍文敏; 陆明

    2013-01-01

    锅炉的碱性腐蚀经常被人们所忽视,但其造成的后果往往是非常严重的,轻则造成爆管导致停产,重则会威胁到操作人员的人身安全.传统的锅炉水处理方法虽然价格低廉,但其存在先天的不足,在一定条件下无法阻止碱性腐蚀的发生.而近些年逐渐产生的锅炉水处理工艺及与其配套的有机锅炉水处理药剂则全方面改进了传统锅炉水处理方法的不足,并在现场应用中收到了良好的效果.%The problem of boiler equipment alkaline corrosion has always been neglected,resulting in serious consequence.It causes the burst of pipes leading to suspending operations,or threaten the safety of the operation staff.Although the price for traditional water treatment process is low,it has congenitally deficiency.It can not prevent the happening of alkaline corrosion under certain conditions.However,nowadays,some new boiler water treatment processes and organic boiler water treatment agents that go with the process can improve the deficiency of traditional boiler water treatment methods.It has been used in field application and received good effects.

  3. Optimum conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice residue protein by alkaline protease%米渣蛋白碱性蛋白酶酶解条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许尨; 袁江兰; 靳艳; 邓川; 李文竹

    2012-01-01

    Rice dreg is the quality of protein resources. This by-product from rice residue as raw material starch sugar enterprise, degree of hydrolysis and foaming index for evaluation, of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice residue protein by alkaline protease, first examine the enzyme adds volume, pH, substrate concentration, and other factors influence on the degree of hydrolysis of rice residue protein, and then came to the best enzymatic hydrolysis by response surface test conditions. The results show that the optimal conditions enzyme solution is substrate concentration 6%, enzyme solution time 90 min, add enzyme quantity 2%, pH 8.5, enzyme solution temperature 55 %, the conditions under which get enzyme solution liquid foaming ability high.%米渣是优质的蛋白质资源。以淀粉糖企业副产品米渣为原料,以水解度和起泡性为评价指标,利用碱性蛋白酶对米渣蛋白进行酶解,首先研究酶添加量、pH、底物浓度等因素对米渣蛋白质水解度的影响,然后通过响应面试验得出最佳酶解条件。结果表明,酶解最适条件是底物浓度6%、酶解时间90min、加酶量2%、pH为8.5、酶解温度55℃,在此条件下得到的酶解液起泡性高。

  4. 蛹虫草蛋白质的碱法提取工艺%Study on the Optimization of Alkaline Extraction Conditions of Cordyceps militaris Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨曦; 范青生; 姜兴华; 余宙

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline extraction method was used to extract protein from Cordyceps militaris. The protein yield was designed as the target index. Based on single-factor experiment, and the principle of Box-Behnken central composite design, response surface analysis ( RSA) was applied to optimize the extraction conditions of protein from Cordyceps militaris. At the extracting temperature of 60℃ , the optimum extraction conditions were; extrcating time 128 min, solid-liquid ratio 1:16. 2, NaOH solution concentration 1.4 mol/L. Under the above conditions, the highest protein yield of estimated and actual values were 88. 19mg/g and 88. 92% , respectively.%以蛹虫草子实体为原料,通过碱法提取蛹虫草的蛋白质,以蛋白质的提取率作为提取工艺的衡量指标.在单因素实验的基础上,通过Box-Behnken模型对提取工艺进行响应曲面优化,在提取温度为60℃的条件下,确定最佳提取条件为:提取时间128 min,料液比为1∶16.2(g∶ mL),NaOH溶液的浓度0.14 mol/L.在此条件下验证蛋白质的得率为88.92 mg/g与预测值88.19 mg/g接近.

  5. Electro-oxidation of methanol in alkaline conditions using Pd–Ni nanoparticles prepared from organometallic precursors and supported on carbon vulcan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of low-molecular weight alcohols as energy sources using metal nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest for use as a power source in portable electronic devices. In this work, a series of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles based on palladium and nickel (Pd, Pd90Ni10, Pd50Ni50, Pd10Ni90, and Ni) have been synthesized from organometallic precursors, namely tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium(0), Pd2(dba)3, and bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0), Ni(cod)2. Well-defined metal particles in the nanometric scale from 4.2 to 6.3 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared nanoparticles were mixed with a carbon Vulcan matrix (10 % wt. of the catalyst in turn) for investigation as electrocatalysts in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in alkaline conditions. The i–E profiles from cyclic voltammetry for the monometallic systems indicated a redox process attributed only to palladium or nickel, as expected. With the bimetallic nanomaterials, the redox process and the i–E characteristics are functions of the amount of nickel associated to palladium. From a fundamental point of view, it has been established that the OH ions’ interfacial interaction and the MOR kinetics are affected by the presence of nickel (decreasing the faradic current) as supported by the current versus potential profiles obtained as a function of methanol concentration and with temperature variation

  6. Preparation in Acidic and Alkaline Conditions and Characterization of α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wang, Mao-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Yu

    2016-08-01

    α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 powders have been successfully fabricated via a sol-gel method starting from bismuth nitrate and ammonium molybdate. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated the formation of α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 powders in acidic (pH 5) and alkaline (pH 9) conditions, respectively. α-Bi2Mo3O12 exhibited irregular shape, while γ-Bi2MoO6 showed approximately flake-like morphology. The bandgap of pure α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 was estimated to be about 2.83 eV and 2.85 eV, respectively, according to UV-Vis studies. The slight shift of the absorption edge towards longer wavelength for α-Bi2Mo3O12 indicated a decrease of the optical bandgap. Photocatalytic experiments showed that γ-Bi2MoO6 exhibited higher photodegradation activity of methylene blue compared with α-Bi2Mo3O12.

  7. Whey treatment by AnSBBR with circulation: effects of organic loading, shock loads, and alkalinity supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Roberto A; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of volumetric loading rate (VLR), shock load, and alkalinity supplementation on the efficiency and stability of an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR) containing polyurethane foam cubes. Mixing in the reactor, which was kept at 30 +/- 1 degrees C, occurred by recirculating the liquid phase. The reactor treated 2.5 l cheese whey in 8-h cycles, at concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 g COD l-1, which corresponded to VLRs of 3, 6, and 12 g COD l-1 day-1, respectively. Application of single-cycle shock loads of 6, 12, and 24 g COD l-1 day-1 did not impair reactor performance. In addition, for VLRs of 3, 6, and 12 g COD l-1 day-1, alkalinity supplementation to the influent, at the end of each assay, could be reduced to 75, 50, and 50%, respectively, in relation to supplementation at the beginning of the assay. During reactor operation a viscous polymer-like material was formed between the polyurethane foam cubes, which increased at higher VLR. Finally, addition of salts to the influent improved reactor efficiency. PMID:18057453

  8. MILD ALKALINE TREATMENT ACTIVATES SPRUCE WOOD FOR ENZYMATIC PROCESSING: A POSSIBLE STAGE IN BIO-REFINERY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of wood is so compact that enzymes are too large to penetrate into the structure and thereby attack the wood components for modifications that can be valuable for various purposes. Here we present a pretreatment method based on traditional kraft pulping, which opens the wood structure, so that enzymes are able to attack the wood components. To study this kind of chemical pretreatment, spruce wood samples were treated at similar conditions used in kraft cooking at varying intensities (H-factors. To verify if the structure was “opened” for enzymes, the pretreated wood samples were incubated with a cellulolytic culture filtrate, and the released reducing sugar concentration after the enzymatic hydrolysis was measured. The results indicated that un-pretreated wood fibers could not be attacked by the enzymes, but already relatively mild pretreatment was sufficient for letting the culture filtrate attack wood polysaccharides, and more intensive treatments opened the structure further. The mildest treatments did not cause any significant yield losses of lignin (Klason lignin. Some galactogluco-mannans were however lost during the pretreatments. The mechanisms behind the effect and the technical significance of the method are discussed.

  9. Treatment and conditioning processes for low and medium activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reports on experimental studies of precipitation and membrane processes, exchange processes, particular techniques, and immobilization methods. Topics considered include the separation of actinides and fission products from medium activity waste (MAW) concentrate, the decontamination of low activity liquid wastes from fuel fabrication plants by ultrafiltration, active liquid treatment by a combination of precipitation and membrane processes, the treatment of liquid wastes by flocculation, the denitration and chemical precipitation of MAW concentrate, inorganic ion-exchangers prepared via a sol-gel process, liquid waste treatment by electrical processes, the incorporation of low and medium activity wastes in cement, and the conditioning of highly radioactive residues by utilizing a drum-dryer

  10. 40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What waste treatment does the storage... HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Treatment § 266.235 What...

  11. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  12. Characterization of the products attained from a thermal treatment of a mix of zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Ta

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a thermal separation process (TSP) to recover Fe, Mn, and Zn from hazardous spent zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In the TSP, the batteries were heated together with a reducing additive and the metals in batteries, according to their boiling points and densities, were found to move into three major output materials: slag, ingot (mainly Fe and Mn), and particulate (particularly Zn). The slag well encapsulated the heavy metals of interest and can be recycled for road pavement or building materials. The ingot had high levels of Fe (522,000 mg/kg) and Mn (253,000 mg/kg) and can serve as an additive for stainless steel-making processes. The particulate phase had a Zn level of 694,000 mg/kg which is high enough to be directly sold for refinement. Overall, the TSP effectively recovered valuable metals from the hazardous batteries. PMID:26582065

  13. Osteoarthritis treatment using autologous conditioned serum after placebo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Marijn; Creemers, Laura B; Auw Yang, Kiem Gie; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Dhert, Wouter J A; Saris, Daniel B F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autologous conditioned serum (ACS) is a disease-modifying drug for treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and modest superiority over placebo was reported in an earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT). We hypothesized that when given the opportunity, placebo-treated patients fro

  14. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. → Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. → Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. → The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 oC or 65 oC, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  15. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Takai, Daiya, E-mail: dtakai-ind@umin.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  16. Nuclear graphite waste's behaviour under disposal conditions: Study of the release and repartition of organic and inorganic forms of carbon 14 and tritium in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    23000 tons of graphite wastes will be generated during dismantling of the first generation of French reactors (9 gas cooled reactors). These wastes are classified as Long Lived Low Level wastes (LLW-LL). As requested by the law, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) is studying concepts of low-depth disposals.In this work we focus on carbon 14, the main long-lived radionuclide in graphite waste (5730 y), but also on tritium, which is the main contributor to the radioactivity in the short term. Carbon 14 and tritium may be released from graphite waste in many forms in gaseous phase (14CO2, HT...) or in solution (14CO32-, HTO...). Their speciation will strongly affect their migration from the disposal site to the environment. Leaching experiments, in alkaline solution (0.1 M NaOH simulating repository conditions) have been performed on irradiated graphite, from Saint-Laurent A2 and G2 reactors, in order to quantify their release and characterize their speciation. The studies show that carbon 14 exists in both gaseous and aqueous phases. In the gaseous phase, release is weak (≤0.1%) and corresponds to oxidizable species. Carbon 14 is mainly released into liquid phase, as both inorganic and organic species. 65% of released fraction is inorganic and 35% organic carbon. Two tritiated species have been identified in gaseous phase: HTO and HT/Organically Bond Tritium. More than 90% of tritium in that phase corresponds to HT/OBT. But release is weak (≤0.1%). HTO is mainly in the liquid phase. (author)

  17. Electro-oxidation of methanol in alkaline conditions using Pd–Ni nanoparticles prepared from organometallic precursors and supported on carbon vulcan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo-Robledo, A., E-mail: amanzor@ipn.mx [UPALM, Laboratorio de Electroquímica y Corrosión, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas-IPN (Mexico); Costa, Natália J. S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Philippot, K. [CNRS, LCC, Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination (France); Rossi, Liane M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Ramírez-Meneses, E. [Universidad Iberoamericana, Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Químicas (Mexico); Guerrero-Ortega, L. P. A. [UPALM, Laboratorio de Electroquímica y Corrosión, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas-IPN (Mexico); Ezquerra-Quiroga, S. [Universidad Iberoamericana, Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Químicas (Mexico)

    2015-12-15

    Oxidation of low-molecular weight alcohols as energy sources using metal nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest for use as a power source in portable electronic devices. In this work, a series of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles based on palladium and nickel (Pd, Pd{sub 90}Ni{sub 10}, Pd{sub 50}Ni{sub 50}, Pd{sub 10}Ni{sub 90}, and Ni) have been synthesized from organometallic precursors, namely tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium(0), Pd{sub 2}(dba){sub 3}, and bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0), Ni(cod){sub 2}. Well-defined metal particles in the nanometric scale from 4.2 to 6.3 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared nanoparticles were mixed with a carbon Vulcan matrix (10 % wt. of the catalyst in turn) for investigation as electrocatalysts in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in alkaline conditions. The i–E profiles from cyclic voltammetry for the monometallic systems indicated a redox process attributed only to palladium or nickel, as expected. With the bimetallic nanomaterials, the redox process and the i–E characteristics are functions of the amount of nickel associated to palladium. From a fundamental point of view, it has been established that the OH ions’ interfacial interaction and the MOR kinetics are affected by the presence of nickel (decreasing the faradic current) as supported by the current versus potential profiles obtained as a function of methanol concentration and with temperature variation.

  18. Deletion of intragenic tandem repeats in unit C of FLO1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the conformational stability of flocculin under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Li

    Full Text Available Flocculation is an attractive property for Saccaromyces cerevisiae, which plays important roles in fermentation industry and environmental remediation. The process of flocculation is mediated by a family of cell surface flocculins. As one member of flocculins, Flo1 is characterized by four families of repeats (designated as repeat units A, B, C and D in the central domain. It is generally accepted that variation of repeat unit A in length in Flo1 influences the degree of flocculation or specificity for sugar recognization. However, no reports were observed for other repeat units. Here, we compared the flocculation ability and its sensitivity to environmental factors between yeast strain YSF1 carrying the intact FLO1 gene and yeast strains carrying the derived forms of FLO1 with partial or complete deletion of repeats in unit C. No obvious differences in flocculation ability and specificity of carbohydrate recognition were observed among these yeast strains, which indicates the truncated flocculins can stride across the cell wall and cluster the N-terminal domain on the surface of yeast cells as the intact Flo1 thereby improving intercellular binding. However, yeast strains with the truncated flocculins required more mannose to inhibit completely the flocculation, displayed broad tolerance of flocculation to pH fluctuation, and the fewer the repeats in unit C, the stronger adaptability of flocculation to pH change, which was not relevant to the position of deletion. This suggests that more stable active conformation is obtained for flocculin by deletion the repeat unit C in the central domain of Flo1, which was validated further by the higher hydrophobicity on the surface of cells of YSF1c with complete deletion of unit C under neutral and alkaline conditions and the stabilization of GFP conformation by fusion with flocculin with complete deletion of unit C in the central domain.

  19. Crystallization conditions of porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the extreme northeastern Borborema Province, NE Brazil, and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Benedita Cleide Souza; Vilalva, Frederico Castro Jobim; Nascimento, Marcos Antônio Leite do; Galindo, Antônio Carlos

    2016-10-01

    An integrated textural and chemical study on amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, titanite, epidote, and magnetite was conducted in order to estimate crystallization conditions, along with possible geodynamic implications, for six Ediacaran porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granite plutons (Monte das Gameleiras, Barcelona, Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha) intrusive into Archean to Paleoproterozoic rocks of the São José do Campestre (SJCD) and Rio Piranhas-Seridó (RPSD) domains, northern Borborema Province. The studied rocks include mainly porphyritic leucocratic monzogranites, as well as quartz-monzonites and granodiorites. Textures are marked by K-feldspar megacrysts (5-15 cm long) in a fine-to medium-grained matrix composed of quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, as well as titanite, epidote, Fesbnd Ti oxides, allanite, apatite, and zircon as accessory minerals. Amphibole, biotite and titanite share similar compositional variations defined by increasing Al and Fe, and decreasing Mg contents from the plutons emplaced into the SJCP (Monte das Gameleiras and Barcelona) towards those in the RPSD (Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha). Estimated intensive crystallization parameters reveal a weak westward range of increasing depth of emplacement, pressure and temperature in the study area. The SJCD plutons (to the east) crystallized at shallower crustal depths (14-21 km), under slightly lower pressure (3.8-5.5 kbar) and temperature (701-718 °C) intervals, and high to moderate oxygen fugacity conditions (+0.8 < ΔFQM < +2.0). On the other hand, the RPSD plutons (to the west) were emplaced at slightly deeper depths (18-23 km), under higher, yet variable pressures (4.8-6.2 kbar), temperatures (723-776 °C), and moderate to low oxygen fugacity conditions (-1.0 < ΔFQM < +1.8). These results reinforce the contrasts between the tectono-strutuctural domains of São José do Campestre and Rio Piranhas-Seridó in the northern Borborema Province.

  20. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  1. Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: Implication for its secondary effect in bones

    OpenAIRE

    Llinas, Paola; Masella, Michel; Stigbrand, Torgny; Ménez, André; Stura, Enrico A.; Le Du, Marie Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Strontium is used in the treatment of osteoporosis as a ranelate compound, and in the treatment of painful scattered bone metastases as isotope. At very high doses and in certain conditions, it can lead to osteomalacia characterized by impairment of bone mineralization. The osteomalacia symptoms resemble those of hypophosphatasia, a rare inherited disorder associated with mutations in the gene encoding for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Human alkaline phosphatases have four m...

  2. Kinetics of Fe3+ mineral crystallization from ferrihydrite in the presence of Si at alkaline conditions and implications for nuclear waste disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franciscco, Paul Clarence M.; Sato, Tsutomu; Otake, Tsubasa;

    2016-01-01

    Fe3+ minerals are ubiquitous in diverse near-surface environments, where they exert important controls on trace species transport. In alkaline environments such as the glass-steel interface in geological high-level radioactive waste disposal sites that use cement for plugging and grouting, Fe min...

  3. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Morbarigazzi, Michele; Federici, Simone; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are

  4. Radioactive sodium waste treatment and conditioning. Review of main aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reviews the main aspects relating to the treatment and conditioning of radioactive sodium waste. This waste arises from the operation of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In this type of reactor, sodium (Na) or sodium-potassium alloys (NaK) are used as a low-effect neutron moderating coolant medium for extracting and transferring thermal energy from the core and they represent a significant technical and safety challenge during operation and decommissioning. This publication provides the reader with technologically oriented information on the present status of sodium waste management approaches and recent achievements related to treatment and conditioning, with the objective of facilitating planning and preparatory work for the decommissioning of LMFRs. This publication provides a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with sodium waste management. Given the large quantities of sodium waste arising during decommissioning or reactor refurbishment, as well as the challenges and varied techniques associated with removal of 100% of all sodium and NaK bulk quantities and residues during decommissioning, a hazards review and analysis is a critical component in planning the dismantling and waste management activities. Roughly half of this publication focuses on sodium waste generating, handling and treatment processes. This includes draining sodium and NaK from plant systems; in situ treatment of residual sodium; cutting techniques for pumps, valves, piping and other components; cleaning of components; potential reuse of sodium; and removal of selected radionuclides from sodium waste with the objective of reducing the waste classification or converting it to exempt waste. The focus is on proven techniques and technologies, and each discussed method includes a review of the associated principle or theory, practical applications, advantages and disadvantages, limitations, industry experience, and final waste products. A review is provided of final

  5. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  6. 无溶剂条件下碱性离子液体催化查尔酮的绿色化合成%A Green Synthesis of Chalcones Catalyzed by An Alkaline Ionic Liquid under Solvent-Free Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓允; 韦丽艳; 钟诗施; 谢金生

    2015-01-01

    在无溶剂条件下,将碱性离子液体—乙醇胺乙酸盐用于催化苯乙酮与醛的Claisen-Schmidt 缩合反应制备了查尔酮。结果表明:该碱性离子液体表现出良好的催化活性和循环催化性能。%An alkaline ionic liquid—2-hydroxyethyl ammonium acetate was used as catalyst for Claisen-Schmidt condensation between acetophenone and aromatic aldehydes to prepare chalcones under solvent-free condition. The results indicated that this alkaline ionic liquid showed good catalytic activity and recyclability.

  7. Influence of treatment conditions on the oxidation of micropollutants by Trametes versicolor laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jonas; Maillard, Julien; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-09-25

    Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400 Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26 hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730 Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40 min to 5 hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. PMID:23831273

  8. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  9. The effects of surface treatment and stannate as an electrolyte additive on the corrosion and electrochemical performances of pure aluminum in an alkaline methanol-water solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X.X. [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); Wang, J.M., E-mail: wjm@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Q.L.; Kong, D.S.; Shao, H.B. [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, J.Q.; Cao, C.N. [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection of Metal, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Pure aluminum electrodes were treated in alkaline stannate solutions, and the effects of some factors such as NaOH content and treating time were explored. The corrosion and electrochemical performances of the modified aluminum anodes in 4.0 M KOH methanol-water mixed solutions containing a methanol/water volume ratio of 7:3 (30% water) with and without stannate were investigated by means of hydrogen collection, polarization curve, galvanostatic discharge, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). Metallic tin with high hydrogen evolution overpotential was deposited in aluminum surfaces by the modification treatments using stannate, resulting in the relatively low corrosion rate and markedly enhanced discharge performance of the modified aluminum anodes. In our experimental range the aluminum electrode treated in the solution with 0.1 M NaOH for 30 min showed lower corrosion rate and better discharge performance. The addition of Na{sub 2}SnO{sub 3} in 4.0 M KOH methanol-water mixed solutions with 30% water inhibited the corrosion of the aluminum electrodes modified in the treating solution with 0.1 M NaOH for 30 min, resulting from the deposition of tin with high hydrogen evolution overpotential in aluminum surfaces. The deposition of metallic tin on the electrode surface and the existence of stannate in the electrolytes were responsible for the notable enhancement in the discharge performance of the modified aluminum anode.

  10. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2011-05-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L-1-135 mg L-1) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d-1-1780 mg d-1 applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency. © 2011.

  11. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Graaff, de, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon streams for the removal of sulfur compounds.Without treatment, SSC’s may impose serious environmental problems because of their alkalinity (pH>12), salinity (Na+ 5-12 wt%) and high sulfide...

  12. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Mathew P.; Coker, Victoria S.; Parry, Stephen A.; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Thomas, Russell A.P.; Kalin, Robert; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained fro...

  13. Treatment and conditioning of institutional waste in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important condition for the expansion of electricity generation from nuclear reactors in the next future is the control of the nuclear fuel cycle. A quite important branch of this cycle is played by the management of radioactive waste. In Brazil there are one nuclear power plant in operation (626 MWe); mining and milling industry, a fuel fabrication plant; three nuclear research institutes including a radioisotope production facility; some accelerators and about 2000 institutions (medicine, industry, agriculture, research centers etc) widespread throughout the country utilizing radionuclides on a large scale. In Brazil there is not a defined final repository to receive the radioactive waste produced in the country. Instead, all radioactive wastes produced must be treated insuch a way that: - The volume of the waste is minimized as much as possible - The release of radionuclides into the environment is as low as possible - The radioactive materials are immobilized for storage over long periods safely and preventing them to contact the biocycle. Discussions are made concerning the brazilian policy and the waste treatment research program carried out by the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), scientific branch of the National Comission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). (author)

  14. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Remediation of high pH Cr(VI) contamination related to COPR and its groundwater. • Extensive characterization of COPR and its related groundwater. • Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron. • Critical assessment of reactivity and passivation using spectroscopy and imaging. • Stabilization of the COPR Cr(VI) source by addition of nanoparticles. - Abstract: Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained from a contaminated site in Glasgow, UK. During batch reactivity tests, Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was inhibited by ∼25% (BnM) and ∼50% (nZVI) when compared to the treatment of less chemically complex model pH 12 Cr(VI) solutions. In both the model Cr(VI) solutions and contaminated groundwater experiments the surface of the nanoparticles became passivated, preventing complete coupling of their available electrons to Cr(VI) reduction. To investigate this process, the surfaces of the reacted samples were analyzed by TEM-EDX, XAS and XPS, confirming Cr(VI) reduction to the less soluble Cr(III) on the nanoparticle surface. In groundwater reacted samples the presence of Ca, Si and S was also noted on the surface of the nanoparticles, and is likely responsible for earlier onset of passivation. Treatment of the solid COPR material in contact with water, by addition of increasing weight % of the nanoparticles, resulted in a decrease in aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations to below detection limits, via the addition of ⩾5% w/w BnM or ⩾1% w/w nZVI. XANES analysis of the

  15. Study of the production of alkaline keratinases in submerged cultures as an alternative for solid waste treatment generated in leather technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavello, Ivana A; Chesini, Mariana; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2013-01-01

    Six nonpathogenic fungal strains isolated from alkaline soils of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus sidowii, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Neurospora tetrasperma, Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), and Westerdikella dispersa) were tested for their ability to produce keratinolytic enzymes. Strains were grown on feather meal agar as well as in solid-state and submerged cultures, using a basal mineral medium and "hair waste" as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. All the tested fungi grew on feather meal agar, but only three of them were capable of hydrolyzing keratin, producing clear zones. Among these strains, P. lilacinum produced the highest proteolytic and keratinolytic activities, both in solid-state and submerged fermentations. The medium composition and culture conditions for the keratinases production by P. lilacinum were optimized. Addition of glucose (5 g/l) and yeast extract (2.23 g/l) to the basal hair medium increased keratinases production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for the enzyme production were 28℃ and 6.0, respectively. A beneficial effect was observed when the original concentration of four metal ions, present in the basal mineral medium, was reduced up to 1:10. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 15.96 Uc/ml in the optimal hair medium; this value was about 6.5-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. These results suggest that keratinases from P. lilacinum can be useful for biotechnological purposes such as biodegradation (or bioconversion) of hair waste, leading to a reduction of the environmental pollution caused by leather technology with the concomitant production of proteolytic enzymes and protein hydrolyzates. PMID:23711525

  16. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  17. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  18. Coarsening of carbides during different heat treatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaok21@126.com; He, Yanlin, E-mail: ylhe@staff.shu.edu.cn; Zhu, Naqiong; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaogang; Li, Lin

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides was quantitatively described in detail. • Cooling mode is a key factor to the simulation for the coarsening of carbides. • Coarsening of above spherical carbides can be calculated by Ostwald ripening model. • The interfacial energy between the γ matrix with M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides are 0.7 J/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: Coarsening of carbides in 1# Fe-5.96Cr-0.35C (wt.%) alloy and 2# Fe-0.5V-0.53C (wt.%) alloy during different heat treatment conditions was investigated by carbon replica, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM techniques. The equilibrium phases at 850 °C constitute of austenitic matrix (γ) + M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and austenite matrix (γ) + V{sub 4}C{sub 3} for 1# and 2# alloy respectively. Morphology of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides was mainly determined by cooling mode due to the different nucleation sites and growth mechanisms. Under directly aging condition, most carbides nucleate in the grain boundaries and grow into rod-shaped or flake-shaped particles by discontinuous growth mechanism. These particles turn out to be excluded during coarsening simulation using Oswald ripening model to give a more reasonable result. In addition, interfacial energy between M{sub 7}C{sub 3}/γ and V{sub 4}C{sub 3}/γ for the coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} during aging at 850 °C is evaluated by fitting experimental data using thermodynamic and kinetic calculations. The interfacial energy is determined to be 0.7 J/m{sup 2} for the coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} in austenitic matrix.

  19. 碱厂碱渣浸出毒性分析与处理%Leaching Toxicity Experiment and Treatment of Alkaline Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴伟; 刘宪斌; 刘占广; 李国锋

    2011-01-01

    Constituents in solid wastes can enter and contaminate the groundwater and surface water by the eluviation, lixiviation, scour with rainwater, groundwater and surface water. Then they may transfer into soil or creatures and contaminate the food chains, posing serious threats to human's health. This study was a leaching toxicity experiment on alkaline slag from a Chemical Plant (Alkaline Factory) in Bohai coastal area . It analyzed results of the leaching toxicity experiment of alkaline slag under the direction of Identification standards for hazardous wastes - Identification for extraction toxicity, (GB 5085.3-2007). Compared with the limits of heavy metal ions, flu-orin ion and cyanogen ion, each concentration of heavy metal ions except cadmium, fluorin ion and cyanogen ion was within the normal range. Causticity of alkaline slag was high enough to do harm to workers in the factory and residents around the factory as well as the machinery for transporting the alkaline slag. The study was significantly important to the monitoring and assessing the alkaline slag, and it can be accordance as the direction in supervising the alkaline slag together with its overall utilization. It was reported that scholars and technicians around the world had done many research on the leaching toxicity of some solid waste, but alkaline slag caused little attention. In many countries the administration and supervision of solid waste and relevant laws were not in sound operation , so there can be lots of research to do in the field of the disposition of solid waste, especially in the alkaline slag. The suggestion about the disposal of alkaline slag in accordance with its characteristics and jeopardize was proposed in this study through the current hot points of the research home and abroad and the fact of Alkaline Factory. The prospect of the trends of disposal of alkaline slag was pointed out also.%固体废物中的有害成分可随雨水、地表水和地下水的淋溶、浸泡、

  20. Major discrepancies between results obtained with two different methods for evaluating DNA damage: alkaline elution and alkaline unwinding. Possible explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taningher, M; Bordone, R; Russo, P; Grilli, S; Santi, L; Parodi, S

    1987-01-01

    The fluorometric assay of DNA alkaline unwinding, developed by Birnboim and Jevcak (Cancer Res 41: 1889-1892, 1981) was applied to rat liver DNA, after treatment in vivo. N-nitrosodimethylamine, for which DNA damage in rat liver has been extensively investigated, was tested as a standard compound. The results were in complete agreement (both in terms of damage and repair) with data from the literature and with our own results obtained with other methods of detecting DNA alkaline fragmentation. Sensitivity was also of the same order of that of usual methods, with the effect of 0.3 mg/Kg of N-nitrosodimethylamine being detectable. Other DNA damaging carcinogens such as 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, 2-naphthylamine and dacarbazine were also correctly detected. Compounds like nitrofurantoin, benzoin and caprolactam, which appeared clearly positive with the alkaline elution technique, but for which genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are doubtful (nitrofurantoin) or most likely negative (benzoin and caprolactam), gave negative results with this method. This is also in agreement with previous results, observed using a different approach to measuring DNA unwinding. On the basis of these and other observations, we suggest that, under certain conditions, the alkaline elution technique is perhaps not only sensitive to DNA breaks but also to changes in chromatin conformation. Unwinding methods could be more specific in the detection of DNA fragmentations. PMID:3674758

  1. C and O stable isotopic signatures of fast-growing dripstones on alkaline substrates: reflection of growth mechanism, carbonate sources and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadlav, Saša; Mazej, Darja; Zavašnik, Janez; Rečnik, Aleksander; Dominguez-Víllar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Lojen, Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Secondary carbonate precipitates (dripstones) formed on concrete surfaces in four different environments--Mediterranean and continental open-space and indoor environments (inside a building and in a karstic cave)--were studied. The fabric of dripstones depends upon water supply, pH of mother solution and carbonate-resulting precipitation rate. Very low δ(13)C (average-28.2‰) and δ(18)O (average-18.4‰) values showed a strong positive correlation, typical for carbonate precipitated by rapid dissolution of CO(2) in a highly alkaline solution and consequent disequilibrium precipitation of CaCO(3). The main source of carbon is atmospheric or biogenic CO(2) in the poorly ventilated karstic cave, which is reflected in even lower δ(13)C values. Statistical analysis of δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of the four groups of samples showed that the governing factor of isotope fractionation is not the temperature, but rather the precipitation rate. PMID:22316094

  2. Sequential sludge digestion after diverse pre-treatment conditions: sludge removal, methane production and microbial community changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-06-01

    A lab-scale sequential sludge digestion process which consists of a mesophilic anaerobic digester (MAD) and a thermophilic aerobic digester (TAD) was developed. Thermal, thermal-alkaline and long-term alkaline pre-treatments were applied to the feed sludge to examine their effects on sludge removal and methane production. Especially after thermal-alkaline pre-treatment, high COD removal was maintained; methane production rate was also drastically increased by improving the hydrolysis step of sludge degradation. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis indicated that bacterial communities were represented by three phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) and that Clostridium straminisolvens was the major bacterial species in MAD. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that Methanosaeta concilli was the major archaeal species in MAD, and that Ureibacillus sp. was the most abundant bacterial species in TAD.

  3. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Effect of thermal drying and alkaline treatment on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.

  4. A modified method for the synthesis of polycondensate phenolic resin with iminodiacetic caid (IDA) functional group for treatment of alkaline waste from reprocessing plants (Preprint no. SST-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of bakelite type resin with iminodiacetic acid(IDA) group was carried out. The product formed by following the procedure published in literature was found to be unstable in alkaline solution and the reaction rate was considerably slow. A modified method for preparing the resin with improved stability is discussed in this paper. (author). 2 refs., 2 tab

  5. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  6. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  7. 重组毕赤酵母发酵生产扩展青霉碱性脂肪酶的优化%Optimization of fermentation condition for Penicillium expansum alkaline lipase production using recombinant Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙肖明; 吴涵; 卜秀娟; 韩颖; 张浩东; 孟宪梅

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the recombinant Pichia pastoris engineering bacteria was used to produce alkaline lipase (the engineering bacteria was constructed by our lab previously), and expression condition was improved. At first single factor experiments were performed to select factors significant influence at expression, four factors was selected: inducing time, initialize pH, methanol concentration and inoculate. Four-liner regression with orthogonal design methods were constructed based on the single factor experiments, date was tested with SPSS 18 software. The results indicated that the optimization fermentation condition was that inducing 96 h, pH6.0, 0.5% methanol, inoculation 150 mL, the alkaline lipase activity was 242.7 U/mL.%通过毕赤酵母工程茵表达碱性脂肪酶,对表达条件进行了优化。先进行单因素实验,筛选出对碱性脂肪酶表达影响较大的4个因素:诱导时间、初始pH、甲醇添加量和接种量;在单因素实验的基础上设计四元线性回归实验,利用SPSS18数据处理软件进行数据优化,结果表明,诱导时间为96h、初始pH为6.0、甲醇添加量为0.5%、接种量为150mL时有最佳的表达效果,碱性脂肪酶活力为242.7U/mL。

  8. A small scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system under Swedish conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Larsdotter, K; Gumaelius, L; la Cour Jansen, J; Dalhammar, G

    2003-01-01

    A treatment plant using conventional biological treatment combined with hydroponics and microalgae is constructed in a greenhouse in the area of Stockholm, Sweden. The treatment plant is built for research purposes and presently treats 0.559 m3 of domestic wastewater from the surrounding area per day. The system uses anoxic pre-denitrification followed by aerobic tanks for nitrification and plant growth. A microalgal step further reduces phosphorus, and a final sand filter polishes the water. During a three week period in July 2002 the treatment capacity of this system was evaluated with respect to removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen. 90% COD removal was obtained early in the system. Nitrification and denitrification was well established with total nitrogen reduction of 72%. Phosphorus was removed by 47% in the process. However, higher phosphorus removal values are expected as the microalgal step will be further developed. The results show that acceptable treatment can be achieved using this kind of system. Further optimisation of the system will lead to clean water as well as valuable plants to be harvested from the nutrient rich wastewater. PMID:14753532

  9. Optimisation and adoption of slag based cement for conditioning of intermediate level alkaline radioactive liquid waste in CLEAR-V campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ILW is normally treated by resorcinol formaldehyde special type of resin. Another method for management of ILW is by conditioning in cement matrix. Various waste to cement ratios have been tried at lab and plant scale by taking slag based cement and ordinary portland cement. The cement waste products were evaluated for various properties. The final selected waste to cement ratio has been successfully adopted on the plant scale for conditioning of 140 m3 of ILW at SWMF. (author)

  10. Evaluation of carbon diffusion in heat treatment of H13 tool steel under different atmospheric conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Maziar Ramezani; Timotius Pasang; Zhan Chen; Thomas Neitzert; Dominique Au

    2015-01-01

    Although the cost of the heat treatment process is only a minor portion of the total production cost, it is arguably the most important and crucial stage on the determination of material quality. In the study of the carbon diffusion in H13 steel during austenitization, a series of heat treatment experiments had been conducted under different atmospheric conditions and length of treatment. Four austenitization atmospheric conditions were studied, i.e., heat treatment without atmospheric contro...

  11. 碱性蛋白酶水解红曲霉菌体的研究%Study on optimization of process conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of cell protein of monascus with alkaline protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾宗珠; 李静; 王瑶; 邓毛程; 魏瑞忠

    2012-01-01

    为了使红曲霉菌体滤渣得到高值化利用,对红曲霉菌体的酶解条件进行研究.采用碱性蛋白酶对红曲霉菌体进行酶解,通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定最佳的酶解条件:酶解pH为8.5,酶解温度为55℃,底物浓度为40 g/L,酶量为6×104 U/g·干菌体,酶解时间为20 h.该条件下,酶解率为25.28%.%To achieve more valuable utilization of cell filtered sediment of Monascus. the process conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of cell protein of Monascus with alkaline protease was studied. Using the single factor and orthogonal design experiment, respectively, the optimum conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were determined as follows; pH of 8. 5, temperature of 55 V , concentration of substrate of 40 g/L, enzyme dosage of 6X104U/g(cell amount), and enzymatic hydrolysis time of 20 hours. Under above optimum conditions, the enzymatic hydrolysis rate was 25. 28%.

  12. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merne, M E; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    2001-08-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.

  13. The effect of surface pre-conditioning treatments on the local composition of Zr-based conversion coatings formed on aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, J.; Vandendael, I.; Posner, R.; de Wit, J. H. W.; Mol, J. M. C.; Terryn, H.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of different alkaline, acidic and thermal pre-conditioning treatments applied to different Al alloy surfaces. The obtained results are compared to the characteristics of Zr-based conversion coatings that were subsequently generated on top of these substrates. Focus is laid on typical elemental distributions on the sample surfaces, in particular on the amount of precipitated functional additives such as Cu species that are present in the substrate matrix as well as in the conversion bath solutions. To this aim, Field Emission Auger Electron spectra, depth profiles and surface maps with superior local resolution were acquired and compared to scanning electron microscopy images of the sample. The results show how de-alloying processes, which occur at and around intermetallic particles in the Al matrix during typical industrial alkaline or acidic cleaning procedures, provide a significant source of crystallization cores for any following coating processes. This is in particular due for Cu-species, as the resulting local Cu structures on the surface strongly affect the film formation and compositions of state-of-the-art Zr-based films. The findings are highly relevant for industrial treatments of aluminium surfaces, especially for those that undergo corrosion protection and painting process steps prior to usage.

  14. A study of X100 pipeline steel passivation in mildly alkaline bicarbonate solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under potentiodynamic conditions and Mott-Schottky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-12-01

    The key steps involved in X100 pipeline steel passivation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions from the pre-passive to transpassive potential regions have been analyzed here using a step-wise anodizing-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) routine. Pre-passive steps involve parallel dissolution-adsorption in early stages followed by clear diffusion-adsorption control shortly before iron hydroxide formation. Aggressive NS4 chlorides/sulfate promote steel dissolution whilst inhibiting diffusion in pre-passive steps. Diffusive and adsorptive effects remain during iron hydroxide formation, but withdraw shortly thereafter during its removal and the development of the stable iron carbonate passive layer. Passive layer protectiveness is evaluated using EIS fitting, current density analysis, and correlations with semiconductive parameters, consistently revealing improved robustness in colder, bicarbonate-rich, chloride/sulfate-free conditions. Ferrous oxide formation at higher potentials results in markedly lower impedances with disordered behavior, and the involvement of the iron(III) valence state is observed in Mott-Schottky tests exclusively for 75 °C conditions.

  15. Evaluation of carbon diffusion in heat treatment of H13 tool steel under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the cost of the heat treatment process is only a minor portion of the total production cost, it is arguably the most important and crucial stage on the determination of material quality. In the study of the carbon diffusion in H13 steel during austenitization, a series of heat treatment experiments had been conducted under different atmospheric conditions and length of treatment. Four austenitization atmospheric conditions were studied, i.e., heat treatment without atmospheric control, heat treatment with stainless steel foil wrapping, pack carburization heat treatment and vacuum heat treatment. The results showed that stainless steel foil wrapping could restrict decarburization process, resulting in a constant hardness profile as vacuum heat treatment does. However, the tempering characteristic between these two heat treatment methods is different. Results from the gas nitrided samples showed that the thickness and the hardness of the nitrided layer is independent of the carbon content in H13 steel.

  16. Dosimetry checking of treatment in stereotactic conditions by portal imager; Verification dosimetrique des traitements en conditions stereotaxiques par imageur portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, L.; Ailleres, N.; Simeon, S.; Fenoglietto, P. [IRCM, institut de Recherche en Cancerologie, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2009-10-15

    Objective: The irradiations in stereotactic conditions require specific tools of measurements for the dosimetry software configuration. The spatial resolution of these systems is the crucial point of this modeling and it is always difficult to make this measurement for the edge beams <1.5 cm. The checking of treatment plans is also very important because of the single dose irradiation of the target volume and if the irradiation geometry parameters are checked on the device before the patient installation, it is often difficult for temporal reasons to check and validate the dose distribution in a phantom. A fast validation process of the treatment supply is studied in our institution. Conclusion: A checking of the planned dose distribution can be realised before the patient positioning in the case of treatment in stereotactic conditions. A study realised on less than 3 cm beams is under way. (N.C.)

  17. Akaline, saline and mixed saline-alkaline stresses induce physiological and morpho-anatomical changes in Lotus tenuis shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, R C; Reinoso, H; Espasandin, F D; González Antivilo, F A; Sansberro, P A; Rocco, R A; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2014-11-01

    Saline, alkaline and mixed saline-alkaline conditions frequently co-occur in soil. In this work, we compared these plant stress sources on the legume Lotus tenuis, regarding their effects on shoot growth and leaf and stem anatomy. In addition, we aimed to gain insight on the plant physiological status of stressed plants. We performed pot experiments with four treatments: control without salt (pH = 5.8; EC = 1.2 dS·m(-1)) and three stress conditions, saline (100 mM NaCl, pH = 5.8; EC = 11.0 dS·m(-1)), alkaline (10 mM NaHCO3, pH = 8.0, EC = 1.9 dS·m(-1)) and mixed salt-alkaline (10 mM NaHCO3 + 100 mM NaCl, pH = 8.0, EC = 11.0 dS·m(-1)). Neutral and alkaline salts produced a similar level of growth inhibition on L. tenuis shoots, whereas their mixture exacerbated their detrimental effects. Our results showed that none of the analysed morpho-anatomical parameters categorically differentiated one stress from the other. However, NaCl- and NaHCO3 -derived stress could be discriminated to different extents and/or directions of changes in some of the anatomical traits. For example, alkalinity led to increased stomatal opening, unlike NaCl-treated plants, where a reduction in stomatal aperture was observed. Similarly, plants from the mixed saline-alkaline treatment characteristically lacked palisade mesophyll in their leaves. The stem cross-section and vessel areas, as well as the number of vascular bundles in the sectioned stem were reduced in all treatments. A rise in the number of vessel elements in the xylem was recorded in NaCl-treated plants, but not in those treated exclusively with NaHCO3.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted alkaline extraction condition of protein from peanut meal%微波辅助碱法提取花生粕蛋白质工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔涛; 赵雪淞; 刘民; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    Peanut protein was obtained through microwave-assisted alkaline extraction and acid precipitation from peanut meal.Compared with alkali extraction,peanut protein extraction yield could be enhanced by 18.00% through microwave assisted method,and the effect was remarkable.Four extraction parameters including ratio of material and liquid,pH,microwave extraction power and microwave extraction time were optimized by orthogonal experiment based on single factor investigation.The influences of these factors on different degree was an order of microwave extraction power>pH>microwave extraction time>ratio of material and liquid.The optimum conditions of microwave-assisted alkaline extraction were as follows:ratio of material and liquid 1∶10(g/mL),pH10.0,microwave extraction power 480W and microwave extraction time 4 minutes.Under these conditions,the maximum protein extraction rate of 85.43% was obtained.%采用微波辅助碱提酸沉法从花生粕中提取花生分离蛋白.相比于碱提法,采用微波辅助法可以将花生粕蛋白质的提取率提高18.00%,效果显著.在单因素实验基础上,以料液比、碱提pH、微波提取功率、微波提取时间为考察因素,采用正交实验优化最佳提取工艺.四因素对花生粕蛋白质提取率影响顺序为:微波提取功率>碱提pH>微波提取时间>料液比,最佳工艺条件为:料液比为1∶10(g/mL),提取pH10,微波输出功率为480W,微波提取时间4min.在此条件下,花生粕蛋白质最高提取率可达85.43%.

  19. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year. PMID:24527646

  20. 碱处理脱硅与提高Y型分子筛硅铝比——矛盾的对立与统一%Desilication by Alkaline Treatment and Increasing the Silica to Alumina Ratio of Zeolite Y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申宝剑; 覃正兴; 高雄厚; 林枫; 周淑歌; 沈文; 王宝杰; 赵红娟; 刘宏海

    2012-01-01

    The framework silica to alumina ratio, the porosity, and the acidity properties of ultrastable Y zeolites prepared by 'steaming' and by the 'sequential alkaline treatment and steaming' of NaY zeolites are compared. The adaptability of the combined alkaline treatment method and steaming toward the type of starting NaY zeolites was studied. By comparison with single steaming treatment the combination of sequential alkaline treatment and steaming affords products with an obviously increased mesopore volume. The level of framework ultrasta-bilization and acidity of the final products were not affected. The mesopore volume of the ultrastable Y zeolite prepared by steaming dealu-mination only was no more than 0.14 cm3/g. The mesopore volume of the final product prepared by sequential desilication and dealumination was 0.22 cm3/g. The sequential desilication and dealumination method is suitable for the NaY zeolite with a high framework silica to alumina ratio. A small increase in the mesopore volume and severe micropore damage were evident when the NaY zeolite with a relatively low silica to alumina ratio (SiO2Al2O=3 4.8, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance) was used as the starting material for the combined desilication and dealumination treatment.%考察了“水热处理”以及“碱处理+水热处理”两种方法所制得的超稳Y分子筛的骨架硅铝比、孔结构特征以及酸量,并探讨了“碱处理+水热处理”方法对起始NaY分子筛的适应性.结果表明,在水热处理前,对NaY分子筛进行碱处理脱硅可在不改变最终样品的骨架超稳化水平和酸量的同时,样品的介孔体积显著增加.直接水热处理NaY分子筛所得样品介孔体积不超过0.14 cm3/g,而先碱处理后水热处理,所得样品介孔体积可达0.22 cm3/g.该法适用于制备骨架硅铝比高的NaY分子筛.起始原料的骨架硅铝比较低时,所得样品的介孔体积增幅小,而且微孔受损严重.

  1. Digestibility Improvement of Sorted Waste with Alkaline Hydrothermai Pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; WANG Hongtao; LU Wenjing; ZHAO Yan

    2009-01-01

    The digestibility of sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) is often limited by the high content of structured green waste. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sorted waste and to analyze the biogas production of different parts of the waste. The waste was hydrothermally pretreated in a dilute alkali solution. The hydrolysis product was then incubated in a 500 mL saline bottle to determine the biochemical methane potential (BMP) under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. The optimum hydrothermal condition was 170℃ at 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 13 936 mg/L and the methane yield was 164 mL/g volatile solid (VS) for 6 days incubation at the optimum conditions. The biogas production was increased more than 50% over the control, with the methane conversion ratio on a carbon basis enhanced to 30.6%. The organic part of the sorted waste was mainly kitchen garbage and leaves. Model kitchen garbage completely liquified at 130℃ for one hour had a methane yield of 276 mL/g VS. The alkali addition slightly enhanced the hydrolyzation rate and methane yield. The biogas potential of leaves was improved by pre-treatment at above 150℃ under alkaline conditions.

  2. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  3. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  4. Bound Phenolics of Quinoa Seeds Released by Acid, Alkaline, and Enzymatic Treatments and Their Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2016-03-01

    Unextractable phenolics from plant foods and their role in health benefits have become increasingly important. Meal residues of three quinoa seeds free of fat and extractable phenolics were subjected to acid, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolyses. The total and individual phenolic compounds released were analyzed, and 19 phenolics, predominantly phenolic acids and several flavonoids, were identified. The concentration of bound phenolics was highest in black quinoa followed by red and white, regardless of the hydrolysis method. Higher phenolic contents also showed stronger antioxidant activities and inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. Carbohydrases, that is, pectinase, xylanase and feruloyl esterase, which effectively liberated bound phenolics are known to be secreted by colonic bacteria, suggesting potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by these compounds in the large intestine during colonic fermentation. These results can also be applied to treat foods high in bound phenolics to enhance bioaccessibility. PMID:26853559

  5. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  6. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  7. Depression treatment patterns among women veterans with cardiovascular conditions or diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Shen, Chan; Findley, Patricia; Frayne, Susan; BANERJEA, RANJANA

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to examine treatment patterns for depression among women veterans diagnosed with cardiovascular conditions or diabetes. We used longitudinal data from the 2002-2003 merged Veteran Health Administration (VHA) and Medicare files. Chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyse depression treatment among veteran women with incident depressive episode and one of the following chronic conditions: diabetes or coronary artery disease or hypertension. Ov...

  8. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  9. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  10. COMMENTS ON ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF DISEASES ACCORDING TO SEASONAL CONDITIONS IN 《THE INTERNAL CLASSIC》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩焱晶

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper, the author gives some comments on acupuncture treatment of diseases from 1 ) selecting acupoints based on seasonal conditions; 2) performing reinforcing or reducing needling manipulations in accordance with the waxing and wanning of the moon; 3 ) conducting acupuncture treatment in accordance with the time and the state of disease; and 4) performing acupuncture treatment based on the prosperity or decline of the meridian-qi, which are described in medical book The Yellow Emperor' s Internal Classic.

  11. COMMENTS ON ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF DISEASES ACCORDING TO SEASONAL CONDITIONS IN 《THE INTERNAL CLASSIC》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HanYanjing

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper, the author gives some comments on acupuncture treatment of diseases from 1) selecting acupoints based on seasonal conditions; 2) performing reinforcing or reducing needling manipulations in accordance with the waxing and wanning of the moon; 3) conducting acupuncture treatment in accordance with the time and the state of disease; and 4 ) performing acupuncture treatment based on the prosperity or decline of the meridian-qi, which are described in medical book The Yellow Emperor' s Internal Classic.

  12. Depression treatment in individuals with cancer: a comparative analysis with cardio-metabolic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi B. Rane; Usha Sambamoorthi; Suresh Madhavan

    2013-01-01

    A clear picture of the current state of nationwide depression treatment practices in individuals with cancer and depression does not exist in the United States (US). Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine rates of any depression treatment among individuals with cancer and depression in the US. To better understand the relationship between any treatment for depression and presence of cancer, we used a comparison group of individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions owing...

  13. Depression Treatment in Individuals with Cancer: A Comparative Analysis with Cardio-Metabolic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi B. Rane; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Madhavan, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A clear picture of the current state of nation-wide depression treatment practices in individuals with cancer and depression does not exist in the United States (US). Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine rates of any depression treatment among individuals with cancer and depression in the US. To better understand the relationship between any treatment for depression and presence of cancer, we used a comparison group of individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions owin...

  14. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. FINDINGS: Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD. Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l(-1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l(-1 (27.3% COD(cr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor

  15. Rapid changes in water hardness and alkalinity: Calcite formation is lethal to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Sarah J; Woodman, Samuel; Steinkey, Dylan; Meays, Cindy; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-07-15

    There is growing concern that freshwater ecosystems may be negatively affected by ever-increasing anthropogenic inputs of extremely hard, highly alkaline effluent containing large quantities of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3(2-), and HCO3(-) ions. In this study, the toxicity of rapid and extreme shifts in water hardness (38-600mg/L as CaCO3) and alkalinity (30-420mg/L as CaCO3) to Daphnia magna was tested, both independently and in combination. Within these ranges, where no precipitation event occurred, shifts in water hardness and/or alkalinity were not toxic to D. magna. In contrast, 98-100% of D. magna died within 96h after exposure to 600mg/L as CaCO3 water hardness and 420mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity (LT50 of 60h with a 95% CI of 54.2-66.0h). In this treatment, a CaCO3 (calcite) precipitate formed in the water column which was ingested by and thoroughly coated the D. magna. Calcite collected from a mining impacted stream contained embedded organisms, suggesting field streams may also experience similar conditions and possibly increased mortality as observed in the lab tests. Although further investigation is required to determine the exact fate of aquatic organisms exposed to rapid calcite precipitation in the field, we caution that negative effects may occur more quickly or at lower concentrations of water hardness and alkalinity in which we observed effects in D. magna, because some species, such as aquatic insects, are more sensitive than cladocerans to changes in ionic strength. Our results provide evidence that both calcite precipitation and the major ion balance of waters should be managed in industrially affected ecosystems and we support the development of a hardness+alkalinity guideline for the protection of aquatic life.

  16. [Effects of exogenous spermidine on mitochondrial function of tomato seedling roots under salinity-alkalinity stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-bo; Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Xiao-hui; Ren, Wen-qi; Zhang, Li; Ni, Xin-xin

    2016-02-01

    Two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cvs. 'Jinpengchaoguan' and 'Zhongza No. 9', with the former being more tolerant to saline-alkaline stress) seedlings grown hydroponically were subjected to salinity-alkalinity stress condition (NaCl: Na2SO4:NaHCO3:Na2CO3 = 1:9:9:1) without or with foliar application of 0.25 mmol . L-1 spermidine (Spd), and the root morphology and physiological characteristics of mitochondrial membrane were analyzed 8 days after treatment, to explore the protective effects of exogenous Spd on mitochondrial function in tomato roots under salinity-alkalinity stress. The results showed that the salinity-alkalinity stress increased the concentrations of both mitochondrial H2O2 and MDA as well as the mitochondrial membrane permeability in the roots of the two cultivars, while it decreased the mitochondrial membrane fluidity, membrane potential, Cyt c/a and H+-ATPase activity, which impaired the mitochondria and therefore inhibited the root growth; and these effects were more obvious in 'Zhongza No. 9' than in 'Jinpengechaoguan'. Under the salinity-alkalinity stress, foliar application Spd could effectively decrease the concentrations of mitochondrial H2O2 and MDA and mitochondrial membrane permeability, while increased the mitochondrial membrane fluidity, membrane potential, Cyt c/a and H+-ATPase activity. These results suggested that exogenous Spd could effectively mitigate the damage on mitochondria induced by salinity-alkalinity stress, and the alleviation effect was more obvious in 'Zhongza No. 9' than in 'Jinpengchaoguan'. PMID:27396122

  17. Rapid changes in water hardness and alkalinity: Calcite formation is lethal to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Sarah J; Woodman, Samuel; Steinkey, Dylan; Meays, Cindy; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-07-15

    There is growing concern that freshwater ecosystems may be negatively affected by ever-increasing anthropogenic inputs of extremely hard, highly alkaline effluent containing large quantities of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3(2-), and HCO3(-) ions. In this study, the toxicity of rapid and extreme shifts in water hardness (38-600mg/L as CaCO3) and alkalinity (30-420mg/L as CaCO3) to Daphnia magna was tested, both independently and in combination. Within these ranges, where no precipitation event occurred, shifts in water hardness and/or alkalinity were not toxic to D. magna. In contrast, 98-100% of D. magna died within 96h after exposure to 600mg/L as CaCO3 water hardness and 420mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity (LT50 of 60h with a 95% CI of 54.2-66.0h). In this treatment, a CaCO3 (calcite) precipitate formed in the water column which was ingested by and thoroughly coated the D. magna. Calcite collected from a mining impacted stream contained embedded organisms, suggesting field streams may also experience similar conditions and possibly increased mortality as observed in the lab tests. Although further investigation is required to determine the exact fate of aquatic organisms exposed to rapid calcite precipitation in the field, we caution that negative effects may occur more quickly or at lower concentrations of water hardness and alkalinity in which we observed effects in D. magna, because some species, such as aquatic insects, are more sensitive than cladocerans to changes in ionic strength. Our results provide evidence that both calcite precipitation and the major ion balance of waters should be managed in industrially affected ecosystems and we support the development of a hardness+alkalinity guideline for the protection of aquatic life. PMID:27060657

  18. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štefková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  19. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite residue leachate: laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Buckley; T, Curtin; R, Courtney

    2016-07-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Whilst the use of constructed wetlands is gaining in interest for its use in the treatment of alkaline waters, thus far, there is limited evidence of its suitability for treating NaOH dominated bauxite residue leachate. A series of batch trials were conducted to investigate the potential for constructed wetland conferred mechanisms (dilution water quality, contact with CO2, and substrate type) for treating NaOH solutions to levels permissible for discharge (p constructed wetland. Formation of a calcite precipitate was observed in some treatments and further characterisation by XRD and XPS suggested surface coating with Na2CO3. It is therefore suggested that, under suitable conditions, constructed wetland technology can reduce leachate pH to constructed wetland. PMID:27048325

  20. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  1. Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

  2. Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes. PMID:24723548

  3. Influence of heat treatment conditions on microstructures and mechanical properties of ferritic-martensitic ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop an advanced ODS steel for core structural materials for next generation nuclear reactor system applications, it is important to optimize its heat treatment conditions to improve the high temperature strength and radiation resistance. This study investigates effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructures and mechanical properties of FM ODS steel. For this, 10Cr -1Mo FM ODS steel was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and hot extrusion process. Hardness measurements were carried out after heat treatments to evaluate the influences of heat treatments on the mechanical properties. The microstructures were observed using SEM, electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This study investigated the effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructures and mechanical properties of FM ODS steel. The FM ODS steels were fabricated by the MA, HIP and hot-extrusion processes. The optimized heat treatment condition for 10Cr-1Mo FM ODS was determined to enhance the mechanical property

  4. Microfilament Dynamics is Required for Root Growth under Alkaline Stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhou; Zijun Yang; Guangqin Guo; Yan Guo

    2010-01-01

    The microfilament (MF) cytoskeleton has crucial functions in plant development. Recent studies have revealed the function of MFs in diverse stress response. Alkaline stress is harmful to plant growth;however, it remains unclear whether the MFs play a role in alkaline stress. In the present study, we find that blocking MF assembly with latrunculin B (Lat B) leads to inhibition of plant root growth, and stabilization of MFs with phalloidin does not significantly affect plant root growth under normal conditions. In high external pH conditions, MF de-polymerization is induced and that associates with the reduction of root growth; phalloidin treatment partially rescues this reduction. Moreover, Lat B treatment further decreases the survival rate of seedlings growing in high external pH conditions. However, a high external pH (8.0) does not affect MF stability in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that alkaline stress may trigger a signal that leads the dynamics of MFs and in turn regulates root growth.

  5. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Lauren B., E-mail: lstadler@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Su, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuansu@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Moline, Christopher J., E-mail: christopher.moline@hdrinc.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ernstoff, Alexi S., E-mail: alexer@dtu.dk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Love, Nancy G., E-mail: nglove@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss.

  6. Development of optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in petroleum refinery wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew A. ONU; Joseph O. OKAFOR; Abdusalami S. KOVO; Yahaya S. MOHAMMAD

    2015-01-01

    Kautagi clay is a kaolin type deposit that is abundantly available in Niger State, Nigeria with potential for application in pollution control such as wastewater treatment. This study investigates the optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in refinery wastewater treatment. Sulphuric acid was used in the modification of the clay and the modification variables considered were acid concentration, activation time and temperature. To develop the opti...

  7. Depression treatment in individuals with cancer: a comparative analysis with cardio-metabolic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi B. Rane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the current state of nationwide depression treatment practices in individuals with cancer and depression does not exist in the United States (US. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine rates of any depression treatment among individuals with cancer and depression in the US. To better understand the relationship between any treatment for depression and presence of cancer, we used a comparison group of individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions owing to the similar challenges faced in management of depression in individuals with these conditions. We used a retrospective cross-sectional design and data from multiple years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative household-survey on healthcare utilization and expenditures. Study sample consisted of adults aged 21 or older with self-reported depression and cancer (n=528 or self-reported depression and diabetes, heart disease or hypertension (n=1643. Depression treatment comprised of any use of antidepres- sants and/or any use of mental health counseling services. Treatment rates for depression were 78.0% and 81.7% among individuals with cancer and cardio-metabolic conditions respectively. After controlling for socio-demographic, access-to-care, number of physician-visits, health-status, and lifestyle risk-factors related variables; individuals with cancer were less likely to report any treatment for depression (Adjusted Odds Ratio=0.67; 95% Confidence Interval=0.49, 0.92 compared to individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions (P≤0.01. Our findings highlight the possibility that competing demands may crowd out treatment for depression and that cancer diagnosis may be a barrier to depression treatment.

  8. Higher Order Inference On A Treatment Effect Under Low Regularity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; van der Vaart, Aad; Robins, James M

    2011-07-01

    We describe a novel approach to nonparametric point and interval estimation of a treatment effect in the presence of many continuous confounders. We show the problem can be reduced to that of point and interval estimation of the expected conditional covariance between treatment and response given the confounders. Our estimators are higher order U-statistics. The approach applies equally to the regular case where the expected conditional covariance is root-n estimable and to the irregular case where slower non-parametric rates prevail.

  9. Systemic conditions and treatments as risk for therapy with dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible risks for osseointegration are described in patients with specific systemic conditions, medical treatment such as radiation, cardiovascular diseases, HIV and smoking habit. The principal complications for osseointegration of diseases and systemic treatments are exposed. The review and search of the available literature are realized in databases. The scientific literature obtained from human studies has reported the survival of patients with dental implants. The implants are placed in patients with at least one of the conditions studied. The risks of the surgical procedures required for the placement of implants are analyzed in systemically compromised patients. Comparisons of patients with and without systemic conditions in controlled form have remained without analyzing. The level of evidence of absolute and relative contraindications has been low for the therapy with implants in patients with systemic diseases. The revised information is detailed according the systemic conditions, and each of them are evaluated separately

  10. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  11. Silica in alkaline brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  12. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  13. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    OpenAIRE

    Levy LL; Emer JJ

    2012-01-01

    Lauren L Levy, Jason J EmerDepartment of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USABackground: Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The lite...

  14. Surface characteristics of an alkaline degreasing treatment on Pinus massoniana veneer%碱性脱脂处理对马尾松单板表面特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫佩行; 周定国

    2012-01-01

    Wood surface characteristics are very complicated, which is very important for wood bonding. Therefore, after Pinus massoniana veneer alkali degreased, related research of surface characteristics were studied. The influence of NaOH alkaline degreasing treatment on Pinus massoniana veneer was studied. Surface characteristics, such as surface free radical concentration, surface shape, and surface free energy, all with and without the degreasing process, were analyzed. The surface characteristics factors, such as surface free radical concentration, surface shape, and surface free energy, before and after degreasing process, were investigated by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (ESR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) , respectively. The results showed that the free radicals' peak strength of Pinus massoniana veneer decreased after dilute alkali degreasing, but the concentration of free radicals had no change (17.649 4 and 17.672 8). SEM of the surface shape revealed that the alkali degreasing treatment greatly in the wood, but it also reduced smoothness of the wood surface. In addition, the surface contact angle decreased, and the surface free energy increased slightly (about 8.7%). Based on the results, alkaline degreasing treatment on Pinus massoniana veneer impoved the wood bonding inefficiently%对马尾松Pinus massoniana单板进行氢氧化钠碱液脱脂处理,借助电子自旋振动波谱仪、扫描电镜和表面张力仪分析脱脂处理对马尾松单板表面特性因子的影响.结果表明:稀碱脱脂处理以后,马尾松单板的自由基峰强度降低,但是马尾松单板脱脂前后自由基浓度分别为17.6494和17.6728,几乎没有变化;脱脂前后马尾松单板表面形貌的变化发现,稀碱脱脂处理大大降低了木材的脂含量,但是会增大木材表面粗糙度;脱脂处理以后,马尾松单板表面接触角变小,表面自由能增加了8.63%.

  15. [On the treatment of gunshot wounds of extremities in the conditions of local military actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakhanian, N V; Ter-Avetikian, Z A; Mkrtchian, M E; Amirian, E G

    2009-04-01

    Together with the improvement of new types of weapons with more destroying effect, the treatment methods of gunshot wounds including laser therapy, extrafocal osteosynthesis, new antibacterial means are also developing. The application of these methods makes it possible to create optimal conditions for the treatment of different types of injuries of extremities with positive results in 88% cases. These results were received due to early and thorough first surgical processing of wounds by wide usage of helium-neon laser radiation as well as with the help of traumatologists who are the skilled in the new treatment methods including the extrafocal compressional osteosynthesis. PMID:19430037

  16. Comparison of steam sterilization conditions efficiency in the treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamari, Olivia; Mouaffak, Lara; Kamel, Ramza; Brandam, Cedric; Lteif, Roger; Salameh, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Many studies show that the treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste (IHCW) in steam sterilization devices at usual operating standards does not allow for proper treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste (IHCW). Including a grinding component before sterilization allows better waste sterilization, but any hard metal object in the waste can damage the shredder. The first objective of the study is to verify that efficient IHCW treatment can occur at standard operating parameters defined by the contact time-temperature couple in steam treatment systems without a pre-mixing/fragmenting or pre-shredding step. The second objective is to establish scientifically whether the standard operation conditions for a steam treatment system including a step of pre-mixing/fragmenting were sufficient to destroy the bacterial spores in IHCW known to be the most difficult to treat. Results show that for efficient sterilization of dialysis cartridges in a pilot 60L steam treatment system, the process would require more than 20 min at 144°C without a pre-mixing/fragmenting step. In a 720L steam treatment system including pre-mixing/fragmenting paddles, only 10 min at 144°C are required to sterilize IHCW proved to be sterilization challenges such as dialysis cartridges and diapers in normal conditions of rolling.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3H-fatty acids or [3H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [3H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3H-fatty acid and the [3H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [3H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [3H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [3H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3H-fatty acid and [3H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  18. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  19. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  20. Intraspecific variation in alkaline phosphatase activity in Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae, Bohlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domênica Teixeira de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To describe potential intraspecific variation in phosphorus incorporation in two strains of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin, Ub3 and Ub7, alkaline phosphatase (AP activity was evaluated via enzyme-labeled fluorescence assay. Analysis using the probe ELF-97(r provides individual evaluation, and therefore can determine the nutritional status of inorganic phosphorus in phytoplanktonic cells. Bioassays compared the control treatment to both phosphate-enriched and phosphate-depleted treatments by varying only the phosphate concentration in the media. The P. tricornutum strains exhibited differences in their development when incubated in the phosphate-enriched media. The development of the Ub7 strain differed by exhibiting "luxury uptake" and utilization of organic phosphorus, and the alkaline phosphatase analysis indicated limitations of this clone under such conditions. The Ub7 strain showed higher AP activity, when compared to Ub3, in the P-enriched condition. P. tricornutum presented increases in AP activity and low variation in Surface/Volume ratio, by increasing biovolume and its maximum linear dimension, as strategies for phosphate incorporation. Our results highlight intraspecific differences in alkaline phosphatase activity, and hence differences in the incorporation of organic phosphorus, as the tested species regulated enzymatic activity under different external phosphate concentrations.

  1. Metallurgical treatment of Waelz oxides by alkaline leaching using ammonium carbonate; Tratamiento metalurgico de los oxidos Waelz mediante lixiviacion alcalina utilizando carbonato amonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseguer, V.; Lozano, L.J.; Juan, D. de [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica Cartagena. Universidad de Murcia, Murcia (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    A method to carry out the treatment of the Waelz oxides is proposed, and the principal stages implicated are studied laboratory-scale. The process consists of the oxides leaching with an ammonium carbonate/ammonia solution, followed the recovery of the zinc leached by means of its precipitation as zinc basic carbonate. The process stages that have been studied are: Waelz oxides leaching, loaded leach purification, zinc precipitation, zinc basic carbonate washing and zinc basic carbonate transformation. The designed treatment presents a null environmental impact, and more than 90% of the zinc contained in the Waelz oxides, as well as 80% of the copper and cadmium contents could be recovered. Also, the process presents great flexibility as soon as zinc could be recovered in the most convenient form (zinc metal, oxide or salt). (Author) 14 refs.

  2. Critical appraisal of clinical prediction rules that aim to optimize treatment selection for musculoskeletal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Stanton (Tasha); M.J. Hancock (Mark J.); C. Maher (Chris); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for treatment selection in musculoskeletal conditions have become increasingly popular. Purpose. The purposes of this review are: (1) to critically appraise studies evaluating CPRs and (2) to consider the clinical utility and stage of developm

  3. 42 CFR 32.111 - Conditions and extent of treatment; charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions and extent of treatment; charges. 32.111 Section 32.111 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN...

  4. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment on tropical conditions: effect of several design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohorquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto;

    countries and, specifically in Colombia, design and operation parameters are not defined yet. The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of filter medium, the feeding frequency and Heliconia psittacorum presence, a typical local plant, on the domestic wastewater treatment in tropical conditions....

  5. Fear less : Individual differences in fear conditioning and their relation to treatment outcome in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from animal and human experimental studies highlight the importance of fear conditioning processes in the development and treatment of anxiety disorders. The work reported in this thesis was focused on potential abnormalities in the acquisition and extinction of fear in patients with anxiet

  6. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  7. High-risk biodegradable waste processing by alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambura, Sanja; Voća, Neven; Krička, Tajana; Sindrak, Zoran; Spehar, Ana; Kalambura, Dejan

    2011-09-01

    Biodegradable waste is by definition degraded by other living organisms. Every day, meat industry produces large amounts of a specific type of biodegradable waste called slaughterhouse waste. Traditionally in Europe, this waste is recycled in rendering plants which produce meat and bone meal and fat. However, feeding animals with meat and bone meal has been banned since the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In consequence, new slaughterhouse waste processing technologies have been developed, and animal wastes have now been used for energy production. Certain parts of this waste, such as brains and spinal cord, are deemed high-risk substances, because they may be infected with prions. Their treatment is therefore possible only in strictly controlled conditions. One of the methods which seems to bear acceptable health risk is alkaline hydrolysis. This paper presents the results of an alkaline hydrolysis efficiency study. It also proposes reuse of the obtained material as organic fertiliser, as is suggested by the analytical comparison between meat and bone meal and hydrolysate. PMID:21971109

  8. Condition of hearing sense and tinnitus before and after the treatment of otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Negra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Otosclerosis is an osteodystrophy disease of the bony labyrinth of the ear which leads to stapes fixation and to bradyecoia of a conductive type. The microsurgical treatment by the use of a stapes prosthesis provides hearing improvement and a reduction or disappearing of tinnitus. The aim of our study was to determine the hearing condition and tinnitus before and after the treatment of otosclerosis. Material and methods. A hundred patients with otosclerosis, aged 20 to 70, were surgically treated at the Otorhinolaryngology Clinic and the Functional Diagnostics, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. After the treatment, the audiometric examinations were performed in order to assess the hearing condition and tinnitus was assessed by a questionnaire. The subjective assessment of tinnitus was ranged as present, reduced or absent. Results. Before the treatment, hearing impairment was present in all the patients, while tinnitus was found in 91% of them. One year following the surgical treatment hearing improvement was found in 96% of the patients, and tinnitus cessation in 89% of them. Conclusion. The surgical treatment can result in hearing improvement and cessation or reduction of tinnitus.

  9. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; Williams, Daniel L.; Magee, Timothy D.; Shawn M Kaeppler; Leon, Natalia de; Hodge, David B

    2015-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall...

  10. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  11. Issues in the Treatment of Neurological Conditions Caused by Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G E

    2016-07-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous neurotropic human herpesvirus. Primary infection usually causes varicella (chicken pox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Decades later, virus reactivates to produce herpes zoster (shingles), a painful dermatomally distributed vesicular eruption. Zoster may be further complicated by postherpetic neuralgia, VZV vasculopathy, myelitis, and segmental motor weakness. VZV reactivation has also been associated with giant cell arteritis. This overview discusses treatment of various conditions that often require both corticosteroids and antiviral drugs. Treatment for VZV-associated disease is often based on case reports and small studies rather than large-scale clinical trials. Issues that require resolution include the optimal duration of such combined therapy, more effective treatment for postherpetic neuralgia, whether some treatments should be given orally or intravenously, the widening spectrum of zoster sine herpete, and the role of antiviral therapy in giant cell arteritis. PMID:27032406

  12. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  13. Screening of Alkaline Protease-Producing Streptomyces diastaticus and Optimization of Enzyme Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Dawoodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Alkaline proteases are used in pharmaceutical, film and photography, silk production and food, leather and detergent industries. Actinomycetes are gram positive bacteria that produce different enzymes such as proteases. The aims of this research were isolation of native alkaline protease-producing Actinomycete spp. from different soil samples as well as optimizing the conditions for enzyme production. Materials and Methods: The different soil samples were collected from different locations of the provinces of Khouzestan, Chahar Mahalo Bakhtiari and Isfahan, Iran. After determining of the best alkaline protease producing species using Lowry method, the optimization of alkaline protease was performed. Results: The alkaline protease producing Actinomycete spp. was isolated from soil. The most enzyme activity was measured in S.diastaticus. The best concentration of sucrose as the carbon source for the highest production of alkaline protease was 10 g/l. The optimum pH and temperature for the alkaline protease production by S. diastaticus were 10 and 30°C respectively. The maximum activity of alkaline protease was measured at 200 rpm as the best aeration speed. Conclusions: This is the first report of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces diastaticus in Iran. The accomplished examinations in this research confirmed the previous theories of alkaline protease production by Actinomycetes relatively. Regarding the immense applications of alkaline proteases in several industries and isolation of a native alkaline protease producing Actinomycete, The production potential of this enzyme in our country could be accessible in the near future.

  14. Predicting the drying properties of sludge based on hydrothermal treatment under subcritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Fraikin, Laurent; Léonard, Angélique; Benavente, Verónica; Fullana, Andrés

    2016-03-15

    The effects of hydrothermal treatment on the drying properties of sludge were determined. Sludge was hydrothermally treated at 180-260 °C for 0.5-5 h using NaOH and HCl as additives to influence reaction conditions. Untreated sludge and attained hydrochar samples were then dried under identical conditions with a laboratory microdryer and an X-ray microtomograph was used to follow changes in sample dimensions. The effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar samples were determined and the effect of process conditions on respective mean diffusivities evaluated using multiple linear regression. Based on the results the drying time of untreated sludge decreased from approximately 80 min to 37-59 min for sludge hydrochar. Drying of untreated sludge was governed by the falling rate period where drying flux decreased continuously as a function of sludge moisture content due to heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage. Hydrothermal treatment increased the drying flux of sludge hydrochar and decreased the effect of internal heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage especially at higher treatment temperatures. The determined effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar increased as a function of decreasing moisture content and the mean diffusivity of untreated sludge (8.56·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) and sludge hydrochar (12.7-27.5·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) were found statistically different. The attained regression model indicated that treatment temperature governed the mean diffusivity of hydrochar, as the effects of NaOH and HCl were statistically insignificant. The attained results enabled prediction of sludge drying properties through mean moisture diffusivity based on hydrothermal treatment conditions. PMID:26773481

  15. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  16. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  17. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J EmerDepartment of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USABackground: Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health.Methods: A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage.Results: Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here.Conclusion: Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.Keywords: facial skin conditions, psychological health, emotional benefits, cosmetic camouflage, makeup

  18. The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

  19. Influence of Heat Treatment Conditions on the Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films for Thermochromic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donguk; Kwon, Samyoung; Park, Young; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Nam, Sang-Hun; Joo, Yang Tae; Kim, Minha; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    In present work, the effects of the heat treatment on the structural, optical, and thermochromic properties of vanadium oxide films were investigated. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from a vanadium metal target in mixture atmosphere of argon and oxygen gas. Various heat treatment conditions were applied in order to evaluate their influence on the crystal phases formed, surface morphology, and optical properties. The films were characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to investigate the crystal structure and identify the phase change as post-annealing temperature of 500-600 degrees C for 5 minutes. Surface conditions of the obtained VO2(M) films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics of the VO2 films were evaluate by optical spectrophotometry in the UV-VIS-NIR, controlling temperature of the films. PMID:27483853

  20. Effect of the heat treatment conditions on the synthesis of Sr-hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Garcia, R., E-mail: rmartinez@fi.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos - INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bilovol, V.; Socolovsky, L.M. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos - INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The effect of heat treatment conditions under oxygen atmosphere on the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} synthesis is analyzed. Effect of partial evacuation of decomposition gases of the organometallic precursor on the phase composition of different samples is studied. An accurate structural analysis of samples obtained between 250 Degree-Sign C and 600 Degree-Sign C is reported. From the structural analysis several secondary phases are identified. The amount of secondary phases can be manipulated through the control of the heat treatment conditions, and therefore, this constitutes a methodology to manipulate the composition and the magnetic properties of the obtained nanopowders. The quantitative determination of phases is performed by structural refinement of X-ray powder patterns, using Rietveld analysis. Magnetic study is done by magnetization vs. applied magnetic field at room temperature.

  1. Effect of Alkaline Post-Treatment on Physicochemicai Property of Digested Spartina alterniflora%碱后处理对互花米草沼渣理化特性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 郑正; 常志州; 王海芹; 叶小梅

    2012-01-01

    以互花米草厌氧发酵后的沼渣为原料,采用紫外扫描、FTIR、XRD、1H-NMR、13C-NMR和其他一些常规分析手段研究了5%NaOH溶液固态处理前后,互花米草沼渣的物质结构、物质组成以及水浸提液理化特性的变化.结果表明,经5%的NaOH溶液处理48 h后,互花米草沼渣的骨架结构并未受到破坏,只是某些官能团的结构受到破坏;碱处理后,互花米草沼渣中木质素碎片化,木质素的芳香环结构受到不同程度的破坏,但木质素含量稍有增加;碱处理破坏了互花米草沼渣中纤维素的结晶结构,形成可被厌氧微生物破坏的类似结晶区结构,结晶区的比例增加,纤维素相对含量增加;碱处理后,互花米草沼渣中羧酸盐破坏严重,沼渣中羧基碳含量降低,烷烃类物质也受到一定的破坏,半纤维素相对含量降低;碱处理后,互花米草沼渣中烷基碳和芳香碳含量均降低,烷氧碳含量增加,芳香度降低,表明碱处理后互花米草沼渣的脂肪族特性增强,可生物降解性能提高.%Alkaline treatment is widely used for improving biogas production for lignocellulosic materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of alkaline treatment on physicoehemical property of digested Spartina alterniflora (DSA). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) , X-Ray diffraction patterns, proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-NMR), solid-state ^13C-NMR Spectroscopy and some general indicators were used to analyze changes of the lignocellulosic structure and composition of NaOH-treated digested Spartina alterniflora. The results showed that, after NaOH treatment, surface lignin and some carbohydrate were destructed into lignin fragment, organic acids and some other small molecular organic matter, hut the skeleton structure of lignin and cellulose of DSA were not destructed significantly. The crystalline of cellulose of DSA was transferred into biodegradable forms and content of

  2. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.;

    2015-01-01

    We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox...... condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated...... of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss....

  3. Results of the Purulent Wound Treatment Microbiological Monitoring in Conditions of Generally Surgical Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beschastnov V.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation is a study of the wound infection agent quantitative and qualitative composition alterations in a process of the patient with the soft tissue purulent wound treatment by different methods in conditions of a generally surgical hospital. Materials and Methods. 166 results of the initial and 286 dynamic bacteriological investigations in patients with purulent wounds at a local treatment by the open and closed methods are analyzed. Results. It is revealed, that a secondary infection of wound with a hospital flora, resistant to antibacterial therapy, is at the open method treatment at the 10—15 days in 37% of cases. The enterobacteria were the main part of the soft tissue purulent wound nosocomial infections in a general surgery department, which must be considered at the antimicrobic therapy tactics detection.

  4. Surface Cleaning or Activation?Control of Surface Condition Prior to Thermo-Chemical Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brigitte Haase; Juan Dong; Jens Heinlein

    2004-01-01

    Actual heat treatment processes must face increasing specifications with reference to process quality, safety and results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. They can be met only if the parts' surface condition is controlled during manufacturing and, especially, prior to the treatment. An electrochemical method for the detection of a steel part's surface condition is presented, together with results, consequences, and mechanisms concerning surface pre-treatment before the thermochemical process. A steel surface's activity or passivity can be detected electrochemically, independently from the chemical background. The selected method was the recording of potential vs. time curves at small constant currents, using a miniaturized electrochemical cell, a (nearly) non-destructive electrolyte and a potentio-galvanostatic setup. The method enables to distinguish types of surface contamination which do not interfere with the thermochemical process, from passive layers which do and must be removed. Whereas some types of passive layers can be removed using conventional cleaning processes and agents, others are so stable that their effects can only be overcome by applying an additional activation pre-treatment, e.g. oxynitriding.

  5. Radiation treatment of painful degenerative skeletal conditions; Schmerzbestrahlung bei degenerativ bedingten Skeletterkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, U. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie; Micke, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie

    1996-10-01

    The study reported was intended to present own experience with irradiation for treatment of painful degenerative skeletal conditions and examine the long-term effects of this treatment. A retrospective study was performed covering the period from 1985 until 1991, examining 157 patients suffering from painful degenerative skeletal conditions who entered information on the success of their radiation treatment in a questionnaire. 94 of the questionnaires could be used for evaluation. Pain anamnesis revealed periods of more than one year in 45% of the cases. 74% of the patients had been treated without success with drug or orthopedic therapy. Immediately after termination of the radiotherapy, 38% of the patients said to be free of pain or to feel essentially relieved, while at the time the questionnaire was distributed, the percentage was 76%. Thus in our patient material, radiotherapy for treatment of painful degenerative skeletal lesions was successful in 76% of the cases and for long post-treatment periods, including those cases whith long pain anamnesis and unsuccessful conventional pre-treatment. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die eigenen Erfahrungen mit der Schmerzbestrahlung degenerativer Skeletterkrankungen darzustellen und vor allem die Langzeitergebnisse zu untersuchen. Im Zeitraum von 1985 bis 1991 wurden 157 Patienten mit schmerzhaften degenerativen Gelenkerkrankungen retrospektiv untersucht. Der Therapieerfolg wurde mittels Fragebogenaktion ermittelt. Insgesamt waren 94 Frageboegen auswertbar. Die Schmerzanamnese betrug in 45% der Faelle ueber 1 Jahr. Bei 74% der Patienten war eine erfolglose medikamentoese oder orthopaedische Vorbehandlung erfolgt. Sofort nach Beendigung der Radiotherapie gaben insgesamt 38% der Patienten eine Schmerzfreiheit oder wesentliche Besserung der Beschwerden an, zum Zeitpunkt der Fragebogenaktion 76% der Patienten. Die Schmerzbestrahlung degenerativer Skeletterkrankungen erzielte in unserem Patientengut in

  6. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    conditions and the degradation mechanism was examined. One of the strong visions for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser concept has been to develop a modular system with several standardized components. The following modules have been designed: 1) Electrolyser module; 2) Deoxer Module; 3) Dryer Module; 4) Water Treatment Module; 5) Power supply and Control unit; 6) Rack mount. The developed 2{sup nd} generation rack-mounted alkaline electrolyser system has been installed and demonstrated for 18 month in a college (H2College) with 66 apartments. A number of measurements were performed on the system installed in H2College. No measurements on the overall system efficiency were conducted. However measurement on the stack showed a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C at the hydrogen outlet. The system is estimated to have run roughly 2000h during the demonstration period. The demonstration of the 2{sup nd} generation alkaline electrolyser is considered a success for several reasons. While not all technical goals were reached, the research and development in the project have resulted in some very good solutions for most of the challenges in high pressure alkaline electrolysis. The concept of a rack mounted electrolyser was proven viable, and all critical aspects of the modularisation have been covered. (LN)

  7. Optimisation of treatment, storage and disposal strategies for (unconditioned and conditioned) radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the trade-offs involved between unconditioned and conditioned waste storage, by investigating the effects of different cost and environmental minimisation strategies on radioactive waste treatment and disposal strategies. The costs and environmental impacts from storage (unconditioned and conditioned), conditioning, transport and disposal are examined. A single generic mixed Magnox/AGR site is investigated, assuming a moderate nuclear power growth scenario over the period 1986 to 2030. Assessments have been performed for four weighting sets which cover the range of views perceived to exist about the relative importance of cost and environmental impact reduction. The base case conditioning option considers the availability of a LLW low force compaction plant in 1986 and two ILW conditioning plants (cement encapsulation and dissolution) in 1990. A base case set of disposal options considers the options of disposal to shallow land and burial facility and deep cavity facilities. The study investigates the effect of deferring the opening dates of the conditioning plants. A set of sensitivity studies show that the assessments are robust to the assumptions and impact parameters used. (author)

  8. Characterization Of Actinides In Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges And Leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  10. Studies on cement matrix used at the radioactive waste treatment plant for radwaste conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The research activities performed by the Department of Radioactive Waste Management is focused on the LLAW treatment products obtained by chemical precipitation and on the conditioning of these products by cementation. The individual mechanisms involved in the chemical precipitation process are directly dependent on the precipitate properties and structure, which are connected with the initial system composition and the precipitation procedure, i.e. reagent concentration, rate and orders of chemical addition, mixing rate and time and ageing conditions. In the case of conditioning by cementation, the chemical nature and proportion of the sludges or concentrates affect both the hydrolysis of the initial cement components and the reactions of metastable hydration constituents, as well as the mechanical strength and chemical resistance of the hardened cemented matrix. Generally, the study of the precipitation products and their behaviour during cementation and the long-term disposal is extremely difficult because of the system complexity (phase composition and structure) and the lack of non-destructive analytical methods. The experience accumulated by the countries who developed nuclear programs in military and socioeconomic fields and which produced important volumes of radioactive wastes, lead us to study some of mineral additives to be used in the conditioning and disposal technology. It is well known that mineral additives are diminishing the leaching rate of the radionuclides in the disposal environment. The studies have the purpose to obtain the most propitious mixture of cement-bentonite and cement-volcanic tuff which have the mechanical properties similar to the cement paste used for the conditioning of radioactive waste. Taking into consideration the characteristics of these mineral binders, namely a very good plasticity and capacity of adsorption, which lead to the decrease of porosity, in the future, the mixture is planned to be used at the

  11. Studies on cement matrix materials used at the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant for radwaste conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research activities performed by Department of Radioactive Waste Management is focused on the treatment of LLAW products obtained by chemical precipitation and on the conditioning of these products by cementation. The individual mechanisms implied in the chemical precipitation processes are directly dependent on the precipitate properties and structure, which in turn are connected with the initial system composition and the precipitation procedure, i.e. reagent concentration, rate and orders of chemical addition, mixing rate and time and ageing conditions. In case of conditioning by cementation, the chemical nature and proportion of the sludges or concentrates affect both the hydrolysis of the initial cement components and the reactions of metastable hydration constituents, as well as the mechanical strength and chemical resistance of the hardened cemented matrix.Generally, the study of the precipitation products and their behaviour during cementation and the long-term disposal is extremely difficult because of the system complexity (phase composition and structure) and the lack of the non-destructive analytical methods. The experience accumulated by the countries who advanced nuclear programmes in military and socio-economic fields and which produced important volumes of radioactive wastes, leads us to study some of mineral additives to be used in the conditioning and disposal technology. Is well known that some mineral additives can diminish the leaching rate of the radionuclides in the disposal environment.The studies have the purpose to obtain the most propitious mixture of cement-bentonite and cement-volcanic tuff, which have the mechanical properties similar to the cement paste used for the conditioning of radioactive waste.Taking into account the characteristics of these mineral binders, namely a very good plasticity and capacity of adsorption, which lead at the decrease of porosity, the mixture is planned to be used in the future, at the Radioactive

  12. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  13. Phosphorus Mobilization from Manure-Amended and Unamended Alkaline Soils to Overlying Water during Simulated Flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarawansha, E A G S; Kumaragamage, D; Flaten, D; Zvomuya, F; Tenuta, M

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic soil conditions resulting from flooding often enhance release of phosphorus (P) to overlying water. Enhanced P release is well documented for flooded acidic soils; however, there is little information for flooded alkaline soils. We examined the effect of flooding and anaerobic conditions on P mobilization using 12 alkaline soils from Manitoba that were either unamended or amended with solid cattle manure. Pore water and floodwater were analyzed over 8 wk of simulated flooding for dissolved reactive P (DRP), Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. As expected, manured soils had significantly greater pore and floodwater DRP concentrations than unamended. Flooding increased pore water DRP concentrations significantly in all soils and treatments except one manured clay in which concentrations increased initially and then decreased. Floodwater DRP concentrations increased significantly by two- to 15-fold in 10 soils regardless of amendment treatment but remained relatively stable in the two soils with greatest clay content. Phosphorus release at the onset of flooding was associated with the release of Ca, Mg, and Mn, suggesting that P release may be controlled by the dissolution of Mg and Ca phosphates and reductive dissolution of Mn phosphates. Thereafter, P release was associated with release of Fe, suggesting the reductive dissolution of Fe phosphates. Differences in pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations among soils and amendment treatments and the high variability in P mobilization from pore water to floodwater among soils indicate the need to further investigate chemical reactions responsible for P release and mobility under anaerobic conditions.

  14. Selection of heat treatment condition of the Mg-Al-Zn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Main aim of this paper are results of the optimization of heat treatment conditions, which are temperature and heating time during solution heat treatment or ageing as well the cooling rate after solution treatment for MCMgAl12Zn1, MCMgAl9Zn1, MCMgAl6Zn1, MCMgAl3Zn1 cast magnesium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The following results concern mechanical properties especially hardness.Findings: The different heat treatment kinds employed contributed to the improvement of mechanical properties of the alloy.Research limitations/implications: According to the alloys characteristic, the applied cooling rate and alloy additions seems to be a good compromise for mechanical properties, nevertheless further tests should be carried out in order to examine different cooling rates and parameters of solution treatment process and aging process.Practical implications: Generally magnesium alloys are applied in motor industry and machine building, but they find application in a helicopter production, planes, disc scanners, a mobile telephony, computers, bicycle elements, household and office equipment, radio engineering and an air - navigation, in chemical, power, textile and nuclear industrial, etc.Originality/value: Contemporary materials should possess high mechanical properties, physical and chemical, as well as technological ones, to ensure long and reliable use. The above mentioned requirements and expectations regarding the contemporary materials are met by the non-ferrous metals alloys used nowadays, including the magnesium alloys.

  15. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-05-01

    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment. PMID:25892768

  16. Effect of heat treatment conditions on the structure and mechanical properties of DP-type steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adamczyk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of the initial structure and heat treatment conditions on mechanical properties of DP-type steel.Design/methodology/approach: The heat treatment of the low-carbon steel in order to obtain a DP-type structure of desirable ferrite and martensite fractions was realized. In order to investigate the structure light and transmission electron microscopy methods were used. Mechanical properties were determined by means of tensile test.Findings: It was found that a different initial structure influences essentially the martensite morphology in a final DP-type structure. It can occur as a network, fine fibres or islands in a ferritic matrix of high dislocation density in the vicinity of diffusionless transformation products of austenite. The best mechanical properties (UTS=800MPa, YS0.2=520MPa, TEl=20%, UEl=16% has a steel with the martensite in a form of fine fibres.Research limitations/implications: Continuation of the investigations in the field of using the thermomechanical processing to obtain a DP-type steel is foreseen.Practical implications: The established heat treatment conditions can be useful at manufacturing DP-type sheets of high strength and ductile properties and a good suitability for metalforming operations.Originality/value: The relationship between the initial structure and martensite morphology in DP-type steels was specified.

  17. Effects of extinction treatments on the reduction of conditioned responding and conditioned hyperarousal in a rabbit model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhans, Lauren B; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2015-10-01

    We have previously characterized a model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), based on classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR), that focuses on 2 key PTSD-like features: conditioned responses to trauma-associated cues and hyperarousal. In addition to the development of conditioned NMRs (CRs) to a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus (US), we have observed that rabbits also exhibit a conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR that manifests as an exaggerated and more complex reflexive NMR to presentations of the US by itself, particularly to intensities that elicited little response prior to conditioning. Previous work has demonstrated that unpaired presentations of the CS and US are successful at extinguishing CRs and CRM simultaneously, even when a significantly weakened version of the US is utilized. In the current study, additional extinction treatments were tested, including continued pairings of the CS with a weakened US and exposure to the training context alone, and these treatments were contrasted with the effects of unpaired extinction with a weakened US and remaining in home cages with no further treatment. Results showed that continued pairings only slightly decreased CRs and CRM, while context exposure had no effect on CRs and marginal effects on reducing CRM. Unpaired extinction was still the most effective treatment for reducing both. Findings are discussed in terms of applications to cognitive-behavioral therapies for treatment of PTSD, such as incorporating mild, innately stressful stimuli into virtual reality therapy.

  18. Electrochemical treatment of alkaline nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of highly radioactive waste have been generated throughout the Department of Energy complex over the past 50 years as a result of the production of special nuclear materials for defense and space programs. These wastes have been stored in underground tanks. Some of the tanks have developed cracks that have allowed waste to leak out of the primary tank. Many of the tanks are operating beyond their design life. Processes are being developed to remove the waste from the storage tanks and permanently dispose of it in engineered wasteforms. The bulk of the radioactivity will be concentrated into approximately 1% of the total waste volume and vitrified. The highly radioactive borosilicate glass wasteform will be placed in the federal repository. The remaining waste, which still contains low concentrations of radioactivity, will be incorporated into a low-level wasteform (e.g., cement, glass, ceramic, polymer, etc.) and placed in a near surface facility at the DOE site. Electrochemical-based processes are being evaluated to destroy organic compounds that impact radionuclide separations processes, to destroy or to remove hazardous species in the waste such as nitrates, nitrites, hazardous metals, and radionuclides that can impact wasteform production and characteristics, recovery chemicals of value such as sodium hydroxide (caustic) that can be recycled. Major benefits of such processes include the destruction or removal of hazardous species, waste volume reduction and the recovery of valuable chemicals contained in the waste

  19. Research on Treatment of High Hardness and Alkalinity Wastewater by Electrosorption Technology%电吸附技术处理高硬度高碱度废水的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙英战; 谢海燕; 石文忠; 阿力木江·斯拉木; 史殿彬; 刘丽青

    2012-01-01

    以乌鲁木齐高新区北区再生水厂的出水作为原水,在不同重碳酸盐碱度(HCO-3)和不同总硬度的进水条件下,研究了电吸附设备对TDS、氯离子、总硬度和HCO-3的去除效果.结果表明,在进水HCO-3浓度为80 mg/L,总硬度分别为340,770和1200 mg/L条件下,电吸附设备连续运行6个周期,除HCO-3外,设备对TDS、氯离子、总硬度的去除率较为稳定,当进水HCO-3浓度增加到440 mg/L时,4项指标去除率均呈现逐渐下降趋势,且总硬度越高,TDS、氯化物和HCO-3的去除率下降越明显.分析认为电吸附设备在高重碳酸盐碱度进水条件下运行时,HCO-3与钙等硬度离子相互作用,导致电极板结垢,从而影了设备的脱盐效果.%This research was conducted to investigate the removal effect of eletrosorption equipment of TDS, chloridion, total hardness and HCO3- .under different conditions of bicarbonate alkalinity and total hardness by using the influent from reclaimed waterworks in the north of high and new tech zone in Urumqi City as raw water. The result indicated that when the concentration of influent HCO3- was 80 mg/L, the total hardness was respectively 340,770 and 1 200 mg/L,electrosorption equipment continuously were operated in 6 cycles,except for HCO3-,removal rate of TDS,chloride and total hardness were more stable. When the influent HCOT concentration increasd by 440 mg/L,the removal rate of the above four were decreased gradually,the higher the total hardness,the more obviously the removal rate of TDS,chloride and HCO3- increased. It was analyzed that when the electrosorption equipment was operated under the conditions of influent of high bicarbornate alkalinity, HCCV and calcium and other hardness ions will act on one another,which resulted in scaling of eletrode plate,thus affecting the desalting effect of electrosorption e-quipment.

  20. Pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niren, Neil M

    2006-01-01

    Various skin disorders with an inflammatory component often have been treated with steroids and/or oral antibiotics. However, long-term use of these agents has drawbacks: steroids may induce numerous serious side effects such as hypertension, immunosuppression, and osteoporosis, and overuse of oral antibiotics may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance, as well as to a host of nuisance side effects such as diarrhea, yeast infections, and photosensitivity. As a result, alternative oral treatments, such as nicotinamide, have been investigated. During the past 50 years, many clinical reports have identified nicotinamide as a beneficial agent in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory skin disorders; what's more, its exceptional safety profile at pharmacologic doses makes it a potentially ideal long-term oral therapy for patients with inflammatory skin diseases. A recent large study evaluating nicotinamide for the treatment of acne or rosacea has confirmed the potential benefits of oral nicotinamide as an alternative approach to managing inflammatory lesions associated with acne vulgaris and acne rosacea. This article reviews the substantial number of reports published over the past 50 years that document the clinical utility and safety of oral and topical formulations of nicotinamide for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory skin conditions.

  1. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  2. Pulse treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib inhibits osteoclast resorptive activity in clinically relevant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissy, P; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Lund, T;

    2008-01-01

    Myeloma bone disease is due to bone degradation by osteoclasts, and absence of repair by bone forming osteoblasts. Recent observations suggest that the anti-myeloma drug bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, stimulates bone formation and may inhibit bone resorption. Here, we tested bortezomib...... on cultured osteoclasts in conditions mimicking the pulse treatment used in the clinic, thereby avoiding continuous proteasome inhibition and unselective toxicity. A 3h pulse with 25nM bortezomib followed by a 3-day culture in its absence markedly inhibited osteoclast activity as evaluated through bone...... resorption, TRAcP release, and RANKL-induced NF-kappaB translocation into nuclei, an event dependent on proteasomes and critical for osteoclast function. The effect on TRAcP was maximal during the first 24h post-pulse, and then tended to subside. Importantly, applying this pulse treatment to cultured myeloma...

  3. Using condition and usefulness of dental cone-beam CT in endodontic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the condition and usefulness of the dental cone-beam CT (3DX) in clinical endodontic treatments. Images from 55 examinations of 49 patients obtained using 3DX during an 11-month period were evaluated retrospectively to identify the usefulness of this modality compared with periapical or panoramic radiographs. The main indication for using of 3DX was diagnosis of root fracture in 65% of the examinations, second was the presence and expansion of periapical lesion in 22%, and third was to detect the canal system or root abnormality in 13%. The 3DX visualizes bony anatomical structures precisely and detects the presence and expansion of periapical lesions and the canal system of each root of mulirooted teeth that cannot easily be observed by intraoral radiography or panoramic radiography. The results of this study suggest that 3DX is a useful and reliable tool for endodontic treatments. (author)

  4. Effect of solution treatment conditions on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAOFEI YU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of the conditions of solution treatment on the degree of sensitization (DOS of austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304 was investigated in detail. The results derived from the electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR test indicated that the DOS decreased as the solution treatment temperature and time increased. The reason for this was studied via the SEM morphologies and EDS results, which indicated that the grain size influenced the DOS. Furthermore, cellular automaton (CA was utilized to simulate grain growth, the precipitation of Cr-rich carbides and the three dimensional distribution of the chromium concentration, which vividly illuminated the effect of the grain size on the DOS and was in accordance with the experiment results.

  5. Effects of repeated quetiapine treatment on conditioned avoidance responding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Feng, Min; Swalve, Natashia; Davis, Collin; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-15

    The present study characterized the behavioral mechanisms of avoidance-disruptive effect of quetiapine in the conditioned avoidance response test under two behavioral testing (2 warning signals vs. 1 warning signal) and two drug administration conditions (subcutaneous vs. intravenous). In Experiments 1 and 2, well-trained adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested under the subcutaneous (s.c.) quetiapine treatment (5.0, 15.0, 25.0, 50.0mg/kg) for 7 days in a novel procedure consisting of two conditioned stimuli (CS) (white noise serving as CS1 and pure tone as CS2). Only the highest dose (50.0mg/kg) produced a persistent suppression of the avoidance response without impairing the escape response. The magnitude of suppression of the CS1 avoidance was similar to that of CS2 avoidance. No significant group difference was found in the quetiapine (15.0mg/kg, s.c.) challenge test, indicating a lack of a long-term quetiapine effect. In Experiment 3, well-trained rats were tested under the intravenous (i.v.) quetiapine treatment (3.0, 9.0, 15.0mg/kg) for 5 days and challenged with quetiapine (6.0mg/kg, i.v. followed by 9.0mg/kg, s.c.). Only the white noise was used as the CS. Similar to what was being observed in Experiments 1 and 2, intravenously administered quetiapine dose-dependently suppressed avoidance responding during the drug test days, but did not alter drug sensitivity in the challenge days. Thus, quetiapine does not appear to show a preferential inhibition of the avoidance response to a less salient stimulus; and prior quetiapine treatment (s.c. and i.v.) does not cause a sensitization or tolerance to quetiapine.

  6. Influence of casting conditions and heat treatment on the fatigue characteristics of IN 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different proceedings in the case of casting and heat treatment of power unit turbine rotor blades of IN 100 lead to clearly differing collectives of the creep strength depending on time which was determined in construction component tests. A comparison of the microstructures uncovers significant differences. It is possible to derive structural characteristics from this which are in a causal relation with the creep strength or which show at least sensitive reactions as for the changes in production conditions. Such characteristics include arrangement, distribution, fraction and form of the γ' phase, the carbide morphology, the development of the eutectics, dentrite configuration and the porosity. (orig./MM)

  7. Exome sequencing results in successful riboflavin treatment of a rapidly progressive neurological condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Slavé; Shashi, Vandana; Petrou, Steven; Schoch, Kelly; McSweeney, Keisha Melodi; Dhindsa, Ryan S.; Krueger, Brian; Crimian, Rebecca; Case, Laura E.; Khalid, Roha; El-Dairi, Maysantoine A.; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Goldstein, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically targeted therapies for rare Mendelian conditions are improving patient outcomes. Here, we present the case of a 20-mo-old female suffering from a rapidly progressing neurological disorder. Although diagnosed initially with a possible autoimmune condition, analysis of the child's exome resulted in a diagnosis of Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome 2 (BVVLS2). This new diagnosis led to a change in the therapy plan from steroids and precautionary chemotherapy to high-dose riboflavin. Improvements were reported quickly, including in motor strength after 1 mo. In this case, the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment would have been unlikely in the absence of exome sequencing and careful interpretation. This experience adds to a growing list of examples that emphasize the importance of early genome-wide diagnostics. PMID:27148561

  8. Degradation of cellulosic materials under the alkaline conditions of a cementitious repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste. Pt. III. Effect of degradation products on the sorption of radionuclides on feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of degradation products of different cellulosic materials on the sorption behaviour of Th(IV), Eu(III) and Ni(II) on feldspar at pH 13.3 was studied. For all three metals, a decrease in sorption could be observed with increasing concentration of organics in solution. For Th(IV), α-ISA is the effective ligand present in the solutions of degraded cellulose, independent on the type of cellulose studied. For Eu(III), α-ISA is the effective ligand in the case of pure cellulose degradation. In the case of other cellulosic materials, unknown ligands cause the sorption reduction. For Ni(II), also unknown ligands cause sorption reduction, independent on the type of cellulose studied. These unknown ligands are not formed during alkaline degradation of cellulose, but are present as impurities in certain cellulosic materials. (orig.)

  9. An Exploration of Responses to Drug Conditioned Stimuli during Treatment for Substance Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Goddard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that drug conditioned stimuli produce a variety of conditioned responses, it is not known whether such stimuli can also reinforce an arbitrary operant response and thus serve as conditioned reinforcers. Volunteers (n=39 recruited from a residential treatment center for substance dependence were tested on a task in which presses on computer keys activated images of drugs/drug paraphernalia on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. They also completed a personalized craving questionnaire and a personalized Implicit Association Test. A significant bias in responding was found for images of preferred drugs/route of drug administration. Craving, however, was low and the images generated negative evaluative reactions. Two additional studies were performed to ascertain the generalizability of the effects to a different population of drug-using individuals (i.e., students who drink and to incentive stimuli of a different nature (i.e., sexual. The additional studies partially replicated and extended the central findings of the main study. Therefore, although these data should be considered preliminary in light of small group sizes, it is concluded that cue specificity and availability of the unconditioned stimuli (drugs and sex plays a role in modulating responding maintained by conditioned reinforcers.

  10. Rheological and fractal characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Wang, Y L; Feng, J

    2011-07-01

    The rheological and fractal characteristics of raw (unconditioned) and conditioned water treatment residuals (WTRs) were investigated in this study. Variations in morphology, size, and image fractal dimensions of the flocs/aggregates in these WTR systems with increasing polymer doses were analyzed. The results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymer CZ8688, the optimum polymer dosage was observed at 24 kg/ton dry sludge. The average diameter of irregularly shaped flocs/aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 42.54 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing polymer doses. Furthermore, the aggregates in the conditioned WTR system displayed boundary/surface and mass fractals. At the optimum polymer dosage, the aggregates formed had a volumetric average diameter of about 820.7 μm, with a one-dimensional fractal dimension of 1.01 and a mass fractal dimension of 2.74 on the basis of the image analysis. Rheological tests indicated that the conditioned WTRs at the optimum polymer dosage showed higher levels of shear-thinning behavior than the raw WTRs. Variations in the limiting viscosity (η(∞)) of conditioned WTRs with sludge content could be described by a linear equation, which were different from the often-observed empirical exponential relationship for most municipal sludge. With increasing temperature, the η(∞) of the raw WTRs decreased more rapidly than that of the raw WTRs. Good fitting results for the relationships between lgη(∞)∼T using the Arrhenius equation indicate that the WTRs had a much higher activation energy for viscosity of about 17.86-26.91 J/mol compared with that of anaerobic granular sludge (2.51 J/mol) (Mu and Yu, 2006). In addition, the Bingham plastic model adequately described the rheological behavior of the conditioned WTRs, whereas the rheology of the raw WTRs fit the Herschel-Bulkley model well at only certain sludge contents. Considering the good power-law relationships between the

  11. Influence of the Conditions of Electrode Position and Heat Treatment on the Structure and Properties of Metallic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovenskiy, I. M.; Kulemina, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of electrodeposition conditions and heat treatment on the structure and properties of metallic coatings has been considered. It has been that at different values of overvoltage, metals crystallize with a cellular, subgrain or monoblock structure. The final formation of the structure occurs during annealing, in the process of which either polygonization or recrystallization develops in the coatings. Varying the conditions of electrodeposition and heat treatment allows obtaining coatings with functional characteristics for specific operating conditions.

  12. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag(+)) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co(2+)) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag(+)/Co(2+)-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes.

  13. Exercise as a Time-conditioning Effector in Chronic Disease: a Complementary Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. B. P. Costa Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been widely believed to be a preventive and therapeutic aid in the treatment of various pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A common problem associated with such pathologies is cachexia, characterized by progressive weight loss and depletion of lean and fat body mass, and is linked to poor prognosis. As this syndrome comprises changes in many physiological systems, it is tempting to assume that the modulation of the psychoneuroimmunoendocrine axis could attenuate or even prevent cachexia progression in cancer patients. Cancer cachexia is characterized by a disruption in the rhythmic secretion of melatonin, an important time-conditioning effector. This hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, transmits circadian and seasonal information to all organs and cells of the body, synchronizing the organism with the photoperiod. Considering that exercise modulates the immune response through at least two different mechanisms—metabolic and neuroendocrine—we propose that the adoption of a regular exercise program as a complementary strategy in the treatment of cancer patients, with the exercise bouts regularly performed at the same time of the day, will ameliorate cachexia symptoms and increase survival and quality of life.

  14. Experimental Simulation of Long Term Weathering in Alkaline Bauxite Residue Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Santini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite residue is an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of the Bayer process used for alumina refining. Developing effective plans for the long term management of potential environmental impacts associated with storage of these tailings is dependent on understanding how the chemical and mineralogical properties of the tailings will change during weathering and transformation into a soil-like material. Hydrothermal treatment of bauxite residue was used to compress geological weathering timescales and examine potential mineral transformations during weathering. Gibbsite was rapidly converted to boehmite; this transformation was examined with in situ synchrotron XRD. Goethite, hematite, and calcite all precipitated over longer weathering timeframes, while tricalcium aluminate dissolved. pH, total alkalinity, and salinity (electrical conductivity all decreased during weathering despite these experiments being performed under “closed” conditions (i.e., no leaching. This indicates the potential for auto-attenuation of the high alkalinity and salinity that presents challenges for long term environmental management, and suggests that management requirements will decrease during weathering as a result of these mineral transformations.

  15. Investigation of heat treatment conditions of structural material for blanket fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents recent results of thermal hysteresis effects on ceramic breeder blanket structural material. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF) steel is the leading candidates for the first wall structural materials of breeding blankets. RAF steel demonstrates superior resistance to high dose neutron irradiation, because the steel has tempered martensite structure which contains the number of sink site for radiation defects. This microstructure obtained by two-step heat treatment, first is normalizing at temperature above 1200 K and the second is tempering at temperature below 1100 K. Recent study revealed the thermal hysteresis has significant impacts on the post-irradiation mechanical properties. The breeding blanket has complicated structure, which consists of tungsten armor and thin first wall with cooling pipe. The blanket fabrication requires some high temperature joining processes. Especially hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is examined as a near-net-shape fabrication process for this structure. The process consists of heating above 1300 K and isostatic pressing at the pressure above 150 MPa followed by tempering. Moreover ceramics pebbles are packed into blanket module and the module is to be seamed by welding followed by post weld heat treatment in the final assemble process. Therefore the final microstructural features of RAFs strongly depend on the blanket fabrication process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of thermal hysteresis corresponding to blanket fabrication process on RAFs microstructure in order to establish appropriate blanket fabrication process. Japanese RAFs F82H (Fe-0.1C-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.05Ta) was investigated by metallurgical method after isochronal heat treatment up to 1473 K simulating high temperature bonding process. Although F82H showed significant grain growth after conventional solid HIP conditions (1313 K x 2 hr.), this coarse grained microstructure was refined by the post HIP normalizing at

  16. Effect of Alkali Treatment of Wheat Straw on Adsorption of Cu(II under Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The convenient and feasible pretreatment method of alkali treatment is very common in the degradation process of wheat straw. However, its utilization in the pretreatment of wheat straw as alternative adsorbents for aqueous heavy metals remediation is rarely reported. The present study investigated the removal efficiency of Cu(II ions using wheat straw with alkali pretreatment. The condition of alkali treatment on wheat straw was optimized with the adsorption capacity of Cu(II as indicator using single-factor experiments. The influences of wheat straw dosages, pH values, contact time, and temperatures on adsorption performance for both untreated wheat straw (UWS and alkali-treated wheat straw (AWS were investigated. Results showed that the relatively large removal rate of Cu(II could be obtained, and chemical behavior occurred during the adsorption process. Characteristic analysis found that the major function of alkali treatment to wheat straw was to introduce the hydroxy group, which resulted in the increase of -C-O- group. Although the adsorption capacity is not as high as the one of ligands supported adsorbents, the method is easy to operate and has a wide range of application; at the same time, it could realize both purposes of treating heavy metal pollution and solid wastes.

  17. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  18. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Kells

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments. However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime. The lethal temperature (LTemp99 for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  19. The Condition of Silica Sand Grains Surface Subjected to Reclamation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations are concerned on evaluation of new silica sand grains surface condition after mechanical reclamation treatment as well as on the conditions of reclaimed sand grains surface subjected to thermal and thermo-mechanical reclamation processes. The purpose of research was to answer the question how the applied methods have influenced the surface condition of reclaimed sand grains which was tested by means of bending strength determination of sand samples prepared with resin binder and reclaimed sand. The immediate aim of the research was to explain the mechanism of impurities cleaning on the sand grains surface after thermal reclamation, when the sand is used several times in preparation of a foundry mixture, and to determine what effect these impurities may have on the technological properties of the ready sand mixture. The task of the additionally applied mechanical reclamation was to remove the accumulated inorganic compounds from the sand grains surface and confirm if further improvement of the reclaim quality is possible.

  20. Periodontal conditions and treatment in urban and rural population of West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehta R; Kundu D; Chakrabarty S; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To search adequate epidemiological data on periodontal conditions for the planning of oral health programs in Indian population, and to determine the prevalence of periodontal diseases, in regards to age and gender of urban and rural population in West Bengal, India. Methods: 22 542 subjects aged 15 years onwards, representative of rural and urban areas of West Bengal were examined for their periodontal conditions using the community periodontal index (CPI).Results: Supra and/or sub gingival calculus dominated as the most frequent score (score 2) among males (76.51%) and females (76.58%), which was least affected in young age group and higher in rural population. Severity of highest score were significant (P<0.001) according to their gender, age group and habitation and had independent effects (P<0.001) on it. Mean number of sextants affected by scores 1, 2, 3, & 4 were more in the rural areas. Assessed treatment needed was predominantly type II (Scaling and improved oral hygiene).Conclusions:The severe periodontal condition (Score 2, 3 and 4) is observed among rural males in older age group more than its urban counterparts of West Bengal, India.

  1. Impact of HLA-G analysis in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Daria; Gentili, Valentina; Rotola, Antonella; Cassai, Enzo; Rizzo, Roberta; Luca, Dario Di

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical HLA class I molecule that differs from classical HLA class I molecules by low polymorphism and tissue distribution. HLA-G is a tolerogenic molecule with an immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory function on both innate and adaptative immunity. This peculiar characteristic of HLA-G has led to investigations of its role in pathological conditions in order to define possible uses in diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In recent years, HLA-G has been shown to have an important implication in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, pregnancy complications, tumor development and aggressiveness, and susceptibility to viral infections. In fact, HLA-G molecules have been reported to alternate at both genetic and protein level in different disease situations, supporting its crucial role in pathological conditions. Specific pathologies show altered levels of soluble (s)HLA-G and different HLA-G gene polymorphisms seem to correlate with disease. This review aims to update scientific knowledge on the contribution of HLA-G in managing pathological conditions. PMID:25237627

  2. High methylmercury production under ferruginous conditions in sediments impacted by sewage treatment plant discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Bouchet, Sylvain; Guédron, Stéphane; Amouroux, David; Dominik, Janusz; Zopfi, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are important point sources of mercury (Hg) to the environment. STPs are also significant sources of iron when hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) is used as a dephosphatation agent during water purification. In this study, we combined geochemical and microbiological characterization with Hg speciation and sediment amendments to evaluate the impact of STP's effluents on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production. The highest in-situ Hg methylation was found close to the discharge pipe in subsurface sediments enriched with Hg, organic matter, and iron. There, ferruginous conditions were prevailing with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(2+) and virtually no free sulfide in the porewater. Sediment incubations demonstrated that the high MMHg production close to the discharge was controlled by low demethylation yields. Inhibition of dissimilatory sulfate reduction with molybdate led to increased iron reduction rates and Hg-methylation, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may not have been the main Hg methylators under these conditions. However, Hg methylation in sediments amended with amorphous Fe(III)-oxides was only slightly higher than control conditions. Thus, in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, other non-SRB most likely contributed to Hg methylation. Overall, this study highlights that sediments impacted by STP discharges can become local hot-spots for Hg methylation due to the combined inputs of i) Hg, ii) organic matter, which fuels bacterial activities and iii) iron, which keeps porewater sulfide concentration low and hence Hg bioavailable.

  3. Conditioning of sludge produced through chemical treatment of radioactive liquid waste - Operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D. Anji, E-mail: anji@igcar.gov.i [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Khandelwal, S.K.; Muthiah, R.; Shanmugamani, A.G.; Paul, Biplob; Rao, S.V.S.; Sinha, P.K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    At Centralised Waste Management Facility (CWMF) 160 m{sup 3} of radioactive chemical sludge, generated from treatment of several batches of category-II and category-III radioactive liquid wastes by chemical precipitation method was stored in clariflocculator (CF) for downstream processing. The sludge needed conditioning before disposal. The analysis of the sludge samples collected at different radial locations and depths from the CF showed suspended solid content of 2.37-13.07% and radioactive content of gross {beta}-{gamma} 5000-27,000 Bq/g and {alpha} 100-600 Bq/g. After comparing different options available for conditioning of the sludge based on their technological and economical aspects, it was decided to dewater it using centrifuge before fixing in cement matrix with additives. Process Control Laboratory of CWMF studied the process in detail to optimize the relevant parameters for fixation of the concentrate obtained from centrifuge. Based on these results, conditioning of the stored sludge was undertaken. The process consisted of diluting the sludge with low active effluents/water for homogenisation and facilitating the transfer of sludge, dewatering of the slurry utilising decanter centrifuge, fixation of dewatered concentrate in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with vermiculite as an additive using in-drum mixing method, providing sufficient time for hardening of fixed mass, transportation and safe disposal into Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). Total 150 m{sup 3} of conditioned waste was produced (750 numbers of drums containing cement fixed concentrate). The paper includes the results of the studies conducted on cement fixed concentrate blocks for finding out their compressive strength and leaching characteristics. It also describes the experiences gained from the above operations.

  4. Water Vapor Adsorption on Biomass Based Carbons under Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions: Effect of Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausika Querejeta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-treatment upon the H2O adsorption performance of biomass-based carbons was studied under post-combustion CO2 capture conditions. Oxygen surface functionalities were partially replaced through heat treatment, acid washing, and wet impregnation with amines. The surface chemistry of the final carbon is strongly affected by the type of post-treatment: acid treatment introduces a greater amount of oxygen whereas it is substantially reduced after thermal treatment. The porous texture of the carbons is also influenced by post-treatment: the wider pore volume is somewhat reduced, while narrow microporosity remains unaltered only after acid treatment. Despite heat treatment leading to a reduction in the number of oxygen surface groups, water vapor adsorption was enhanced in the higher pressure range. On the other hand acid treatment and wet impregnation with amines reduce the total water vapor uptake thus being more suitable for post-combustion CO2 capture applications.

  5. Conversion of ethanol to propylene over HZSM-5 type zeolites containing alkaline earth metals

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Daisuke; Harada, Yasumitsu; Furumoto, Yoshiyasu; Takahashi, Atsushi; Fujitani, Tadahiro; Oumi, Yasunori; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2010-01-01

    Protonated ZSM-5 type zeolites containing alkaline earth metals (M-HZSM-5, M: alkaline earth metal) were prepared under various synthesis conditions and their catalytic performance in conversion of ethanol to light olefins was investigated in detail. Among M-HZSM-5, Sr-HZSM-5 exhibited an excellent performance.

  6. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  7. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  8. Alkalinity Enrichment Enhances Net Calcification of a Coral Reef Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, R.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification is projected to shift reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution sometime this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale changes in coral calcification over the last several decades, it is not possible to unequivocally link these results to ocean acidification due to confounding factors of temperature and other environmental parameters. Here, we quantified the calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment to test whether reef calcification increases when ocean chemistry is restored to near pre-industrial conditions. We used sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to increase the total alkalinity of seawater flowing over a reef flat, with the aim of increasing carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) to values that would have been attained under pre-industrial atmospheric pCO2 levels. We developed a dual tracer regression method to estimate alkalinity uptake (i.e., calcification) in response to alkalinity enrichment. This approach uses the change in ratios between a non-conservative tracer (alkalinity) and a conservative tracer (a non-reactive dye, Rhodamine WT) to assess the fraction of added alkalinity that is taken up by the reef as a result of an induced increase in calcification rate. Using this method, we estimate that an average of 17.3% ± 2.3% of the added alkalinity was taken up by the reef community. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment performed on a natural coral reef community (without artificial confinement), we demonstrate that, upon increase of [CO32-] and Ωarag to near pre-industrial values, reef calcification increases. Thus, we conclude that, the impacts of ocean acidification are already being felt by coral reefs. This work is the culmination of years of work in the Caldeira lab at the Carnegie Institution for Science, involving many people including Jack Silverman, Kenny Schneider, and Jana Maclaren.

  9. Effect of conditions of thermal treatment on the porous structure of an aluminum oxide-containing nanofibrous aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, E. B.; Krasil'nikova, O. K.; Grankina, T. Yu.; Serov, Yu. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effect the conditions of thermal treatment have on a specific surface and the number of primary adsorption centers is studied. The relationship between changing adsorption characteristics and changes in the structure of nanofibrous aluminum oxide is considered.

  10. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmathi, P; Elangovan, G; Begum, A Farjana

    2015-01-01

    Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD). The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5%) and color (95.1%) of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm(2), electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  11. Subclinical effects and fenbendazole treatment of turkey ascaridiasis under simulated field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazwinski, T A; Tucker, C; Stelzleni, A; Johnson, Z; Robins, J; Downum, K; Fincher, M; Matlock, J; Chapman, H D

    2002-01-01

    Under simulated natural conditions of bird production and parasite challenge, the effects of ascaridiasis and the effectiveness of fenbendazole treatment (6-day regimes in the feed at 16 ppm) were documented. Birds were artificially challenged with ascarid larvae on a daily basis from day 35 to 112, with bird grow out ending on day 119. Experimental groups, on a per pen basis, were infected control, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69 and days 91-97, and uninfected control. In the same order as above, and on an experimental group mean bird basis, final weights were 13.34, 13.47, 13.59, and 13.78 kg, average daily gains from day 7 to day 119 were 117.8, 118.9, 120.1, and 121.8 g, and units gained per unit of feed consumed from day 7 to day 119 were 0.337, 0.341, 0.347, and 0.362. Infected control bird mean Ascaridia dissimilis burdens, with all stages combined, ranged from 351.1 on day 63 to 117.2 on day 91, levels seen commonly with naturally infected commercial turkeys. Trial data dearly indicated that moderate A. dissimilis burdens negatively impacted animal performance (average daily gains and feed efficiencies) and that these parasite burdens are effectively removed by fenbendazole treatment.

  12. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  13. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arulmathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD. The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5% and color (95.1% of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm2, electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  14. Effects of Heat Treatment Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of RAFM Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Y. B.; Kang, S. H.; Noh, S. H.; Han, C. H.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, K. B.; Kim, T. K.; Jeong, Y. H.; Lee, D. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has been developed in leading countries for nuclear fusion technology, and is now being considered as a primary candidate material for the test blanket module (TBM) in the international thermonuclear experiment reactor (ITER). The mechanical properties of RAFM steel are strongly affected by microstructural features including the distribution, size as well as the type of the precipitates, dislocation density and grain size. Such microstructural characteristics are determined mainly by the thermo-mechanical process employed to fabricate the final product. Accordingly, the final heat treatments are the key steps to control the microstructure and mechanical properties. In the present work, we investigated the mechanical properties of the RAFM steel with a particular attention being paid to the effects of the normalizing and tempering conditions on the mechanical properties. From a statistical analysis made on the mechanical properties of the RAFM steels designed, it was found that a reduction in the austenitization temperature results in a refinement of PAG, which in turn leads to an improvement of the impact resistance. The short-term creep resistance is enhanced as the empering time decreases. Accordingly, it is concluded that for a given alloy composition, an improvement of both creep and impact resistance can be achieved by an optimization of heat treatments.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior in Unloading Conditions of Sandstone After High-Temperature Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi-Le; Ju, Feng; Mao, Xian-Biao; Ma, Dan; Yu, Bang-Yong; Song, Shuai-Bing

    2016-07-01

    A detailed understanding of damage evolution in rock after high-temperature treatment in unloading conditions is extremely important in underground engineering applications, such as the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear waste, underground coal gasification, and post-disaster reconstruction. We have studied the effects of temperature (200, 400, 600 and 800 °C) and confining pressure (20, 30 and 40 MPa) on the mechanical properties of sandstone. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that at temperatures exceeding 400 °C, new cracks formed, and original cracks extended substantially. When the confining pressure was 20 MPa, a temperature increase from 400 to 800 °C resulted in a 75.2% increase in peak strain, a decrease in Young's modulus and peak strength of 62.5 and 35.8 %, respectively, and transition of the failure mechanism from brittleness to ductility. In the triaxial compression tests, the specimen deformed in a more obvious ductile failure manner at higher confining pressure, whereas in the unloading confining pressure experiments, brittle failure was more obvious when the initial confining pressure was higher. We focused on the effects of temperature and initial confining pressure on peak effective loading stress and peak ductile deformation during unloading. At temperatures of >400 °C, the peak ductile deformation increased rapidly with increases in the high temperature treatment or initial confining pressure. The peak effective loading stress decreased sharply with increased temperature but barely changed when the initial confining pressure was varied.

  16. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  17. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  18. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  19. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Suchismita Paul; Rachel Evans; Toby Maurer; Muhe, Lulu M.; Freeman, Esther E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was underta...

  20. Zeolites as structure formation products of alkalineous cements hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvenko, Р. V.; Runova, R. F.; Rudenko, I. I.

    2014-01-01

    The paper concerns analysis of theoretical and experimental studies, according to which, in conditions of artificial stone making for buildings purposes (cement, concrete), synthesis of alkaline aluminosilicates similar to natural minerals of zeolitic group occurs. Presence of such new formations in hydration products of standartized type alkaline cements provides their high running abilities and durability. Наведено аналіз теоретичних і експериментальних досл...

  1. Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgeway JL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Ridgeway,1,2 Jason S Egginton,1,2 Kristina Tiedje,3 Mark Linzer,4,5 Deborah Boehm,4 Sara Poplau,6 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,7 Laura Odell,8 Victor M Montori,2,9 David T Eton1,2 1The Mayo Clinic Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, 2Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Department of Anthropology, Université Lumière Lyon 2, Lyon, France; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, 5University of Minnesota Medical School, 6Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 7Department of Social Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; 8Pharmacy Services, 9Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity often require ongoing treatment and complex self-care. This workload and its impact on patient functioning and well-being are, together, known as treatment burden. This study reports on factors that patients with multimorbidity draw on to lessen perceptions of treatment burden. Patients and methods: Interviews (n=50 and focus groups (n=4 groups, five to eight participants per group were conducted with patients receiving care in a large academic medical center or an urban safety-net hospital. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative framework analysis methods, and themes and subthemes were used to identify factors that mitigate burden. Focus groups were held to confirm these findings and clarify any new issues. This study was part of a larger program to develop a patient-reported measure of treatment burden. Results: Five major themes emerged from the interview data. These included: 1 problem-focused strategies, like routinizing self-care, enlisting support of others, planning for the future, and using technology; 2 emotion-focused coping strategies, like

  2. The treatment and the conditioning of wastes: thematic synthesis document relative to the law of the 30 december 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report takes stock on the researches results realized since 1992 and concerning the treatment and the conditioning of wastes. In particular it details the results of the following domains: the decontamination of solid materials, the treatment of organic wastes, the wastes encapsulation processes (cement, bituminous) and the vitrification processes. (A.L.B.)

  3. Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Nowaki; Tezuka, Rui; Kazama, Shinobu; Otaki, Masahiro; Ushijima, Ken; Ito, Ryusei; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost with calcium lime and ash were investigated. Two indicator microorganisms, Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage, were used as surrogates for enteric pathogens. The alkaline-treated compost with calcium oxide (CaO) or ash resulted primarily in damage to the outer membrane and enzyme activities of E. coli. The alkaline treatment of compost also led to the infectivity loss of the coliphage because of the partial capsid damage and RNA exteriorization due to a raised pH, which is proportional to the amount of alkaline agents added. These results indicate that the alkaline treatment of compost using calcium oxide and ash is effective and can contribute to the safe usage of compost from a mixing type dry toilet. PMID:27562698

  4. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  5. ADVANCES IN THE MODEL OF CYLINDRICAL ALKALINE CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advancement of a systematic investigation on the modeling of cylindrical alkaline cells is presented.Initial analysis utilizes thermodynamic and kinetic information to predict alkaline cell performance under low discharge rates.Subsequent modling has taken into consideration detailed information on the chemistry of electrode reactions,mass tranport of dissolved species,physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte and solid phases,and internal geonetry of cell systems.The model is capable of predicting alkaline cell performance under a variety of dicharge conditions.The model also provides information regarding internal cell changes during discharge.The model is the basis of a rational approach for the optimal design of cells.

  6. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  7. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  8. In vitro fermentation response to alkaline treated sorghum grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARHAD PARNIAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of three alkaline treatments: NaOH, NaHCO3 and wood ash on the crude protein (CP, condensed tannin (CT, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in vitro gas production kinetics and dry matter (DM digestibility of sorghum grain were determined. The NaOH (2% w/v, NaHCO3 (2% w/v and wood ash (5% w/v treatments were completed by soaking of sorghum grain with treatment solutions in the proportion of 1 L of solution to 1 kg of grain for 12 h. Gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h post incubation. Alkaline treatment decreased significantly the CT (P<0.001 and NDF content (P<0.05 of sorghum grain, where it had no effect on the CP content. Treated grain with wood ash extract showed the highest (P<0.05 maximum gas production (A, and NaOH treatment trended (P<0.06 to the fastest fractional fermentation rate. Fractional rate of gas production and cumulative gas production overall incubation times except of 48 h (P<0.05 were not changed by NaHCO3 and wood ash treatment. Maximum (P<0.01 in vitro DM digestibility of alkaline treatment of sorghum grain was observed by NaOH. Cumulative volatile fatty acids concentration was increased (P<0.01 at 4h for NaOH treated compared to untreated sorghum and then decreased (P<0.001 at 48 h post incubation. Alkaline treatment of sorghum grain may become attractive due to raise in nutritive values of sorghum and hide the negative effects of its tannin in the future if the costs of other processing continue to rise.

  9. Chemical Structure of Bioethanol Lignin by Low-Temperature Alkaline Catalytic Hydrothermal Treatment%水热法碱活化生物质乙醇木质素的化学结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓欢; 张明明; 王基夫; 许玉芝; 王春鹏; 储富祥

    2013-01-01

    为了提高生物质乙醇木质素的反应活性,采用水热法在四种不同碱性条件下对生物质乙醇木质素进行催化活化处理。运用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)、核磁共振氢谱(1 H-NMR)、凝胶色谱(GPC)和有机元素分析手段研究了生物质乙醇木质素被四种碱(NaO H ,KO H ,K2 CO3和Na2 CO3)催化活化前后木质素的化学结构以及组分变化。FTIR结果表明生物质乙醇木质素碱经处理后,木质素的酚羟基特征吸收峰1375 cm -1都有明显增大趋势,醚键振动吸收峰1116 cm -1减弱,1597和1511 cm-1处苯环骨架振动吸收峰强度变化很小;1 H-NMR分析结果表明酚羟基含量都有增大趋势,增加顺序为:KOH > NaOH > K2CO3>Na2 CO3,其中KOH处理后的木质素酚羟基含量增加量为原木素的170%。这由于离子半径大的钾离子更容易与木质素β-O-4醚键上的氧形成加和物,进而发生醚键断裂反应,生成新的酚结构衍生物。G PC 表明生物质乙醇木质素碱处理后分子量分布向低分子区域扩展,数均和重均分子量减小。元素分析结果显示木质素经过水热反应处理后,C含量都有所增加,而H和O含量则降低了,表明木质素经水热反应处理过程中有脱羧基作用,同时蛋白质的含量也有所降低,提高了木质素的纯度。这都有利于直接将木质素用于制备酚醛树脂胶黏剂。%In order to improve the reaction activity of bioethanol lignin ,we investigated the activation of bioethanol lignin by a hydrothermal treatment method .Catalytic hydrothermal treatment of bioethanol lignin was performed at 180 ℃ for 3 h in the presence of alkaline solutions (NaOH ,Na2CO3 ,KOH and K2CO3 ) ,the change in bioethanol lignin structures was studied com-paratively by FTIR ,1 H NMR ,GPC and elemental analysis .FTIR spectra showed that after alkali hydrothermal treatment ,the band at 1 375 cm-1 attributed to the

  10. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions. The search strategy included gray and peer-reviewed literature. Results. Of 430 potential guidelines, 86 met inclusion criteria, and only 2 were written specifically to address HIV-related skin diseases as a whole. Treatment information for HIV-related skin conditions was embedded within guidelines written for other purposes, primarily HIV/AIDs treatment guidelines (49%. Development of guidelines relied either partially or completely on expert opinion (62%. Only 16% of guidelines used gradation of evidence quality and these were primarily from high-income countries (p=0.001. Limitations. Due to the nature of gray literature, not all guidelines may have been identified. Conclusion. This review highlights the need for evidence-based summary guidelines that address treatment for HIV-related skin conditions in an accessible format.

  11. On the acidity and/or basicity of USY zeolites after basic and acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calsavara V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The isopropanol decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the catalytic activity of ultrastable (USY zeolites with different degrees of dealumination, treated in strongly alkaline medium at various temperatures and contact times. This treatment resulted in the reinsertion of non-framework aluminium, a result of the ultrastabilization process. The samples obtained were also submitted to an acid treatment, leaching the non-framework aluminium that had not been reinserted. The results obtained at 723K showed a large reduction in the acidic activity of the alkaline-treated zeolite, as the treatment conditions became more severe (the longer the treatment time or the higher the temperature, the higher the degree of dealumination. On the other hand, treated samples displayed some isopropanol dehydrogenation activity (basic sites. However, this activity was not very significant and did not depend on the alkaline treatment or ultrastabilization conditions used. The effect of reaction temperature and acid leaching on activity is also shown.

  12. Identification of Bacillus subtilis EIM-8 with high-yield of alkaline protease and optimization of its submerged fermentation conditions by response surface methodology%碱性蛋白酶高产菌株EIM-8的筛选鉴定及其液体发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦勇; 柯崇榕

    2011-01-01

    筛选分离得到一株高产碱性蛋白酶菌株EIM-8,并基于16S序列进行分子系统进化分析,鉴定该菌株为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis).同时,采用响应面法对Bacillus subtilis EIM-8的产酶条件进行了优化.首先通过单因素试验,筛选出最适碳源为玉米淀粉,最适氮源为牛肉膏.在此基础上,采用Plackett-Burman试验设计筛选出影响酶活的三个主效因子--玉米淀粉、装液量和初始pH值.再通过最陡爬坡实验逼近最大响应区域,用Box-Behnken试验设计和嵴岭分析确定主效因子的最优水平.优化后酶活可达10 232.2 U/mL,较优化前提高了2.53倍.%A high alkaline protease-producing strain EIM -8 was isojated and identified as B acillus subtilis based on its phylogenetic analysis of 16S sequence . And then the ferm entation conditions for B acillus subtilis EIM -8 for producing alkaline protease were investigated . First the carbon and nitrogen sources were determ ined as com starch and beef extract by single factorial experiments . Then some process factors in subm erged ferm entation were evaluated and three significant factors : comstarch , the liquid volume and the initial pH , were obtaied by Plackett-Bum an design . At last the optimal ferm entation conditions were determ ined by the Box-Behnken design and ridge analysis after the steepest ascent search experinent. The maxinum activity of alkaline protease produced by Bacillus subtili's EIM -8 reached up to 10 232 .2 U/m L and the yield was incrased by 35.3% compared with that of the original .

  13. Finalizing a measurement framework for the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eton DT

    2015-03-01

    % were coping with multiple chronic conditions. A preliminary conceptual framework using data from the first 32 interviews was evaluated and was modified using narrative data from 18 additional interviews with a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of patients. The final framework features three overarching themes with associated subthemes. These themes included: 1 work patients must do to care for their health (eg, taking medications, keeping medical appointments, monitoring health; 2 challenges/stressors that exacerbate perceived burden (eg, financial, interpersonal, provider obstacles; and 3 impacts of burden (eg, role limitations, mental exhaustion. All themes and subthemes were subsequently confirmed in focus groups. Conclusion: The final conceptual framework can be used as a foundation for building a patient self-report measure to systematically study treatment burden for research and analytical purposes, as well as to promote meaningful clinic-based dialogue between patients and providers about the challenges inherent in maintaining complex self-management of health. Keywords: treatment burden, conceptual framework, adherence, questionnaire, self-management, multi-morbidity

  14. Efficiency of wastewater treatment in SBR and IFAS-MBSBBR systems in specified technological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytek-Szmeichel, K; Podedworna, J; Zubrowska-Sudol, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare wastewater treatment effectiveness in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and integrated fixed-film activated sludge-moving-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (IFAS-MBSBBR) systems in specific technological conditions. The comparison of these two technologies was based on the following assumptions, shared by both series, I and II: the reactor's active volume was 28 L; 8-hour cycle of reactor's work, with the same sequence and duration of its consecutive phases; and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aerobic phases was maintained at a level of 3.0 mg O2/L. For both experimental series (I and II), comparable effectiveness of organic compound (chemical oxygen demand (COD)) removal, nitrification and biological phosphorus removal has been obtained at levels of 95.1%, 97% and 99%, respectively. The presence of the carrier improved the efficiency of total nitrogen removal from 86.3% to 91.7%. On the basis of monitoring tests, it has been found that the ratio of simultaneous denitrification in phases with aeration to the total efficiency of denitrification in the cycle was 1.5 times higher for IFAS-MBSBBR. PMID:27003075

  15. Conditional Order-m Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment Plants: The Role of Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Fuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing economic and environmental importance of managing water resources at a global level also entails greater efforts and interest in improving the functioning and efficiency of the increasingly more numerous wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. In this context, this study analyzes the efficiency of a uniform sample of plants of this type located in the region of Valencia (Spain. The type of efficiency measure used for this (conditional order-m efficiency allows continuous and discrete contextual variables to be directly involved in the analysis and enables the assessment of their statistical significance and effect (positive or negative. The main findings of the study showed that the quality of the influent water and also the size and age of the plants had a significant influence on their efficiency levels. In particular, as regards the effect of such variables, the findings pointed to the existence of an inverse relationship between the quality of the influent water and the efficiency of the WWTPs. Also, a lower annual volume of treated water and more modern installations showed a positive influence. Additionally, the average efficiency levels observed turned out to be higher than those reported in previous studies.

  16. Influence of different treatment condition on biopolymer yield production for coagulation-flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, I. S.; Murshed, M. F.; Norli, I.

    2016-06-01

    Two different agro wastes (banana pseudostem and rice straw) were utilized in order to extract biopolymer (pectin) known as coagulant aid in water and wastewater treatment. Factors such as pH, temperature and time were chosen due to the critical role in hot acid extraction process. The yield of biopolymer extraction from banana pseudostem was found to be higher at 28% meanwhile only 18% from rice straw was manage to produce from the dry weight 10 g, respectively. It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the most important factors influencing the biopolymer yield which increased with temperature and time or decreasing pH. Based on two level factorial design, the same condition of pH 1.5, temperature 90 oC and 4 hours extraction time can produce high amount of extracted biopolymer. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect the existence of functional group which helps in the coagulation-flocculation process. Result indicates a similar functional group of biopolymer were detected for both difference agro wastes.

  17. In-vitro bioactivity of Venda medicinal plants used in the treatment of respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Ca; Steenkamp, V

    2008-11-01

    Infectious diseases, especially those affecting the respiratory tract, represent a critical problem to health. Crude methanol and water extracts of 10 Venda plants reported to be used ethnomedically in the treatment of respiratory conditions were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against standard strains and clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Haemophilis influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium smegmatis using the disc diffusion assay. Four of the 10 plants tested possessed antimicrobial activity, but no activity against K. pneumoniae was observed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations, as determined by the broth microdilution assay, showed three plants, Securidaca longepedunculata, Syzygium cordatum, and Tabernaemontana elegans, to possess MICs

  18. Effect of noble metal treatment to oxide film on SUS 304 under HWC condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble metal deposited SUS 304 specimens with an oxide film were exposed to a simulated HWC condition co-existing with Co radioactivity in order to establish a relationship between features of the oxide film such as the weight, composition and morphology, and the accumulation and distribution of Co radioactivity in the oxide film. The accumulated Co radioactivity decreased to about 40% of that of non-deposited sample, and the distribution of Co radioactivity in the outer layer of the oxide film was remarkably decreased. Compared with non-deposited sample, a significant weight loss and decrease in Fe involved in the outer layer of the oxide film occurred. Dissolution of oxide particles on the outer layer was observed by SEM-EDX analysis. From these results, the dissolution of the outer layer of the oxide film is thought to cause the decrease in accumulated Co radioactivity. But in an actual plant, the loss of the outer layer of the oxide film is thought to cause the increase in Co radioactivity in reactor water because the radioactivity, which was accumulated in the oxide film before the noble metal treatment, is released simultaneously. (authors)

  19. Shortening of alkaline DNA unwinding time does not interfere with detecting DNA damage to mouse and human spermatozoa in the comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirokazu Kusakabe; Hiroyuki Tateno

    2011-01-01

    The comet assay was performed on mouse and human spermatozoa to examine the effect of alkaline DNA unwinding time.The spermatozoa were treated in vitrowith the DNA-damaging agents,methyl methanesulfonate(MMS)or hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),and then embedded in agarose gel on glass slides.The slides were immersed in alkaline solution(>pH 1.3)for 1,5,10 and 20 min,and then subjected to the electrophoresis under neutral conditions.In mouse spermatozoa,comet tails seen in solvent controls became brighter and longer as the alkaline DNA unwinding time increased.However,in the MMS-treated mouse spermatozoa,a smaller difference in the damage from that in the solvent control was seen with time within a dose.DNA damage induced by H2O2 could also be detected accurately after alkali treatment for 1-20 min.In human spermatozoa,DNA damage induced by MMS and H2O2 could be detected in a dose-dependent manner after alkali treatment for 1 min.The ability of the comet assay to detect DNA damage was not adversely affected by the short period(1 min)of the alkaline DNA unwinding time.

  20. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  1. Hydrogen in aluminum during alkaline corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Saikat; Ai, Jiahe [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hebert, Kurt R., E-mail: krhebert@iastate.ed [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ho, K.M.; Wang, C.Z. [US DOE, Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-07-30

    The thermodynamic state of hydrogen in aluminum during alkaline corrosion was investigated, using a two-compartment hydrogen permeation cell with an Al/Pd bilayer membrane. The open-circuit potential of the Pd layer in a pH 7.0 buffer solution was monitored to sense the hydrogen chemical potential, {mu}{sub H}. At pH 12.5-13.5, the measurements established a minimum {mu}{sub H} of 0.55 eV relative to the ideal gas reference, equivalent to a H{sub 2} gas pressure of 5.7 GPa. Statistical mechanics calculations show that vacancy-hydrogen defects are stable in Al at this condition. A dissolution mechanism was proposed in which H at very high {mu}{sub H} is produced by oxidation of interfacial aluminum hydride. The mechanism explains the observed rapid accumulation of H in the metal by extensive formation of vacancy-hydrogen defects.

  2. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na2CO3/NaHCO3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 700C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  3. Dolomite Dissolution in Alkaline Cementious Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Klammer, Dietmar; Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Chemical alteration of concrete has gained much attention over the past years as many cases of deterioration due to sulphate attack, thaumasite formation (TSA) or alkali silica reactions (ASR) have been reported in various constructions (Schmidt et al, 2009). Much less is known about the so called alkali carbonate reaction (ACR). It is believed that dolomite aggregates can react with the alkalis from the cement, dissolve and form calcite and brucite (Katayama, 2004). Due to very low solubility of dolomite in alkaline solutions this reaction seems doubtful. In this study we are trying to gain new insides about the conditions that can lead to the dissolution of dolomite in concrete. Therefore we investigated concrete samples from Austrian tunnels that show partially dissolved dolomite aggregates. Petrological analysis such as microprobe, SEM and Raman spectroscopy as well as a hydrochemical analysis of interstitial solutions and ground water and modelling with PhreeqC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) are carried out. In addition a series of batch experiments is set up. Modelling approaches by PhreeqC show a thermodynamically possibility in the alkaline range when additional Ca2+ in solution causes dolomite to become more and more undersaturated as calcite gets supersaturated. Interacting ground water is enriched in Ca2+and saturated with respect to gypsum as marine evaporites are found in situ rocks. Furthermore it is more likely that Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) plays a more important role than Na and K in the cement. Portlandite acts as an additional Ca2+ source and is much more abundant than the alkalies. Some interstitial solutions are dominated mainly by Na+ and SO42- and reach concentrations up to 30 g/l TDS. It is believed that solutions can even reach thenardite saturation as efflorescences are found on the tunnel walls. In consequence dolomite solubility increases with increasing ionic strength. pH > 11 further accelerate the process of dedolomitization by the removal

  4. Acute and chronic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on fear conditioning: implications for underlying fear circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, N S; Bauer, E P

    2013-09-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used for the treatment of a spectrum of anxiety disorders, yet paradoxically they may increase symptoms of anxiety when treatment is first initiated. Despite extensive research over the past 30 years focused on SSRI treatment, the precise mechanisms by which SSRIs exert these opposing acute and chronic effects on anxiety remain unknown. By testing the behavioral effects of SSRI treatment on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a well characterized model of emotional learning, we have the opportunity to identify how SSRIs affect the functioning of specific brain regions, including the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and hippocampus. In this review, we first define different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. We examine the results of numerous rodent studies investigating how acute SSRI treatment modulates fear learning and relate these effects to the known functions of serotonin in specific brain regions. With these findings, we propose a model by which acute SSRI administration, by altering neural activity in the extended amygdala and hippocampus, enhances both acquisition and expression of cued fear conditioning, but impairs the expression of contextual fear conditioning. Finally, we review the literature examining the effects of chronic SSRI treatment on fear conditioning in rodents and describe how downregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus may mediate the impairments in fear learning and memory that are reported. While long-term SSRI treatment effectively reduces symptoms of anxiety, their disruptive effects on fear learning should be kept in mind when combining chronic SSRI treatment and learning-based therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

  5. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  6. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible

  7. An audit of thiopurine methyltransferase genotyping and phenotyping before intended azathioprine treatment for dermatological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, T; Bygum, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background. Determining thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype and phenotype before azathioprine treatment predicts which patients are most likely to develop myelosuppression. Aim. To evaluate the course of azathioprine treatment in people with TPMT heterozygosity and whether this d...

  8. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  9. Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this…

  10. Effect of operating conditions in soil aquifer treatment on the removals of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2016-09-15

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an alternative advanced treatment for wastewater reclamation, and it has the potential to control micropollutants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, the relationship of operating conditions in SAT and removals of micropollutants was not clear. In this study, the effects of operating conditions on the removals of PPCPs were evaluated by using lab-scale columns and plant pilot-scale reactors under different operating conditions. Firstly, weathered granite soil (WGS), standard sand (SAND) and Toyoura standard sand (TS) have different soil characteristics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). In the columns with these packing materials, the removals of carboxylic analgesics and antilipidemics were effective regardless packing materials. The removals of antibiotics were more effective in WGS than in TS and SAND, indicating high TOC and CEC enhance the sorption in SAT. Secondly, with the extension of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removals of sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, crotamiton, and antipyrine were improved in WGS columns, and adaptable biodegradation for moderately removable PPCPs was formed. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and crotamiton were higher in the WGS column under vadose condition than in the WGS column under saturated condition, because of aerobic condition in WGS column under vadose condition. Though long HRT and vadose condition had positive influence on the removals of several PPCPs such as sulfamethoxazole, WGS column with an HRT of 7days under saturated condition removed most PPCPs. PMID:27213846

  11. Development and description of measurement properties of an instrument to assess treatment burden among patients with multiple chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Viet-Thi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients experience an increasing treatment burden related to everything they do to take care of their health: visits to the doctor, medical tests, treatment management and lifestyle changes. This treatment burden could affect treatment adherence, quality of life and outcomes. We aimed to develop and validate an instrument for measuring treatment burden for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods Items were derived from a literature review and qualitative semistructured interviews with patients. The instrument was then validated in a sample of patients with chronic conditions recruited in hospitals and general practitioner clinics in France. Factor analysis was used to examine the questionnaire structure. Construct validity was studied by the relationships between the instrument's global score, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM scores and the complexity of treatment as assessed by patients and physicians. Agreement between patients and physicians was appraised. Reliability was determined by a test-retest method. Results A sample of 502 patients completed the Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ, which consisted of 7 items (2 of which had 4 subitems defined after 22 interviews with patients. The questionnaire showed a unidimensional structure. The Cronbach's α was 0.89. The instrument's global score was negatively correlated with TSQM scores (rs = -0.41 to -0.53 and positively correlated with the complexity of treatment (rs = 0.16 to 0.40. Agreement between patients and physicians (n = 396 was weak (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.47. Reliability of the retest (n = 211 patients was 0.76 (0.67 to 0.83. Conclusions This study provides the first valid and reliable instrument assessing the treatment burden for patients across any disease or treatment context. This instrument could help in the development of treatment strategies that are both

  12. Purification and properties of alkaline phosphatase of silkworm Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yunming; CEN Liang; CHU Bo; LI Changchun; XU Min; LUO Ying; LU Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase(AKP),from the succus entericus of silkworm,was purified using 10%-50% ammonium sulfate fractions,ion exchange chromatography Of DEAE-Sepharose,and size exclusion chromatography of Sephacryl S-200.The purification fold was 464 times and specified activity was 3936 U/mg.Optimum pH value of the phosphatase was 10.5,and was stable between pH 7.5 and 11.The optimum temperature of the phosphatase was 40℃ and it was unstable over 50℃.Km value of the phosphatase was 1.25 mmol/L.In a given condition,the phosphatase was selectively modified by PCMB,NBS,PMSE TNBS,SUAN,DTT,BrAc,and IAc,the results indicate that PMSF,SUA,BrAc,IAc,and TNBS could Obviously inhibit the activity of the phosphatase,and the degree of inhibition depended on the concentration of these reagents.There was little effect on the activity of phosphatase after treatment by PMSF,DTT,and NBT.We primarily conclude that mercapto and imidazole are essential for AKP from silkworm.Also,Lys residue and disulfide bands are necessary to protect the catalysis of the AKP.

  13. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. PMID:25585256

  14. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  15. Treatment of oily wastewater by ultrafiltration: The effect of different operating and solution conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesampour, M

    2009-07-01

    In many industries, such as petroleum production, and the petrochemical, metal, food and cosmetics industries, wastewaters containing an emulsion of oil in water are often produced. The emulsions consist of water (up to 90%), oils (mineral, animal, vegetable and synthetic), surfactants and other contaminates. In view of its toxic nature and its deleterious effects on the surrounding environment (soil, water) such wastewater needs to be treated before release into natural water ways. Membrane-based processes have successfully been applied in industrial applications and are considered as possible candidates for the treatment of oily wastewaters. Easy operation, lower cost, and in some cases, the ability to reduce contaminants below existing pollution limits are the main advantages of these systems. The main drawback of membranes is flux decline due to fouling and concentration polarisation. The complexity of oil-containing systems demands complementary studies on issues related to the mitigation of fouling and concentration polarisation in membranebased ultrafiltration. In this thesis the effect of different operating conditions (factors) on ultrafiltration of oily water is studied. Important factors are normally correlated and, therefore, their effect should be studied simultaneously. This work uses a novel approach to study different operating conditions, like pressure, flow velocity, and temperature, and solution properties, like oil concentration (cutting oil, diesel, kerosene), pH, and salt concentration (CaCl{sub 2} and NaCl)) in the ultrafiltration of oily water, simultaneously and in a systematic way using an experimental design approach. A hypothesis is developed to describe the interaction between the oil drops, salt and the membrane surface. The optimum conditions for ultrafiltration and the contribution of each factor in the ultrafiltration of oily water are evaluated. It is found that the effect on permeate flux of the various factors studied strongly

  16. Inhibition of microbiological sulfide oxidation at natronophilic conditions by methanethiol and methylated polysulfides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den P.L.F.; Graaff, de C.M.; Fortuny-Picornell, M.; Leerdam, van R.C.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    To avoid problems related to the discharge of sulfidic spent caustics, a biotechnological process is developed for the treatment of gases containing both hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol. The process operates at natron-alkaline conditions (>1 mol L-1 of sodium- and potassium carbonates and a pH

  17. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  18. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (pAlkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit.

  19. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (pelectrical energy production due to high energy input. Alkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit. PMID:27233098

  20. DNA damage in lymphocytes after irradiation with 211At and 188Re. Quantification by alkaline and neutral comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Ionising radiation produces many types of DNA lesions of different complexity. High linear energy transfer (LET) types of radiation are biological more effective than low LET radiation. In the present work we applied the single cell gel electrophoreses (comet assay) to study the induction of initial DNA damage, efficiency of repair and residual DNA damage in lymphocytes after treatment with 211At and 188Re. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from heparinized blood of healthy donors and irradiated with 211At and 188Re at different doses. The comet assay was performed under alkaline and neutral conditions in order to detect the initial DNA damage and its repair. The measure of damage was% tail DNA (percentage of DNA in the tail). Results: After treatment of cells with 188Re the initial DNA damage (% tail DNA) detected with the alkaline comet assay was higher than the damage measured for 21lAt. The neutral comet assay estimated higher tail intensities for 211At in contrast to 188Re. Compared with the complete repair (10%) after irradiation with 188Re, the radiotoxicity of alpha particles indicated reduced rejoining of DNA strand breaks (60-80% residual damage). Rejoining of DNA damage measured by the neutral comet method detected about 70% unrepaired strand breaks for 211At and 188Re. Conclusions: There are major differences between the repair of strand breaks caused by 188Re and 211At detected by the alkaline comet assay. The DNA-damage induced by the high LET Emitter 211At remains nearly unrepaired detected by both alkaline and neutral comet assay. Represented data following irradiation of lymphocytes with alpha and beta particles demonstrated higher biological effectiveness of 211At by factors of 2.0-2.5. (orig.)

  1. Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: Implication for its secondary effect in bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Paola; Masella, Michel; Stigbrand, Torgny; Ménez, André; Stura, Enrico A.; Le Du, Marie Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Strontium is used in the treatment of osteoporosis as a ranelate compound, and in the treatment of painful scattered bone metastases as isotope. At very high doses and in certain conditions, it can lead to osteomalacia characterized by impairment of bone mineralization. The osteomalacia symptoms resemble those of hypophosphatasia, a rare inherited disorder associated with mutations in the gene encoding for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Human alkaline phosphatases have four metal binding sites—two for zinc, one for magnesium, and one for calcium ion—that can be substituted by strontium. Here we present the crystal structure of strontium-substituted human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), a related isozyme of TNAP, in which such replacement can have important physiological implications. The structure shows that strontium substitutes the calcium ion with concomitant modification of the metal coordination. The use of the flexible and polarizable force-field TCPEp (topological and classical polarization effects for proteins) predicts that calcium or strontium has similar interaction energies at the calcium-binding site of PLAP. Since calcium helps stabilize a large area that includes loops 210–228 and 250–297, its substitution by strontium could affect the stability of this region. Energy calculations suggest that only at high doses of strontium, comparable to those found for calcium, can strontium substitute for calcium. Since osteomalacia is observed after ingestion of high doses of strontium, alkaline phosphatase is likely to be one of the targets of strontium, and thus this enzyme might be involved in this disease. PMID:16815919

  2. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  3. Municipal wastewater treatment by biofiltration: comparisons of various treatment layouts. Part 2: assessment of the operating costs in optimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Paffoni, Catherine; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Azimi, Sam; Pauss, André

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to compare the operation costs (energy, reagents, waste management) for the three layouts usually used in wastewater treatment plants incorporating biofilters, using technical and economical data acquired during 10 years of operation of a Parisian plant (Seine Centre, 240,000 m(3) d(-1) -800,000 equivalent inhabitants). The final objective is to establish general economical data and tendencies that can be translated from our study to any biofiltration plant. Our results evidenced the savings achieved through the treatment process combining upstream and downstream denitrification. To use this layout reduced the operating costs by some 10% as compared with conventional processing only comprising downstream denitrification. Operating costs were respectively estimated at 37 and 34 €/1,000 m(3) for downstream denitrification and combining upstream and downstream denitrification layouts. PMID:22508137

  4. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  5. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in Response to Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eshujun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E. faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing.We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  7. When can ocean acidification impacts be detected from decadal alkalinity measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. R.; Frölicher, T. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Rodgers, K. B.; Slater, R. D.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We use a large initial condition suite of simulations (30 runs) with an Earth system model to assess the detectability of biogeochemical impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the marine alkalinity distribution from decadally repeated hydrographic measurements such as those produced by the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). Detection of these impacts is complicated by alkalinity changes from variability and long-term trends in freshwater and organic matter cycling and ocean circulation. In our ensemble simulation, variability in freshwater cycling generates large changes in alkalinity that obscure the changes of interest and prevent the attribution of observed alkalinity redistribution to OA. These complications from freshwater cycling can be mostly avoided through salinity normalization of alkalinity. With the salinity-normalized alkalinity, modeled OA impacts are broadly detectable in the surface of the subtropical gyres by 2030. Discrepancies between this finding and the finding of an earlier analysis suggest that these estimates are strongly sensitive to the patterns of calcium carbonate export simulated by the model. OA impacts are detectable later in the subpolar and equatorial regions due to slower responses of alkalinity to OA in these regions and greater seasonal equatorial alkalinity variability. OA impacts are detectable later at depth despite lower variability due to smaller rates of change and consistent measurement uncertainty.

  8. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  9. In vitro fermentation response to alkaline treated sorghum grain

    OpenAIRE

    FARHAD PARNIAN; AKBAR TAGHIZADEH; HAMID PAY; BABAK BAGHBANZADEH NOBARI

    2014-01-01

    Effects of three alkaline treatments: NaOH, NaHCO3 and wood ash on the crude protein (CP), condensed tannin (CT), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), in vitro gas production kinetics and dry matter (DM) digestibility of sorghum grain were determined. The NaOH (2% w/v), NaHCO3 (2% w/v) and wood ash (5% w/v) treatments were completed by soaking of sorghum grain with treatment solutions in the proportion of 1 L of solution to 1 kg of grain for 12 h. Gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, ...

  10. Response surface modeling of hydrothermal treatment conditions on color changes, strength, and durability properties of rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesin Wongprot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures (100 to 160 °C and treatment times (30 to 720 minutes on color changes (ΔE*, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, tensile strength (TS, shear strength (SS, brown-rot fungal decay mass loss (FML, and termite attack score (TAS of rubberwood was examined. Response surface methodology (RSM with a two-factor, four level (42 full factorial was employed. The mathematical models describing those properties as functions of treatment temperature and logarithm of treatment time were obtained. Hydrothermal treatment adversely and positively influenced mechanical properties (TS and SS and durability (FML and TAS, respectively, of rubberwood. Strong correlations between ΔE*, TS, SS, and FML of hydrothermally treated rubberwood, proposed to be a consequence of degradation of hemicelluloses, were observed. Finally, ΔE* proved to be a good indicator of TS, SS, and FML but not that of EMC and TAS of hydrothermally treated rubberwood.

  11. Two-step upflow anaerobic sludge bed system for sewage treatment under subtropical conditions with posttreatment in waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Trupiano, A.P.; Liberal, V.; Todd, P.G.; Figueroa, M.E.; Gutierrez, M.A.; Silva Wilches, Da A.C.; Iribarnegaray, M.; Guerra, R.G.; Arena, A.; Cuevas, C.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale sewage treatment system consisting of two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors followed by five waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in series was studied under subtropical conditions. The first UASB reactor started up in only 1 mo (stable operation, high chemical oxygen demand [COD

  12. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  13. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal conditional exemption at § 266.305. Storage Unit Closure ...-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Reentry into Rcra § 266.255 When is... date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR...

  14. Influence of the heat-treatment conditions on various types of multifilamentary Nb-46.5%Ti superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ik Sang; Sim, Ki Hong; Hwang, Duck Young; Jang, Kyeong Ho; Na, Sin Hye; Park, Pyeong Yeol

    2016-08-01

    Unlike the NbTi superconducting wires used for high critical current density, NbTi wires for Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets have larger and fewer NbTi monofilaments and different cross sections, which show different superconducting properties. This study investigated the effects of varying the temperature, number of heat-treatment cycles, and total strain over a wide range for multifilamentary Nb-46.5%Ti wires on a mass production scale for use in MRI magnets. The heat-treatment conditions were optimized for an NbTi superconducting wire and the critical current density and the n-value were measured as functions of the final strain at temperatures of 4.2 K and 7 T. We noticed that the superconducting properties increased with increasing final strain of the multifilamentary NbTi wire. The microstructure and the effects of the size and the distribution of α-Ti precipitates on the individual heat-treatment steps were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We, consequently, found the heat-treatment conditions that provided the highest superconducting performance for the two types of NbTi wires used in this study, and the results of the study are expected to very helpful in establishing not only the heat-treatment conditions but also important manufacturing parameters, such as the total strain, even as the design of NbTi wires for used in MRI magnets as changing with industrial demand.

  15. Alkaline Protease Production by a Strain of Marine Yeasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; CHI Zhenming; MA Chunling

    2006-01-01

    Yeast strain 10 with high yield of protease was isolated from sediments of saltern near Qingdao, China.The protease had the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 45 ℃.The optimal medium for the maximum alkaline protease production of strain 10 was 2.5 g soluble starch and 2.0 g NaNO3 in 100 mL seawater with initial pH6.0.The optimal cultivation conditions for the maximum protease production were temperature 24.5 ℃, aeration rate 8.0 L min -1 and agitation speed 150 r min-1.Under the optimal conditions, 623.1 Umg-1 protein of alkaline protease was reached in the culture within 30 h of fermentation.

  16. Ozone treatment of conditioned wastewater selects antibiotic resistance genes, opportunistic bacteria, and induce strong population shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Johannes; Knopp, Gregor; Dötsch, Andreas; Wieland, Arne; Schwartz, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    An ozone treatment system was investigated to analyze its impact on clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). A concentration of 0.9±0.1g ozone per 1g DOC was used to treat conventional clarified wastewater. PCR, qPCR analyses, Illumina 16S Amplicon Sequencing, and PCR-DGGE revealed diverse patterns of resistances and susceptibilities of opportunistic bacteria and accumulations of some ARGs after ozone treatment. Molecular marker genes for enterococci indicated a high susceptibility to ozone. Although they were reduced by almost 99%, they were still present in the bacterial population after ozone treatment. In contrast to this, Pseudomonas aeruginosa displayed only minor changes in abundance after ozone treatment. This indicated different mechanisms of microorganisms to cope with the bactericidal effects of ozone. The investigated ARGs demonstrated an even more diverse pattern. After ozone treatment, the erythromycin resistance gene (ermB) was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, but simultaneously, the abundance of two other clinically relevant ARGs increased within the surviving wastewater population (vanA, blaVIM). PCR-DGGE analysis and 16S-Amplicon-Sequencing confirmed a selection-like process in combination with a substantial diversity loss within the vital wastewater population after ozone treatment. Especially the PCR-DGGE results demonstrated the survival of GC-rich bacteria after ozone treatment. PMID:27058129

  17. Short-term effect of vermicompost application on biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content from Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  18. Temperature dependence of the absorbance of alkaline solutions of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate--a potential source of error in the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Seibert, L E; Baird, M A; Sampson, E J

    1977-09-01

    The absorbance of an alkaline solution of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate is a function of temperature. Quantitative evaluation of this phenomenon indicates that it (a) depends on the concentration of the compound and is independent of source, buffer concentration, and pH above 9.0; (b) is reversible; (c) is not a result of alkaline hydrolysis or 4-nitrophenol contamination; and (d) correlates with a temperature-induced shift of its absorbance spectrum. The phenomenon may represent a potential analytical problem in methods for alkaline phosphatase in which this compound is the substrate. If thermal equilibrium is not reached and maintained during an alkaline phosphatase assay, the thermochromic response will be included in the measured rate. The magnitude of this error depends on the thermal response and control characteristics of each particular instrument and the reaction conditions under which such an analysis is performed. PMID:19164

  19. Characterization of rubrene polycrystalline thin film transistors fabricated using various heat-treatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Youngwoon; Kim, Songhui; Lee, Hanju; Kim, Taedong; Babajanyan, Arsen [Department of Physics and Basic Science Institute for Cell Damage Control, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kiejin, E-mail: klee@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Basic Science Institute for Cell Damage Control, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Friedman, Barry [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We observed the crystal structure changes of rubrene (5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene) polycrystal thin films on SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates at various heat-treatment temperatures by X-ray diffraction, and a near-field microwave microprobe technique. An amorphous rubrene thin film was initially observed at heat-treatment temperature of 35 deg. C. After the treatment with in-situ vacuum post-annealing at 80 deg. C for 22 h, the rubrene thin film was transformed from the amorphous phase into a crystalline phase of orthorhombic structure. We could obtain a higher field effect mobility of 0.047 cm{sup 2}/V.s and lower threshold voltage of - 4 V for the following heat-treatment process: pre-annealing at 80 deg. C, cooling at 40 deg. C, and post-annealing at 80 deg. C for 22 h.

  20. Competence and authority : adolescent treatment refusals for physical and mental health conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Cave, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between competence and authority in relation to medical treatment refusals. Comparing provisions directed at adults and young people, the author explores the options before the court if a test case (called for by the British Medical Association and the Department of Health) is brought before the court to determine the extent of the minor's autonomy rights to be involved in or make medical treatment decisions of common law. At present, the common law righ...

  1. Concentration and separation of vanadium from alkaline media by strong alkaline anion-exchange resin 717

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jinwen; SU Peng; WU Wenwei; LIAO Sen; QIN Huiquan; WU Xuehang; HE Xiaohu; TAO Liujia; FAN Yanjin

    2010-01-01

    With strong alkaline anion-exchange resin 717 as the sorbent and NaOH solution as the eluent, a study on the sorption from alkaline solution and elution of vanadium(Ⅴ), silicon(Ⅳ), and aluminium(Ⅲ) was carried out. Different parameters affecting the sorption and elution process,including temperature, pH values as well as the ratio of resin to solution, were investigated. The results show that sorption degree of vanadium(Ⅴ) increases with a decrease of pH values, and V(Ⅴ) ions are easier sorbed than Si(Ⅳ) and Al(Ⅲ) ions under the same conditions. The sorption degree of V(Ⅴ), Si(Ⅳ), and Al(Ⅲ) at pH 9.14 for 15 min are 90.6%, 33.5%, and 21.6%, respectively. Si(Ⅳ), Al(Ⅲ), and V(Ⅴ) ions sorbed on 717 resin were eluted by use of 2 mol.L-1 NaOH solution; the desorption degree of V(Ⅴ), Si(Ⅳ), and Al(Ⅲ) for 5 min are 81.7 %,99.1%, and 99.3%, respectively.

  2. APPLICATION OF ALKALINE SULFITE PULPING ON CORN STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline sulfite pulping of corn stalks was investigated to produce supplementary pulp for corrugating board manufacture. Three pulping temperatures (125, 145, and 165°C and five active alkali charges (10, 12, 14, 16, and 18% were used. Cooking time at 30 minutes, Na2SO3/ NaOH ratio at 50:50, and liquor to residue ratio of 8:1 were kept constant. The highest total yield (61.9% was reached applying the treatment combination of 125°C and 10% active alkali, and the lowest total yield (42.5% was related to 165°C and 16% chemical. The influence of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratios was studied applying different ratios (30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30 at constant time and temperature of 30 minutes and 145°C respectively and 14 and 16% active alkali. Pulping condition; 16% active alkali, 30 minutes time, 145°C pulping temperature and varying ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide were selected for pulp strength evaluation. The results of handsheet evaluation indicated that 16% active alkali, 30 minutes pulping at 145ºC and sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratio of 50:50 is the optimum pulping condition for corn stalks. Tear, tensile, and burst indices and breaking length of this pulp were measured as 10.53 mN.m2g-1, 62.4 N.mg-1, 3.80 kPa.m2g-1, and 6.07 km, respectively.

  3. Microbial community succession in alkaline, saline bauxite residue: a cross-refinery study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, T.; Malcolm, L. I.; Tyson, G. W.; Warren, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Bauxite residue, a byproduct of the Bayer process for alumina refining, is an alkaline, saline tailings material that is generally considered to be inhospitable to microbial life. In situ remediation strategies promote soil formation in bauxite residue by enhancing leaching of saline, alkaline pore water, and through incorporation of amendments to boost organic matter content, decrease pH, and improve physical structure. The amelioration of chemical and physical conditions in bauxite residue is assumed to support diversification of microbial communities from narrow, poorly functioning microbial communities towards diverse, well-functioning communities. This study aimed to characterise microbial communities in fresh and remediated bauxite residues from refineries worldwide, to identify (a) whether initial microbial communities differed between refineries; (b) major environmental controls on microbial community composition; and (c) whether remediation successfully shifts the composition of microbial communities in bauxite residue towards those found in reference (desired endpoint) soils. Samples were collected from 16 refineries and characterised using 16S amplicon sequencing to examine microbial community composition and structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analyses. Initial microbial community composition was similar across refineries but partitioned into two major groups. Microbial community composition changes slowly over time and indicates that alkalinity and salinity inhibit diversification. Microbially-based strategies for in situ remediation should consider the initial microbial community composition and whether the pre-treatment of chemical properties would optimise subsequent bioremediation outcomes. During in situ remediation, microbial communities become more diverse and develop wider functional capacity, indicating progression towards communities more commonly observed in natural grassland and forest soils.

  4. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

  5. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits.

  6. Immediate versus conditional treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection - a randomized-controlled comparative effectiveness study in general practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gágyor Ildikó

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI are usually treated with antibiotics as recommended by primary care guidelines. Antibiotic treatment supports clinical cure in individual patients but also leads to emerging resistance rates in the population. We designed a comparative effectiveness study to investigate whether the use of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTI could be reduced by initial treatment with ibuprofen, reserving antibiotic treatment to patients who return due to ongoing or recurrent symptoms. Methods/design This is a randomized-controlled, double-blind, double dummy multicentre trial assessing the comparative effectiveness of immediate vs. conditional antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated UTI. Women > 18 and  Discussion This study aims at investigating whether the use of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTI could be reduced by initial treatment with ibuprofen. The comparative effectiveness design was chosen to prove the effectiveness of two therapeutic strategies instead of the pure drug efficacy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.Gov: NCT01488955

  7. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  8. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  9. Treatment of wastewater effluents from paper-recycling plants by coagulation process and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Noushin; Younesi, Habibollah; Bahramifar, Nader

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a coagulation process was used to treat paper-recycling wastewater with alum coupled with poly aluminum chloride (PACl) as coagulants. The effect of each four factors, viz. the dosages of alum and PACl, pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD), on the treatment efficiency was investigated. The influence of these four parameters was described using response surface methodology under central composite design. The efficiency of reducing turbidity, COD and the sludge volume index (SVI) were considered the responses. The optimum conditions for high treatment efficiency of paper-recycling wastewater under experimental conditions were reached with numerical optimization of coagulant doses and pH, with 1,550 mg/l alum and 1,314 mg/l PACl and 9.5, respectively, where the values for reduction of 80.02 % in COD, 83.23 % in turbidity, and 140 ml/g in SVI were obtained.

  10. Development of methods for treatment and conditioning of biological radioactive waste in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration of biological radioactive waste was performed in a facility manufactured in the Czech Republic for combustion of burnable, radioactive and non-radioactive residues. The equipment has shown an adequate capability for combustion of biological waste. Basic technical parameters of the incinerator SP-603 can guarantee combustion of majority of wastes from different radionuclide users in the country. To ensure proper further handling with the resulting ash, three conditioning options were studied, the bituminization process, incorporation into cement, and embedding of ash into a mixture of bituminous and cementitious materials. Mechanical properties of the conditioned ash were in good compliance with those published elsewhere. Bituminized ash exhibits lowest leachibility, followed by the ash conditioned by means of the mixed process. Potential abnormal operation conditions were evaluated and their consequences assessed. The evaluation encompassed sensitivity analysis of the consequences potentially affecting the operating staff, nearby population and the environment. Cost estimate was carried out using a national approach for the calculation. From the results it can be seen that there are no large differences between the conditioning and disposal of wastes resulting from different conditioning processes. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 15 tabs

  11. Human papillomavirus DNA from warts for typing by endonuclease restriction patterns: purification by alkaline plasmid methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinami, M; Tanikawa, E; Hachisuka, H; Sasai, Y; Shingu, M

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline plasmid DNA extraction method of Birnboim and Doly was applied for the isolation of human papillomavirus (HPV) from warts. Tissue from common and plantar warts was digested with proteinase K, and the extrachromosomal circular covalently-closed form of HPV-DNA was rapidly extracted by alkaline sodium dodecyl sulphate and phenol-chloroform treatment. Recovery of HPV-DNA from the tissue was sufficient for determination of endonuclease restriction patterns by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  12. Effects of sodium nitroprusside activity of acid and alkaline invertases and alkaline phosphatase in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud Wats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ganjewala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of SNP, a nitric oxide donor on sucrose metabolizing enzymes, acid and alkaline invertase (EC 3.2.1.26 and 3.2.1.153 and ubiquitous alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1 in four lemongrass varieties viz., Krishna, Cauveri, Nima and Cheerharit. For the study, two 15 d lemongrass tillers were cut and immediately dipped into the test tubes containing SNP solution (5 mL of variable strength (1 to 5 mM and one without SNP (as control; kept for 4 h under mild sunlight. The results revealed that moderate SNP concentration (2 mM was most effective, caused drastic reduction (40% in protein content in var. Nima followed by Krishna (33%, Cauveri (17% and Cheerharit (12%. In contrast, SNP (1 mM has impressively enhanced protein content in all the lemongrass varieties. The SNP (2 mM markedly inhibited the activity of acid invertase by 38% in Cheerharit, 35% Nima and 28% Cauveri whereas and alkaline invertase by 21, 28 and 24% respectively in var. Cheerharit, Nima and Krishna. Similarly, SNP (5 mM severely inhibited (~ 63% the activity of the ALP in lemongrass var. Cauveri and Nima, 50% in Krishna and relatively less 23% in Cheerharit as compared to the control. However, in var. Nima, 50% loss in ALP activity had already been occurred after 2 mM SNP treatment. These results primarily suggests that NO interferes sucrose metabolism by anonymously hindering the activity of acid and alkaline invertase and ubiquitous alkaline phosphatase in lemongrasses.

  13. Acclimatization of communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to seasonal changes in optimal conditions in a coke wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mo

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between optimal conditions of ammonia oxidation rates (AORs) and communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) adapting to seasonal changes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The optimal temperature and pH of specific AORs reflected seasonal variation patterns, showing the lowest values during the cold season, while the highest values in the warm season. Throughout the study period, Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and Nitrosomonas nitrosa remained the dominant AOB, indicating resistance to the influences of a changing environment. These results show that the optimal conditions for AOR can be adjusted to accommodate changing environmental conditions, relying on the acclimatization of a stable AOB community to given conditions, without any visible shift in the AOB community. PMID:24001689

  14. 碱性缺氧环境下地下水中苯和甲苯的生物降解%BIODEGRADATION OF BENZENE AND TOLUENE IN GROUNDWATER UNDER AN ALKALINE AND ANOXIC CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉龙; 陈亮; 刘菲; 刘光全

    2012-01-01

    Three predominated classes of microbes,B-bacteria,T-bacteria and M-bacteria,were inoculated from soils which were collected from a vadose zone chronically contaminated by cruel oil,fed with benzene and toluene and cultured without extra nutrients and electron acceptors under anoxic conditions.Laboratory batch studies were performed to assess the potential for biodegradation of benzene and toluene at high pH levels.The results showed that the degradation processes fit zero-order kinetics equations well and the rate constants ranged from 0.22 to 0.68 mg/(L·d).The rates of benzene and toluene biodegradation by the three cultures decreased variously when increasing the initial pH values from 8.7 to 9.6 and 10.6,respectively.The rates of benzene biodegradation by B-bacteria were reduced by less than 10%;the rates of toluene biodegradation by T-bacteria were decreased from 16.22% at the initial pH 9.6 to 41.23% at the initial pH 10.6;and the rates of benzene and toluene biodegradation by M-bacteria were decreased from about 30% at the initial pH 9.6 to about 45% at the initial pH 10.6.Benzene and toluene could be thoroughly biodegraded even at pH 10.6.It is recommended that no extra pH buffer zone between an Fe0-PRB and a bio-wall should be necessary for designing sequential PRBs to treat such pollutants in aquifers.%在缺氧环境下,不额外加入电子受体和营养盐,从长期受原油污染的包气带介质中分离、培养驯化得到了降解苯或甲苯的3种优势菌群:B-bacteria、T-bacteria和M-bacteria,采用批试验方法研究了高pH环境下3种菌群降解苯和甲苯的速率。结果表明:苯和甲苯的降解符合零级反应动力学,速率常数在0.22~0.68 mg/(L.d)。初始pH从8.7升高到9.6和10.6时,B-bacteria降解苯的速率降低都在10%以内;T-bacteria降解甲苯的速率降低率从pH9.6时的16.22%剧增到pH10.6时的41.23%;而M-bacteria降解苯和甲苯的速率降低从pH9.6时的30%左右增到pH10.6

  15. Lignin recovery from alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis of oil palm fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nur Syakilla; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, two types of treatment namely alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis have been conducted for lignin extraction from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber. Lignin has been retrieved from two sequential methods, which was the klason lignin from residue and lignin from precipitation of the filtrate. Alkaline hydrolysis was performed using 10% NaOH solution at room condition. This has extracted 13.0 % lignin. On the other hand, glycerolysis was carried out using 70% glycerol catalyzed with 5% of 1 M NaOH at 60-70 °C. This has successfully extracted 16.0% lignin. The SEM micrographs exhibited some physical changes on the surface where the impurities and waxes have been removed, exposing the, lumen. Besides that, FTIR analysis was conducted on untreated EFB, treated EFB and extracted lignin. Delignification of EFB fiber was confirmed based on the intensity reduction at 1245 cm-1 that showed lignin was removed from the fiber. The presence of CO, CC and CC aromatic peaks in the FTIR spectra of the dried filtrate gave an evidence on the presence of lignin.

  16. Tissue-engineered corneal epithelium transplantation for treatment of corneal alkaline burn in rabbits Morphological observation%组织工程角膜上皮移植治疗免角膜碱烧伤:形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮裕琍; 唐维强; 陆江阳; 董莹

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tissue engineered corneal epithelium can be constructed with limbal stem cells of healthy rabbit cornea cultured in vitro, and its transplantation may promote the repair and healing of corneal alkaline burn.OBJECTIVE: To probe the effect and opportunity of treating corneal alkaline bum by tissue-engineered corneal epithelium transplantation.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Controlled observational animal experiment was performed in the Department of Experimental Animal at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2007 and June 2008.MATERIALS: Twenty-one New Zealand female white rabbits, weighing 2.0-2.5 kg, were divided into control group (n=8, 16 eyes) and transplantation group (n=13, 26 eyes) at random. The transplantation group was further assigned into early transplantation group at 1 day (n=2, 4 eyes), 3 days (n=3, 6 eyes), 6 days (n=6, 12 eyes), and 9 days (n=9, 18 eyes); and mataphase transplantation group at 14 days (n=3, 6 eyes).METHODS: The tissue-engineered corneal epithelium was prepared on 21 rabbits with limbal stem cells cultured in vitro, and reforming comeel alkaline burn models of double eyes were induced by 1 mollL NaOH. The autotogous or allogenic tissue-engineered comeal epithelium transplantation was conducted on early time points (1, 3, 6, 9 days) or metaphase (14 days) after alkaline burning. In the control group, the burns were observed for 4 consecutive weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The ocular surface integrity and histopathology in the transplantation group and control group were observed on several time points within 4 weeks.RESULTS: At 1 weak after corneal alkaline burning, large corneal epithelial dasquamation occurred, 72% incidence of epithelial desquamation or corneal ulcer at 2 weeks, and continued to 4 weeks, while only 25% were observed at 4 weeks in transplantation group, most gained ocular surface integrity; cell infiltration and vascularization of corneal stroma had not bean suppressed

  17. Maprotiline treatment differentially influences cardiac β-adrenoreceptors expression under normal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Spasojevic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cardiac function were observed in antidepressants treated patients and published in several clinical reports. These detected changes could be either a consequence of the treatment or of depression itself, which has already been proved to be a risk factor in heart diseases. In order to determine a possible influence of chronic treatment with norepinephrinergic reuptake inhibitor, maprotiline, on the heart, we investigated gene expression of cardiac β-adrenoceptors both in controls and in animals with signs of depression. The rats were divided into two groups, unstressed controls and those exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. The groups were further divided into two subgroups, one receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (sterile water and another one maprotiline (10 mg/kg for four weeks. Tissue samples were collected after the last application. Gene expression of cardiac β1- and β2-adrenoceptor was determined using Real-time RT-PCR analysis. Our results show that in control animals expression of both adrenoreceptors was decreased in the right atria after 4 weeks of maprotiline application. Contrary, the same treatment led to a significant increase in expression of cardiac β1-adrenoceptor in the stressed rats, with no change in the characteristics of β2-adrenoceptor. Our findings might reflect the that molecular mechanisms are underlying factors involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases linked with antidepressant treatment.

  18. Patient-centred tuberculosis treatment delivery under programmatic conditions in Tanzania: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Egwaga; A. Mkopi; N. Range; V. Haag-Arbenz; A. Baraka; P. Grewal; F. Cobelens; H. Mshinda; F. Lwilla; F. van Leth

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Directly observed therapy (DOT) remains the cornerstone of the global tuberculosis (TB) control strategy. Tanzania, one of the 22 high-burden countries regarding TB, changed the first-line treatment regimen to contain rifampicin-containing fixed-dose combination for the full 6

  19. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon

  20. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A;

    2010-01-01

    and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g...... weeks. Feed intake and growth performance were recorded for 28 weeks. Total dry matter intake was not different (P>0.05) between DC and FC. Mean growth rates (g/d) of calves under DC were higher (Ppost (460) weaning than those on FC (350) and FP (320 and 270), respectively...... and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12...

  1. The non-condition logistic regression analysis of the reason of hypothyroidism after hyperthyroidism with 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many opinions on the reason of hypothyroidism after hyperthyroidism with 131I treatment. In this respect, there are a few scientific analyses and reports. The non-condition logistic regression solved this problem successfully. It has a higher scientific value and confidence in the risk factor analysis. 748 follow-up patients' data were analysed by the non-condition logistic regression. The results shown that the half-life and 131I dose were the main causes of the incidence of hypothyroidism. The degree of confidence is 92.4%

  2. Infarction of a lipoma of the lesser omentum: laparoscopic treatment of a rare condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jonathan P; Pennypacker, Jason L

    2011-08-01

    Infarction of the lesser omentum is an infrequent occurrence and is unfamiliar to most clinicians. Patients with this condition present with insidious epigastric pain, peritonitis on examination, and a normal white blood cell count. The computed tomographic scan reveals a focal ill-defined inflammatory mass with attendant fat stranding along the lesser curve of the stomach. In most patients, the diagnosis is secured at operation, although analgesics alone might be sufficient for management of this benign inflammatory condition. We present a case with the classic findings that was managed laparoscopically. Greater familiarity with focal infarction of lesser omental fat might lead to more nonoperative management in the future. PMID:21857460

  3. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    OpenAIRE

    EeroSalminen; Jyri-PekkaTuomoMikkola

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths ...

  4. X-Ray Structure Reveals a New Class and Provides Insight into Evolution of Alkaline Phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Bihani, Subhash C.; Das, Amit; Nilgiriwala, Kayzad S.; Prashar, Vishal; Pirocchi, Michel; Apte, Shree Kumar; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Hosur, Madhusoodan V.

    2011-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a bi-metalloenzyme of potential applications in biotechnology and bioremediation, in which phosphate monoesters are nonspecifically hydrolysed under alkaline conditions to yield inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis occurs through an enzyme intermediate in which the catalytic residue is phosphorylated. The reaction, which also requires a third metal ion, is proposed to proceed through a mechanism of in-line displacement involving a trigonal bipyramidal transitio...

  5. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  6. A Comparison of Expedition Medical Condition List Treatment Directives with Integrated Medical Model Simulation Data Presentation and Briefing Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This aerospace medicine clerkship project is under the direction of Dr. Sharmila Watkins and is in cooperation with Dr. Eric Kerstman and Dr. Ronak Shah. The questions of the research project are: 1. What are the main drivers of evacuation and loss of crew life (LOCL) on three Design Reference Missions (DRMs): Near Earth Asteroid (NEA), Lunar Sortie and Lunar Outpost using an inexhaustible International Space Station medical kit 2. What are the treatment designations for these driving medical conditions as listed in Expedition Medical Condition List (EMCL) 3. Do the drivers make sense in the context of the given Design Reference Mission (DRM) 4. Do any EMCL treatment designations need re-assessing.

  7. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin;

    2014-01-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification...

  8. Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Thiry Nancy; Devriese Stephan; Neyt Mattias; Van den Bruel Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tiotropium is reimbursed since March 2004 in Belgium for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Questions however remain on this product's value for money. The purpose of this study is to calculate tiotropium's cost-effectiveness under real-world conditions. Methods Strengths of both observational and RCT data were combined in a model. A large longitudinal (2002-2006) observational dataset of regular tiotropium users (56 321 patients) was analysed t...

  9. The Apoptotic Effect of HIF-1α Inhibition Combined with Glucose plus Insulin Treatment on Gastric Cancer under Hypoxic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Tanaka

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer grows under a hypoxic environment. HIF-1α is known to play an important role in controlling the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. We previously established HIF-1α knockdown (KD cells and control (SC cells in the 58As9 gastric cancer cell line. In this study, we revealed that KD cells, but not SC cells, induced apoptosis under conditions of hypoxia (1% O2 due to excessive production of ROS. A quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expressions of ten genes, which are involved in the control mechanisms of ROS (including the Warburg effect, mitophagy, electron transport chain [ETC] modification and ROS scavenging, were regulated by HIF-1α. Moreover, the promotion of glucose uptake by glucose plus insulin (GI treatment enhanced the apoptotic effect, which was accompanied by further ROS production in hypoxic KD cells. A Western blot analysis showed that the membranous expression of GLUT1 in KD cells was elevated by glucose and/or insulin treatments, indicating that the GI-induced glucose uptake is mediated by the increased translocation of GLUT1 on the cell membrane. Finally, the anti-tumor effect of HIF-1α knockdown (KD plus GI was evaluated using a tumor xenograft model, where a hypoxic environment naturally exists. As a result, the GI treatment strongly inhibited the growth of the KD tumors whereby cell apoptosis was highly induced in comparison to the control treatment. In contrast, the growth of the SC tumors expressing HIF-1α was not affected by the GI treatment. Taken together, the results suggest that HIF-1α inhibition plus GI may be an ideal therapy, because the apoptosis due to the destruction of ROS homeostasis is specifically induced in gastric cancer that grows under a hypoxic environment, but not in the normal tissue under the aerobic conditions.

  10. Treatments for common psychiatric conditions among adults during acute, rehabilitation, and reintegration phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difede, Joann; Cukor, Judith; Lee, Francis; Yurt, Roger

    2009-12-01

    Common and pernicious adult psychiatric disorders consequent to burn injury include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and new-onset substance abuse disorder. Diagnosing and treating these disorders is complicated by the complex psychosocial issues associated with burns including grief, pain, role impairment, disfigurement, dysfunction, stigma, as well as financial and legal issues. Additionally, pre-morbid psychiatric and neurological illnesses are risk factors for burns, adding to the challenge of diagnosis and treatment. This article will focus on the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and MDD consequent to burn trauma, as these are the major psychiatric outcomes, addressing the attendant psychosocial problems as threads in this post-trauma tapestry.

  11. Determination of laser shock treatment conditions for fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is envisaged that laser shock surface treatment may be used to surface harden and improve the mechanical properties of materials by inducing compressive stresses. This study deals with its application to the high performance aeronautical Ni-based superalloy Astroloy for turbine discs and its effect on low-cycle fatigue resistance. X-ray diffraction was used to measure the surface and in-depth stress distributions. The prominent features of laser shock processing have been studied by an analytical approach to the main physical phenomena occurring successively during the impact. This led to an adequate treatment of conventionnal cylindrical low-cycle fatigue specimens. Fatigue tests were then conducted on Astroloy at 550 C. These showed the beneficial effect of laser shock processing. (orig.)

  12. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  13. Effects of heat treatment conditions on reactivity of chars in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashu, J. T.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1977-09-01

    Reactivities of chars are maximized by keeping heat treatment temperatures as low as possible, minimizing soak time at maximum HTT and maximizing heating rates. It is feasible to use reactivity parameters as a tool for the study of thermal history of carbonaceous materials. Maximum HTT as well as the heating rate used for char preparation seem to be more important parameters in influencing char reactivity than the atmosphere used during preparation. Aging of chars in air following heat treatment at 800/sup 0/C has little or no effect on subsequent char reactivity. The most significant conclusion of this investigation is that rapid heating results in significant increase in char reactivity to air. Surface areas of rapidly heated samples are significantly higher than those prepared at the same temperature using slower heating rates.

  14. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on stress condition of gas-thermal coatings of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonic treatment (UST) effect on residual stresses in gas-thermal coatings is studied. It is shown that the UST changes the structure of gas-thermal coatings and so affects their stressed state. Variations in UST intensity allow controlling the level and the sigh of residual stresses in coatings. The generation of compressive stresses in the coatings during the UST results in an increase of their operational characteristics

  15. Effects of heat treatment conditions on the microstructure and impact properties of EUROFER 97 ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probably the most important range of materials to consider for the blanket material in the tokamak design for fusion reactors such as ITER and DEMO is the high alloy Fe9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels. These steels possess exceptional thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion while being strongly resistant to void swelling. Their main drawback is the high ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), particularly in the ODS versions of the material. This paper describes attempts that are being made to reduce this DBTT in as yet unirradiated materials by a novel heat treatment procedure. The principle behind this approach is that low DBTT in the unirradiated materials will lead to relatively low DBTT even in He-containing material that has been irradiated with fusion blanket-type irradiations. New batches of high alloy Fe9Cr ODS (EUROFER) ferritic steel have been produced by a powder metallurgical route, and relatively homogeneous material has been produced by a hot isostatic pressing procedure. Mini-Charpy test specimens were made from materials that had been subjected to a matrix of heat treatments designed to show up variations in solution treatment (ST) temperature, cooling rate from the ST temperature and tempering treatment. The initial DBTT was in the range 150-200 °C. Extremely interesting results have been obtained. DBTT downward shifts of up to 200 °C have been observed by using a high 1300 °C ST temperature and a low cooling rate. The paper goes on to describe the microstructure of this material, and discusses the possible microstructural factors needed to produce these very high DBTT downward shifts. Low dissolved carbon and higher proportions of low-angle grain boundaries seem to provide the key to the understanding of the alloy behaviour.

  16. Primary care incidence and treatment of four neuropathic pain conditions: A descriptive study, 2002–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Dawn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 1992 and 2001 the UK general practice incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia declined, whilst the incidence of painful diabetic neuropathy increased. The most common first line treatments were compound analgesics. As therapeutic options have subsequently changed, this study presents updated data on incidence and prescribing patterns in neuropathic pain. Methods A descriptive analysis of the epidemiology and prescription treatment at diagnosis of incident post-herpetic neuralgia (n = 1,923; trigeminal neuralgia (1,862; phantom limb pain (57 and painful diabetic neuropathy (1,444 using computerised UK general practice records (THIN: May 2002 to July 2005. Results Primary care incidences per 100,000 person years observation of 28 (95% confidence interval (CI 27–30 for post-herpetic neuralgia, 27 (95%CI 26–29 for trigeminal neuralgia, 0.8 (95%CI 0.6–1.1 for phantom limb pain and 21 (95%CI 20–22 for painful diabetic neuropathy are reported. The most common initial treatments were tricyclic antidepressants (post-herpetic neuralgia or antiepileptics (trigeminal neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy and opioid analgesics (phantom limb pain. The mean number of changes before a stable drug regimen was 1.2 to 1.5 for trigeminal neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia, and 2.4 for phantom limb pain. Conclusion The incidence of phantom limb pain and post-herpetic neuralgia are decreasing whilst painful diabetic neuropathy plateaued and trigeminal neuralgia remained constant. Despite more frequent use of antidepressants and antiepileptics for first line treatment, as opposed to conventional non-opioid analgesics, changes to therapy are common before a stable regimen is reached.

  17. Determination of laser shock treatment conditions for fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forget, P.; Jeandin, Michel; Jeandin, M.; Lyoret, A.

    1993-01-01

    It is envisaged that laser shock surface treatment may be used to surface harden and improve the mechanical properties of materials by inducing compressive stresses. This study deals with its application to the high performance aeronautical Ni-based superalloy Astroloy for turbine discs and its effect on low-cycle fatigue resistance. X-ray diffraction was used to measure the surface and in-depth stress distributions. The prominent features of laser shock processing have been studied by an ana...

  18. Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Stefan; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; IMDORF, Anton; KILCHENMANN, Verena; Fluri, Peter

    2002-01-01

    International audience Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, oxalic acid and free acidity. The following range of values were found in honeys of untreated colonies: formic acid, from 17 to 284 mg/kg, n = 34; oxalic aci...

  19. Participation of signaling cascades in the regulation of erythropoiesis under conditions of cytostatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygai, A M; Zhdanov, V V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Udut, E V; Zyuz'kov, G N; Simanina, E V; Chaikovskii, A V; Stavrova, L A; Trofimova, E S; Burmina, Ya V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of signaling pathways in the regulation of erythropoiesis against the background of myelosuppression caused by administration of 5-fluorouracil. The important role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of erythroid progenitors after cytostatic treatment was demonstrated. The secretory activity of myelokaryocytes during the period of erythroid hemopoiesis recovery is mainly regulated via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway; non-erythropoietin factors are involved in the formation of erythropoietic activity of adherent cells of the microenvironment.

  20. Planarization mechanism of alkaline copper CMP slurry based on chemical mechanical kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shengli; Yin Kangda; Li Xiang; Yue Hongwei; Liu Yunling

    2013-01-01

    The planarization mechanism of alkaline copper slurry is studied in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process from the perspective of chemical mechanical kinetics.Different from the international dominant acidic copper slurry,the copper slurry used in this research adopted the way of alkaline technology based on complexation.According to the passivation property of copper in alkaline conditions,the protection of copper film at the concave position on a copper pattern wafer surface can be achieved without the corrosion inhibitors such as benzotriazole (BTA),by which the problems caused by BTA can be avoided.Through the experiments and theories research,the chemical mechanical kinetics theory of copper removal in alkaline CMP conditions was proposed.Based on the chemical mechanical kinetics theory,the planarization mechanism of alkaline copper slurry was established.In alkaline CMP conditions,the complexation reaction between chelating agent and copper ions needs to break through the reaction barrier.The kinetic energy at the concave position should be lower than the complexation reaction barrier,which is the key to achieve planarization.

  1. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  2. Oral conditions in renal disorders and treatment considerations – A review for pediatric dentist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Gupta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current understanding of the oral and dental aspects of chronic renal disease (CRD. A PubMed literature search was performed and all relevant studies were assessed. As the number of people suffering from CRD increases worldwide, dentists are expected to encounter more patients with CRD who need oral care. In children, CRD can elicit a wide spectrum of oral manifestations in the hard and soft tissues. Bleeding, altered drug metabolism, impaired immune function, and an increased risk of dentally induced bacterial endocarditis are some important features that require attention. Dental management of patients with CRD requires that clinicians appreciate that multiple systems can be affected by the disease. Dentists should consult with nephrologists regarding the specific precautions required for each patient. Medical treatments in these patients may need to be postponed due to an unfavorable oral health status or potential risk of life-threatening infection after surgery. Improving oral hygiene and performing necessary dental and oral treatment before hemodialysis or transplantation may prevent endocarditis and septicemia in these patients. Hence, treatment plans should be formulated to restore the patient’s dentition and protect them from potentially severe infections of dental origin.

  3. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions

  4. Radiolysis of actinides and technetium in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    The {gamma}-radiolysis of aerated alkaline aqueous solutions of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), Tc(IV), Tc(V), and TC(VII) was studied in the absence of additives and in the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, EDTA, formate, and other organic compounds. The radiolytic reduction of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), and TC(VII) under different experimental conditions was examined in detail. The addition of EDTA, formate, and alcohols was found to considerably increase the radiation-chemical reduction yields. The formation of the Np(V) peroxo complex was observed in the {gamma}-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of Np (VI) in the presence of nitrate.

  5. Alkylation of imidazole under ultrasound irradiation over alkaline carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costarrosa, L. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Calvino-Casilda, V. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferrera-Escudero, S. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Duran-Valle, C.J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Martin-Aranda, R.M. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es

    2006-06-30

    N-Alkyl-imidazole has been synthesized by sonochemical irradiation of imidazole and 1-bromobutane using alkaline-promoted carbons (exchanged with the binary combinations of Na, K and Cs). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Under the experimental conditions, N-alkyl-imidazoles can be prepared with a high activity and selectivity. It is observed that imidazole conversion increases in parallel with increasing the basicity of the catalyst. The influence of the alkaline promoter, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst on the catalytic activity has been studied. For comparison, the alkylation of imidazole has also been performed in a batch reactor system under thermal activation.

  6. A new electrochemical oscillatory system of bromate in alkaline solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new electrochemical oscillatory system of bromate in alkaline solution is reported. In PtBromate-Alkaline solution system, two different types of electrochemical oscillations (Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅱ) can be observed. Type Ⅰ appears before hydrogen evolution and Type Ⅱ involves periodic hydrogen evolution. Type Ⅰ relates to the adsorption/desorption of the hydrogen on platinum electrode, and Type Ⅱ with periodic oscillation stems from the coupling of electrochemical reactions (the reduction of bromate and evolution hydrogen reaction) with mass transfer (diffusion and convection). More over, under the right conditions, the two types appear in different oscillatory modes, for example,simple periodical mode and mixed one, etc,, Crossed cycle in the cyclic voltammograms, which is the basiccharacteristics for electrochemical oscillatory systems, has also been observed as expected.

  7. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  8. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  9. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  10. Gabbroic xenoliths in alkaline lavas in the region of Sanganguey Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giosa, T.A.; Nelson, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Gabbroic xenoliths occur in alkaline cinder cones and lava flows erupted from vents along five parallel lines trending through the calc-alkaline volcano, Sanganguey in the northwestern portion of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. The xenoliths consist of varying proportions of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and plagioclase. The complete lack of hydrous phases indicates that the gabbros crystallized under conditions of low PH/sub 2/O. Many xenoliths show textures indicative of a cumulate origin and others exhibit recrystallization indicative of subsolidus reactions prior to incorporation in the host liquids. Reaction between xenolithic minerals and host liquids are also observed. The range of Mg numbers calculated for liquids that would have been in equilibrium with olivines in the xenoliths suggests that these olivines crystallized from magmas such as those represented by either calc-alkaline basaltic andesites and andesites or the more evolved alkalic rocks which occur throughout the area. Crystal fractionation models show that the xenoliths may be related to such magmas. The fact that xenoliths occur most commonly in the alkaline rocks suggests that alkaline magmas rise to the surface more rapidly than the more chemically evolved calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas. Alternatively the lack of xenoliths in the more evolved magmas produced by high level crystal fractionation may indicate that the xenoliths are derived from zones below that from which the differentiated magmas begin their final ascent to the surface.

  11. ANALYSIS OF RANGE CONDITIONS OF CHILDREN WITH SPEECH DIFFICULTIES WITH SPEECH THERAPY TREATMENT AT PRE-SCHOOL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MIRAKOVSKA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis for range of children with speech difficulties in their development with speech therapy treatment is made for a period of 3 years ( 1993-1996 in the Institute for hearing, speech and voice in Skopje. The obtained results from the analysis show that “ for the time the children have to go to school, parent’s interest in their children’s speech is increased. About 90 % of the children ranged with speech therapy treatment, in that period they were at 5-7 years of age, and that shows that a part of the utmost period for development of the speech is missed.Also a great number of children with speech difficulties in their development were not ranged with speech therapy treatment. The reasons for that are the late directing of children, the social and cultural factor, economic condition of the family.

  12. [Treatment of chronic inflammation of the upper respiratory airways by inhalation thermal therapy with sulfur-sulfate-bicarbonate- carbonate-alkaline earth mineral water: a study of nasal cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristalli, G; Abramo, A; Pollastrini, L

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to better characterise changes occurred in nose cytology in a group of 50 subjects affected by chronic inflammation of upper respiratory airway. The patients were random shared in two groups: group A 40 subjects treated using sulphurous thermal water and a group B (control), 10 cases, treated using placebo saline solution. The post-therapy evaluation of nasal cytology showed an improvement of the chronic inflammation in 65% of group A patients (diminution of bacterial dust 65%, diminution of PMN cells in 60% of cases and disappearance of metaplasy notes in all the cases of group A. No statistical modifications were observed in control group. Moreover were observed a increase of plasma-cell number much more in group A. The author conclusion is that a period of thermal therapy using sulphur-sulphate-alkaline-earth metals water in chronic inflammation of the nose, throw pharmacological and physical actions, cause an improvement of the chronic inflammation and a normalisation of nose cytology. PMID:9381939

  13. Effect of Pre-harvest Treatments on the Cellulase Activity and Quality of Ber Fruit Under Cold Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit Kaur JAWANDHA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to find out the effect of various pre-harvest treatments such as CaCl2 (@ 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (@0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, GA3 (@ 20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (@ 0.1% on the cellulase activity and quality of 'Umran' ber fruits during cold storage. Marked trees were sprayed at colour break stage with the test chemicals. Fruits were packed in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5 oC and 85 � 90 % RH for 30 days. The fruits were evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days interval for various parameters such as cellulase activity, phenolics content, palatability rating and rotting percentage. Cellulase activity registered a gradual increase upto 20 days of storage thereafter a decline was noted in all the treatments. The palatability rating increased up to 10 days of storage in all the treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased with an advancement in storage period. Among the various pre-harvest treatments CaCl2 (2% recorded minimum cellulase activity and rotting percentage and have also registered high palatability rating and phenolics content during cold storage conditions. Studies showed that pre-harvest application of CaCl2 (2% maintained very good fruit quality and prolonged shelf-life for 20 days under cold storage conditions.

  14. Effect of an isoflavones-containing red clover preparation and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kawakita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available S Kawakita1, F Marotta2, Y Naito3, U Gumaste4, S Jain5, J Tsuchiya1, E Minelli21Biokenkyusho Research Laboratory, Shizuoka, Japan; 2WHO-cntr for Biotechnology and Natural Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Immunology Research Institute and Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 4Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 5Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the combined effect of a quality-controlled red clover extract (RCE standardized to contain 40% isoflavones by weight (genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin present as hydrolyzed aglycones together with a modified alkaline supplementation on bone metabolic and biomechanical parameters in an experimental model of surgically-induced menopause. Sprague–Dawley female rats were maintained under controlled standard conditions of light and fed with conventional food of standard calcium content and no alfalfa or soybean components. Rats were randomized into four groups: Group A represented normal rats (sham operated while three other groups were ovariectomized (OVX and fed for three months as follows: standard food (group B, 6 mg/kg/day food mixed with RCE (Group C, or given 6 mg/kg/day of RCE plus a modified alkaline supplementation (BP through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 16 mg (group D. The animals were killed 90 days after surgery. As compared to group B, RCE or RCE + BP treatments brought about significantly higher level of estradiol and mitigated the weight loss of the uterus and improved maximum load of the femoral neck. Osteocalcin level showed an over 65% increase in group B but both RCE and RCE + BP treatments prevented such abnormality with a significantly better result in RCE + BP group which virtually normalized such parameter as well as urinary excretion of DPD. Group C and D reduced the over 20% loss of bone mineral density and bone mineral content

  15. Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Trimarchi Giuseppe; Terranova Antonella; Saitta Ambra; Gugliotta Simona C; Mento Carmela; Settineri Salvatore; Mallamace Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years). A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked...

  16. Influence of preparation conditions and heat treatment on the properties of supercooled smectic cholesteryl myristate nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, H

    2007-01-01

    Colloidal dispersions of cholesterol esters in the supercooled smectic state are under investigation as a novel drug carrier system in particular with respect to parenteral application. In the present study, suitable conditions for the homogenization of cholesteryl myristate dispersions stabilized...... is less effective even when applying the highest homogenization pressure possible but still leads to dispersions with particles in the colloidal size range. Since sterility is required for parenteral medications and is usually achieved by autoclaving for aqueous systems, the physical and chemical...

  17. Living Conditions, Ability to Seek Medical Treatment, and Awareness of Health Conditions and Healthcare Options among Homeless Persons in Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtsu,Tadahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data indicative of the health conditions and medical needs of homeless persons are scarce in Japan. In this study, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of future healthcare strategies for the homeless, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and interviews at a park in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, to clarify the living conditions of homeless persons and their health conditions and awareness about the availability of medical treatment. Responses from 55 homeless men were recorded (response rate:36.7%. With the exception of one person, none of them possessed a health insurance certificate. Half of the respondents reported having a current income source, although their modal monthly income was 30,000 yen($1 was approximately 90 yen. The number of individuals who responded "yes" to the questions regarding "Consulting a doctor on the basis of someone's recommendation" and "Being aware of the location of the nearest hospital or clinic" was significantly higher among those who had someone to consult when they were ill than among those who did not (the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 15.00 [3.05-93.57] and 11.45 [1.42-510.68], respectively. This showed that whether or not a homeless person had a person to consult might influence his healthcare-seeking behavior. When queried about the entity they consulted (multiple responses acceptable, respondents mentioned "life support organizations" (61.1% and "public offices" (33.3%. Overall, 94.5% of the respondents were aware of swine flu (novel influenza A (H1N1. Their main sources of information were newspapers and magazines. On the basis of these findings, with regard to the aim of formulating healthcare strategies for homeless persons, while life support organizations and public offices play significant roles as conduits to medical institutions, print media should be considered useful for communicating messages to homeless persons.

  18. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea.

  19. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea. PMID:26841066

  20. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  1. Dissolution of Uranium Oxides Under Alkaline Oxidizing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven C.; Peper, Shane M.; Douglas, Matthew; Ziegelgruber, Kate L.; Finn, Erin C.

    2009-11-01

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to determine the dissolution characteristics of uranium oxide powders (UO2, U3O8, and UO3) in aqueous peroxide-carbonate solutions. Experimental parameters included H2O2 concentration, carbonate counter cation (NH4+, Na+, K+, and Rb+), and pH. Results indicate the dissolution rate of UO2 in 1 M (NH4)2CO3 increases linearly with peroxide concentration ranging from 0.05 – 2 M. The three uranium oxide powders exhibited different dissolution patterns however, UO3 exhibited prompt complete dissolution. Carbonate counter cation affected the dissolution kinetics. There is minimal impact of solution pH, over the range 8.8 to 10.6, on initial dissolution rate.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Krizmanić; Branimir Šimić; Marijana Tucak; Svetislav Popović; Tihomir Čupić; Valentina Španić; Anto Mijić; Ivica Liović

    2014-01-01

    In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012) in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70%) as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%), stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untre...

  3. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Krizmanić; Branimir Šimić; Marijana Tucak; Svetislav Popović; Tihomir Čupić; Valentina Španić; Anto Mijić; Ivica Liović

    2014-01-01

    In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012) in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70%) as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%), stored in four treatments (Control: processed-un...

  4. [Treatment of implant-induced pain conditions in the maxillofacial area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, M; Riediger, D; Schwenzer, N; Eichhorst, U

    1990-01-01

    The implantation of dental implants may lead to severe pain syndromes (not reckoning postoperative pain and discomfort). Pain in the upper jaw is usually caused by inflammations like sinusitis, often in combination with an oroantral communication, rhinitis and osteitis, whereas pain in the lower jaw is often caused by injuries of sensitive branches of the mandibular nerve, mostly the inferior alveolar nerve. In these cases the therapy of pain should be causal, which means removal of the implant and treatment of the pathologic consequences of implantation. Especially the possibilities of micronerval surgery are emphasized within this article. PMID:2257804

  5. CT-guided obturator nerve block for diagnosis and treatment of painful conditions of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H.; Amaya, B.; Pickuth, D.; Spielmann, R.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Okoniewski, M. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Obturator nerve blocks (ONB) have been performed by anaesthesiologists mainly to eliminate the obturator reflex during transurethral resections. An effect on hip pain has also been described. However, being a time-consuming and operator-dependent procedure if performed manually, it has not been widely used for chronic hip pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to check whether CT guidance could improve reproducibility of the block (= immediate effect) and to test its potential value for treatment of chronic hip pain. Fifteen chronically ill patients with osteoarthritis underwent a single ONB. Sixteen millilitres of Lidocaine 1 % mixed with 2 ml Iopramide was injected into the obturator canal. The patients were followed up to 9 months after the intervention. With a single injection pain relief was achieved for 1-8 weeks in 7 of 15 patients. Excellent pain relief for 3-11 months was achieved in another 4 patients. Reasons for a mid-term or even long-term effect based on a single injection of local anaesthetic are not exactly known. The CT-guided ONB is a fast, easy and safe procedure that may be useful for mid-term (weeks) and sometimes even long-term (months) treatment of hip pain. (orig.)

  6. Dissolved-oxygen regimen of the Willamette River, Oregon, under conditions of basinwide secondary treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rickert, D.A.; Rinella, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  8. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  9. Available water modifications by topsoil treatments under mediterranean semiarid conditions: afforestation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2016-04-01

    During dry periods in the Mediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil. These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil vegetation recovery which creates a positive feedback process that can lead to desertification. Restoration of native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health, and control runoff and sediment yield. In Mediterranean areas, after a forestry proposal, it is highly common to register a significant number of losses for the saplings that have been introduced due to the lack of rainfall. When no vegetation is established, organic amendments can be used to rapidly protect the soil surface against the erosive forces of rain and runoff. In this study we investigated the hydrological effects of five soil treatments in relation to the temporal variability of the available water for plants. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. In control plots, during June, July, August and September, soils were registered below the wilting point, and therefore, in the area of water unusable by plants. These months were coinciding with the summer mediterranean drought. This fact justifies the high mortality found on plants after the seeding plan. Similarly, soils have never exceeded the field capacity value measured for control plots. Conversely, in the straw and pinus mulch, soils were above the wilting point during a longer time than in control plots. Thus, the soil moisture only has stayed below the 4.2 pF suction in July, July and August. Regarding the amount of water available was also higher, especially in the months of December, January and February. However, the field capacity

  10. Consensus statement: the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of neuromuscular conditions report of the AANEM ad hoc committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofrio, Peter D; Berger, Alan; Brannagan, Thomas H; Bromberg, Mark B; Howard, James F; Latov, Normal; Quick, Adam; Tandan, Rup

    2009-11-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a therapeutic biologic agent that has been prescribed for over two decades to treat various neuromuscular conditions. Most of the treatments are given off-label, as little evidence from large randomized trials exists to support its use. Recently, IGIV-C has received an indication for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Because of the lack of evidence, an ad hoc committee of the AANEM was convened to draft a consensus statement on the rational use of IVIG for neuromuscular disorders. Recommendations were categorized as Class I-IV based on the strength of the medical literature. Class I evidence exists to support the prescription of IVIG to treat patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), CIDP, multifocal motor neuropathy, refractory exacerbations of myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, dermatomyositis, and stiff person syndrome. Treatment of Fisher syndrome, polymyositis, and certain presumed autoimmune neuromuscular disorders is supported only by Class IV studies, whereas there is no convincing data to substantiate the treatment of inclusion body myopathy (IBM), idiopathic neuropathies, brachial plexopathy, or diabetic amyotrophy using IVIG. Treatment with IVIG must be administered in the context of its known adverse effects. There is little evidence to advise the clinician on the proper dosing of IVIG and duration of therapy.

  11. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  12. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  13. Antianxiety medications for the treatment of complex agoraphobia: pharmacological interventions for a behavioral condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perna G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Giampaolo Perna1-3, Silvia Daccò2, Roberta Menotti2, Daniela Caldirola21Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, San Benedetto Hospital, Hermanas Hospitalarias, Albese con Cassano, Como, Italy; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USABackground: Although there are controversial issues (the "American view" and the "European view" regarding the construct and definition of agoraphobia (AG, this syndrome is well recognized and it is a burden in the lives of millions of people worldwide. To better clarify the role of drug therapy in AG, the authors summarized and discussed recent evidence on pharmacological treatments, based on clinical trials available from 2000, with the aim of highlighting pharmacotherapies that may improve this complex syndrome.Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding the pharmacological treatment of AG was carried out using MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases, with keywords individuated by MeSH research. Only randomized, placebo-controlled studies or comparative clinical trials were included.Results: After selection, 25 studies were included. All the selected studies included patients with AG associated with panic disorder. Effective compounds included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepines. Paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine showed the most consistent results, while fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and imipramine showed limited efficacy. Preliminary results suggested the potential efficacy of inositol; D-cycloserine showed mixed results for its ability to improve the outcome of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  14. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days.

  15. Characterization, treatment and conditioning of radioactive graphite from decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite has been used as a moderator and reflector of neutrons in more than 100 nuclear power plants and in many research and plutonium-production reactors. It is used primarily as a neutron reflector or neutron moderator, although graphite is also used for other features of reactor cores, such as fuel sleeves. Many of the graphite-moderated reactors are now quite old, with some already shutdown. Therefore radioactive graphite dismantling and the management of radioactive graphite waste are becoming an increasingly important issue for a number of IAEA Member States. Worldwide, there are more than 230 000 tonnes of radioactive graphite which will eventually need to be managed as radioactive waste. Proper management of radioactive graphite waste requires complex planning and the implementation of several interrelated operations. There are two basic options for graphite waste management: (1) packaging of non-conditioned graphite waste with subsequent direct disposal of the waste packages, and (2) conditioning of graphite waste (principally either by incineration or calcination) with separate disposal of any waste products produced, such as incinerator ash. In both cases, the specific properties of graphite - such as Wigner energy, graphite dust explosibility, and radioactive gases released from waste graphite - have a potential impact on the safety of radioactive graphite waste management and need to be carefully considered. Radioactive graphite waste management is not specifically addressed in IAEA publications. Only general and limited information is available in publications dealing with decommissioning of nuclear reactors. This report provides a comprehensive discussion of radioactive graphite waste characterization, handling, conditioning and disposal throughout the operating and decommissioning life cycle. The first draft report was prepared at a meeting on 23-27 February 1998. A technical meeting (TM) was held in October 1999 in coincidence with the Seminar on

  16. Mother-infant interactions and hospital conditions related to the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to be able to optimize the clinical practice of phototherapy, the effect of phototherapy on the contact between mother and child was investigated. 88 mothers were interviewed and asked questions related to the hospital conditions after delivery and the development of contact between mother and child. About 10% of the children had received phototherapy, while 34% had variable degrees of hyperbilirubinemia the first week after birth. In this limited study, few significant effects on factors as the duration and frequency of breast feeding were found. Apparently there is a tendency of lower score on the latter in groups reporting a feeling of unwanted separation after birth. Phototherapy leads in some cases to a feeling of less than optimal contact between mother and child. 6 refs., 6 tabs

  17. An orthogonality condition model treatment of elastic and inelastic (α, 12C) scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles on the deformed nucleus 12C are investigated in the range of incident α-particle energies of 9 to 11 MeV by using the coupled-channel method with orthogonality condition. A doubly folded potential generated by the shell model wave functions of the α-particle and the deformed nucleus 12C is employed for the relative motion between the α-particle and 12C. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for the elastic and inelastic angular distributions and the resonance structures. It is found, from the Born series expansion of the T-matrix, that the orthogonality constraint stresses the effects of the channel-coupling between the elastic and inelastic processes, and it indicates that the DWBA does not work well in this system. (author)

  18. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  19. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis. A Gate to an Effective Treatment of Severe Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to perform therapeutic plasmapheresis (TP. The simplest form is therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE where the blood taken from the patient is separated in a centrifuge into cells and plasma. While the plasma is discarded, the cells together with a substitution fluid (e.g. fresh frozen plasma; albumin solution are returned to the patient. The second form of treatment specifically removes the pathogenic substance alone by filtration on a specific substrate. A column is attached to the plasma line, selectively eliminating the pathogenic molecule and returning the patient’s own plasma. Nowadays, practitioners of centrifugal TP tend to be hematologists and transfusionists, whilst the membrane-based approach appeals primarily to nephrologists or other specialists (experts in hemodialysis, surgeons. Adsorption, an apheresis technique conceivably with the highest selectivity, is founded on the principles of affinity chromatography in which plasma is passed through an insoluble matrix bound firmly to a ligand. The ligands could be either comparatively nonspecific chemical binders, e.g. heparin or charcoal, or specific recombinant protein antigens or monoclonal antibodies. A wide range of medical disorders of varying pathologies and end-organ involvement may be managed by TPE (1. TPE has still a crucial role in emergency. Critical care units staffed by highly trained medical and paramedical personnel using highly technical and sophisticated equipment might be supported by the provision of TPE. Timing is frequently of the essence in disorders in which plasma exchange (PEX has a role, with decisions being based on a set of facts or clinical circumstances which may be rapidly changing (2 (Table 1. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG could be associated with acute pancreatitis (AP, a fatal and dreaded complication. TechniquePathologyEmergencyLong-termPlasma-ExchangeSepsis, MODSX

  20. Kraft lignin behavior during reaction in an alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of kraft lignin in an alkaline medium was studied using a microreactor set. Chemical changes in reacted kraft lignins that include ash content, Klason lignin, acid-soluble lignin and sugars were studied. Structural characteristics of these lignins were also determined in terms of phenolic-hydroxyl, aliphatic-hydroxyl, methoxyl, Mw, Mn and polydispersity. The techniques employed were HPLC, UV spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and organic gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The effects of temperature and reaction time on lignin properties were studied using response surface methodology. The reaction temperature ranged from 116 to 180 oC and the reaction time ranged from 18 to 103 min. The obtained response surfaces show that both factors affected lignin properties within these ranges. The phenolic and aliphatic-hydroxyl content and the number of active sites increased when the treatment severity was increased. Weight-average molecular weight (Mw), number-average molecular weight (Mn) and solid-yield percentage decreased when the treatment severity was increased. -- Highlights: → We studied the chemical and structural changes of Kraft lignin during its reaction in alkaline medium. → The phenolic and aliphatic hydroxyl content and the number of active sites increased when the treatment severity was increased. → Weight-average MW, number-average MW and solid-yield percentage decreased when the treatment severity was increased.

  1. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

  2. Wearable textile platform for assessing stroke patient treatment in daily life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLorussi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring physical activities during post-stroke rehabilitation in daily life may help physicians to optimize and tailor the training program for patients. The European research project INTERACTION (FP7-ICT-2011-7-287351 evaluated motor capabilities in stroke patients during the recovery treatment period. We developed wearable sensing platform based on the sensor fusion among inertial, knitted piezoresistive sensors and textile EMG electrodes . The device was conceived in modular form and consists of a separate shirt, trousers, glove and shoe. Thanks to the novel fusion approach it has been possible to develop a model for the shoulder taking into account the scapulo-thoracic joint of the scapular girdle, considerably improving the estimation of the hand position in reaching activities. In order to minimize the sensor set used to monitor gait, a single inertial sensor fused with a textile goniometer proved to reconstruct the orientation of all the body segments of the leg. Finally, the sensing glove, endowed with three textile goniometers and three force sensors showed good capabilities in the reconstruction of grasping activities and evaluating the interaction of the hand with the environment, according to the project specifications. This paper reports on the design and the technical evaluation of the performance of the sensing platform, tested on healthy subjects.

  3. Wearable Textile Platform for Assessing Stroke Patient Treatment in Daily Life Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorussi, Federico; Carbonaro, Nicola; De Rossi, Danilo; Paradiso, Rita; Veltink, Peter; Tognetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities during post-stroke rehabilitation in daily life may help physicians to optimize and tailor the training program for patients. The European research project INTERACTION (FP7-ICT-2011-7-287351) evaluated motor capabilities in stroke patients during the recovery treatment period. We developed wearable sensing platform based on the sensor fusion among inertial, knitted piezoresistive sensors and textile EMG electrodes. The device was conceived in modular form and consists of a separate shirt, trousers, glove, and shoe. Thanks to the novel fusion approach it has been possible to develop a model for the shoulder taking into account the scapulo-thoracic joint of the scapular girdle, considerably improving the estimation of the hand position in reaching activities. In order to minimize the sensor set used to monitor gait, a single inertial sensor fused with a textile goniometer proved to reconstruct the orientation of all the body segments of the leg. Finally, the sensing glove, endowed with three textile goniometers and three force sensors showed good capabilities in the reconstruction of grasping activities and evaluating the interaction of the hand with the environment, according to the project specifications. This paper reports on the design and the technical evaluation of the performance of the sensing platform, tested on healthy subjects. PMID:27047939

  4. Wearable Textile Platform for Assessing Stroke Patient Treatment in Daily Life Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorussi, Federico; Carbonaro, Nicola; De Rossi, Danilo; Paradiso, Rita; Veltink, Peter; Tognetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities during post-stroke rehabilitation in daily life may help physicians to optimize and tailor the training program for patients. The European research project INTERACTION (FP7-ICT-2011-7-287351) evaluated motor capabilities in stroke patients during the recovery treatment period. We developed wearable sensing platform based on the sensor fusion among inertial, knitted piezoresistive sensors and textile EMG electrodes. The device was conceived in modular form and consists of a separate shirt, trousers, glove, and shoe. Thanks to the novel fusion approach it has been possible to develop a model for the shoulder taking into account the scapulo-thoracic joint of the scapular girdle, considerably improving the estimation of the hand position in reaching activities. In order to minimize the sensor set used to monitor gait, a single inertial sensor fused with a textile goniometer proved to reconstruct the orientation of all the body segments of the leg. Finally, the sensing glove, endowed with three textile goniometers and three force sensors showed good capabilities in the reconstruction of grasping activities and evaluating the interaction of the hand with the environment, according to the project specifications. This paper reports on the design and the technical evaluation of the performance of the sensing platform, tested on healthy subjects.

  5. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.;

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  6. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  7. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  8. Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Nancy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiotropium is reimbursed since March 2004 in Belgium for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. Questions however remain on this product's value for money. The purpose of this study is to calculate tiotropium's cost-effectiveness under real-world conditions. Methods Strengths of both observational and RCT data were combined in a model. A large longitudinal (2002-2006 observational dataset of regular tiotropium users (56 321 patients was analysed to retrieve the baseline risk for exacerbations and exacerbation-related hospitalisations the year before the first delivery of tiotropium. The relative treatment effect from the UPLIFT (Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium trial was then applied to this baseline risk to reflect the effect of tiotropium treatment and calculate the intervention's incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER. Results After 1000 Latin Hypercube simulations, the incremental benefit expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALY gained is on average 0.00048 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.00009 - 0.00092. In combination with a substantial mean incremental cost of €373 per patient (95% CI 279 - 475, this results in an unfavourable average ICER of €1 244 023 (95% CI 328 571 - 4 712 704 per QALY gained. Results were most sensitive to the treatment effect on hospitalisations. Based on our large observational database, up to 89% of the patients were not hospitalised for COPD in the year before the first tiotropium delivery. Conclusions The main cause for tiotropium's unfavourable cost-effectiveness ratio is a combination of a relative high price for tiotropium, a low number of hospitalisations without tiotropium treatment (on average 0.14/year and a non-significant treatment effect (on average 0.94 with respect to avoiding exacerbation-related hospitalisations. From an economic point of view, a revision of reimbursement modalities (e.g. with a lower price

  9. Interaction of alkali and alkaline earth ions with Ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poor, Miklos [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Kunsagi-Mate, Sandor; Matisz, Gergely; Li, Yin; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Janos Szentagothai Research Center, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Peles-Lemli, Beata [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Koszegi, Tamas, E-mail: koszegit@freemail.hu [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary)

    2013-03-15

    The effect of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the chemical equilibrium of mono- and dianionic forms of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA) and their bonding onto the surface of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization techniques. Our results show that alkali metal ions shift the chemical equilibrium towards formation of dianionic form of OTA. Furthermore, the alkaline earth ions can compete with BSA for binding to OTA when these ions are present in millimolar concentrations. Our data also highlight the possibility that the 'free' fraction of OTA (not bound onto the surface of albumin) or at least a part of it is present in cation-bound form in body fluids. These observations are supported by stability constants and quantum-chemical calculations. Among the studied alkaline metal ions magnesium showed the highest affinity towards OTA under physiological conditions. Further research is required to analyze the potential significance of Mg{sup 2+}-OTA complex in cellular uptake and/or elimination of the toxin in the human body. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence spectroscopy reveals cation-Ochratoxin A (OTA) interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkali ions shift the equilibrium of OTA to formation of a dianionic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline earth ions directly bind to OTA in the order: Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations and logK values support our experimental data.

  10. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311–318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm

  11. Effect of rare earths surface treatment on tribological properties of carbon fibers reinforced PTFE composite under oil-lubricated condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGGUAN Qianqian; CHENG Xianhua

    2008-01-01

    The effect of rare earths (RE) surface treatment of carbon fibers (CF) on tribological properties of CF reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composites under oil-lubricated condition was investigated. Experimental results revealed that RE treated CF reinforced PTFE (CF/PTFE) composite had the lowest friction coefficient and wear under various applied loads and sliding speeds compared with untreated and air-oxidated composites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of carbon fiber surface showed that, after RE treatment, oxygen concentration increased obviously, and the amount of oxygen-containing groups on CF surfaces were largely increased. The increase in the amount of oxygen-containing groups enhanced interfacial adhesion between CF and PTFE matrix. With strong interfacial adhesion of the composite, stress could be effectively transmitted to carbon fibers;carbon fibers were strongly bonded with PTFE matrix, and large scale rubbing-off of PTFE be prevented, therefore, tribological properties of the composite was improved.

  12. Long-term treatment with olanzapine in hospital conditions: Prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The risk of metabolic abnormalities is greatly increased in schizophrenic patients started on an atypical antipsychotic medication. Patients with psychiatric disorders exceed mortality ranges resulting from, among others, increased risk of cardiovascular events. Other factors contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome include prolonged duration of illness, increasing age, female sex and lifestyle factors. Objective. This cross-sectional study was taken up to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in schizophrenic patients receiving olanzapine monotherapy for at least six months and to determine the most important risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome presence in these patients. Methods. A total of 93 long term hospitalized schizophrenic patients (71 men, 22 women, had a screening of the following: case-history data, psychiatric scales, anthropometric measures, blood (fasting glucose, lipid status, C-reactive protein - CRP and urine samples (microalbuminuria. Results. Prevalence of MetS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria in our study was 34.4%. The multivariate analysis distinguished the following significant predictors of MetS presence (in order of appearance: data about diabetes mellitus in family history (p=0.002, body mass index >25 kg/m2 (p=0.002, hyperlipidemia in family history (p=0.008, and elevated CRP value (p=0.042. Conclusion. High rate of MetS in patients treated with olanzapine in this study exceeds MetS prevalence in general population. Among observed parameters, our study pointed to several “high risk” predictors associated with MetS presence. Regular monitoring of cardiometabolic risk factors is highly recommended. Positive heredity distress mentioned above may direct a psychiatrist to prescribe some other drug than olanzapine in the long term treatment of schizophrenia.

  13. Fabrication methods and heat treatment conditions effect on structure and properties of the gradient tool materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work concerns manufacturing and research on a new group of the gradient tool materials, manufactured by the conventional powder metallurgy method, consisting in compacting a powder in a closed die and sintering it.Design/methodology/approach: The materials were obtained by mixing the powders of the HS6-5-2 high-speed steel, tungsten carbide (WC. The mixes were poured one after another into the die, yielding layers with the gradually changing volume ratio of carbides within the high-speed steel matrix. Structural research by using the scanning and transmission electron microscopes, x-ray microanalysis and density, hardness and porosity tests, were performed. Structure and hardness of selected materials after heat treatment were also investigated. The pin on plate test was used in order to examine the tribological properties of the analyzed materials.Findings: On the basis of the results of the research, it was found that it is possible to obtain gradient materials by the powder metallurgy methods, in order to ensure the required properties and structure of the designed material. It was shown that the new sintered graded materials are characterized by a multiphase structure, consisting of ferrite, primary carbides of the high speed steel, of the MC and M6C type, and dependently of the reinforcement phase, of the tungsten carbide WC which are introduced into the material, in the powder form. It has been proved by the pin on plate test that the addition of the tungsten carbide to the high-speed steel significantly improved the tribological properties.Practical implications: Developed material is tested for turning tools.Originality/value: The material presented in this paper has layers consisting of the carbide-steel with growing hardness on one side, and on the other side the high-speed steel, characterized by a high ductility

  14. Explicitly correlated coupled-cluster theory using cusp conditions. II. Treatment of connected triple excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhn, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    The coupled-cluster singles and doubles method augmented with single Slater-type correlation factors (CCSD-F12) determined by the cusp conditions (also denoted as SP ansatz) yields results close to the basis set limit with only small overhead compared to conventional CCSD. Quantitative calculations on many-electron systems, however, require to include the effect of connected triple excitations at least. In this contribution, the recently proposed [A. Köhn, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 131101 (2009)] extended SP ansatz and its application to the noniterative triples correction CCSD(T) is reviewed. The approach allows to include explicit correlation into connected triple excitations without introducing additional unknown parameters. The explicit expressions are presented and analyzed, and possible simplifications to arrive at a computationally efficient scheme are suggested. Numerical tests based on an implementation obtained by an automated approach are presented. Using a partial wave expansion for the neon atom, we can show that the proposed ansatz indeed leads to the expected (Lmax+1)-7 convergence of the noniterative triples correction, where Lmax is the maximum angular momentum in the orbital expansion. Further results are reported for a test set of 29 molecules, employing Peterson's F12-optimized basis sets. We find that the customary approach of using the conventional noniterative triples correction on top of a CCSD-F12 calculation leads to significant basis set errors. This, however, is not always directly visible for total CCSD(T) energies due to fortuitous error compensation. The new approach offers a thoroughly explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 method with improved basis set convergence of the triples contributions to both total and relative energies.

  15. Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi Giuseppe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It

  16. Alkaline pH activates the transport activity of GLUT1 in L929 fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Stephen M; Kerk, Samuel A; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Alabi, Ola D; Kuipers, David P; Praamsma, Riemer C; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2014-04-01

    The widely expressed mammalian glucose transporter, GLUT1, can be acutely activated in L929 fibroblast cells by a variety of conditions, including glucose deprivation, or treatment with various respiration inhibitors. Known thiol reactive compounds including phenylarsine oxide and nitroxyl are the fastest acting stimulators of glucose uptake, implicating cysteine biochemistry as critical to the acute activation of GLUT1. In this study, we report that in L929 cells glucose uptake increases 6-fold as the pH of the uptake solution is increased from 6 to 9 with the half-maximal activation at pH 7.5; consistent with the pKa of cysteine residues. This pH effect is essentially blocked by the pretreatment of the cells with either iodoacetamide or cinnamaldehyde, compounds that form covalent adducts with reduced cysteine residues. In addition, the activation by alkaline pH is not additive at pH 8 with known thiol reactive activators such as phenylarsine oxide or hydroxylamine. Kinetic analysis in L929 cells at pH 7 and 8 indicate that alkaline conditions both increases the Vmax and decreases the Km of transport. This is consistent with the observation that pH activation is additive to methylene blue, which activates uptake by increasing the Vmax, as well as to berberine, which activates uptake by decreasing the Km. This suggests that cysteine biochemistry is utilized in both methylene blue and berberine activation of glucose uptake. In contrast a pH increase from 7 to 8 in HCLE cells does not further activate glucose uptake. HCLE cells have a 25-fold higher basal glucose uptake rate than L929 cells and the lack of a pH effect suggests that the cysteine biochemistry has already occurred in HCLE cells. The data are consistent with pH having a complex mechanism of action, but one likely mediated by cysteine biochemistry. PMID:24333987

  17. Evaluation of alkaline deconstruction processes for Brazilian new generation of eucalypt clones

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Gomes, Fernando José; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Milanez, Augusto; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; dos Santos Muguet, Marcelo Coelho; Ribas Batalha, Larisse Aparecida; Gomez Gouvêa, Adriana de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Wood utilization for pulp and paper and biorefinery applications requires some kind of mechanical and/or physical–chemical pretreatment. Among the chemical treatments the alkaline ones are the most used worldwide, although acid and solvent treatments have also being used. This paper deals with eucalypt wood deconstruction with alkaline processes including soda-AQ, soda-AQ-O2, soda-O2, and kraft. The kraft process is largely used by the pulp industry and is evaluated here only to serve as a re...

  18. Microstructure, mechanical property and metal release of As-SLM CoCrW alloy under different solution treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Zhang, Shuyuan; Guo, Sai; Lin, Junjie; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-03-01

    In the study, the microstructure, mechanical property and metal release behavior of selective laser melted CoCrW alloys under different solution treatment conditions were systemically investigated to assess their potential use in orthopedic implants. The effects of the solution treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and metal release were systematically studied by OM, SEM, XRD, tensile test, and ICP-AES, respectively. The XRD indicated that during the solution treatment the alloy underwent the transformation of γ-fcc to ε-hcp phase; the ε-hcp phase nearly dominated in the alloy when treated at 1200°C following the water quenching; the results from OM, SEM showed that the microstructural change was occurred under different solution treatments; solution at 1150°C with furnace cooling contributed to the formation of larger precipitates at the grain boundary regions, while the size and number of the precipitates was decreased as heated above 1100°C with the water quenching; moreover, the diamond-like structure was invisible at higher solution temperature over 1150°C following water quenching; compared with the furnace cooling, the alloy quenched by water showed excellent mechanical properties and low amount of metal release; as the alloy heated at 1200°C, the mechanical properties of the alloy reached their optimum combination at UTS=1113.6MPa, 0.2%YS=639.5MPa, and E%=20.1%, whilst showed the lower total quantity of metal release. It is suggested that a proper solution treatment is an efficient strategy for improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of As-SLM CoCrW alloy that show acceptable tensile ductility.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury and its modulation by ischemic pre-conditioning or hemin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Correa-Costa

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI is a leading cause of acute renal failure. The definition of the molecular mechanisms involved in renal IRI and counter protection promoted by ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC or Hemin treatment is an important milestone that needs to be accomplished in this research area. We examined, through an oligonucleotide microarray protocol, the renal differential transcriptome profiles of mice submitted to IRI, IPC and Hemin treatment. After identifying the profiles of differentially expressed genes observed for each comparison, we carried out functional enrichment analysis to reveal transcripts putatively involved in potential relevant biological processes and signaling pathways. The most relevant processes found in these comparisons were stress, apoptosis, cell differentiation, angiogenesis, focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, ion transport, angiogenesis, mitosis and cell cycle, inflammatory response, olfactory transduction and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. In addition, the most important overrepresented pathways were MAPK, ErbB, JAK/STAT, Toll and Nod like receptors, Angiotensin II, Arachidonic acid metabolism, Wnt and coagulation cascade. Also, new insights were gained about the underlying protection mechanisms against renal IRI promoted by IPC and Hemin treatment. Venn diagram analysis allowed us to uncover common and exclusively differentially expressed genes between these two protective maneuvers, underscoring potential common and exclusive biological functions regulated in each case. In summary, IPC exclusively regulated the expression of genes belonging to stress, protein modification and apoptosis, highlighting the role of IPC in controlling exacerbated stress response. Treatment with the Hmox1 inducer Hemin, in turn, exclusively regulated the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation, metabolic pathways, cell cycle, mitosis, development, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and arachidonic

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Its Modulation by Ischemic Pre-Conditioning or Hemin Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Mariane Tami; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Renesto, Paulo Guilherme; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute renal failure. The definition of the molecular mechanisms involved in renal IRI and counter protection promoted by ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) or Hemin treatment is an important milestone that needs to be accomplished in this research area. We examined, through an oligonucleotide microarray protocol, the renal differential transcriptome profiles of mice submitted to IRI, IPC and Hemin treatment. After identifying the profiles of differentially expressed genes observed for each comparison, we carried out functional enrichment analysis to reveal transcripts putatively involved in potential relevant biological processes and signaling pathways. The most relevant processes found in these comparisons were stress, apoptosis, cell differentiation, angiogenesis, focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, ion transport, angiogenesis, mitosis and cell cycle, inflammatory response, olfactory transduction and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. In addition, the most important overrepresented pathways were MAPK, ErbB, JAK/STAT, Toll and Nod like receptors, Angiotensin II, Arachidonic acid metabolism, Wnt and coagulation cascade. Also, new insights were gained about the underlying protection mechanisms against renal IRI promoted by IPC and Hemin treatment. Venn diagram analysis allowed us to uncover common and exclusively differentially expressed genes between these two protective maneuvers, underscoring potential common and exclusive biological functions regulated in each case. In summary, IPC exclusively regulated the expression of genes belonging to stress, protein modification and apoptosis, highlighting the role of IPC in controlling exacerbated stress response. Treatment with the Hmox1 inducer Hemin, in turn, exclusively regulated the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation, metabolic pathways, cell cycle, mitosis, development, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and arachidonic acid metabolism

  1. Surgical Treatment of Patients Enrolled in the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Conditions (GenTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Howard K.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Kindem, Mark W.; Holmes, Kathryn W.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Basson, Craig T.; Eagle, Kim; Tolunay, H. Eser; Kroner, Barbara L.; Dietz, Hal; Menashe, Victor; Devereux, Richard B.; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Ravekes, William; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.; Brambilla, Donald; Stylianou, Mario P.; Hendershot, Tabitha; Mitchell, Megan S.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic disorders are an important cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) in young patients. Despite advances in the treatment of genetically triggered TAAs, the optimal syndrome-specific treatment approach remains undefined. We used data from the NIH-funded, multicenter National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC) to characterize the contemporary surgical treatment of patients with genetically triggered TAAs. Methods GenTAC’s aim is to collect longitudinal clinical data and banked biospecimens from 2800 patients with genetically triggered TAAs. We analyzed data from all patients enrolled in GenTAC to date whose clinical data were available (n=606; mean age, 37.5 years). Results The patients’ primary diagnoses included Marfan syndrome (35.8%), bicuspid aortic valve with aneurysm (29.2%), and familial TAAs and dissections (10.7%). More than half of patients (56.4%) had undergone at least 1 operation; the most common indications were aneurysm (85.7%), valve dysfunction (65.8%), and dissection (25.4%). Surgical procedures included replacement of the aortic root (50.6%), ascending aorta (64.8%), aortic arch (27.9%), and descending or thoracoabdominal aorta (12.4%). Syndrome-specific differences in age, indications for surgery, and procedure type were identified. Conclusions Patients with genetically transmitted TAAs evaluated in tertiary care centers frequently undergo surgery. Aneurysm repairs most commonly involve the aortic root and ascending aorta; distal repairs are less common. Like TAAs themselves, complications of TAAs, including dissection and aortic valve dysfunction, are important indications for surgery. Future studies will focus on syndrome- and gene-specific phenotypes, biomarkers, treatments, and outcomes to improve the treatment of patients with TAAs. PMID:19699898

  2. Leaching properties of electric arc furnace dust prior/following alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelić, Luka; Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Uzarević, Krunoslav; Medunić, Gordana; Elez, Loris; Lulić, Stipe

    2007-02-15

    This study was carried out to determine the appropriate treatment of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust prior to permanent disposal. The total heavy metal content as well as heavy metal leaching from EAF dust was investigated in five composite samples obtained from three Croatian and Slovenian steelworks. In order to recover zinc and reduce its leaching from the dust, all five samples were submitted to alkaline extraction with 10 M NaOH. Reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr(III) was conducted using FeSO4 x 7H2O solution. The elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, and notably Zn and Pb, exhibited highest mobility during toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Comparing to TCLP extracts of initial EAF dust, zinc was found to be over 15 times lower and lead over 200 times lower in TCLP extracts of EAF dust processed by the alkaline leaching method. Since Cr (VI) exceeded its permissible level in the DIN 38414-S4 extracts of both initial and alkaline digested dust, its reduction to Cr (III) prior to permanent disposal is necessary. The recovery of zinc from EAF dust treated with alkaline agent ranged from 50.3% to 73.2%. According to phase analysis, recovery yield showed dependence on zincite/franklinite ratio. The results of the study indicate that permanent disposal of EAF dust require the following procedure: alkaline digestion (followed by leachate purification and alkaline zinc electrolyses), chromate reduction (if necessary), solidification of leaching residue and its testing using the leaching analyses.

  3. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  4. Sulfate—Exchange Alkalinity of Ferralsol Colloid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGANGYA; ZHANGXIAONIAN

    1999-01-01

    The amount of OH- replaced by sulfate,i.e.,sulfate-exchange alkalinity,from the electric double layer of ferralsol colloid was measured quantitatively in different conditions with an automatic titration equipment.The amount of OH- release increased with the amount of Na2SO4 added and decreased with raising pH in the suspension of ferralsol colloid.The exchange acidity was displayed as pH was higher than 5.6,If the negative effect of sodium ions was offset,the amount of OH- replaced by sulfate was larger than the original amount of OH- released in the pH range of lower than 5.8.The amount of OH- released decreased rapidly as pH was higher than 6.0 and dropped to zero when pH reached 6.5.In the solution of 2.0molL-1 NaClO4,the amount of OH- repleaced by sulfate from the surface of ferralsol colloid could be considered as the amount of OH- adsorbed by ligand exchange reaction.The amount of OH- released in the solution of NaClO4 concentration below 2.0mol L-1 from which the amount of OH- adsorbed by ligand exchange reaction was subtracted could be conidered as the OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force,The OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force decreased with increases in the concentration of NaClO4 and pH and increased almost linearly with the increasing amount of Na2SON4 added.The percentages of OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force in water and in the electrolyte solutions of 0.05 and 0.5mol L-1 NaClO4 in the total OH- released were calculated,respectively.

  5. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using cylindrical flow reactor and optimization of treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B Ramesh; Venkatesan, P; Kanimozhi, R; Basha, C Ahmed

    2009-08-01

    This paper examines the use of electrooxidation for treatment of wastewater obtained from a pharmaceutical industry. The wastewater primarily contained Gentamicin and Dexamethasone. With NaCl as supporting electrolyte, the effluent was treated in a cylindrical flow reactor in continuous (single pass) mode under various current densities (2-5 A/dm2) and flow rates (10-40 L/h). By cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis, the optimum condition for maximum redox reaction was determined. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and power consumption were studied for different operating conditions. From the results it was observed that maximum COD reduction of about 85.56% was obtained at a flow rate of 10 L/h with an applied current density of 4 A/dm2. FT-IR spectra studies showed that during electrooxidation, the intensities of characteristic functional groups such as N-H, O-H were reduced and some new peaks also started to appear. Probable theory, reaction mechanism and modeling were proposed for the oxidation of pharmaceutical effluent. The experimental results demonstrated that electrooxidation treatment was very effective and capable of elevating the quality of treated wastewater to the reuse standard prescribed for pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Calibrating an optimal condition model for solar water disinfection in peri-urban household water treatment in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Wozei, Eleanor; Kulabako, Robinah; Nabasirye, Lillian; Kinobe, Joel

    2013-03-01

    In low income settlements where the quality of drinking water is highly contaminated due to poor hygienic practices at community and household levels, there is need for appropriate, simple, affordable and environmentally sustainable household water treatment technology. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) that utilizes both the thermal and ultra-violet effect of solar radiation to disinfect water can be used to treat small quantities of water at household level to improve its bacteriological quality for drinking purposes. This study investigated the efficacy of the SODIS treatment method in Uganda and determined the optimal condition for effective disinfection. Results of raw water samples from the study area showed deterioration in bacteriological quality of water moved from source to the household; from 3 to 36 cfu/100 mL for tap water and 75 to 126 cfu/100 mL for spring water, using thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) as indicator microorganisms. SODIS experiments showed over 99.9% inactivation of TTCs in 6 h of exposure, with a threshold temperature of 39.5 ± 0.7°C at about 12:00 noon, in the sun during a clear sunny day. A mathematical optimal condition model for effective disinfection has been calibrated to predict the decline of the number of viable microorganisms over time.

  7. Metal based synthetic routes to heavy alkaline earth aryloxo complexes involving ligands of moderate steric bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Guino-o, Marites; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2009-07-01

    Treatment of an alkaline earth metal (Ca, Sr, Ba) with 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (HOmes) at elevated temperatures in the presence of mercury under solvent-free conditions, followed by extraction of the reaction mixture with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (dme), afforded dinuclear alkaline earth aryloxo complexes [Ae2(Omes)4(dme)4] (Ae = Ca 1, Sr 3, Ba 6). Extraction of the Ca metal and HOmes reaction mixture with thf afforded [Ca3(Omes)6(thf)] 2. In contrast, redox transmetallation ligand exchange reactions between an alkaline earth metal, diphenylmercury and HOmes in dme yielded solely 1 for Ca metal, a mixture of 3 and the methoxide bridged cage [Sr5(Omes)5(OMe)5(dme)4] x 2dme 4 for Sr metal, and solely [Ba5(Omes)5(OMe)5(dme)4] x dme 7 for Ba metal. The methoxide ligands originate from the C-O activation of the dme solvent. Treatment of liquid ammonia activated Sr or Ba metal with HOmes in thf afforded the linear species [Ae3(Omes)6(thf)6] (Ae = Sr 5, Ba 8), and 8 was also obtained from barium metal and HOmes in refluxing thf. The structures of 1 and 3, determined by X-ray crystallography, consist of two six coordinate Ae metal atoms, to each of which is bound a terminal aryloxide ligand, two bridging aryloxide ligands, and chelating and unidentate dme ligands. The structures of 4 and 7 contain five Ae metal atoms arranged on the vertices of a distorted square based pyramid. The Ae atoms are linked by four mu3-OMe ligands and a mu4-OMe ligand. Four bridging aryloxide ligands and four chelating dme ligands complete the coordination spheres of the four seven coordinate Ae atoms at the base of the pyramid, and a terminal aryloxide ligand is bound to the five coordinate apical Ae atom. The structures of 5 and 8 consist of a trinuclear linear array of Ae metal atoms, and contain solely bridging aryloxide ligands. Three thf ligands are bound to each terminal Ae atom, giving all Ae atoms a coordination number of six. PMID:19662279

  8. Synthesis of benzofuran derivatives as selective inhibitors of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase: effects on cell toxicity and osteoblast-induced mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Stéphanie; Buchet, René; Popowycz, Florence; Lemaire, Marc; Mebarek, Saïda

    2016-03-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) by hydrolyzing pyrophosphate, an inhibitor of apatite formation, promotes extracellular matrix calcification during bone formation and growth, as well as during ectopic calcification under pathological conditions. TNAP is a target for the treatment of soft tissue pathological ossification. We synthesized a series of benzofuran derivatives. Among these, SMA14, displayed TNAP activity better than levamisole. SMA14 was found to be not toxic at doses of up to 40μM in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells and primary osteoblasts. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, this compound inhibited mineral formation in murine primary osteoblast and in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

  9. Alkaline cyanide biodegradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Almagro, V M; Blasco, R; Huertas, M J; Martínez-Luque, M; Moreno-Vivián, C; Castillo, F; Roldán, M D

    2005-02-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 uses cyanide, cyanate, beta-cyanoalanine, and other cyanoderivatives as nitrogen sources under alkaline conditions, which prevents volatile HCN (pK(a) 9.2) formation. The cyanide consumed by this strain is stoichiometrically converted into ammonium. In addition, this bacterium grows with the heavy metal, cyanide-containing waste water generated by the jewellery industry, and is also a cyanide-resistant strain which induces an alternative oxidase and a siderophore-based mechanism for iron acquisition in the presence of cyanide. The detection of cyanase and beta-cyanoalanine nitrilase activities in cyanide-induced cells suggests their implication in the cyanide degradation pathway.

  10. Structural variations in layered alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl phosphonates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Murugavel; Nayanmoni Gogoi

    2009-06-01

    Two series of alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl phosphonates, M(C6H11PO3H)2(H2O) (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) (1–3) and M(C6H11PO3)(H2O) (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) (4–7) have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions. All new compounds have been characterized using elemental analysis, IR, TGA and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The molecular structure of compound 2 determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique reveals a layered polymeric structure.

  11. Chemical nature of alkaline polyphosphate boundary film at heated rubbing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shanhong; Tieu, A. Kiet; Zhu, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtao; Cui, Shaogang; Mitchell, David R. G.; Kong, Charlie; Cowie, Bruce; Denman, John A.; Liu, Rong

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline polyphosphate has been demonstrated to be able to reduce significant wear and friction of sliding interfaces under heavy loads (>1 GPa) and elevated temperature (800 °C and above) conditions, e.g. hot metal manufacturing. The chemical composition and fine structure of polyphosphate lubricating film is not well understood as well as the role of alkaline elements within the reaction film at hot rubbing surface. This work makes use of the coupling surface analytical techniques on the alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm, XANES, TOF-SIMS and FIB/TEM. The data show the composition in gradient distribution and trilaminar structure of tribofilm: a shorter chain phosphate overlying a long chain polyphosphate that adheres onto oxide steel base through a short chain phosphate. The chemical hardness model well explains the anti-abrasive mechanism of alkaline polyphosphate at elevated temperatures and also predicts a depolymerisation and simultaneous cross-linking of the polyphosphate glass. The role of alkaline elements in the lubrication mechanism is especially explained. This work firstly serves as a basis for a detailed study of alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm at temperature over 600 °C.

  12. Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Thermostable Alkaline Phosphatase from a Novel Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus thermophilus XM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo LI; Limei XU; Feng YANG

    2007-01-01

    A gene (tap) encoding a thermostable alkaline phosphatase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus XM was cloned and sequenced. It is 1506 bp long and encodes a protein of 501 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 54.7 kDa. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with other alkaline phosphatases showed that the regions in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site and metal binding sites are highly conserved. The recombinant thermostable alkaline phosphatase was expressed as a His6-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli and its enzymatic properties were characterized after purification. The pH and temperature optima for the recombinant thermostable alkaline phosphatases activity were pH 12 and 75 ℃. As expected, the enzyme displayed high thermostability, retaining more than 50% activity after incubating for 6 h at 80 ℃. Its catalytic function was accelerated in the presence of 0.1 mM Co2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, or Mn2+ but was strongly inhibited by 2.0 mM Fe2+. Under optimal conditions, the Michaelis constant (Km) for cleavage of p-nitrophenyl-phosphate was 0.034 mM. Although it has much in common with other alkaline phosphatases, the recombinant thermostable alkaline phosphatase possesses some unique features, such as high optimal pH and good thermostability.

  13. Effect of Heat Treatment and Layer Orientation on the Tensile Strength of a Crystalline Rock Under Brazilian Test Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha Roy, Debanjan; Singh, T. N.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of heat treatment and the layer orientation on the tensile properties of granitic gneiss were studied under the unconfined stress condition. The tensile strength of the samples was studied using a Brazilian configuration, and the geochemical and microstructural properties were studied using the X-ray diffraction technique as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The fracture pattern and the geometrical analyses were performed using the digital photographs. The results show that both the heat treatment and layer orientation have strong control on the tensile strength, force-parallel and layer-parallel strains, and on the tensile fracture geometry. A general decrease in the tensile strength of the rock was documented with the increasing heat treatment. Although, in the heat-treated samples, X-ray diffraction study do not reveal any major change in the mineral composition, but the SEM shows the development of several micro-cracks in the grains. In the samples with different layer orientation, along with the changes in the tensile strength and layer-parallel to force-parallel strain ratio, the layer activation under shear stress is also noticed. Here, the ratio between the tensile to shear stress, acting along the layers is thought to be the major controlling factor of the tensile properties of rocks, which has many applications in mining, civil constructions, and waste disposal work.

  14. Selection of process conditions by risk assessment for apple juice pasteurization by UV-heat treatments at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayán, E; Torres, J A; Alvarez, I; Condón, S

    2014-02-01

    The effect of bactericidal UV-C treatments (254 nm) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 suspended in apple juice increased synergistically with temperature up to a threshold value. The optimum UV-C treatment temperature was 55 °C, yielding a 58.9% synergistic lethal effect. Under these treatment conditions, the UV-heat (UV-H55 °C) lethal variability achieving 5-log reductions had a logistic distribution (α = 37.92, β = 1.10). Using this distribution, UV-H55 °C doses to achieve the required juice safety goal with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence were 41.17, 42.97, and 46.00 J/ml, respectively, i.e., doses higher than the 37.58 J/ml estimated by a deterministic procedure. The public health impact of these results is that the larger UV-H55 °C dose required for achieving 5-log reductions with 95, 99, and 99.9% confidence would reduce the probability of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children by 76.3, 88.6, and 96.9%, respectively. This study illustrates the importance of including the effect of data variability when selecting operational parameters for novel and conventional preservation processes to achieve high food safety standards with the desired confidence level.

  15. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  16. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  17. Influences of Preparation Conditions and Melt Treatment Procedures on Melt Treatment Performance of Al-5Ti-B and Al-10Sr Master Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfa FENG; Jinglin TANG; Xinyan JIN; Shuangshou LI; Daben ZENG

    2006-01-01

    The influences of preparation conditions of Al-5Ti-B (as-cast and hot-rolled) and Al-10Sr (as-cast and hotextruded) and melt treatment procedures on the grain refinement and modification performance of A356 alloy are experimentally studied. For the two master alloys, the 50% reduction is sufficient to meet the demands of the efficient grain refinement and modification of A356 alloy. When Al-5Ti-B is introduced into the melt prior to degassing, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-5Ti-B will be greatly increased due to the better dispersity of TiB2 particles. Al-5Ti-B master alloy is less prone to affect the modification effect of Al-10Sr when they are used together.

  18. A review on experimental and clinical genetic associations studies on fear conditioning, extinction and cognitive-behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, T B; Kalisch, R

    2011-09-20

    Fear conditioning and extinction represent basic forms of associative learning with considerable clinical relevance and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. There is considerable inter-individual variation in the ability to acquire and extinguish conditioned fear reactions and the study of genetic variants has recently become a focus of research. In this review, we give an overview of the existing genetic association studies on human fear conditioning and extinction in healthy individuals and of related studies on cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and exposure, as well as pathology development after trauma. Variation in the serotonin transporter (5HTT) and the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) genes has consistently been associated with effects in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Interesting new findings, which however require further replication, have been reported for genetic variation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the pituitary adenylate cyclase 1 receptor (ADCYAP1R1) genes, whereas the current picture is inconsistent for variation in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. We end with a discussion of the findings and their limitations, as well as future directions that we hope will aid the field to develop further.

  19. Treatment and conditioning of spent ion exchange resins from research reactors, precipitation sludges and other radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent radioactive ion exchange resins, precipitation sludges and evaporator concentrates are generated from the treatment of aqueous waste streams at nuclear research centres and from the use of radioisotopes in research and medical or industrial applications. A strategy for the effective management of these wastes from generation to disposal is necessary to ensure their safe handling, conditioning, storage and disposal to avoid detrimental effects on health and the environment. This report describes the factors to be considered in the development and selection of appropriate strategies for managing these types of wastes. Waste characteristics, pretreatment requirements, conditioning processes, packaging, and properties of the conditioned products are discussed. In addition, safety considerations and quality assurance needs are addressed. The report is intended to provide guidance to Member States that do not have nuclear power generation programmes. Several processes and procedures are presented, though preference is given to the simpler, easy-to-operate processes requiring relatively unsophisticated and inexpensive equipment. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  20. Alkaline corrosion properties of laser-clad aluminum/titanium coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Herbreteau, Alexis; Rombouts, Marleen;

    2015-01-01

    with supersaturated titanium ( (1 weight per cent), Al3Ti intermetallics and large partially undissolved Ti6Al4V particles. Heat treatment lowered the titanium concentration in the aluminum matrix, changed the shape of the Al3Ti precipitates and increased the degree of dissolution of the Ti6Al4V particles. Corrosion...... testing showed significant localized dissolution of the aluminum matrix. Research limitations/implications – Increased titanium concentration and heat treatment gave improved alkaline corrosion properties. At pH 13.5, the Al3Ti phases were protected, while the aluminum matrix corroded. Practical...... implications – For alkaline corrosion-protection of aluminum in the automobile industry, titanium might be useful at pH values below 13.5 or by using other coating techniques. Originality/value – This is the first study testing the use of titanium as a protective element of aluminum in stringent alkaline...